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Sample records for chinese bean vigna

  1. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

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    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  2. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

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    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  3. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

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    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  4. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  5. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

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    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  6. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

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    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  7. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) using an SSR-enriched library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Kyung Do Kim; Dongying Gao; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; SukHa Lee; Scott A. Jackson; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb.), a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%). Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7%of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%), and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2%were involved in cellular components, 24.2%were involved molecular functions, and 64.6%were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in

  8. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

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    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

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    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  10. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

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    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

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    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  12. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

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    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  13. A Determination of Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis

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    Guixing Ren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and α-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.4 mg·mL−1 and 4.8 mg·mL−1, respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against α-glucosidase.

  14. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

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    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  15. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

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    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  16. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

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    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  17. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  18. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

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    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  19. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

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    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  20. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

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    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  1. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

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    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

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    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  5. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Upreti, Raj K. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: upretirk@rediffmail.com

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  6. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (creole bean, and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Chankaew

    Full Text Available Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  8. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2009-02-01

    Genetic diversity in 20 elite blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes was studied using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Thirty-six microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) were successfully amplified across the 20 blackgram genotypes and 33 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. A total of 137 microsatellite alleles were generated with an average of 4.1 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the polymorphic information content value for the microsatellite markers varied from 0.10 to 0.87 with an average of 0.49. Microsatellite markers were highly informative and a combination of only three microsatellite markers (CEDG264, CEDG173, and CEDG044) was sufficient to discriminate all 20 blackgram genotypes. In the case of AFLP, 11 primer pairs generated 324 polymorphic marker fragments. The polymorphic information content values for AFLP primer combinations ranged from 0.21 to 0.34 with an average of 0.29. Similarity measures and clustering analyses were made using microsatellite and AFLP data separately. The resulting dendrograms distributed the 20 blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The dendrograms were comparable with each other with the Mantel test between the cophenetic matrices of microsatellite data and AFLP data showing moderate correlation (r = 0.64). The results of the principal components analysis were well congruent with the dendrograms. In the dendrograms as well as in the principal components analyses, genotype Trombay wild (Vigna mungo var. silvestris) was placed separately from rest of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that the azuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and informative and can be successfully used for genome analysis in blackgram. Results indicate that sufficient variability is present in the blackgram genotypes and would be helpful in the selection of suitable parents for breeding purposes and gene mapping studies.

  10. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean(Vigna umbellata) using an SSR-enriched library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Kyung Do Kim; Dongying Gao; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; Suk Ha Lee; Scott A. Jackson; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean(Vigna umbellata Thunb.), a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop.Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers.In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides(17.8%). Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT(14.3%), and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean.However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in rice

  11. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-08

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  12. Enzymology of L-tyrosine biosynthesis in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. ) Wilczek)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.L.; Jensen, R.A.

    1979-11-01

    The enzymes of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (prephenate dehydrogenase and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase) and pretyrosine (prephenate aminotransferase and pretyrosine dehydrogenase) pathways of L-tyrosine biosynthesis were partially purified from mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings. NADP-dependent prephenate dehydrogenase and pretyrosine dehydrogenase activities coeluted from ion exchange, adsorption, and gel-filtration columns, suggesting that a single protein (52,000 daltons) catalyzes both reactions. The ratio of the activities of partially purified prephenate to pretyrosine dehydrogenase was constant during all purification steps as well as after partial inactivation caused by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or heat. The activity of prephenate dehydrogenase, but not of pretyrosine dehydrogenase, was inhibited by L-tyrosine at nonsaturating levels of substrate. The K/sub m/ values for prephenate and pretyrosine were similar, but the specific activity with prephenate was 2.9 times greater than with pretyrosne. Two peaks of aromatic aminotransferase activity utilizing L-glutamate or L-aspartate as amino donors and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate, and/or prephenate as keto acid substrates were eluted from DEAE-cellulose. Of the three keto acid substrates, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate was preferentially utilized by 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase whereas prephenate was best utilized by prephenate aminotransferase. The identity of a product of prephenate aminotransferase as pretyrosine following reaction with prephenate was established by thin layer chromatography of the dansyl-derivative.

  13. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  15. Effect of fermentation with Monascus pilosus on the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Cheng; Sung-Kwon Lee; Joo-Won Suh; Seung HwanYang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enhance physiological activities of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) via fermentation with Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus). Methods: The adzuki bean fermentation conditions with M. pilosus were optimized, and the effect of Monascus-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean was investigated. Results: Optimal fermentation conditions were determined by the production of monacolin K. The highest monacolin K production was observed in 5% inoculum sized on day 15 in fermentation. Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and fermented adzuki bean. A 1.9-fold decrease was observed in bound p-coumaric acid content, whereas the contents of bound ferulic and sinapic acids were increased by 28- and 1.7-fold, respectively. However, the contents of free phenolic acids such as p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were increased by 2.6-, 5.2-, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fermentation of adzuki bean by M. pilosus enhanced the activities of DPPH· radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, nitric oxide scavenging, and ferric antioxidant reducing activities 2.2-, 1.7-, 1.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that the contents of p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in adzuki bean were highly increased by fermentation with M. pilosus, resulting in enhanced various antioxidant activities.

  16. Effect of fermentation with Monascus pilosus on the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance physiological activities of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis via fermentation with Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus. Methods: The adzuki bean fermentation conditions with M. pilosus were optimized, and the effect of Monascus-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean was investigated. Results: Optimal fermentation conditions were determined by the production of monacolin K. The highest monacolin K production was observed in 5% inoculum sized on day 15 in fermentation. Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and fermented adzuki bean. A 1.9-fold decrease was observed in bound p-coumaric acid content, whereas the contents of bound ferulic and sinapic acids were increased by 28- and 1.7-fold, respectively. However, the contents of free phenolic acids such as p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were increased by 2.6-, 5.2-, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fermentation of adzuki bean by M. pilosus enhanced the activities of DPPH● radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, nitric oxide scavenging, and ferric antioxidant reducing activities 2.2-, 1.7-, 1.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that the contents of p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in adzuki bean were highly increased by fermentation with M. pilosus, resulting in enhanced various antioxidant activities

  17. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L. Based on Transcriptome Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4% into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 9,301 (23.5% were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%, AAG/CTT (8.1% and AGAA/TTCT (20.0% are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  18. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  19. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  20. Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1987-05-01

    The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies.

  1. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Pb(NO32 on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Mung bean (Vigna radiata

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    Saeideh Najafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic effects of Pb as Pb(NO32 and silver nanoparticles on Mung bean (Vigna radiata planted on contaminated soil was assessed in terms of growth, yield, chlorophyll pigments, phenol and flavonoid content at 120 ppm concentration. Experiments were carried out with 4 treatments in 10 days. Treatments were including (T1 control, (T2 silver nanoparticles (50 ppm, (T3 Pb as Pb (NO32 (120 ppm and (T4 silver nanoparticles (50 ppm plus Pb as Pb(NO32 (120 ppm. Regarding the pigment content, silver nanoparticles-treated plants showed a remarkable increase of chlorophyll. The loss of chlorophyll content was associated with disturbance in photosynthetic capacity which ultimately results in the reduction of Vigna radiate growth. Pb caused a fall in the total content of phenols, while the content of flavonoid not significantly changed. The minimum decrease in root length, weight of root fresh and stem fresh was observed in T4 group, but this factors increased in the other treatments. Also, length of stem and seedling height decreased in control group. Increase length and fresh weight of stem in Pb-treated plants suggest that compatible solutes may contribute to osmotic adjustment at the cellular level and enzyme protection stabilizing the structure of macromolecules and organelles.

  2. Comparative Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Four Species of Cowpea Beans Seed Coat (Vigna Ungucuilata in Enugu State Nigeria

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    Ape David I

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is an important bean which play significant role in the diets of Africans. It serves as a major source of protein in the absence of sufficient animal protein for the population. Four varieties large white beans seed coat (LWB small white beans seed coat (SWB large brown beans seed coat (LBB and small brown beans seed coat (SBB of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata were analyzed for their proximate and elemental contents. These varieties belong to the same species in the family leguminosae. The brown and white seed coats were found to be nutritious. Both contained carbohydrate, protein, fibres and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese and phosphorus. The moisture content was found to be 9.70 and 14.0% for (LWB and (SWB, and 11.20 and 10.80% for (LBB and (SBB respectively with the (SWB having the higher amount. The carbohydrate content analyzed was found to be 9.0 and 10.81% for (LWB and (SWB, and 8.40 and 7.80% for (LBB and (SBB with the (SWB having the higher value. The oil content was 0.37 and 0.21% for (LWB AND (SWB and 0.41 and 0.29% for (LBB and (SBB. The crude fibre was 70.55 and 68.20% (LWB AND (SWB and 68.17 and 70.01% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The protein was 2.28 and 1.98% for (LWB AND (SWB and 2.52 and 2.40% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The ash content was 8.1 and 4.8% for (LWB AND (SWB and 9.3 and 8.7% for (LBB and (SBB. The elemental analysis in the four species gave the following ranges:- Mg from 0.72 – 0.49ppm with (SWB having highest concentration and (LBB with lowest, Ca from 3.10 – 2.29ppm with (LBB highest and (LWB lowest, Mn from 0.31 – 0.18ppm with (LWB highest concentration and (SBB having the least, and finally P from 0.03 – 0.01ppm with (LBB with highest concentration and (SWB least concentration. From the analyses carried out it shows that cowpea beans seed coats are a good nutritional food source with higher crude fibre content.

  3. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  4. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

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    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  5. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applied to determination of oligosaccharides in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

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    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Vital, Helio C. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia IME, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; maysa@ime.eb.br; santoslima@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Beans are important components of Brazilian diet, especially for less affordable people. They have in their composition proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals and fibers. Despite of their high nutritional value, nonnutritive elements from natural origin are present in leguminous plants, such as raffinose and stachyose. The oligosaccharides are flatulence agents due to bacterial anaerobic fermentation at the intestines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of combined boiling and gamma irradiation treatments on fradinho-beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) with respect to oligosaccharide contents. The irradiation process was performed at the Nuclear Defense Section of Brazilian Army, using a cavity type research irradiator, which has a Cs-137 radiation source and maximum dose rate of 1.8 kGy/h. The oligosaccharides were evaluated by HPLC technique, at 'EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos', using a SHIMADZU liquid chromatography system, with a refraction index detector Waters 2421. The mobile phase was acetonitrile 70% in water for raffinose and stachyose and 80% for saccharose. The flux and the running time were 1 mL/min and 18 minutes for raffinose and stachyose, and 1.3 mL/min and 20 minutes for saccharose. The injection volume was 20 {mu}L and the column used (Waters 250 x 4,6 mm; 4 mm) was kept at room temperature. The evaluation of unboiled irradiated beans showed that there was no significant difference between the different irradiation doses and control sample, keeping the oligosaccharide contents. However, the combination of the boiling and the irradiation processes turned out to reduce of non-nutritive factors that may cause flatulence, meaning a real benefit to the consumers. (author)

  6. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

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    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  7. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  8. Stable transformation of moth bean Vigna aconitifolia via direct gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, F; Golz, C; Eapen, S; Kohn, H; Schieder, O

    1987-07-01

    Direct gene transfer proved to be an efficient transformation method for Vigna aconitifolia, a member of the legume family. Kanamycin resistant calli and plants were regenerated from heat shocked protoplasts treated with PEG and plasmid DNA containing the coding region for aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (NPT II). The plant cultivar used was an important factor in attaining higher transformation frequencies. Transformation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis using a non-radioactive detection system. Attempts to transform mesophyll and suspension cultured cells by this method were unsuccessful. Protoplasts electroporated with the plasmid pCAP212, which codes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, exhibited transient expression of this gene two days after treatment while electroporated cells did not show this enzyme activity. It is therefore assumed that the DNA uptake is prevented by the cell wall.

  9. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis germinated in abiotic stress conditions

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    Urszula Złotek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adzuki sprouts are one of more valuable but still underappreciated dietary supplements which may be considered as functional food. Sprouting reduces anti-nutritional factors and increases the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients and also affects phytochemical levels. Exposure of plants to abiotic stresses results in change in production of phytochemical compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the content and antioxidant properties of phenolic in adzuki bean seeds germinated in selected abiotic stress conditions. Material and methods. Adzuki bean seeds were germinated in different abiotic stress conditions: thermal, osmotic and oxidative. The content of phenolics in adzuki bean seeds coat extracts and antioxidant activity Fe2+ chelating ability and neutralization of the free radicals generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Results. All applied stress conditions (except for thermal stress have caused decrease the content of the analysed phenolic fractions. The lowest amounts of polyphenols in extracts of sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions were observed. The highest ability to neutralize free radicals generated with ABTS and DPPH have extracts from sprouts germinated under thermal stress 39.94 and 13.20 μmol TEAC/g d.w., respectively. The lowest – sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions (18.2 and 9.72 μmol TEAC/g d.w.. The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ has been shown by the extract from adzuki bean seeds coat subjected to thermal stress (7.06 % and the lowest control extract (3.08%. Conclusions. It can be concluded that only thermal stress contributes to the improvement of antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from adzuki bean seeds coat.

  10. The role of VuMATE1 expression in aluminium-inducible citrate secretion in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei Ya; Chen, Wei Wei; Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium (Al)-activated citrate secretion plays an important role in Al resistance in a number of plant species, such as rice bean (Vigna umbellata). This study further characterized the regulation of VuMATE1, an aluminium-activated citrate transporter. Al stress induced VuMATE1 expression, followed by the secretion of citrate. Citrate secretion was specific to Al stress, whereas VuMATE1 expression was not, which could be explained by a combined regulation of VuMATE1 expression and Al-specific activation of VuMATE1 protein. Pre-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor suppressed VuMATE1 expression, indicating that de novo biosynthesis of proteins is required for gene expression. Furthermore, post-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor inhibited citrate secretion, indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 is critical for citrate secretion. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies showed that reversible phosphorylation was important not only for transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 expression but also for post-translational regulation of VuMATE1 protein activity. These results suggest that citrate secretion is dependent on both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1. Additionally, VuMATE1 promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion lines revealed that VuMATE1 expression was restricted to the root apex and was entirely Al induced, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements regulating root tip-specific and Al-inducible gene expression, which will be an important resource for genetic improvement of plant Al resistance.

  11. Isolation and screening of rhizobia for auxin biosynthesis and growth promotion of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. seedlings under axenic conditions

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    Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Ashraf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of screening experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of rhizobia for producing auxins and improvegrowth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. were carried out under axenic conditions. Forty fouriolatess of rhizobia were isolated using standard procedures. Auxin biosynthesis by these rhizobial isolates wasdetermined in the absence and presence of L-Trp, a physiological precursor of auxins. Rhizobial isolates variedwidely in auxins biosynthesis capabilities. On the basis of auxins biosynthesis, a pouch experiment was conductedfor screening thirty four efficient isolates of rhizobia for the growth promotion of mung bean. Results of pouch studyshowed that inoculation with selected rhizobial isolates increased the root /shoot length, fresh, and dry shoot weightof mung bean up to 33, 59, 71, 148, 107 and 188%, respectively, over untreated control. Further studies are neededunder glasshouse and field conditions for confirmation of these results.

  12. Detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, Vigna mungo, seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, M; Takeuchi, W

    1989-02-01

    A new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. The enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a pH optimum of 5.0. The enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (Km, 3.0 X 10(-5) M), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. The Km value for NADPH (1.5 X 10(-4) M) was much lower than that for L-ascorbic acid (1.0 X 10(-2) M), although the Vmax value was almost the same with both electron donors. The enzyme was potently inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol (Ki, 3.5 X 10(-6) M) and diethyldithiocarbamate (Ki, 2.3 X 10(-4) M), but was insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoate. The enzyme was localized in the cell organelles which sedimented between mitochondria and endplasmic reticulum on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme activity in the seedling was changed in response to induction by light in a manner suggesting its involvement in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in mung bean seedlings.

  13. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

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    Ramesh Raliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL−1 concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%, root length (49.6%, root area (43%, root nodule (67.5%, chlorophyll content (46.4% and total soluble leaf protein (94% as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4–48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, phytase (64% and dehydrogenase (108.7% enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  14. Nodulation and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains in symbiosis with Adzuki Bean, Vigna angularis

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    Dušica Delić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiment, one isolate Knj from a Serbian soil, four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and three strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. were examined for the effect on adzuki bean nodulation and effectiveness in symbiotic N2 fixation. All the tested strains produced root nodules in adzuki bean. Strains of B. japonicum showed high potential of N2 fixation, particularly 525 and 542. B. japonicum strains resulted 65-71% shoot dry weight and 99-138% total N content of uninoculated control with full N content (100%. No significant difference was found between the plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. strains and uninoculated control plants without N (40-42 and 42% shoot dry weight, respectively, which indicated symbiotic N2 fixation inactivity of the Bradyrhizobium spp. strains. Knj strain had the middle position (56% shoot dry weight. These data showed that B. japonicum 525 and 542 strains could be used in further investigations in order to apply them as inoculants in microbiological N fertilizers.

  15. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  16. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

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    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  17. Transient increase in the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex genes during reorientation of cortical microtubules by gravity in azuki bean (Vigna angularis) epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2008-09-01

    By hypergravity treatment, the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased in azuki bean (Vigna angularis) epicotyls. The expression of genes encoding gamma-tubulin complex (VaTUG and VaGCP3) was increased transiently in response to changes in the gravitational conditions. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified reorientation of microtubules as well as up-regulation of expression of VaTUG and VaGCP3 by hypergravity. These results suggest that mechanoreceptors may perceive the gravity signal, which leads to a transient increase in the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex genes and reorientation of cortical microtubules.

  18. Characterization of VuMATE1 expression in response to iron nutrition and aluminum stress reveals adaptation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata to acid soils through cis regulation

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    Meiya eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acidic soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  19. Polyamines confer salt tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. by reducing sodium uptake, improving nutrient homeostasis, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

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    Kamrun Nahar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2. Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•– generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl and relative water content (RWC. Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II, which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected in improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

  20. Danos mecânicos em sementes de feijão Vigna, causados pelas operações na unidade de beneficiamento Mechanical damages in Vigna bean seeds caused by the operations in the seed processing

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    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Depois da colheita e debulha, as sementes de feijão são encaminhadas à usina de beneficiamento, de onde, por elevadores, são conduzidas às máquinas de pré-limpeza, limpeza, separação e classificação, tratamento e embalagem, para posterior armazenamento experimentando durante este percurso, impacto promovidos pela movimentação dos elevadores e das máquinas. Objetivando-se contribuir com o programa de controle de qualidade de sementes de feijão produzidas principalmente no estado da Paraíba, estudaram-se os impactos mecânicos sofrido pelas sementes de duas variedades de feijão Vigna com dois teores de umidade (13,5 e 7,3% depois da colheita, debulha e da passagem pelas diferentes etapas na Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba, localizada em Alagoinha, PB. Os danos decorrentes dos impactos foram analisados visualmente, empregando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, submetendo-se as médias dos fatores quantitativos a regressão na análise da variância. As sementes com umidade de 7,3% da variedade Rabo de Tatu são mais susceptíveis à quebra pelos impactos no processo e, às injúrias, elevam-se com o aumento do número de passagem das sementes pelas diferentes etapas à qual estão sujeitas, demonstrando caráter cumulativo, indicando haver relação direta entre o número de choques e seus efeitos.After harvesting and threshing the seeds of beans are taken to a seed processing plant where from by elevator are taken to machines of pre-cleaning, cleaning, separation and classification, treatment and packing for posterior storage. During this course, impacts are promoted by the movement of elevators and machines. With the objective to contribute with quality control program of bean seeds mainly produced in the Paraíba State, the mechanical impacts undergone by seeds of two varieties of Vigna bean with two moisture contents (13.5 and 7.3% were studied after harvesting, threshing

  1. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF Akara (FRIED BEANS CAKE) MADE FROM COWPEA (vigna unguiculata) AND SOYBEAN (glycine max) BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundele G F; Ojubanire B A; Bamidele O P

    2014-01-01

    Akara (fried bean cake) is one of the most popular local dishes in Nigeria. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of akara prepared from cowpea and soybean blends were carried out in present study. Furthermore, study was also planned to determine the best ratio of cowpea & soybean blend that can give best akara production (fried beans cake). Result of proximate analysis revealed that the combination of cowpea and soybean blends (sample B, C and D) h...

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  4. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  5. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3.

  6. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L. Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun Nahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd in alleviating low temperature (LT stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3 seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA, increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR and glutathione reductase (GR increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury.

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  8. Changes in the level of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid and ( sup 14 C)indoleacetylaspartic acid during root formation in mung bean cuttings. [Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norcini, J.G.; Heuser, C.W. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Changes in the levels of ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ({sup 14}C)indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) were examined during adventitious root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz. Berken) stem cuttings. IAAsp was identified by GC-MS as the primary conjugate in IAA-treated cuttings. During root formation in IAA-treated cuttings, the level of ({sup 14}C)IAAsp increased rapidly the first day and then declined; ({sup 14}C)IAA was rapidly metabolized and not detected after 12 hours.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions.

  10. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms.

  11. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF Akara (FRIED BEANS CAKE MADE FROM COWPEA (vigna unguiculata AND SOYBEAN (glycine max BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele G F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Akara (fried bean cake is one of the most popular local dishes in Nigeria. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of akara prepared from cowpea and soybean blends were carried out in present study. Furthermore, study was also planned to determine the best ratio of cowpea & soybean blend that can give best akara production (fried beans cake. Result of proximate analysis revealed that the combination of cowpea and soybean blends (sample B, C and D had a higher protein content (15.20, 18.31and 22.52% ash content (1.74, 1.80 and 1.88% crude fat (3.38, 4.06 and 5.28% and crude fiber (1.03, 1.10 and 1.19% compare to individual cowpea control (sample A which have only 4.44% (protein 1.17% (ash 1.91% (crude fat and 0.92% (crude fiber respectively. The functional properties results showed a reduction in bulk density with an increase in soybean blend with cowpea i.e. sample A > B>C. The same pattern of results were recorded for water absorption and swelling capacity. Sample A having the highest value in all the functional properties determined except in oil absorption capacity. The sensory evaluation results showed a slight difference in all parameters tested for except the overall acceptability which showed no significant difference for all the samples at p≤0.05. This implies that cowpea and soybean blends, up to 30% subtitution, can be used to produce akara that will be acceptable thus improving the culinary uses of soybean and improving the nutritional quality of akara.

  12. Bioassociative effect of rhizospheric microorganisms on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Kadian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen applications have generated great interests in agriculture, with much of its success associated with increasing the uptake of nitrogen by crops while reducing pollution by this chemical fertilizer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactive effect of rhizospheric microorganisms on nutrient uptake, yield and growth of mung bean grown in pots under glasshouse conditions. The results revealed that the growth, in terms of morphology and physiology, of all the inoculated plants was better than that of the control plants. In terms of growth, plant height, fresh and dry weights and length of the roots plants inoculated with both Funneliformis mosseae + T. viride did best. Total chlorophyll content, alkaline and acidic phosphatase activities were greatest when inoculated with only F. mosseae and fresh and dry weights of shoots when inoculated only with T. viride. Significant increase in N and P uptake was recorded when inoculated with both F. mosseae + T. viride. Overall the significant increase in growth and development was due to positive interactions among rhizospheric microorganisms leading to healthy and vigorously growing plants. However, there is now a need for field trails of this technique.

  13. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  14. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão macassar tratadas com extrato vegetal e acondicionadas em dois tipos de embalagens = Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with vegetable extract and conditioned in two types of packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Cardoso Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a perda de viabilidade das sementes de duas variedades de Vigna unguiculata, acondicionadas em embalagens de papel e recipiente metálico, armazenados em ambiente não controlado. Após a colheita das sementes, em campos preparados para esta finalidade, as mesmas foram beneficiadas manualmente, tratadas, acondicionadas e armazenadas, para que a cada dois meses fossem avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade fisiológica mediante teste de germinação, indicando a melhor capacidade armazenadora para a condição do estudo. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2x 6 com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores quantitativos revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a viabilidade das sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata foi afetada pelos tratamentos e condição do armazenamento, tendo ao final de 360 dias a germinação passada de 99,37 para 41,68%; a variedade Emepa foi superior a Corujinha em 63,47% e o extrato de Piper nigrum revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes.The objective of this work was to study the loss of seed viability of two varieties of Vigna unguiculata, conditioned in paper andmetallic packaging, and stored without temperature and relative air humidity control. After seed harvest, in fields prepared for this purpose, the seeds were manually processed, treated, conditioned and stored; every two months, their physiological quality was evaluated using a germination test. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 6 factorial scheme with four repetitions; the quantitative factors were disclosed by the regression in the analysis of variance. Based on the results, the viability of the Vigna unguiculata bean seeds was affected by the treatments and storage condition: after 360 days, the germination rate decreased

  15. Dimethoate modifies enhanced UV-B effects on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings: implication of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-11-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate implication of salicylic acid (SA) in regulation of dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation (ambient + supplemental; ambient + 4.0 kJ m(-2) and ambient + 8.0 kJ m(-2), designated as UV-B1 and UV-B2, respectively) induced responses in mung bean seedlings. Seeds of Vigna radiata L. cv. Narendra 1 were surface sterilized, washed thoroughly and soaked for 24 h in sterilized distilled water. Soaked seeds were sown in acid washed sterilized sand filled in plastic trays, and incubated in dark at 26 ± 2 °C for 2 days. The seedlings were grown in growth chamber at 26 ± 2 °C with 12 h photoperiod (350 µmol photons m(-2 )s(-1), PAR) and watered regularly. Six day old seedlings of equal size were gently transferred in 0.2 strength Rorison nutrient medium (pH 6.8) for acclimatization. Thereafter, dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation treatments were given. On the 12th day, seedlings of each set were harvested and various parameters related to growth, pigments, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant system were analyzed. The D2 dose of dimethoate and UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (Fv/Fm and qP except NPQ) which were accompanied by significant decrease in SA level. Similarly, D2 and UV-B also enhanced (P < 0.05) accumulation of reactive oxygen species and concomitantly damaging effects on lipids, proteins and membrane stability were observed. In contrast, in SA-pretreated seedlings damaging impacts of D2, UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated. Besides this, interestingly D1 dose of dimethoate alone had stimulatory effect on growth and it also ameliorated damaging effects of both the doses of UV-B. The activity of superoxide dismutase was

  16. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  17. Effect of Ionic and Chelate Assisted Hexavalent Chromium on Mung Bean Seedlings (Vigna radiata L. wilczek. var k-851 During Seedling Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty, Monalisa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cr+6 with and without chelating agents were assessed in mung bean seedlings grown hydroponically. It was noted that the growth parameters showed a declining trend with increasing Cr+6 concentrations without chelate application. Among the seedlings grown with chelated chromium complexes, Cr+6–DTPA (10µM showed highest growth rate of roots as well as shoots. At higher concentration of Chromium i.e. Cr+6 (100µM, there exhibited high chlorophyll content in mung bean leaves where the seedlings showed stunted growth. The seedlings treated without and with chelated chromium complexes showed increased proline content as compared to control. The enzymatic study showed that, the catalase activity was maximum in shoots as compared to roots and the reverse is true in the case of peroxidase activity i.e. the roots showed higher value than that of the shoots.

  18. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqshoof Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m-1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  19. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m(-1) under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  20. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  1. Fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso de broto de feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando a importância dos compostos fenólicos em alimentos e que o broto de feijão-mungo vem sendo incluído na culinária brasileira, este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o teor de fenólicos totais deste vegetal e avaliar a ação antioxidante do seu extrato aquoso. MÉTODOS: Os compostos fenólicos foram extraídos por quatro sistemas de solventes e dois métodos de extração, os quais foram diferenciados no tempo (2 e 1h e número de extrações (2 e 3 extrações. Os fenólicos totais dos extratos foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico. RESULTADOS: Os extratos obtidos com água à temperatura ambiente (28ºC, nos dois métodos de extração, foram os que apresentaram maior quantidade de fenólicos totais, sem contudo apresentar diferença significativa entre eles. O método II, que consistiu de três extrações em 1h, pode ser considerado o melhor por ter utilizado menor tempo de extração. O extrato aquoso em sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico exibiu ação antioxidante (48,07% de inibição da oxidação, entretanto foi inferior ao padrão BHT. CONCLUSÃO: O broto de feijão-mungo possui considerável quantidade de fenólicos totais, compostos responsáveis por sua ação antioxidante, cujo consumo pode proporcionar efeitos benéficos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of phenolic compounds in foods and the increasing consumption of mung bean sprouts in Brazil, this study had the objective of quantifying the total phenolic content in this vegetable and to assess the antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract. METHODS: The phenolic compounds were extracted by four solvent systems and two extraction methods, which were different in time (2 and 1h and in number of extractions (2 and 3 extractions. The total phenolic content of the extracts were quantified by the spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The extracts obtained with water at room temperature (28ºC in both extraction

  2. Effects of Black Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis Extract on Proliferation and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes into Mature Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on adipocytes, and to elucidate the cellular mechanisms. In order to examine the proliferation of preadipocytes and differentiating adipocytes, cell viability and DNA content were measured over a period of time. Lipid accumulation during cell differentiation and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of BAB on the transcriptional factors involved, with their anti-adipogenic effects, were also identified. We observed that BAB exhibits anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of proliferation, thereby lowering mRNA expression of C/EBPβ and suppressing adipogenesis during the early stage of differentiation. This, in turn, resulted in a reduction of TG accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treating the cells with BAB not only suppressed the adipogenesis-associated key transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα but also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of GLUT4, FABP4, LPL and adiponectin. The expression of lipolytic genes like ATGL and HSL were higher in the treatment group than in the control. Overall, the black adzuki bean extract demonstrated an anti-adipogenic property, which makes it a potential dietary supplement for attenuation of obesity.

  3. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  4. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  5. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  6. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  7. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Shi; Yang Yao; Yingying Zhu; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing;however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3%of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4%and 36.1%of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70%ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  8. 厨房废水对绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆种子萌发及其生物量的影响%Impacts of kitchen waste water on seed germination and biomass in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek], moth bean(Vigna aconitifolia Jacq.) and gram (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel Arti; Porwal Shalini

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨厨房废水对不同作物种子萌发和生物量的影响,为厨房废水利用途径的改进提供参考.[方法]分析厨房废水的生理生化特性,采用不同浓度废水(0,10%,25%,50% and 100%)处理绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆种子,探讨其对种子萌发和幼苗茎、根的长度、鲜干重的影响.[结果]厨房废水具有较高的总溶解浓度、化学需氧量和生物需氧量及较低的溶解氧量.经50%厨房废水处理24h后,不同作物种子发芽率均为100%,不同作物的茎、根长度和干、鲜重均达到最高.说明50%厨房废水处理可使不同作物获得最大的生物量.[结论]从餐馆里收集的厨房废水可作为较好的营养基质,用于大规模栽培绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆,成本低廉.%[Objective]The present study was done with an aim to investigate the impacts of kitchen waste water on seed germination and biomass of some crop plants.This study will provide the way of utilization of waste water in crop improvement purposes.[Method] In this study,the physico-chemical characteristics of the kitchen waste water were analyzed.Seeds of gram,mung bean and moth bean were treated with different concentrations i.e.0,10%,25%,50% and 100% of kitchen waste water.The effects of different concentrations of kitchen waste on seed germination,length as well as fresh and dry weight of both root and shoot of gram,mung bean and moth bean seedlins after treatment were recorded.[Result]The kitchen waste water had a high value of TDS,COD and BOD,and very low value of DO.50% concentration of kitchen waste water was responsible for 100% germination of seeds of all the crop plants after 24 hours of treatment.All crops showed the highest value of length,fresh and dry weight of shoot and root under treatment of 50% concentration of kitchen waste water.It suggested that maximum biomass of all the three crop plants could be found at 50% concentration of the

  9. Analysis of Genetic Variation of Seed Proteins in the Genus Vigna and among Its Relatives Cultivated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chanyou; PAN Lei; HU Yaojun; HU Zhihui; DING Yi

    2006-01-01

    The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE foR24 cultivars belonging to 5 species in Vigna and 7 species in its 7 relative genera cultivated in China. There were 48 polymorphic subunit bands discriminated from electrophoretic profiles. Two dendrograms were constructed by UPGMA cluster analyses using PHYLIP3.6 respectively.Variation among genera or species was larger than that among lower taxonomic categories level. Little variation among cultivars of yardlong bean (Vigna sesquipedalis ) and small variation of lablab (Lablab purpureus ),pea (Pisum sativum ), or sword bean (Canavalia gladiata ), but large variation of soybean or rice bean in their origin of China were all revealed.The seed proteins profiles of traditionally regarded as typical species in Vigna such as yardlong bean, rice bean and small bean were more similar than mungbean (Vigna radiata) and black gram (Vigna mungo) were.Mungbean and black gram had distinct seed proteins pattern, they should be of two species.

  10. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.A. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. As sementes fumigadas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros avaliados em relação à testemunha. O óleo essencial de citronela revelou potencialidade alelopática sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão que variou de acordo com a concentração do óleo.Seed treatment with essential oils is an alternative method tool in integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bean seeds with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. The effect of C. winterianus essential oil on P. vulgaris was evaluated at levels of 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. The fumigated bean seeds showed the statistics differences among the analyzed parameters when was compared with the no treated check. The essential oil of Java grass revealed allelopathic potentiality on bean seed germination which varied according to the oil concentration.

  11. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  12. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  13. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  14. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  15. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  16. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  17. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  18. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  19. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  1. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  2. Study on Effect of Several Herbicides on Weeds and Diseases of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata)in Field%几种除草剂对绿豆田杂草的防治效果及绿豆病害影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛维德; 付思齐; 薛仁风; 赵阳; 栾好民

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata)is an important grain,vegetables and medicinal crops,nutritional and medicinal value are both high.It plays an important role in the adjustment of planting structure and optimiza-tion of planting pattern.In this study,10 herbicide combinations were applied for controlling weeds in the mung bean field,the effect was compared among 10 different combinations in order to discover the suitable weed-controlling method for Liaoning province.The results showed that No.4 combination (fomesafen and high -flurbiprofen diclofop),No.5 combination (sethoxydim and fomesafen)and No.10 combination (quiza-lofop and fomesafen)had the best controlling effect,percentage of controlling effects were 92.3%,95.5%and 93.5%,respectively.Among these,No.10 combination showed highest hectare yield of 1326.9 kg.In addition,No.1 combination (metolachlor and fomesafen),No.5 combination (sethoxydim and fomesafen) and No.1 1 combination (quizalofop and fluoroglycofen)also played a role in controlling diseases in mung bean field.No.1 1 combination showed best effect,and the disease scores of Cercospora leaf spot and bacterial blight of mung bean were only 3.2 and 4.2,respectively.In this study,we analyzed the effects of 10 different herbicide combinations on the weed-controlling,yield per hectare and disease controlling in the field of mung bean in order to provide technical guidline for weed-controlling in Liaoning province.%绿豆(Vigna radiata)是重要的粮食、蔬菜和药用作物,营养价值和药用价值均很高,在农业种植结构调整和种植模式的优化中具有重要的作用。研究通过10种除草剂组合防除绿豆田杂草,比较不同组合间杂草防除效果的差异,筛选出适用于辽宁地区的杂草防除方法。结果表明,除草效果最好的是4号组合(氟磺胺草醚高效氟吡甲禾草灵苗后喷雾),5号组合(拿捕净氟磺胺草醚苗后喷雾)和10号组合(精喹禾灵、氟磺胺草醚苗

  3. Analysis on Genetic Diversity and Trait Association of Different Types of Azuki Bean(Vigna angularisi)by SSR Markers%不同类型小豆种质SSR标记遗传多样性及性状关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 叶剑; 金文林; 曾潮武; 吴宝美; 濮绍京; 潘金豹; 万平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] It is very important to make studies on the genetic diversity of wild, semi-wild and cultivated azuki beans for further detecting the origin, evolution and diffusion of azuki bean and effectively utilizing these germplasms and serving for azuki bean improvement. [ Method] Eleven higher polymorphic SSR primers screened from 69 SSR primer pairs of azuki bean and black gram were used in amplification of 558 wild, semi-wild and cultivated azuki bean accessions from China, Japan, South Korea, Bhutan and Burma. The analysis of genetic diversity and trait association was done. [Result] Eighty-six polymorphic bands were generated. An average of 7.28 polymorphic bands were detected from 1 pair SSR primers. The number of alleles changed from 6 to 10. There were specific bands were observed in wild, semi-wild and cultivated azuki beans. Specific bands of cultivated azuki bean were predominantly produced by Chinese cultivars and landraces. Specific bands of wild azuki bean were detected in accessions from China, Bhutan and South Japan. The order of genetic dispersion was wild>semi-wild>cultivated azuki beans.Semi-wild accessions has closer genetic relationship with wild azuki bean. The 558 accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis according to genetic distance. The result of cluster appeared that the genetic types of azuki beans have obviously associated with different geographical regions. Japanese cultivated azuki beans have closer genetic relationship with wild and semi-wild accessions from Japan and South Korea. Wild accessions from Southwest China are closely related to wild accessions from Southeast Asia and landraces of Jiangsu Province. Trait association analysis showed that black gram BG 111 marker located on linkage group 7 of azuki bean explained 49%, 44%, 31%, and 18% traits of number of nods on main stem, diameter of stem, top stem twining and branching numbers in wild and weedy types. BG48 of linkage group 1 and BG

  4. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  5. 接种根瘤菌对不同品种绿豆生长及产量的影响%Impacts of rhizobial inoculation on plant growth and yield traits of green bean (Vigna radiata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 马晓彤; 曹艳华; 唐雪; 姜晓宇; 姜瑞波

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the impacts of rhizobial inoculation on plant growth and yield traits of three different varieties of green bean, the field experiments were settled in Fangshan, Beijing. The study found that the impacts of Rhizobial inoculation could significantly promote the grourth of the green bean varieties No. 2 and Jiliu 9. Both nodule numbers were significantly increased; and the yield increased by 41% and 29% ; Rhizobial inoculation in varieties Zhongliu 5, however, the yield decreased, but total nodule number was significantly higher than that of the control and the main nodule number was also higher than the other two treatments. Thus we recommended that the application of Rhizobial inoculum should match the variety of legume plants.%在田间试验条件下,调查了品种2号、中绿5号和冀绿9号3个绿豆品种接种根瘤菌菌剂对植株及产量等性状的影响.研究发现,接种根瘤菌可显著促进品种2号和冀绿9号两个绿豆品种的生长,根瘤数量明显增多,产量分别增加41%和29%;中绿5号接种根瘤菌后,产量不增反降,但总根瘤数要明显高于对照,且主根瘤数也高于其他两个品种.从而建议根瘤菌的应用应与品种相匹配.

  6. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos de la Costa Caribe Colombiana en Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Alberto Mendoza Labrador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development of the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

  7. Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Takahashi, Yoko; Yamaki, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans) were evaluated for phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Results showed that adzuki bean varieties contain higher phenolic indexes than mung bean and moth beans. Adzuki bean (black) variety was found to be the most active 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion scavenger. However, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating abilities were significantly higher in adzuki bean (red) variety. Mung bean exhibited least antioxidant activities in all the methods tested. Phenolic extracts from these legumes also showed distinct variations in the inhibition of enzymes associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Inhibitory activities of all the extracts against lipase were found to be more potent than α-glucosidase. Although, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was superior in the black variety of adzuki bean (IC(50,) 26.28 mg/mL), both adzuki bean varieties (black and red) along with moth bean showed strong inhibitory activities on lipase with no significant difference in their IC(50) values (7.32 to 9.85 mg/mL). These results suggest that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-glucosidase and lipase activities. This information may help for effective utilization of these legumes as functional food ingredients for promoting health. Practical Application:  Vigna species of legumes are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity. Therefore, utilization of these legumes in the development of functional foods with increased therapeutic value would be a significant step toward health promotion and wellness.

  8. The effect of different type of vermicompost organic fertilizer litter on quantitive, qualitative and biochemical characteristics of green mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in drought stress conditions in Varamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Vahid Reza Mahmoudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost in sustainable agriculture is very useful for improving soil porosity and thereby providing more nutrients to plants; accordingly, a split plot experiment was performed on mung bean in a randomized complete block design from with three replications in research farm of Islamic Azad University, Varamin – Pishva. The first factor was drought stress including lack of drought stress, irrigation cut in podding stage and irrigation cut in grain filling stage as the main plot and the second factor was vermicompost including non-consumption, vermicompost with cattle litter, vermicompost with cattle and equine litter, as well as vermicompost with cattle, poultry and equine litter as sub plot. Based on the results of analysis of variance, the main effect of drought stress and grain yield vermicompost, biological yield, protein yield, proline and cell membrane stability was significant at one percent probability level. Additionally, drought stress was significantly effective on protein percentage at one percent probability level as well as on leaf relative water content and protein percentage at five percent probability level. The results showed that with increase in drought stress, grain yield, biological yield, protein yield, leaf relative water content and membrane stability decrease and protein and proline percentage are added, so that the most negative effect in irrigation cut occurred in podding stage. It was also found that vermicompost in the presence or absence of drought stress improves yield and drought yield components, so that vermicompost with cattle and equine litter, as well as with cattle, poultry and equine litter had the greatest impact.

  9. Penetapan Kadar Mineral Besi,Kalsium, Magnesium, dan Kalium pada Kacang Panjang (Vigna unguiculata (l) Walp.) Segar dan Rebus secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Simamora, Alex Leo

    2017-01-01

    Long beans (Vigna unguiculata (l). Walp) is one of the vegetables that contain minerals and vitamins is good for consumption. Parts can be consumed from this plans are fruits and young leaves. Both fruit and leaves quite a lot of nutrients that the body needs. Long beans contain vitamins and minerals, among which calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, protein, fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, calories, vitamin A, vitamin B and vitamin C. This study aims to determine the mineral content of iron, ...

  10. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  12. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  13. Using Mung Beans as a Simple, Informative Means to Evaluate the Phytotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials and Introduce the Concept of Nanophytotoxicity to Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shailise S.; Owen, Matthew J.; Pedersen, Brian P.; Liu, Gang-yu; Miller, William J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a lecture and lab series that focuses on teaching the concept of nanophytotoxicity to undergraduate students in a relatively simple experiment. In this experiment, students evaluated the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) using mung beans (i.e., "Vigna radiata") and industrially relevant, commercially…

  14. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  15. Field evaluation of effective microorganisms (EM) application for growth, nodulation, and nutrition of mung bean

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Arshad; BAJWA, Rukhsana

    2011-01-01

    Effective microorganisms (EM) is a commercial biofertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing beneficial microorganisms collected from natural environments. Predominantly it consists of species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of EM application on growth, nodulation, yield, and nutrient uptake in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] var. NIAB Mung 98 under field conditions. Field soil was amende...

  16. Field evaluation of effective microorganisms (EM) application for growth, nodulation, and nutrition of mung bean

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Arshad; BAJWA, Rukhsana

    2014-01-01

    Effective microorganisms (EM) is a commercial biofertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing beneficial microorganisms collected from natural environments. Predominantly it consists of species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of EM application on growth, nodulation, yield, and nutrient uptake in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] var. NIAB Mung 98 under field conditions. Field soil was amende...

  17. Control Effects of Several Herbicides on Weeds and Phenotype of Mung Bean(Vigna radiata) in Field%几种除草剂对绿豆田杂草的防治效果及对绿豆表型性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛仁风; 赵阳; 庄艳; 陈剑; 王英杰; 李韬; 金晓梅; 李令蕊; 葛维德

    2015-01-01

    This study compared effects of 10 different herbicide combinations on weeds and phenotypes of mung bean,to screen out the good herbicide combinations for mung bean field,and provide the theoretical and practical basis for weeds controlling in mung bean field, yield and quality improvement of mung bean in Liaoning province. The results indicated that all the herbicide combinations controlled weeds in mung bean field. Though the herbicides caused slight injury to mung bean,they did not reduce yield significant-ly. By comprehensive consideration of the weed controlling effects and the effects on the yield and agro-nomic traits of mung bean,the herbicide combination 4(spraying fomesafen and haloxyfop-P after emer-gence),5(spraying sethoxydim and fomesafen after emergence),9(spraying quizalofop-P and fomesafen after emergence) were good. They had the best herbicidal effect,92. 3% ,95. 5% and 93. 5% ,respective-ly,and caused highest yield,1 084. 5,1 068. 3,1 060. 5 kg / ha,respectively.%比较10种除草剂组合对绿豆田杂草的防除效果及对绿豆表型的影响,从中选出对绿豆田间杂草防治效果较好的组合,为辽宁地区绿豆田间杂草防治提供安全经济有效的防治方法。结果表明,10种不同除草剂组合均能防治绿豆田间杂草,尽管对绿豆植株造成了不同程度的药害,但药害程度均很轻,并没有明显影响绿豆的产量。通过分析不同除草剂组合对绿豆田间杂草的防治效果及对绿豆产量和主要农艺性状的影响,认为4号(氟磺胺草醚、高效氟吡甲禾灵苗后喷雾)、5号(拿捕净、氟磺胺草醚苗后喷雾)、9号(精喹禾灵、氟磺胺草醚苗后喷雾)组合较优,其对绿豆田杂草的防治效果最好,分别为92.3%、95.5%、93.5%;同时对绿豆产量的提高作用也最大,产量分别达1084.5、1068.3、1060.5 kg / hm2,显著高于无除草剂对照。

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Alverson

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean, and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt, the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes.

  19. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  20. Interspecific Hybridization AmongVigna Species%豇豆属食用豆类间的远缘杂交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长友; 范保杰; 曹志敏; 苏秋竹; 王彦; 张志肖; 程须珍; 田静

    2015-01-01

    粒的发育;黑吉豆与小豆、饭豆杂交时存在胚败育现象;饭豆作母本与小豆杂交经幼胚拯救可以获得可育的F1植株;小豆与近缘野生种的杂交亲和性优于饭豆;豇豆与其他食用豆类间杂交均未成功。%Objective]The aim of this study was to analyze the crossability of differentVigna species, which will facilitate the distant hybridization breeding ofVigna.[Method] Interspecific crossabilities were investigated among 5 cultivar species of Vigna,V. radiata (mungbean),V. mungo (black gram),V. umbellata (rice bean),V. anguluris (adzuki bean),V. unguiculata (cowpea), and 3 wild relative species of adzuki bean,V. minima,V. nakashiame andV. riukiuensis. Embryo rescue was conducted for 3 interspecific combinations, namely,V. radiata×V. angularis,V. angularis×V. umbellataandV. umbellata×V. angularis, respectively. The pod setting ratio of hybrid and performance of F1 plant were investigated to analyze the crossabilities between food legumes ofVigna genus.[Result] The genetic relationship between different food legumes and the choice of female parent influenced the result of distant hybridization. Except for cowpea cross combinations, hybrid pods were set successfully in the other interspecific crosses. The growth of hybrid pods and seeds showed variations in different combinations. No genetic disorders before fertilization were found from the hybridizations ofV. radiata×V. mungo,V. angularis×V. minima,V. angularis×V. nakashiame, andV. angularis×V. riukiuensis. The hybrid seeds of them germinated normally, and the hybrid plants were fertile, but the fruiting rates were lower. The pod setting ratio was significantly higher whenV. radiatawas selected as female parent in the interspecific crosses betweenV. radiataandV. umbellata. F1 plants were obtained without embryo culture, but they showed complete hybrid sterility. No fertile seeds were obtained even backcross toV. radiataorV. umbellata. Hybrid plants were obtained from cultured

  1. [Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ying; Sun, Jian; Lv, Hai-Ning; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.

  2. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf E-mail: ralf.greiner@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 1.8 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 13.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 0.42 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 7.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  3. Intake of Mung Bean Protein Isolate Reduces Plasma Triglyceride Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Tachibana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Mung bean is well known as a starch source, but the physiological effects of mung bean protein have received little attention. In this study, we isolated mung bean protein from de-starched mung bean solutions, and investigated its influence on lipid metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of the lipid metabolism by consumption of mung bean protein isolate (MPIMethods: Diets containing either mung bean protein isolate (MPI or casein were fed to normal rats for 28 days.Results: Both groups ate the same amount of food, but the plasma triglyceride level, relative liver weight and liver lipid contents (cholesterol and triglyceride pool in the MPI group were significantly lower than in the casein group. In the MPI group, the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding factor 1 (SREBF1 mRNA in the liver was significantly different when compared with the casein group. The significantly lower levels of insulin and free fatty acids in the MPI-fed rats may be due to the regulation of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver.Conclusions: These results suggest that MPI may improve the plasma lipid profile by normalizing insulin sensitivity.Keywords: mung bean, Vigna radiata L., 8S globulin, triglyceride, β-conglycinin, 7S globulin, insulin sensitivity, SREBF1

  4. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  5. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  6. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  7. 一种新发现的侵染绿豆的菜豆普通花叶病毒分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of a Newly Discovered Bean common mosaic virus Infection of Mung Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈良; 崔瑾; 夏妍; 崔晓艳; 陈新

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to identify one isolate with wizened ,mottle and vein clearing mosaic symp-tom collected from greenhouse mung bean(Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)in Jangsu.We used electron micrograph, PCR,determination of nucleotide sequence and ELISA .We can see the characteristics of the virus under transmis-sion electron microscopy .We used Potyvirus universal primers for RT-PCR,found the symptom was caused by Bean common mosaic virus(BCMV).This isolate was called BCWV-JAAS.The nucleotides sequences of the genes from the isolate shared homologies from 95% with reported BCMV-HB.Total RNA was amplified by RT-PCR with the specific primers designed on the basis of the reported coat protein gene of Bean common mosaic virus( BCMV) .An 1 082 bp gene fragment was amplified from total RNA of isolate ,and subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the 862 bp fragment contained complete cp gene which encoded 228 amino acids.By amplification cp genes and construct phylogenetic trees get BCMV-JAAS with other Chinese isolates of BCMV have a close genetic relationship . We performed the virus samples by ELISA ,the results shown positive we ensured that was infecting by Bean com-mon mosaic virus(BCMV) to cause the mung bean plant disease .This is the first time found the mung bean was in-fected by BCMV in China .%为确定从江苏省农科院蔬菜所温室大棚所采集到的表现花叶、皱缩、明脉症状的绿豆植株是由何种病毒引起的,采取了透射电子显微镜观察、RT-PCR、序列测序以及酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA)等方法进行鉴定。结果表明,在透射电镜下可观察到风轮状、束状病毒内含体,与Potyvirus属病毒粒子形态一致;对所提取的病样总RNA使用Poty-virus通用引物进行RT-PCR扩增,得到由1082个核苷酸组成的序列,包含编码228个氨基酸的完整cp基因,产物通过NCBI比对,发现和已报道的菜豆普通花叶病毒( Bean common mosaic virus,BCMV) HB

  8. Allelopathic potential of Hyptis suaveolens on physio-biochemical changes of mung bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is an exotic invasive weed in many areas of West Bengal, India. The allelopathic potential of leaf extracts and leachates of H. suaveolens was investigated on germination and metabolism of mung bean seeds (Vigna radiata cv. K851. The extracts and leachates reduced the germination and seed viability. The insoluble carbohydrates, proteins, and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly reduced. Amino acid and soluble carbohydrate levels were increased in seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leachates. The overall biochemical results indicate that various inhibitors present in H. suaveolens impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The leaves of H. suaveolens possess phytotoxic chemicals, which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds and provided key information for the proper management of H. suaveolens and other invasive weeds showing similar behavior.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  10. 芦丁对绿豆幼苗营养生长的影响及其与IAA的相互作用%Effects of Rutin on Vegetative Growth of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Seedlings and Its Interaction with Indoleacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红; Yoneo Sagawa; Qing Xiao Li

    2005-01-01

    Rutin is one of the natural flavonoids in plants. Effects of rutin and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on vegetative growth of mung bean seedlings were studied and the contents of rutin and IAA in the hypocotyls of the seedlings were measured. Mung bean seedlings absorbed rutin through roots, grew more vigorously under light at lower rutin concentrations (20-60μg/mL) with longer shoot axis (epicotyl+hypocotyl)and primary root and more lateral roots. The seedlings exhibited inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and radicles when grown in the dark at rutin concentrations of 20-100 μg/mL or under light at rutin concentrations of 80-100 μg/mL. Seedlings under light absorbed more rutin than those in the dark at rutin concentrations of 60-80 μg/mL and absorbed less rurin at concentrations lower than 40 μg/mL or near 100 μg/mL. IAA (>0.1 μg/mL) treatment promoted rutin accumulation and inhibited elongation of shoot axis and primary roots. The rutin content in hypocotyls reached the highest level when IAA (0.5 μg/mL) and rutin (40 μg/mL) were added to the medium. Rutin repressed endogenous IAA accumulation in hypocotyls of the etiolated seedlings and inhibited absorption of exogenous IAA from media to seedlings.%观察了植物体内的天然黄酮芦丁和吲哚乙酸(IAA)对绿豆幼苗营养生长的影响并测定胚轴中的芦丁和IAA含量.光照条件下芦丁(60μg/mL以下)处理对绿豆幼苗生长有一定促进作用,表现为胚轴和主根伸长加快、侧根数目增多、鲜重或干重增加;而光照条件下更高浓度芦丁(80μg/mL以上)处理及黑暗条件下芦丁(20~100μg/mL)处理对绿豆幼苗生长有抑制作用.当培养基中的芦丁浓度为60~80 μg/mL时,光照下的幼苗比暗处理的幼苗在胚轴中积累更多的芦丁;而芦丁浓度为40μg/mL以下和接近100μg/mL时幼苗在光照下累积的芦丁较暗处理的幼苗更少.0.1μg/mL以上的IAA促进芦丁的累积而进一步抑制幼苗胚轴和主根

  11. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source with doses ranging from 0, 1.0 to 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourthly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy)

  12. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar, were irradiated using a 60Co source with doses ranging from 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourtly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy).

  13. Transferability of Mungbean Genomic-SSR Markers in Other Vigna Species%绿豆基因组SSR引物在豇豆属作物中的通用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟敏; 程须珍; 王丽侠; 王素华; 王小宝

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), mungbean (V. Radiata L. Wilczek), rice bean [V. Umbellate (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi], and adzuki bean (V; angularis Willd. Ohwi and Ohashi) are major food legumes in China. At present, SSR markers for genetic analysis of these legumes are much limited. Transferability analysis of primers has the vital significance to reduce their development cost and improve their development efficiency. In this study, 1 205 SSR primers were tested for their transferability and polymorphism by PCR amplification with the genomic DNA of four Vigna species, cowpea, adzuki bean, mungbean and rice bean. The results indicated that the transferability rate of mungbean genomic-SSR in cowpea, adzuki bean and rice bean was 50.0%, 73.3%, and 81.6%, and the ratio of polymorphism SSR primers in these crops was 4.1%, 1.7%, and 1.5%, whereas 32.0% in mungbean. A total of 469 mungbean genomic-SSR primers were detected to be highly transferable among different species of Vigna. The transferability of mungbean genomic-SSR was higher in adzuki bean and rice bean than in cowpea. These transferable markers are useful for further genetic and breeding studies in these species.%分子标记的种间通用性可降低其开发成本,提高利用效率,也有助于促进遗传研究较薄弱物种的分子遗传学研究.本文选取绿豆、小豆、豇豆及饭豆材料各3份,分析1205对新开发的绿豆基因组SSR引物在这些材料中的扩增效果,结果显示绿豆基因组SSR引物在豇豆、小豆和饭豆中的通用性比率分别为50.0%、73.3%和81.6%;多态性比率分别为4.1%、1.7%和1.5%;在4个种间均通用的引物469对.这些通用性SSR引物将有助于这4种食用豆类在多样性评价、连锁图谱的构建、基因定位及比较基因组学等方面的研究.

  14. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  15. Action of xyloglucan hydrolase within the native cell wall architecture and its effect on cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Tomomi; Tabuchi, Akira; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Xyloglucan hydrolase (XGH) has recently been purified from the cell wall of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) epicotyls as a new type of xyloglucan-degrading enzyme [Tabuchi et al. (2001) Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 154]. In the present study, the effects of XGH on the mechanical properties of the cell wall and on the level and the molecular size of xyloglucans within the native wall architecture were examined in azuki bean epicotyls. When the epidermal tissue strips from the growing regions of azuki bean epicotyls were incubated with XGH, the mechanical extensibility of the cell wall dramatically increased. XGH exogenously applied to cell wall materials (homogenates) or epidermal tissue strips decreased the amount of xyloglucans via the solubilization of the polysaccharides. Also, XGH substantially decreased the molecular mass of xyloglucans in both materials. These results indicate that XGH is capable of hydrolyzing xyloglucans within the native cell wall architecture and thereby increasing the cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls.

  16. 芦丁和IAA对绿豆黄化幼苗伸长的影响及对相关基因的RT-PCR%Effects of rutin and IAA on elongation of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata ) seedlings and RT-PCR diversity of related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红; QING Xiao-li; YONEO Sagawa

    2007-01-01

    Effects of rutin (20- 100 μg/mL), indoleacetic acid (IAA 0.5 - 2.0 μg/mL) and rutin (40 μg/mL)plus IAA (0.5- 2.0 μg/mL) on elongation of etiolated mung bean seedlings were observed. The experimental results showed that elongation of the seedlings was inhibited by rutin and the inhibiting action was enhanced by IAA. After the seedlings were treated by rutin, IAA and rutin plus IAA, the expressions indicated by RT-PCR of genes encoding indole-amino-acid hydrolase, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase and chalcone synthetase,respectively, displayed differences among different above treatments. The IGPS gene was not expressed in the etiolated seedlings treated with 40 μg/mL rutin. Comparison of different RNA extraction procedures indicated that guanidinium isothiocyanate was important for the RNA extraction. Differences of RT-PCR amplificates at different annealing temperature showed that higher annealing temperature (60 ℃ ) was helpful to specific amplification.%就芦丁(20~100 μg/mL)、IAA(0.5~2.0 μg/mL)及芦丁(40 μg/mL)加IAA(0.5~2.0 μg/mL)对绿豆黄化幼苗伸长的影响进行了研究.结果表明,芦丁对黑暗中生长的绿豆黄化幼苗下胚轴和胚根的伸长均有抑制作用,添加IAA促进了这种抑制作用.RT-PCR扩增产物的分析表明,绿豆黄化幼苗经芦丁和IAA分别处理或混合处理之后,其体内吲哚氮基酸水解酶基因、吲哚-3-甘油磷酸合成酶基因及查尔酮合成酶基因的表达在不同处理间表现出差异和多态性,芦丁处理后,其吲哚-3-甘油磷酸合成酶基因不表达.不同的RNA提取程序的比较认为,异硫氰酸胍有助于绿豆黄化幼苗RNA的提取.RT-PCR反应中不同退火温度的比较显示,较高的退火温度(60℃)有助于特异性扩增.

  17. Interspecific hybridization of Vigna radiata x 13 wild Vigna species for developing MYMV donar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandiyan , N.Senthil, N. Ramamoorthi, AR.Muthiah, N.Tomooka V.Duncan and T.Jayaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek is having a desirable characters like short duration, high protein, less anti nutritionalfactors, nitrogen fixing capacity, suitable for inter cropping, making many kinds of foods for higher human consumption andcosmetics products and some of the undesirable characters like low yield, low test weight.The aim of the study is to checkcrossabil;ity of Vigna radiata with all wild Vigna species and to create variability through wide hybridization and to developsuperior segregants for yield component coupled with pest and disease resistance. The interspecific crosses were attemptedwith thirteen wild relatives of mungbean (V. radiata were employed with V. radiata as male parent. The highest pod set of25 and crossability of 21.92 per cent was recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata and lowest pod set of2.0 per cent recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. dalzelliana in the direct cross combinations. The highest pollengermination 69.72 per cent was recorded by V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata. The estimates of pollen fertility wassufficient enough to recover F2 segregants in all the crosses combination.For all the traits in majority of the crosses, In the F2generation the skewness was positive indicating that predominance of dominant alleles. Among the direct crosses V. radiatax V. mungo var. silvestris exhibited highest value for four characters viz., number of clusters per branch, number of clustersper plant, number of pods per plant and single plant yield. The cross V. umbellata x V. radiata showed better performancefor the characters viz., number of branches and number of clusters in reciprocal direction In advanced generation of Vignaradiata x Vigna umbellata cross combination has expressed virus resistance for nine seasons. The same line was tested byagro inoculation for confirmation of resistance and was resulted found effective resistance. This line can be used MYMVdonar. Conclusion of

  18. Identification and characterization of three putative genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, J R; Schlagnhaufer, C D; Arteca, R N; Phillips, A T

    1992-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to produce 3 putative clones for ACC synthase from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Rwilcz cv. Berken) hypocotyls. This was accomplished by utilizing genomic DNA from mung bean and degenerate primers made from information derived from highly conserved regions of ACC synthase from different plant tissues. The total length of pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 308, 321, and 326 bp, respectively, all of which code for 68 amino acids. The introns for pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 92, 105, and 110 bp, respectively. The degrees of homology at the DNA level for each of these clones is ca. 80% in their coding region and ca. 50% in their respective introns. This is the first report providing evidence that there are at least 3 genes for ACC synthase in etiolated mung bean.

  19. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides cause cell wall loosening by enhancing xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase activity in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Tomomi; Tabuchi, Akira; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Addition of xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides shifted the wall-bound xyloglucans to a lower molecular mass distribution and increased the cell wall extensibility of the native epidermal tissue strips isolated from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) epicotyls. To ascertain the mechanism of oligosaccharide function, we examined the action of a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) showing both endotransglucosylase and endohydrolase activities, isolated from azuki bean epicotyl cell walls, in the presence of xyloglucan oligosaccharides. The addition of xyloglucan oligosaccharides enhanced the xyloglucan-degrading activity of XTH against isolated xyloglucan substrates. When the methanol-fixed epidermal tissue strips were incubated with XTH, the molecular mass of wall-bound xyloglucans was decreased and the cell wall extensibility increased markedly in the presence of the oligosaccharides. These results suggest that xyloglucan oligosaccharides stimulate the degradation of xyloglucans by enhancing the XTH activity within the cell wall architecture, thereby increasing the cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls.

  20. Analytical determination of thiamine (vitamin B1) in irradiated and stored Brazilian beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bognar, A. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B{sub 1}) content in two varieties of Brazilian beans, Phaselus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp, var. macacar , irradiated with doses ranging from 0,05, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy was investigated. After a 6 months storage period, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and variety. Sensorial evaluation tests were carried out by a panel of six people trained to this specific task. Our purpose to work with these beans is because conflicting results have appeared in studies about vitamin loss after low-dose irradiation. In our case, after a 6-month storage period of this two kinds of beans, in addition to the analysis of cooking time and sensory properties the vitamin B{sub 1} content was evaluated. No significant vitamin losses were observed in Macacar beans until 10.0 kGy. Carioca beans showed small losses after 2.5 kGy. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  2. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  3. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  5. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  6. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  7. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors.

  8. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  9. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous {sup 51}Cr in Mung beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anupam [Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019 (India); Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chakrabortty, Dipanwita [Sikkim Manipal University, A 15, Paryavaran Complex, New Delhi 110030 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)], E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2008-01-15

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K{sub 2}{sup 51}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and {sup 51}Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible.

  10. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  11. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available The genus Vigna (Fabaceae consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed.

  12. Construction and analysis of an SSH cDNA library of early heat-induced genes of Vigna aconitifolia variety RMO-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampuria, Sakshi; Joshi, Uma; Palit, Paramita; Deokar, Amit A; Meghwal, Raju R; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Bhatt, K V; Sharma, Ramavtar

    2012-11-01

    Moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) is an important grain legume crop grown in rain fed areas of hot desert regions of Thar, India, under scorching sun rays with very little supplementation of water. An SSH cDNA library was generated from leaf tissues of V. aconitifolia var. RMO-40 exposed to an elevated temperature of 42 °C for 5 min to identify early-induced genes. A total of 488 unigenes (114 contigs and 374 singletons) were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 738 ESTs; out of 206 ESTs (28%) of unknown proteins, 160 ESTs (14%) were found to be novel to moth bean. Only 578 ESTs (78%) showed significant BLASTX similarity (<1 × 10(-6)) in the NCBI non-redundant database. Gene ontology functional classification terms were retrieved for 479 (65%) sequences, and 339 sequences were annotated with 165 EC codes and mapped to 68 different KEGG pathways. Four hundred and fifty-two ESTs were further annotated with InterProScan (IPS), and no IPS was assigned to 153 ESTs. In addition, the expression level of 27 ESTs in response to heat stress was evaluated through semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. Approximately 20 different signaling genes and 16 different transcription factors have been shown to be associated with heat stress in moth bean for the first time.

  13. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  14. Hypergravity increases the molecular mass of xyloglucans by decreasing xyloglucan-degrading activity in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S

    1999-06-01

    Elongation growth of dark-grown azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi cv. Takara) epicotyls was suppressed by hypergravity at 30 x g and above. Acceleration at 300 x g significantly decreased the mechanical extensibility of cell walls. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicellulose-II and cellulose) per unit length of epicotyls increased under the hypergravity condition. Hypergravity also increased the amounts and the weight-average molecular mass of xyloglucans in the hemicellulose-II fraction, while decreasing the activity of xyloglucan-degrading enzymes extracted from epicotyl cell walls. These results suggest that hypergravity increases the amounts and the molecular mass of xyloglucans by decreasing xyloglucan-degrading activity. Modification of xyloglucan metabolism as well as the thickening of cell walls under hypergravity conditions seems to be involved in making the cell wall mechanically rigid, thereby inhibiting elongation growth of azuki bean epicotyls.

  15. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  16. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  17. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  18. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusama Marubodee

    Full Text Available Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich. (tuber cowpea is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s source for V. unguiculata (cowpea, since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean, V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1 and susceptible (V5 accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  19. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Chuanshu Wu; Min Zhong; Dan Zhao; Li Mei; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; Chunji Liu; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata). Mapping bruchid resistance (Br) will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s) and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0%of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM) and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM). Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  20. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata. Mapping bruchid resistance (Br will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0% of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM. Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  2. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao Chen; Jing Wu; Yunfeng Lu; Yuannan Cao; Hui Zeng; Zhaoyuan Zhang; Lanfen Wang; Shumin Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w) PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  6. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  7. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  8. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok, E-mail: khoo@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the {sup 238}U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). {sup 238}U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of {sup 238}U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of {sup 238}U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of {sup 238}U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of {sup 238}U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of {sup 238}U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that {sup 238}U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  9. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 (238U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the 238U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 238U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of 238U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of 238U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of 238U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of 238U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of 238U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of 238U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of 238U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that 238U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  10. Construction of a genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, based on molecular markers and comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Souframanien, J; Gopalakrishna, T

    2008-08-01

    A genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, was constructed with 428 molecular markers using an F9 recombinant inbred population of 104 individuals. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. silvestris. The linkage analysis at a LOD score of 5.0 distributed all 428 markers (254 AFLP, 47 SSR, 86 RAPD, and 41 ISSR) into 11 linkage groups. The map spanned a total distance of 865.1 cM with an average marker density of 2 cM. The largest linkage group spanned 115 cM and the smallest linkage group was of 44.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 11 to 86 and the average distance between markers varied from 1.1 to 5.6 cM. Comparison of the map with other published azuki bean and black gram maps showed high colinearity of markers, with some inversions. The current map is the most saturated map for black gram to date and will provide a useful tool for identification of QTLs and for marker-assisted selection of agronomically important characters in black gram.

  11. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  12. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, A S; Sarma, K S; Veluthambi, K

    1996-01-01

    Transformed Vigna mungo (blackgram) calli were obtained by cocultivating segments of primary leaves with Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir helper strains harbouring the binary vector pGA472 having kanamycin resistance gene as plant transformation marker. Transformed calli were selected on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 50 mg/l kanamycin and 500 mg/l carbenicillin. Transformed calli were found to be resistant to kanamycin up to 900 mg/l concentration. Expression of kanamycin resistance gene in transformed calli was demonstrated by neomycin phosphotransferase assay. Stable integration of transferred DNA into V. mungo genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  14. Isolation and structural analysis of ajugose from Vigna mungo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiguda, Girigowda; Peterbauer, Thomas; Mulimani, Veerappa H

    2006-09-01

    The hexasaccharide ajugose, alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(12)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, generally uncommon in legumes, was detected in the seeds of Vigna mungo L. by TLC and paper chromatography. Ajugose was then isolated by silica gel chromatography and its structure was established by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and both one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR techniques.

  15. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  16. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  17. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  18. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  19. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaji; R Vanitharani; A S Karthikeyan; S Anbalagan; K Veluthambi

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5′-TGTATCGGTGT-3′) iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5′-ATCGGTGT-3′) had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMV-Vig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  20. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  1. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin) as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml) was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding eli...

  2. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Difo, V. H.; Onyike, E.; D.A. Ameh; Njoku, G. C.; Ndidi, U. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were ana...

  3. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. Most beans are also low in fat. Legumes ... pressure, heart rate, and other heart disease and diabetes risks. Beans and legumes contain antioxidants that help ...

  4. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-19

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  5. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica Da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino Da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination – and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  6. It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna Radiata has been traditionally used in China both as nutritional food and herbal medicine against a number of inflammatory conditions since the 1050s. A nucleosomal protein, HMGB1, has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation with a relatively wider therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Here we explored the HMGB1-inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC extract in vitro and in vivo. We found that MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 and several chemokines in macrophage cultures. Oral administration of MBC extract significantly increased animal survival rates from 29.4% (in saline group, N=17 mice to 70% (in experimental MBC extract group, N=17 mice, P<0.05. In vitro, MBC extract stimulated HMGB1 protein aggregation and facilitated both the formation of microtubule-associatedprotein-1-light-chain-3-(LC3-containing cytoplasmic vesicles, and the production of LC3-II in macrophage cultures. Consequently, MBC extract treatment led to reduction of cellular HMGB1 levels in macrophage cultures, which was impaired by coaddition of two autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenine. Conclusion. MBC extract is protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation.

  7. Hypergravity induces reorientation of cortical microtubules and modifies growth anisotropy in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2006-11-01

    We examined the changes in the orientation of cortical microtubules during the hypergravity-induced modification of growth anisotropy (inhibition of elongation growth and promotion of lateral growth) in azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) epicotyls. The percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased, in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity. The percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules showed an increase within 0.5 h of transfer of the 1g-grown seedlings to a 300g-hypergravity condition. Lanthanum and gadolinium, blockers of calcium channels, nullified the modification of growth anisotropy and reorientation of microtubules by hypergravity. Horizontal and acropetal hypergravity modified growth anisotropy and reorientation of microtubules, as did basipetal hypergravity, and these changes were not seen in the presence of lanthanum or gadolinium. These results suggest that hypergravity changes activities of lanthanum- and gadolinium-sensitive calcium channels independently of its direction, which may lead to reorientation of cortical microtubules and modification of growth anisotropy in azuki bean epicotyls.

  8. It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Jundoria, Arvin; Sama, Andrew E; Wang, Haichao

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna Radiata) has been traditionally used in China both as nutritional food and herbal medicine against a number of inflammatory conditions since the 1050s. A nucleosomal protein, HMGB1, has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation with a relatively wider therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Here we explored the HMGB1-inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC) extract in vitro and in vivo. We found that MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 and several chemokines in macrophage cultures. Oral administration of MBC extract significantly increased animal survival rates from 29.4% (in saline group, N = 17 mice) to 70% (in experimental MBC extract group, N = 17 mice, P < 0.05). In vitro, MBC extract stimulated HMGB1 protein aggregation and facilitated both the formation of microtubule-associatedprotein-1-light-chain-3-(LC3-)containing cytoplasmic vesicles, and the production of LC3-II in macrophage cultures. Consequently, MBC extract treatment led to reduction of cellular HMGB1 levels in macrophage cultures, which was impaired by coaddition of two autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenine). Conclusion. MBC extract is protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation.

  9. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  10. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B{sub 6} content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Bognar, A

    2000-03-01

    The effect of {sup 60}Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  12. Impact of reduction dose, time and method of application of chemical fertilizer on mung bean under old alluvial soil, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted with mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek consecutively for three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. In the first two years, varietals screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five varieties with a local variety of mung bean during February to May of 2009. In the second year, one experiment was conducted with six different reduced dose of chemical fertilizer. In the third year, five different method and time of application of biofertilizer were applied to study the effects on agronomic traits and growth attributes of mung bean. The variety PDM-54 a significant higher seed yield along with other yield contributing factors, which was found to be superior to other varieties. In 2010, seed yield was found to be the best for 30% less nitrogenous and 25% less phosphate fertilizer along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. In 2011, the best yield was given by the treatment of basal @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + 1.5 kg ha-1 soil application after 21 days + 0.75 kg ha-1 as soil application + best dose of previous year.

  13. Genetic studies in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh, S. Jebaraj, S.Juliet Hepziba and M.Theradimani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in mungbean Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek with eight ‘lines’ and four ‘testers’ crossed in a Line x Tester design toestimate mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance for 13 trait viz., days to 50 %flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of podsper plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index, protein content and single plant yield. High heritability coupledwith high genetic advance as per cent of mean were observed for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, numberof pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index and single plant yield confirming the additive gene action.

  14. Night drying of caupi bean using solar energy; Secagem noturna de feijao caupi com o uso de energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dyego da C.; Queiroz, Alexandre Jose de M.; Figueiredo, Rossana M.F. de; Oliveira, Emanuel N.A. de [Univerdiade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais], email: dyego.csantos@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The drying at low temperature preserves the best qualities of seeds. The older practice, a solar drying, has disadvantage the interruption of the process in the night period. In this work, was used a drying system constituted for a solar panels that heats up water and it is store in a thermal box. The heat water is used on a dryer, where it travels a copper coil, providing temperatures around 41 deg C. In this system drying of caupi bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds were studied during the night period. The samples began with 67,2% of water content and reached at 14,9% in one night of drying and changed of 14,9 to 12,6% at the end in second drying night. The drying data were good fitted using Two-terms, Henderson and Pabis, Midilli, Page and Exponential Two-Terms models. (author)

  15. Mechanoreceptors rather than sedimentable amyloplasts perceive the gravity signal in hypergravity-induced inhibition of root growth in azuki bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    Elongation of primary roots of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) was suppressed under hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation, such that the growth rate decreased in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of the gravity. The removal of the root cap did not influence the hypergravity-induced inhibition of root growth, although it completely inhibited the gravitropic root curvature. Lanthanum and gadolinium, blockers of mechanoreceptors, nullified the growth-inhibitory effect of hypergravity. These results suggest that the gravity signal for the hypergravity-induced inhibition of root growth is perceived independently from that of gravitropism, which involves amyloplasts as statoliths. Horizontal and basipetal hypergravity suppressed root growth as did acropetal hypergravity, all of which were nullified by the presence of lanthanum or gadolinium. These findings suggest that mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane perceive the gravity signal independently of the direction of the stimuli and roots may utilise it to regulate their growth rate.

  16. Leaf photosynthesis and yield components of mung bean under fully open-air elevated [CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ji; HAN Xue; Saman Seneweera; LI Ping; ZONG Yu-zheng; DONG Qi; LIN Er-da; HAO Xing-yu

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia, and symbiotic association of soil micro lfora may facilitate the photosynthesis and plant growth response to elevated [CO2]. Mung bean was grown at either ambient CO2 400 µmol mol–1 or [CO2] ((550±17) µmol mol–1) under free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), water use efifciency (WUE) and the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of upper most ful y-expanded leaves, but decreased stomatal conductance (Gs), intrinsic efifciency of PSII (Fv´/Fm´), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSI ) and proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP). At elevated [CO2], the decrease of Fv´/Fm´,ΦPSI , qP at the bloom stage were smal er than that at the pod stage. On the other hand, Pn was increased at elevated [CO2] by 18.7 and 7.4%at ful bloom (R2) and pod maturity stages (R4), respectively. From these ifndings, we concluded that as a legume despite greater nutrient supply to the carbon assimilation at elevated [CO2], photosynthetic capacity of mung bean was stil suppressed under elevated [CO2] particularly at pod maturity stage but plant biomass and yield was increased by 11.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Further, these ifndings suggest that even under higher nutrient acquisition systems such as legumes, nutrient assimilation does not match carbon assimilation under elevated [CO2] and leads photosynthesis down-regulation to elevated [CO2].

  17. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  18. 绿豆、小豆种质清除自由基作用的研究%Radical Scavenging Activities and Stability of Mung bean(Vigna radiata) and Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江均平; 王慧芳; 李春红; 张涛; 杨雪丰; 云冬梅; 王凤忠

    2014-01-01

    为了解绿豆、小豆种质资源清除自由基的潜力,本文对我国26份绿豆品种、18份小豆品种清除自由基的活性及稳定性进行了研究.不同种质间清除DPPH·、·OH、02.-自由基的活性及还原力差异较大,2种豆清除·OH的活性和还原力基本相当,绿豆擅长清除02.-,小豆则擅长清除DPPH·,清除DPPH·的活性主要在种皮中,种皮与子叶清除·OH的活性差别不大;绿豆、小豆提取液于100℃煮30min或pH1.5下放置5h,清除DPPH·的活性分别保存95.2% ~ 105.4%和85.4% ~ 152.8%,清除·OH的活性分别保存93.6%~105.3%和37.6% ~ 73.4%,小豆的稳定性高于绿豆;豆皮提取液常温下贮藏266d,其DPPH·清除活性保存81.5%~106.8%.本研究为我国绿豆、小豆种质的利用、加工以及清除自由基产品的开发奠定了基础.

  19. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  20. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  1. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  2. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

  3. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  4. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  5. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  6. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  7. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  8. Isolation & Characterization of Rhizobia and their Effect on Vigna radiata Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Rajpoot and Kain Singh Panwar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia is Gram negative bacteria that fix nitrogen , bacteria colonize plant cell with root nodules and commonly found in pulse . In present study rhizobia isolated from root nodules of vigna radiata and characterized morphologically, biochemical test were to as certain its physiology under normal conditions , three bacterial strain (Rp1 , Rp2, Rp3 were tested for their effect on root, Shoot and no. of nodules of vigna radiata plant in green house condition. Comparatively in all three strains Rp1 strain was found to most effective in positively Enhancing the growth of the plant in all parameters.

  9. Trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen H K; Wong, Jack H; Ng, T B

    2009-01-01

    Three trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were isolated from seeds of the black gram (Vigna mungo) with a procedure that entailed cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono Q and Mono S, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Two of the trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were adsorbed on the first four types of chromatographic media. All three inhibitors have a molecular mass of 16 kDa as judged by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The trypsin inhibitory activity of the inhibitors was attenuated in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. The remaining inhibitor was unadsorbed on SP-Sepharose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose, Mono Q and Mono S. The protease inhibitors did not exert any inhibitory effect on hepatoma (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF 7) cells or antifungal action toward Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Two of the inhibitors slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 in the millimolar range.

  10. Biosynthesis of alpha-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T

    1985-12-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that alpha-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of alpha-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the alpha-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-beta-H or endo-beta-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein.

  11. CHROMIUM INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chidambaram ، P. Sundaramoorthy ، A. Murugan ، K. Sankar Ganesh ، L. Baskaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is known to be highly toxic to biological systems. This study was designed to determine the mutagenic effects of different concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of hexavalent chromium on root tip cells of blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper. The blackgram seeds were equi-spacially arranged in sterilized petriplates lined with filter paper and they were treated with different concentrations of chromium solution. In germination studies, the morphological growth parameters such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length fresh weight and dry weight of blackgram seedlings were decreased with increasing dose of chromium concentrations. No germination of blackgram seeds was recorded at 300mg/l chromium concentration. Chromosome aberration assay was used to determine the mitotic indices and rate of chromosome aberration in blackgram root tip cells due to chromium treatment. The results showed that the mitotic indices were complicated due to different concentrations of chromium. However, the increase in chromium concentration has led to a gradual increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberration and mitotic index. The chromosome length, absolute chromosome length and average chromosome lengths were gradually found to decrease. There was no considerable change in 2n number of chromosome with the increase in chromium concentrations. It is concluded that the hexavalent chromium has significant mutagenic effect on the root tip cells of blackgram.

  12. Biosynthesis of α-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    1985-01-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that α-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of α-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the α-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-β-H or endo-β-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664549

  13. Characterization of seed storage proteins of urdbean (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R; Malhotra, S P; Singh, R

    1988-01-01

    Dehulled and defatted flour of urdbean (Vigna mungo), Var T-9, contained 25% protein with maximum contribution by globulins (63%). Albumins and glutelins contributed 12% and 21% respectively, whereas prolamins were present only in traces (1%). Globulins were further fractionated into legumin and vicilin type proteins which were present in the ratio of 4:1. All the protein fractions were heterogenous in nature as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the total protein sample to contain 21 different components with molecular weights ranging from 8.92 to 117.49 kd. Albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins resolved into 4, 8, 6 and 13 different sized components of molecular weights ranging from 10.23 to 25.53, 10.84 to 112.72, 10.33 to 51.52 and 8.91 to 112.72 kd, respectively. Amino acid analysis of all fractions revealed that glutamic acid was present in maximum concentration followed by aspartic acid and lysine. Just like other pulse proteins, the urdbean proteins were also deficient in sulphur containing amino acids.

  14. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  15. Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Tropics Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. en los Trópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with the objective of replacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84 and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1. We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1. Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores

  16. Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Hoc

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1 Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2 Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3 Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

  17. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  18. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  19. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  20. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  1. Structure and expression of alpha-amylase gene from Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, D; Takeuchi, H; Minamikawa, T

    1994-06-01

    A single copy of the alpha-amylase gene, composed of three introns and four exons, was found in Vigna mungo. Examination of levels of alpha-amylase and its mRNA in detached cotyledons indicated that attachment of the embryonic axis is not required for expression of the gene in cotyledons of germinating seeds.

  2. O feminino e a psicanálise em Nada a dizer, de Elvira Vigna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Fux

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o livro Nada a dizer, de Elvira Vigna, em relação à posição e escrita feminina. Além disso, este artigo elucida alguns conceitos psicanalíticos referentes à mulher e ao feminino a partir da narrativa construída pela autora.

  3. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  4. Effects of hypergravity on expression of XTH genes in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2007-10-01

    Hypergravity produced by centrifugation caused inhibition of elongation growth and a decrease in the cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi). Also, hypergravity increased the molecular mass of xyloglucans, whereas it decreased xyloglucan-degrading activity in epicotyls. When the expression profiles of three xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes, VaXTHS4, VaXTH1 and VaXTH2, were analyzed under hypergravity conditions, the expression of VaXTHS4, which shows only hydrolase activity, was downregulated in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity (R = -0.94). However, the gene expression of VaXTH1 or VaXTH2, which shows only transglucosylase activity, was not affected by gravitational conditions. When the seedlings that had been grown at 1 g were transferred to hypergravity conditions at 300 g, the downregulation of VaXTHS4 expression was detected within 1 h. By removal of hypergravity stimulus, VaXTHS4 expression was increased within 1 h. These results suggest that azuki bean epicotyls promptly regulate the expression level of only VaXTHS4 in response to gravity stimuli. The regulation of xyloglucan-hydrolyzing activity as a result of changes in VaXTHS4 expression may be involved in the regulation by gravity of molecular mass of xyloglucans, leading to modifications of cell wall mechanical properties and cell elongation. Lanthanum and gadolinium, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified the suppression of VaXTHS4 expression, suggesting that mechanoreceptors are responsible for inhibition by hypergravity of VaXTHS4 expression.

  5. Discovering and verifying DNA polymorphisms in a mung bean [V. radiata (L. R. Wilczek] collection by EcoTILLING and sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Rob E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigna radiata, which is classified in the family Fabaceae, is an important economic crop and a dietary staple in many developing countries. The species radiata can be further subdivided into varieties of which the variety sublobata is currently acknowledged as the putative progenitor of radiata. EcoTILLING was employed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and small insertions/deletions (INDELS in a collection of Vigna radiata accessions. Findings A total of 157 DNA polymorphisms in the collection were produced from ten primer sets when using V. radiata var. sublobata as the reference. The majority of polymorphisms detected were found in putative introns. The banding patterns varied from simple to complex as the number of DNA polymorphisms between two pooled samples increased. Numerous SNPs and INDELS ranging from 4–24 and 1–6, respectively, were detected in all fragments when pooling V. radiata var. sublobata with V. radiata var. radiata. On the other hand, when accessions of V. radiata var. radiata were mixed together and digested with CEL I relatively few SNPs and no INDELS were detected. Conclusion EcoTILLING was utilized to identify polymorphisms in a collection of mung bean, which previously showed limited molecular genetic diversity and limited morphological diversity in the flowers and pod descriptors. Overall, EcoTILLING proved to be a powerful genetic analysis tool providing the rapid identification of naturally occurring variation.

  6. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  7. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  8. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  9. Transient increase in the levels of gamma-tubulin complex in reorientation of cortical microtubules by gravity in azuki bean epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    Azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) seedlings were exposed to centrifugal hypergravity, and the changes in the orientation of cortical microtubules and the expression of genes cording γ-tubulin complex (VaTUBG and VaSpc98p) were examined. By 300 g treatment, the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased in epicotyls. Hypergravity increased the expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p transiently. Also, the expression of both genes was increased transiently by removal of hypergravity stimulus. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified reorientation of microtubules as well as up-regulation of expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p by hypergravity. These results suggest that mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane may perceive the gravity signal, which leads to reorientation of cortical microtubules by transiently stimulating the formation of γ-tubulin complex.

  10. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  11. Seed-borne nature of a begomovirus, Mung bean yellow mosaic virus in black gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Satya Vijayalakshmi; Devadason, Alice; Ganesan, Malathi Varagur

    2016-02-01

    The yellow mosaic viruses (YMV) infecting legumes are considered to be the most devastating begomoviruses as they incite considerable yield loss. The yellow discoloration of pods and seeds of infected plants and symptom emergence in the very first trifoliate leaf of the plants in the field were suggestive that the virus may be seed borne, which was investigated in the present study. The distribution of the virus in various parts of the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) plants naturally infected in the field was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analysis, and sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons from the seed parts from groups of ten seeds revealed the presence of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in the seed coat, cotyledon, and embryonic axes. The presence of virion particles was confirmed through double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) even in a single whole seed. In confocal microscopy, positive fluorescent signals were obtained using coat protein gene-specific primers in the embryonic axes. However, in the growth tests performed with the same batch of seeds, there was no symptom development in the seedlings though the virus (both DNA A and B components) was detected in 32 % of tested seedlings. In this study, the MYMV was detected in seed coat, cotyledon, and embryo. This study revealed that the MYMV is a seed-borne virus.

  12. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.

  13. Phytostabilization Potential of Yard long bean in Removing Cadmium from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanai S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cadmium (Cd on growth, physiology, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot and leaves of yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L.. The seeds were grown in pot culture under laboratory conditions for 60 days in Ferriera and Davis nutrient solution with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM of cadmium. Cd toxicity was evident from chlorosis in young leaves and increased concentrations of Cd brought significant negative effects on plant growth, photosynthetic rate and protein biosynthesis. Translocation of Cd was found to be more in roots than the above ground parts and the accumulation was in the order of root > shoot > leaf. Low root to shoot translocation of Cd makes the crop ideal for phytostabilization. Relatively high metal tolerance index obtained in the study indicated that the crop has greater tolerance to increase Cd exposure, though accumulation of Cd had altered thickness of root and root biomass. Owing to the crop’s adaptability to high temperature, drought conditions and ability to retain Cd in roots makes it a promising candidate for phytostabilization of soil contaminated by Cd.

  14. Proteinases involved in the degradation of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1983-01-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) is rapidly modified by limited proteolysis during the early stages of seedling growth. Using an electrophoretic assay that separates the unmodified inhibitor (MBTI-F) and the first two modified species (MBTI-E and -C), a pH optimum of approximately 4 was found for the modification reaction. The inhibitor modifying activity is initially low in ungerminated seeds, with the reaction F leads to E being the primary reaction catalyzed. Activity catalyzing the production of MBTI-C appears on the first day of germination. This activity (F leads to E leads to C) increases up to 6 days after inhibition, at which time the cotyledons begin to abscise. The activity converting MBTI-F and -E to MBTI-C was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3.3 mM) but only weakly by iodoacetate (9 mM) and not at all by pepstatin A (9 microM), leupeptin (18 microM), or EDTA (5 mM). These results suggest the involvement of proteinases other than the major endopeptidase of the germinating seed, vicilin peptidohydrolase. This conclusion is further supported by gel filtration of the extracts of cotyledons on Sephacryl S-200. At least three proteinases are present in germinated cotyledons capable of modifying MBTI-F to MBTI-C and/or -E. All are distinguishable from vicilin peptidohydrolase on the basis of their molecular weight and inhibition by low molecular weight organic reagents.

  15. Caracterización de tres nuevas variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Aguila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La investigación se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo mullido medianamente lavado con las variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ de reciente introducción en nuestro país. Tiene como principal objetivo caracterizar las variedades (‘IPA 206, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ bajo nuestras condiciones climáticas. Teniendo como principales resultados que se logró incluir en el registro de variedades según la caracterización desarrollada por nuestro instituto utilizando dos épocas de siembra, el hábitos de crecimiento indeterminado con vainas distribuidas por toda la planta se destaca en las variedades ‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’, mientras que en la ‘Guariba’ es determinado encontrándose estas distribuidas por encima de la planta, en cuanto al rendimiento, la variedad ‘IPA 207’ es superiores que la obtenida por la ‘'PA 206’ y ‘Guariba’, el peso de 1000 semillas en las variedades ‘Guariba’ y ‘IPA 206’ son superiores al peso de la ‘IPA 207’, la variedad ‘Guariba’ es económicamente más rentable que las ‘IPA 206’ y ‘IPA 207’ por emplear un número de cosechas muy inferior a las antes mencionadas. Puede sembrarse durante todas las épocas del año, pero lo más aconsejable es en época de frío para la obtención de semilla y el verano para la producción donde es más productiva y puede sustituir al fríjol común. Tolera estrés hídrico y régimen de abundantes lluvias, excepto en el momento de la cosecha y no admite el encharcamiento. Characterization of three new varieties vignas (' IPA 206' and ' IPA 207' y 'Guariba' in Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was conducted on a fairly soft Brown soil washing vignas varieties ('IPA 206', 'IPA 207' and 'Guariba' recently introduced in our country. Its main objective is to characterize varieties ('IPA 206,' IPA 207 'and' Guariba ' under our climatic conditions. Having as main results achieved include in the record as the

  16. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  17. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (psilages were lower than those of corn silage (psilages was higher than for those fed corn silage (psilages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (psilages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  18. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKERS LINKED TO MYMV RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L). WILCZEK)

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVEEN HOLEYACHI; D L SAVITHRAMMA

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) by employing bulk segregant analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Out of 20 random decamers, only ten primers viz; OPA-03, A-06, A-03, OPA-09, A-09, OPB 7, UBC-391, OPC-08, UBC 499 and A-04 showed polymorphism between parents Chinamung and BL 849. Out of these ten primers only one ...

  20. Inheritance of resistance to yellow mosaic virus in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D P

    1980-09-01

    The inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was studied in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). The highly resistant donors Pant U-84 and UPU-2 and a highly susceptible line, UL-2, their F1's, F2's and backcrosses were grown with spreader located every 5 to 6 rows. The resistance was found to be digenic and recessive in all the crosses and free from cytoplasmic effect.

  1. Measurement of nitrite reductase in leaf tissue of Vigna mungo : A new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R C; Bose, B; Mukerji, D; Mathur, S N; Srivastava, H S

    1979-12-01

    The enzyme nitrite reductase (EC 1.6.6.4) is generally assayed in terms of disappearance of nitrite from the assay medium. We describe a technique which allowed estimation of the enzyme level in leaf tissues of Vigna mungo (L). Hepper in terms of the release of the product (NH3) of the enzyme reaction. The technique is offered as an alternative, possibly more convenient method for assay of nitrite reductase in plant tissue in vivo.

  2. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  4. Transcriptome profiling identifies candidate genes associated with the accumulation of distinct γ-glutamyl sulphur dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqun eLiao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and black gram (Vigna mungo accumulate γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulphur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately four-fold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was two-fold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulphydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methyl-cysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulphur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulphur amino acid γ-glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  5. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  6. Effects of Chicken Manure and Mineral Fertilizer on Some Nutritive Parameters and Lead Accumulation in Two Vigna Species Grown in Lead Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer on Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata plants grown in lead contaminated soil were examined. Plants were grown in lead polluted soil, which is amended with different concentrations of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer (NPK. Accumulation of lead in the leaves of both Vigna species was reduced when chicken manure was added. Application of mineral fertilizer increased the accumulation of lead in Vigna radiata, but caused a decrease in Vigna unguiculata. Application of both fertilizers improved the chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate contents of both species. Results are discussed in relation to the significance of organic and inorganic manure with accumulation of heavy metals such as lead particularly in contaminated soils and their consequences on protein and chlorophyll synthesis.

  7. Effect of Crude Brassinosteroid Extract on Growth and Biochemical Changes of Gosssypium hirsutum L. and Vigna mungo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Fathima M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to examine the influence of BRs on seed germination and seedling growth in Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var T9. The application of BRs on seed germination of Gossypium hirsutum increased the rate of germination considerably with varied percentage from 60.4 to 99. Vigna mungo seed also showed the varied percentage of germination from 56.8 to 80.1. Both the plants exhibited high percentage of vegetative growth such as shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area on 3% of BR supplementation. The amount of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll increased under BR treatments. Among the concentration, 3% BRs caused maximum effect than the other tested concentrations. High percentage of starch 53% and 31 % was observed in Gossypium and Vigna mungo respectively. The results of the present study shows that 3% BRs promotes the growth rate of Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var. T9. The results of the present study supplemented to the previous observations and practical utilization of the new steroidal group of phytohormones for large scale production of the economically important crops Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var. T9.

  8. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  9. Integrated effects of reduction dose of nitrogen fertilizer and mode of biofertilizer application on soil health under mung bean cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the integrated effects of reduced dose of chemical fertilizer with different methods and times of application of Rhizobium biofertilizer on soil health and fertility under mung bean (Vigna radiata cropping, field experiments were carried out during three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in West Bengal, India, in randomized block design. In the first year, varietal screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five available varieties adapted to local climate. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer doses (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% and the recommended dose, as well as the Rhizobium biofertilizer application (basal, soil, and spray, were done, and data were recorded for pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and bacterial population of soil, both before sowing and after harvesting. The results indicated significant improvement in the soil quality with gradual buildup of soil macronutrient status after harvesting of crop. Application of biofertilizer has contributed significantly towards higher soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The use of biofertilizer significantly improved soil bacterial population count in the soil thereby increasing the soil health.

  10. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  11. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  12. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  13. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  14. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  15. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  17. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an..., or that could be received, for contract seed beans under a seed bean processor contract if the... total production under contract with the seed company. Beans—Dry beans and contract seed...

  18. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  19. Biochemical characterization of α-amylases from gut and hemolymph of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivieri (Col.: Curculionidae and their inhibition by extracts from the legumes Vigna radiata L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghadamyari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase inhibitors represent an important tool in engineering crop plants against insect pests. For achieving this goal, it is necessary to find the nature of α-amylases and their properties for possible use in a pest management procedure. Because Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivieri is a devastating pest of palm trees in the southeast of Iran, we attempted to characterize α-amylases from larval gut and hemolymph, and to study their interaction with inhibitors extracted from the common bean and the green mung bean. The optimal pHs for gut and hemolymph α-amylases were 4 - 5 and 5 - 6, respectively. Also, high gut amylolytic activity was found at temperatures of 40 – 50 °C. The highest and lowest specific α-amylase activities were detected in the guts of last instar and adult males, and in the hemolymph of last instar, respectively. As calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots, the Km values for gut and hemolymph α-amylases of the last instar were 0.54 and 2.15 %, respectively, when glycogen was used as the substrate. Also, when starch was used as the substrate, the Km values for gut and hemolymph α-amylases were 1.37 and 0.15 %, respectively. Zymogram pattern in the native gel revealed that R. ferrugineus gut and hemolymph α-amylases had two isoforms. α-amylase inhibitors partially purified from Vigna radiata L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. by ionic exchange DEAE cellulose column, inhibited the R. ferrugineus gut α-amylase activity by 19 ± 0.64 % and 11.56 ± 0.69 %, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  1. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  2. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  3. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2007-02-01

    Crops grown in heavy metal contaminated soils are an important avenue for these toxic pollutants entering the human food chain. Information on how crops respond to soil contaminations of single versus multiple metals is scarce and much needed. This study investigated the accumulation of Cd by 24 cultivars of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis L., family Fabaceae) under a low level (0.8 mg kg-1) and a high level (11.8 mg kg-1) of Cd exposure in a garden experiment, and that in a field experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 486, and 1114 mg kg-1, respectively) contaminated soil. Both experiments showed that there were highly significant variations among the tested cultivars in Cd accumulation by roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of asparagus bean. In the garden experiment, all cultivars under the low Cd exposure and 41.7% of the tested cultivars under the high Cd exposure bore fruits (pods) whose Cd concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg kg-1 fw and therefore were safe for consumption. In addition, the fruit Cd concentrations of cultivars with black seed coats were significantly lower than those with red or spotted seed coats. These results suggest that asparagus bean is a hypo-accumulator to Cd pollutant and the trait of Cd accumulation is genetic-dependent among cultivars. In the field experiment, correlation between fruit Cd and Pb concentrations was significantly positive (p pollution-safe-cultivars (PSC) in multi-metal polluted condition could refer to the PSCs selected under a high level exposure of a single heavy metal.

  4. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  5. Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kollárová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA, while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation.

  6. A new type of endo-xyloglucan transferase devoted to xyloglucan hydrolysis in the cell wall of azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, A; Mori, H; Kamisaka, S; Hoson, T

    2001-02-01

    A new type of xyloglucan-degrading enzyme was isolated from the cell wall of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi cv. Takara) epicotyls and its characteristics were determined. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by Concanavalin A (Con A)-Sepharose, cation exchange, and gel filtration columns from a cell wall protein fraction extracted with 1 M sodium chloride. The purified enzyme gave a single protein band of 33 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme specifically cleaved xyloglucans and showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 when assayed by the iodine-staining method. An increase in reducing power in xyloglucan solution was clearly detected after treatment with the purified enzyme. Xyloglucans with molecular masses of 500 and 25 kDa were gradually hydrolyzed to 5 kDa for 96 h without production of any oligo- or monosaccharide with the purified enzyme. The purified enzyme did not show an endo-type transglycosylation reaction, even in the presence of xyloglucan oligosaccharides. Partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme shared an identity with endo-xyloglucan transferase (EXGT) family, especially with xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) from nasturtium. These results suggest that the enzyme is a new member of EXGT devoted solely to xyloglucan hydrolysis.

  7. Cell wall-bound peroxidase activity and lignin formation in azuki bean epicotyls grown under hypergravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Saho; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2009-06-01

    The effects of accelerated gravity stimuli on the cell wall-bound peroxidase activity and the lignin content were investigated along epicotyls of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seedlings. The endogenous growth occurred primarily in the upper regions of the epicotyl, but no growth was detected in the middle or basal regions. Hypergravity treatment at 300g for 6h suppressed elongation growth and stimulated lateral expansion of the upper regions. The content of acetyl bromide-soluble lignin increased gradually from the apical to the basal regions of epicotyls. Hypergravity treatment stimulated the increase in the lignin content in epicotyls, particularly in the middle and basal regions. The peroxidase activity in the protein fraction extracted with a high ionic strength buffer from the cell wall preparation also increased gradually toward the basal region, and hypergravity treatment increased the activity in all epicotyl regions. There was a close correlation between the lignin content and the enzyme activity. These results suggest that hypergravity increases the activity of cell wall-bound peroxidase followed by increases of the lignin formation in epicotyl cell walls, which may contribute to increasing the rigidity of cell walls against the gravitational force.

  8. Xyloglucan antibodies inhibit auxin-induced elongation and cell wall loosening of azuki bean epicotyls but not of oat coleoptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Masuda, Y; Sone, Y; Misaki, A

    1991-06-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl(1)Glc(1)), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl(3)Glc(4)), and octasaccharides (Gal(1)Xyl(3)Glc(4)). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  10. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  11. Solubilization of an Arabinan Arabinosyltransferase Activity from Mung Bean Hypocotyls1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Kylie Joy; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of polysaccharides destined for the plant cell wall and the subsequent assembly of the cell wall are poorly understood processes that are currently the focus of much research. Arabinan, a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I, is composed of arabinosyl residues connected via various glycosidic linkages, and therefore, the biosynthesis of arabinan is likely to involve more than one arabinosyltransferase. We have studied the transfer of [14C]arabinose (Ara) from UDP-l-arabinopyranose onto polysaccharides using microsomal membranes isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. [14C]arabinosyl and [14C]xylosyl residues were incorporated into endogenous products due to the presence of UDP-Xyl-4-epimerase activity. Enzymatic digestion of endogenous products with endo-arabinanase released very little radiolabeled sugars, whereas digestion with arabinofuranosidase released some [14C]Ara. Microsomal membranes solubilized with the detergent octyl glucoside were able to add a single [14C]Ara residue onto (1→5)-linked α-l-arabino-oligosaccharide acceptors. The reaction had a pH optimum of 6.5 and a requirement for manganese ions. However, enzymatic digestion of the radiolabeled oligosaccharides with endo-arabinanase and arabinofuranosidases could not fully release the radiolabeled Ara residue, indicating that the [14C]Ara residue was not a (1→2)-, (1→3)-, or (1→5)-linked α-l-arabinofuranosyl residue. Rather, mild acid treatment of the product suggested that the radiolabeled Ara residue was in a pyranose conformation, and this result was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled partially methylated sugars. Using microsomal membranes separated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, the arabinosyltransferase activity appears to be mainly localized to Golgi membranes. PMID:12746538

  12. Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommanas Warunee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mungbean is an important economical crop in Asia. However, genomic research has lagged behind other crop species due to the lack of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from genome shotgun sequencing of mungbean. Result We have generated and characterized a total of 470,024 genome shotgun sequences covering 100.5 Mb of the mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek genome using 454 sequencing technology. We identified 1,493 SSR motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 192 tested primer pairs in 17 mungbean accessions, 60 loci revealed polymorphism with polymorphic information content (PIC values ranging from 0.0555 to 0.6907 with an average of 0.2594. Majority of microsatellite markers were transferable in Vigna species, whereas transferability rates were only 22.90% and 24.43% in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, respectively. We also used 16 SSR loci to evaluate phylogenetic relationship of 35 genotypes of the Asian Vigna group. The genome survey sequences were further analyzed to search for gene content. The evidence suggested 1,542 gene fragments have been sequence tagged, that fell within intersected existing gene models and shared sequence homology with other proteins in the database. Furthermore, potential microRNAs that could regulate developmental stages and environmental responses were discovered from this dataset. Conclusion In this report, we provided evidence of generating remarkable levels of diverse microsatellite markers and gene content from high throughput genome shotgun sequencing of the mungbean genomic DNA. The markers could be used in germplasm analysis, accessing genetic diversity and linkage mapping of mungbean.

  13. Effect of Growth State of Mung Bean Seedlings on the Level of Environmental Hydroxyl Radical%绿豆幼苗生长状态对环境羟基自由基水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯德森; 张文娟; 林海君; 王土连; 卢穗华; 朱思颖; 杨礼香

    2016-01-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings in various states, including normal growth, inactivation and different levels of osmotic stress, were cultured under the same conditions, and the level of hydroxyl radicals in the culture environment and the respiration rate of seedlings were continuously measured. The results showed that the enviromental hydroxy radial surrounding normal growth seedlings was significantly higher than that of the environment without plant growth, however, under the same conditions, the inactivated seedlings had no significant effect on the level of surrounding enviromental hydroxyl radicals. Under osmotic stress, the effect of mung bean seedling on the level of hydroxyl radical in the atmosphere was very significant, and the influences on the levels of atmosphere hydroxyl radicals were different with different degree of osmotic stress. The relationship was close between the effect of mung bean seedling on the level of environmental hydroxyl radical and its respiration rate. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the level of hydroxyl radical was affected by the growth of mung bean seedling, and as well as, the effect was depend on the metabolic processes and the growth state of seedlings.%为了解植物生长状态对环境羟基自由基水平的影响,研究了相同培养条件下不同生长状态的绿豆(Vigna radiata)幼苗对空气中的羟基自由基水平的影响。结果表明,正常生长的绿豆幼苗周围环境羟基自由基水平显著高于没有植物生长的环境,失活幼苗对周围环境羟基自由水平没有显著影响;渗透胁迫的绿豆幼苗对环境羟基自由基水平影响极显著,渗透胁迫程度不同其影响程度也有所不同;绿豆幼苗对环境羟基自由基水平的影响与其呼吸速率密切相关。这证明绿豆幼苗生长对环境羟基自由基水平有影响,且这种影响依赖于其生理代谢过程及生长状态。

  14. Temporal variation in protein content and yield of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V N; Srivastava, A K

    1990-10-01

    Temporal variation in total protein and soluble protein contents and protein yield of Vigna mungo leaves at intervals of every three hours during day and night was studied. The study was done with the view to ascertain the hour of harvesting the leaves for maximum yield of leaf protein concentrate. Observations reveal that the total protein and soluble protein contents in the leaves are minimum during 3.00 to 6.00 hrs, which steadily rise with time to reach the maximum values during 12.00 to 15.00 hrs, after which the same shows a steady decrease with time.

  15. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-03-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by 'SeqQC V2.2' bioinformatics tool.

  16. Gamma ray induced physiological variabilities in black gram (Vigna mungo L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Rao, D. (Kakatiya Univ., Warangal (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1983-06-01

    Various doses of gamma rays were used to irradiate dry seeds of Vigna mungo. 20KR induced increased seedling growth and lateral root number, while the 60 KR reduced them. Fresh and dry weights of whole seedlings were retarded with increasing dose rate. However, more fresh and dry weight values were recorded in the 20 KR treatment. Plant height, number of nodes, internodal length and yield were found to be favourably induced in the lower dose while in the higher doses particularly in 50 and 60 KR there was a reduction. But a reverse situation was found regarding chlorophyll metabolism in the foliage leaves.

  17. A monomeric protein with hemagglutinating activity from seeds of Vigna mungo (Phaseolus mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Rao, S L

    1991-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are shown to contain a lectin with certain unusual features. The lectin agglutinates only trypsinized red cells, and its sugar specificity is complex as none of the common sugars, oligosaccharides or complex polysaccharides exhibit any affinity for the lectin. The purified lectin has a molecular weight of 58 kDa and is a monomer. Unlike other plant lectins, antibodies to the P. mungo lectin do not exhibit any immunological cross reactivity. The clot forming ability of the lectin is unusual in that the clot once formed is rapidly disaggregated indicated that it induces, as yet undefined, certain membrane alterations.

  18. Production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesized by a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi Mohan; Ray, Bimalendu; Dey, Satyahari; Pati, Bikas Ranjan

    2007-08-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was produced by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Maximum EPS production (346 mg l(-1)) was when the yeast extract basal medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), biotin (1.5 mg l(-1)) and asparagine (0.3%). Ribose (53%) and mannose (47%) were the principle monomers of the EPS. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis showed that this polymer, which has Man(4)Rib(1) as an oligomeric subunit, has an apparent molecular mass of 750 kDa.

  19. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayak Ganguli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731 of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by ‘SeqQC V2.2’ bioinformatics tool.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Warin Pimpa; Chanin Umponstira; Suckaluck Nanegrungsun

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than ...

  1. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  2. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  3. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  4. The phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Botswana soils : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramolemana, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdec.) is a legume crop grown especially by small farmers mainly in semi-arid parts of Africa both in mixed cultivation and pure stands. It is considered as a hardy crop because of its drought tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases and ability to yie

  5. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  6. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  7. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  8. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  9. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  10. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, W; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1986-03-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts.

  11. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1986-01-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664675

  12. Genetic diversity as assessed by ISSR markers in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajan N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on a collection of 23 blackgram genotypes involving 16 releasedvarieties, six pre release cultures and one wild species Vigna mungo var. silvestris to study the genetic diversityusing twelve ISSR primers. The number of alleles produced by different ISSR primers ranged from eight to 17with an average of 11.5 per primer and the level of polymorphism was found to be 82.05 percent. Similaritymeasures and clustering analyses were made using ISSR data. The resulting dendrogram distributed the 23blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The highest genetic similarity coefficient was measured betweengenotypes CBG 671 and CBG 632. The results of PCoA were comparable to that of grouping based on UPGMAand 23 genotypes were grouped into four groups. Genotype Vigna mungo var. silvestris was placed separatelyfrom rest of the genotypes in both the analyses. Grouping of varieties using ISSR markers did not show anyrelevance to their pedigree. All the pre release cultures in one group revealed that only a portion of geneticvariation has been exploited. The results revealed that, genetic diversity is low among the varieties releasedfrom the respective institute and hence genotypes were grouped according to the research institutes from whichthey released. It suggests that the research institutes have to enlarge the genetic base for variety development.

  13. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  14. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  15. Morphological responses of pulse (Vigna spp. crops to soil water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroowa Bhaswatee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted with two common pulse crops namely black gram (Vigna mungo L. and green gram (Vigna radiata L. with the objective to study the morpho-physiological changes that took place in response to low moisture stress. Parameters such as plant height, leaf number, leaf area and pod number were studied under moisture stress condition as well as subsequent recovery stages. At harvest, yields of these two crops were recorded and various yield indexes like drought susceptibility index, drought tolerance index, mean and productivity rate were calculated. The study revealed that moisture stress has a significant impact on all these parameters in both crops. The effect was more significant in green gram compared to black gram. From the findings it is observed that moisture stress during flowering stage is detrimental for yield of the pulse crops and re-watering does not have a significant impact on yield improvement. Black gram variety T9 and green gram variety Pratap were identified as drought-tolerant varieties.

  16. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  17. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  18. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  19. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  20. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  1. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  2. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  3. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates

  4. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

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    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  5. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  6. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  7. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  8. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  9. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  10. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  11. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  12. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced reorientation of cortical microtubules is accompanied by a transient increase in the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex and katanin genes in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Aya; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2010-09-15

    The effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene, on growth, orientation of cortical microtubules, and the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex (VaTUG and VaGCP3) and katanin (VaKTN1) genes in azuki bean (Vigna angularis) epicotyls were examined. ACC inhibited elongation growth and stimulated lateral growth of epicotyls dose dependently. It also reduced the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules and increased the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules. A significant change in elongation and lateral growth was detected within 1 and 1.5 h after the start of 10(-5) M ACC treatment, respectively. On the other hand, the reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal direction began within 0.5 h, and continued until 2 h after the start of ACC treatment. ACC at 10(-5) M increased the transcript level of VaTUG, VaGCP3 and VaKTN1 within 0.5 h, and the levels of VaTUG and VaGCP3 became maximum at 1h and that of VaKTN1 at 1.5 h, followed by a decrease to the control level. These results suggest that ACC transiently increases the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex and katanin genes, which may facilitate reorientation of cortical microtubules and modification of growth anisotropy from elongation to lateral growth in azuki bean epicotyls.

  13. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  14. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  15. BIO-ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF MERCURY IN VIGNA MUNGO (L. HEPPER SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of mercury on the seedling of Vigna mungo seedlings was studied by culturing the seedlings in Hoagland medium artificially contaminated with 5 and 10mM Mercuric Chloride. Histochemical localization of the mercury in shoot and root tissues was done by staining with dithizone and quantitative analyses of mercury content accumulated in root, stem and leaf tissues were done using mercury analyser. Localization of mercury was observed as coloured masses in the cells of root and stem. Stem tissues of seedlings showed anatomical modification in the epidermal cells as trichomes. Patterns of bioaccumulation of mercury was root> stem> leaves revealing feeble translocation to the shoot system. A comparison of residual mercury content retained in the growth medium after sample harvesting and quantity accumulated in the plant body reveals that some quantity of mercury is lost presumably through the trichomes developed on the stem and/ or through stomata of the leaves.

  16. STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL MUTAGEN (GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BLACK GRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L. HEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. DHASARATHAN, 1N. MEENAKSHIGANESAN AND 2S. GEETHA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper variety TNAU (Bg CO 6 was exposed to varying doses of gamma rays to study their effect on various characters like seed germination and seedling survival, plant height at 30th day and at maturity, pollen and seed fertility. In M1 generation the results revealed that there was more reduction at higher doses compared to lower doses for all the characters studied. The higher doses of gamma rays lead to lethal injury and sterility. Effects on these traits have been attributed to the physiological disturbance or chromosomal damage of the cells caused by the gamma rays. The results of the present study clearly indicate that different doses of gamma rays can be effectively utilized to create variability for various quantitative traits in black gram.

  17. Imunohistochemical Localization of alpha-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1985-12-01

    We studied the localization of alpha-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-alpha-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. alpha-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of alpha-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, alpha-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of alpha-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons.

  18. Imunohistochemical Localization of α-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1985-01-01

    We studied the localization of α-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-α-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. α-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of α-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, α-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of α-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16664548

  19. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  20. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  1. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  2. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events.

  3. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  4. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.

  5. Effect of audio frequency on growth and bean of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)%声频对豇豆生长和结实的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜仕仁; 陈劼; 黄俊

    2010-01-01

    植物声频技术是一项生产有机、绿色、无公害农产品的农业高新技术. 研究用声频技术对豇豆进行了小样试验,考察了声频技术对豇豆生长株高、开花期以及结豆荚数的影响. 结果表明,约在500 Hz(BW-20 dB 在300~6 000 Hz)主频率的声频作用下,试验组豇豆比对照组豇豆生长高度增加了21.2%,平均提前了41 h开花,结豆荚数平均增加了61%;同时,试验组在抗病性、提高复壮能力等方面较之对照组均表现出一定的生长优势.

  6. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and rhizobia in the presence of L-tryptophan for the promotion of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Qureshi, Arshad Iqbal, Naseem Akhtar, Masood Ahmad Shakir and Ajmal Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and leguminous plants results in active nitrogen fixation and plays a marvelous role in agriculture systems. L-tryptophan (L-TRP is an amino acid that acts as physiological precursor of auxins and is responsible for biosynthesis of auxins in the rhizosphere. Pot experiment was conducted at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad to assess the co-inoculation effect of N2-fixing (Rhizobium and P-solubilizing (Bacillus sp in the presence of L-TRP. Results revealed that co-inoculation improved the pod and straw yield considerably but the effect was more pronounced with L-TRP. Co-inoculation increased the root length, root mass, number of nodule and mass as compared to control with L-TRP. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced 30.87 pod and 32.73 g pot-1 straw yield followed by 30.47 and 31.10 g pot-1 with rhizobial inoculation, respectively. Co-inoculation produced higher root mass (33.5 g, root length (36.0 cm, nodule number (34, nodule mass (0.131 g and these values were further enhanced with L-TRP (40.5 g, 49 cm, 48 and 0.145 g. Co-inoculation enhanced the nutrient concentration in mash plant, grains and improved the nodulation as compared to the separate bacterial inoculations. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced higher soil N and available P in post harvest soil samples as compared to control. Study demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus species influenced the yield components positively than their separate inoculation and this effect could be more assenting with L-TRP. However, the approach of precursor-inocula interaction should be studied more comprehensively in different ecological zones to sustain the crop yield.

  7. Growth, nodulation and yield of mash bean (Vigna mungo L. as affected by Rhizobium inoculation and soil applied L-tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Hafiz Naeem Asghar and Maqshoof Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the grain legumes in Pakistan are poorly nodulated either because of low indigenous rhizobialpopulation or due to inefficient strains of native rhizobia. However, improvement in nodulation could be achievedthrough inoculation with effective rhizobial strains. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Rhizobiuminoculation along with L-tryptophan (L-TRP, a precursor of indole acetic acid (IAA on growth, yield andnodulation of mash been. The results indicated that Rhizobium inoculation along with L-tryptophan application (6mg kg-1 soil significantly improved plant height (44.6% as compared to control. Different improvements in rootlength (72.4%, oven dry root weight (Five fold, no. of pods plant-1 (86.4%, no. of grains per pod (42.8%, 100-grain weight (18.9% and nitrogen concentration in grains (two fold, was noted as compared with the controlwhere L-TRP was applied @ 2 mg kg-1 soil. There was a significant increase in number of nodules plant-1 (one fold,nodule fresh weight plant-1 (two fold and nodule dry weight plant-1 (four fold with Rhizobium inoculation alongwith L-TRP application @ 2 mg kg-1 soil as compared to Rhizobium inoculation alone. The study showed thatRhizobium inoculation along with L-TRP application could be a better approach for sustainable legume production.

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  9. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  10. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  11. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  12. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  13. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  14. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  15. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  16. Changes in the apoplastic pH are involved in regulation of xyloglucan breakdown of azuki bean epicotyls under hypergravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S

    2000-04-01

    Hypergravity inhibited elongation growth of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) epicotyls by decreasing the mechanical extensibility of cell walls via the increase in the molecular mass of xyloglucans [Soga et al. (1999) Plant Cell Physiol. 40: 581]. Here, we report that the pH value of the apoplastic fluid in epicotyls increased from 5.8 to 6.6 by hypergravity (300 x g) treatment. When the xyloglucan-degrading enzymes extracted from cell walls of the 1 x g control epicotyls were assayed in buffer at pH 6.6 and 5.8, the activity at pH 6.6 was almost half of that at pH 5.8. In addition, when enzymically active cell wall preparations obtained from 1 x g control epicotyls were autolyzed in buffer at pH 5.8 and 6.6 and then xyloglucans were extracted from the autolyzed cell walls, the molecular mass of xyloglucans incubated at pH 5.8 decreased during the autolysis, while that at pH 6.6 did not change. Thus, the xyloglucans were not depolymerized by autolysis at the pH value (6.6) observed in the hypergravity-treated epicotyls. These findings suggest that in azuki bean epicotyls, hypergravity decreases the activities of xyloglucan-degrading enzymes by increasing the pH in the apoplastic fluid, which may be involved in the processes of the increase in the molecular mass of xyloglucans, leading to the decrease in the cell wall extensibility.

  17. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  18. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  19. Row Spacing Determines Critical Period of Weed Control in Crop: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan; Joseph Aremu Adigun; Rauf Olabisi Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the importance of row spacing as an agronomic practice, a study was conducted to evaluate how levels of row spacing determines the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The experiment was laid out as a split-plot design with eight periods of weed interference as the main plots and three row spacing (60, 75 90 cm) as the subplots with three replications of each treatment combination. Period of weed interference consisted of weed removal for...

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Selvam G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  1. Physicochemical properties of starches obtained from three varieties of Chinese sweet potatoes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen Zenghong,; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Starches isolated from 3 typical types of Chinese sweet potato varieties (XuShu18, SuShu2, and SuShu8) were characterized and compared with starches isolated from potato and mung bean. The 3 sweet potato starches differed in granule size; particle size distribution; protein, lipid, and phosphorus co

  2. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  3. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  5. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  6. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  7. Complete genome sequence of a natural reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus found in bean goose (Anser fabalis): direct evidence for virus exchange between Korea and China via wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, we isolated a natural recombinant H9N2 avian influenza virus from fecal droppings of bean goose (Anser fabalis) in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the A/bean goose/Korea/220/2011(H9N2) isolate is a reassortant of Eurasian and North American lineages of avian influenza virus. In addition, the complete genome sequence, including all 8 gene segments, was associated with Chinese H9N2 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve. These data provide direct evidence for the exchange of avian influenza viruses between Korea and China via wild birds.

  8. Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn++ ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine.

  9. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata forms a highly stable dimeric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Suresh, C G

    2007-10-01

    Different protease inhibitors including Bowman-Birk type (BBI) have been reported from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. Protease isoinhibitors of double-headed Bowman-Birk type from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata have been purified and characterized. The BBI from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-BBI) has been found to undergo self-association to form very stable dimers and more complex oligomers, by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. Many BBIs have been reported to undergo self-association to form homodimers or more complex oligomers in solution. Only one dimeric crystal structure of a BBI (pea-BBI) is reported to date. We report the three-dimensional structure of a Vu-BBI determined at 2.5 A resolution. Although, the inhibitor has a monomer fold similar to that found in other known structures of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors, its quaternary structure is different from that commonly observed in this family. The structural elements responsible for the stability of monomer molecule and dimeric association are discussed. The Vu-BBI may use dimeric or higher quaternary association to maintain the physiological state and to execute its biological function.

  10. Construction of a genetic linkage map and genetic analysis of domestication related traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Isemura

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between mungbean and its presumed wild ancestor were analyzed for domestication related traits by QTL mapping. A genetic linkage map of mungbean was constructed using 430 SSR and EST-SSR markers from mungbean and its related species, and all these markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups spanning a total of 727.6 cM. The present mungbean map is the first map where the number of linkage groups coincided with the haploid chromosome number of mungbean. In total 105 QTLs and genes for 38 domestication related traits were identified. Compared with the situation in other Vigna crops, many linkage groups have played an important role in the domestication of mungbean. In particular the QTLs with high contribution were distributed on seven out of 11 linkage groups. In addition, a large number of QTLs with small contribution were found. The accumulation of many mutations with large and/or small contribution has contributed to the differentiation between wild and cultivated mungbean. The useful QTLs for seed size, pod dehiscence and pod maturity that have not been found in other Asian Vigna species were identified in mungbean, and these QTLs may play the important role as new gene resources for other Asian Vigna species. The results provide the foundation that will be useful for improvement of mungbean and related legumes.

  11. 绿豆种子8S球蛋白基因启动子的克隆及分析%Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Promoter of Vigna radiata 8S Globulin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超; 杨悦宁; 王吟; 张梦晗; 谢伟红; 杨维东; 刘洁生; 李宏业

    2011-01-01

    根据绿豆种子8S球蛋白α'亚基基因的末端序列设计3个特异反向引物.以绿豆基因组DNA为模板,采用基因组步移法,获得了8S球蛋白α'亚基基因起始密码子上游784 bp的DNA片段,通过序列测定和生物信息学分析,发现该序列含有启动子核心区以及大量的种子特异表达相关的顺式作用元件,表明此序列为种子特异启动子序列.通过PCR方法在启动子3'端加上翻译增强序列TMV-omega序列,构建了植物双元表达载体pBI-8SG α'-omega-gus,并成功将其转化进入农杆菌.%According to the sequence of Vigna radiata 8S globulin α’ isoform gene from GenBank,we designed and synthesized three reverse primers.A DNA fragment of 784 bp up stream of the coding sequence of V.radiata 8S globulin α’ isoform gene was amplified by Genome Walking with the genomic DNA of mung bean as the template.Sequence analysis suggested that the fragment is the seed specific promoter.Subjoined the TMV-omega sequence in the 3’ end of promoter of V.radiata 8S globulin alpha isoform gene by PCR.Constructed plant binary expression vector pBI-8SG α’-omega-gus, and then transformed into Agrobacterium cells.

  12. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Evapotranspiracao da cultura do feijao caupi na zona da mata de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall' Olio, Attilio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1996-07-01

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  13. Change of Nitric Oxide and NADPH-diaphorase During the Generation and the Development of Adventitious Roots in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEXiao-Ping; HUANGAi-Xia

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NO specific scavenger c-PTIO and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME on the rooting of mung bean ( Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl cuttings were studied. The spatio-temporal changes of NO and NADPH-diaphorase in the basal part of cutting were also detected during the adventitious rooting process. The results showed that SNP significantly enhanced the adventitious rooting in the range of concentrations tested. NADPH-diaphorase activity (commonly employed as a marker for NOS) and the fluorescence of NO were respectively observed in the zone between the vascular bundles of the basal part of cuttings at 24h and 36h after cutting. The root primordium became discernible at 48h after cutting in the same region, and became more elongate at 60h. NADPH-diaphorase activity and NO fluorescence gradually increased during 48-60h and mainly distributed in root meristem. L-NAME treatment delayed adventitious root emergency and significantly reduced the NADPH-diaphorase staining and the fluorescence of NO. The specific NO scavenger, c-PTIO, also suppressed the fluorescence and inhibited the formation of adventitious roots. These results suggest that endogenous NO appears to play a key role in the generation and development of adventitious roots, and the production of NO in this process may be catalyzed by NOS-like enzyme.

  14. Xyloglucan Antibodies Inhibit Auxin-Induced Elongation and Cell Wall Loosening of Azuki Bean Epicotyls but Not of Oat Coleoptiles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Masuda, Yoshio; Sone, Yoshiaki; Misaki, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl1Glc1), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl3Glc4), and octasaccharides (Gal1Xyl3Glc4). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668221

  15. Polyamine and nitric oxide crosstalk: Antagonistic effects on cadmium toxicity in mung bean plants through upregulating the metal detoxification, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a serious agricultural and environmental hazard. The study investigates cross-protection roles of putrescine (Put, 0.2 mM) and nitric oxide (sodium nitroprusside; SNP, 1 mM) in conferring Cd (CdCl2, 1.5 mM) tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) seedlings. Cadmium stress increased root and shoot Cd content, reduced growth, destroyed chlorophyll (chl), modulated proline (Pro) and reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), increased oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2(∙-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity. Put and/or SNP reduced Cd uptake, increasd phytochelatin (PC) content, reduced oxidative damage enhancing non-enzymatic antioxidants (AsA and GSH) and activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)]. Exogenous Put and/or SNP modulated endogenous polyamines, PAs (putrescine, Put; spermidine, Spd; spermine, Spm), and NO; improved glyoxalase system in detoxifying MG and improved physiology and growth where combined application showed better effects which designates possible crosstalk between NO and PAs to confer Cd-toxicity tolerance.

  16. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  17. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tuda

    Full Text Available Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter

  18. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  19. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  20. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  1. 不同绿豆品种的叶片解剖结构%Anatomical Structure of Leaf in Different Mung Bean Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小丽; 高金锋; 冯佰利; 王鹏科; 柴岩

    2012-01-01

    选取开花结荚期间光合性能及活性氧代谢存在明显差异的不同绿豆品种,以石蜡切片研究其主茎节位各功能叶片解剖结构特征,探讨其植株衰老过程中叶片解剖结构的动态变化.结果表明,绿豆植株开花后,随生育进程,主茎开花节位叶片自下向上逐渐衰老,叶肉细胞逐渐解体,栅栏组织排列趋向紊乱,叶片厚度、栅栏组织厚度以及栅栏组织厚度与叶片厚度的比值均趋于减小;不同绿豆品种叶片解剖结构的动态变化存在着显著差异,高产品种叶片相对较厚,栅栏组织较发达,结构较紧密,生育后期叶肉细胞解体较慢.综合分析表明,绿豆叶片解剖结构的变化与其产量水平是密切相关的,功能叶片较厚、栅栏组织较发达的绿豆品种具有相对较高的产量潜力.%The morphological stracture is the basis of physiological function of plants, leaf is the main organ of photosynthesis that gives seed yield in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], so it is necessary to analyze anatomical structure of leaf in different genotypes of mung bean. The objective of this experiment was mainly to study the anatomical structure in the leaves of mung bean genotypes with different photosynthetic capabilities and reactive oxygen metabolisms in the flowering and podding stage, and explore the anatomical structure changes of mung bean during the whole aging process. The results showed that after the plants flowered, their functional leaves aged gradually from bottom to top. In the aging process, leaf structures gradually se-nesced, mesophyll cells gradually disintegrated, palisade tissue arrangement tended to disorder, thickness of leaf and palisade tissue, ratio of palisade tissue thickness to leaf thickness tended to decrease. There were significant differences in dynamic changes of leaf structure of mung beans.Compared with low-yield varieties, the leaf structures of the high-yield varieties aged slower and

  2. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  3. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  4. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  5. Inactivation of jack bean urease by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Adam; Zaborska, Wiesława; Sepioł, Janusz; Góra, Maciej; Zaborska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Allicin--diallyl thiosulfinate--is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic. Allicin was synthesized as described elsewhere and was tested for its inhibitory ability against jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 22 degrees C. The results indicate that allicin is an enzymatic inactivator. The loss of urease activity was irreversible, time- and concentration dependent and the kinetics of the inactivation was biphasic; each phase, obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants for inactivation were measured for the fast and slow phases and for several concentrations of allicin. Thiol reagents, and competitive inhibitor (boric acid) protected the enzyme from loss of enzymatic activity. The studies demonstrate that urease inactivation results from the reaction between allicin and the SH-group, situated in the urease active site (Cys592).

  6. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  7. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  8. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  9. 利用荧光定量PCR验证与比较豇豆耐旱表达谱%Validation and comparison of drought-responsive microarray with real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR in asparagus bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎; 徐沛; 汪宝根; 吴晓花; 黄芸萍; 鲁忠富; 刘永华; 李国景

    2013-01-01

    Originating from Africa and domesticated in Asia, asparagus bean [ Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipediailis ( L. ) Verdc ] is an important vegetable crop in China. Drought is an important environmental factor restricting the safety of asparagus bean production; therefore it is fundamental to identify drought tolerance genes from the asparagus bean germplasms. Fluorescence quantitative PCR is a useful tool for quantitative assay of gene expression. In this study, we validated and compared expression pattern of a subset of 11 genes from an in-house cowpea cDNA microarray with fluorescence quantitative PCR. It turned out that in roots and leaves of two different asparagus bean cultivars subject to drought stress, qPCR and microarray generally got similar results. The gene/tissue combinations showed congruent expression regulations between the two methods included 27 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated genes, relative to 10 inconsistently observed combinations, giving a rate of consistence of 0. 773. This experiment verified the confidence of high-throughput cDNA microarray in monitoring drought-related gene expressions, which lays a foundation for mining and utilizing drought-tolerant genes in asparagus bean. The causes of differential gene expression patterns between the two methods were discussed.%豇豆[Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp]起源于非洲,是我国重要的蔬菜作物.干旱是制约长豇豆生产的重要因素,研究和挖掘长豇豆种质中蕴含的耐旱基因是改良长豇豆耐旱性的必要基础.荧光定量PCR是定量检测基因表达的重要手段之一.本实验室前期开发了首张豇豆cDNA表达谱芯片,并利用该芯片研究了长豇豆耐旱表达谱.在此基础上,利用荧光定量PCR对其中11个基因的表达模式进行了验证和比较.试验结果表明,在干旱处理的长豇豆2个品种的根和叶中,供试基因的表达谱芯片分析和qPCR结果一致的共计34组,其中上调27组,下调7

  10. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  11. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  12. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  13. Combining ability analysis for yield and its attributes in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.S. Durga Prasad and E. Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization in Line x Tester mating design was conducted with 11 MYMV susceptible lines and three resistant testers in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper to understand the nature of gene action, combining ability of the parents (gca and to assess the potential for the exploitation of heterosis (sca in hybrids. Data on nine quantitative characters viz.,days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight (g and seed yield per plant (g were collected on 33 hybrids and their 11 parents. Among the genotypes, PU 31, LBG 645, ADT 3, CO 6 and LBG 709 recorded relatively high per se performance and gca effects for majority of seed yield attributing traits. The hybrid, LBG 709 x PU 31 followed by CO 6 x PU 31 and LBG 645 x VBN (Bg 6 exhibited significant high per se and sca for most of the traits viz., number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and seed yield per plant .The crosses involving the parents, LBG 645 x PU 31 and ADT 3 x PU 31 recorded significant gca and non-significant sca effect for most of the characters inferring that these crosses would produce superior recombinants for seed yield.

  14. Simplified methods for screening cowpea cultivars for manganese leaf-tissue tolerance. [Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemeier, A.H.; Horst, W.J. (Univ. of Hannover (West Germany))

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) dark brown speckles on old leaves are typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and indicate Mn sensitivity of leaf tissue. Induction and subsequent quantification of brown Mn speckles in leaf tissues were used to screen cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance using three different techniques: (i) leaf cuttings cultured for 22 days in solution culture with 20 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}, (ii) leaf rings mounted on leaves of intact plants and filled with 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4} for 5 days, and (iii) leaf disks floated for 3 days on 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}. Density of brown speckles differed considerably among the six cultivars tested, and was not related to the Mn concentrations of the leaf tissues. There were close relationships between genotypic Mn-toxicity symptom expression and depression of dry matter production of the cultivars at high Mn supply in a long-term sand culture experiment. The floating leaf-disk method is particularly suited for screening large numbers of cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance because it requires only 3 days. The ranking of the cultivars for Mn tolerance was highly correlated to Mn tolerance of intact plants.

  15. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  16. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  17. Properties of a cyclic 3'5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Abidin, U Z

    1989-10-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) partially purified from roots of Vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees C. Levels of PDE activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in PDE activity. The enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees C, retaining 92% of its original activity. Plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid and kinetin at 1.0 and 10.0 microM concentrations did not have any significant effect on enzyme activity. Nucleotides tested including cyclic 2'3' AMP, cyclic 2'3' GMP completely abolished enzyme activity at 1.0mM while cyclic 3'5' GMP, cyclic 3'5' GMP, 2'deoxy 5' ATP, 2'deoxy 5'GTP and 5'ADP were also inhibitory to the enzyme. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+, Fe2+ and NH4+ while Cu2+ and Fe3+ were inhibitory. Theophylline, caffeine, phosphate, pyrophosphate and EDTA were inhibitory to the enzyme.

  18. Effect of Arsenic on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Blackgram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Gouri, Samiran S; De, Debasis; Das, Bidus K; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R

    2011-01-01

    Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction is an efficient model system for soil remediation and reclamation. We earlier isolated an arsenic (As) (2.8 mM arsenate) tolerant and symbiotically effective Rhizobium strain, VMA301 from Vigna mungo and in this study we further characterized its efficacy for arsenic removal from the soil and its nitrogen fixation capacity. Although nodule formation is delayed in plants with As-treated composite when the inoculum was prepared without arsenic in culture medium, whereas it attains the significant number of nodules compare to plant grown in As-free soil when the inoculum was prepared with arsenic supplemented medium. Arsenic accumulation was higher in roots than root nodules. Nitrogenase activity is reduced to almost 2 fold in plants with As-treated soil but not abolished. These results suggest that this strain, VMA301, has been able to establish an effective symbiotic interaction in V. mungo in As-contaminated soil and can perform dual role of arsenic bioremediation as well as soil nitrogen improvement.

  19. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid induced resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Pal, Amita

    2011-03-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing resistance to MYMIV infection in Vigna mungo has been elucidated by proteomics. Twenty-nine proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, predicted to be involved in stress responses, metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, showed increased abundance upon SA treatment. Susceptible plants showed characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms upon MYMIV infection. A concentration dependent decrease in physiological symptoms associated with MYMIV was observed upon exogenous SA treatment prior to viral inoculation; and no visible symptom was observed at 100 μM SA. SA treatment stimulated SOD and GPX activity and inhibited CAT activity thus preventing ROS mediated damage. Significant increase in chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, phenolic content and H(2)O(2) were observed. Involvement of calmodulin for transmission of defense signal by SA is suggested. A metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced synthesis of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolisms is necessary for SA mediated resistance to MYMIV. Identification of proteins showing increased abundance, involved in photosynthetic process is a significant finding which restores virus-induced degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and provides enhanced metabolites required for repartition of resources towards defense.

  20. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  1. Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

    2003-06-01

    Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

  2. Molecular characterization of urdbean (Vigna mungo) germplasm related to resistance against urdbean leaf crinkle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, R; Aslam Khan, M; Khan, A I; Azam Khan, M; Awan, F S; Khan, N A

    2011-01-01

    Urdbean (Vigna mungo) is an important pulse crop grown worldwide. Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a pathogen of urdbean found in Pakistan that causes huge losses in yield. Forty urdbean varieties/lines were screened against the virus under field conditions during spring season 2009. None of the lines appeared to be highly resistant or resistant. On the basis of a 0-5 disease rating scale and disease severity index, genotypes varied significantly in their reaction to ULCV. Four lines (M-6206, IAM-382-15, IAM-133, and Mash-1) were moderately resistant, eight were rated as moderately susceptible, and 21 as susceptible; the remaining seven lines were highly susceptible. RAPD analyses revealed an extensive amount of variation, which could be used for cultivar identification. Genetic differentiation among urdbean genotypes was similar to the field screening data. The varieties 6065-3 and 6206 were highly susceptible and moderately resistant, respectively, to ULCV under field conditions, confirmed by the RAPD analysis. These varieties were the most diverse varieties in the similarity matrix (67.2%), while the varieties IAM-382-9 and 07M003 were the most similar (98.4%). This information will help in the recognition of available resistant germplasms that can resist this disease and will be utilized for urdbean improvement in Pakistan.

  3. Regeneration of Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. on Changes of Hormonal Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariful Alam MONY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study comprised of experiments for shoot regeneration and plantlet formation from cotyledonary node of Vigna mungo by culturing them on low concentration of BAP followed by transfer to hormone free MS medium. Cotyledonary node explants were cultured on different concentrations of BAP (0, 1, 2.5 and 50 mg l-1. Shoot regeneration occurred from cotyledonary nodes irrespective of the presence or absence of BAP in the medium. However, culture of cotyledonary node explants for 10 days on medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 BAP followed by transfer to hormone free medium gave higher number of shoots (9.33/explant compared to culture of the explants on hormone free medium for 15 days followed by transfer to medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 BAP (8.33/explants. The regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA and NAA. The high frequency (100.0% of rooting was observed with MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 IBA. The rooted plants were transferred to pots for hardening.

  4. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  5. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r=-0.97 between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r=0.95 with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  6. Zinc and copper induced changes in physiological characteristics of Vigna mungo (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Radha; Anju; Poonam; Dhankhar, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of deleterious concentration of zinc and copper provided either individually or in combination in the nutrient media was investigated in order to assess the effect of metal interaction in Vigna mungo (L.). Both metals showed negative effect and led to a marked decrease in seed germination (20%), seedling growth (91.7%) and nitrate reductase activity (85.7%) with the increase in metal concentrations. The present study also emphasizes on the response of catalase and peroxidase enzyme under zinc and copper stress. Both antioxidant enzymes exhibited an increasing trend under different treatment conditions but it was reverse at highly toxic metal concentration. The results showed active involvement of peroxidase enzyme in regulating oxidative stress rather than catalase enzyme, as the specific activity of peroxidase enzyme got increased by 8.94% under the combined metals stress whereas catalase activity got declined by 60.97% in comparison to control due to excessive stress. The combined effect of copper and zinc metal was more pronounced in comparison to their individual effects.

  7. Immunostimolatory activities of Vigna mungo L. extract in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Yogendrasinh B; Jain, Sunita M

    2010-01-01

    Vigna mungo L. (Fabaceae) is a popular food legume used in the traditional Indian system of medicine for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions. The objective of the study was to evaluate any immunostimulatory activities of the extract of V. mungo seeds in an animal model. The induction of any immunostimulatory effects were evaluated using measures of sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced humoral antibody titer, SRBC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion, and in vivo phagocytosis (via the carbon clearance method) after host treatment with the extract. The results here indicated that primary and secondary antibody titers in the rats were significantly increased by treatment with the V. mungo extract as compared with those noted among rats in a control group. Increases in DTH response, the percentage (%) neutrophil adhesion, and in situ phagocytosis were also observed after treatment with the extract. We summarize that the apparent immunostimulatory effect of the V. mungo seed extract might be attributed to an augmentation of humoral and cell-mediated responses, phagocytosis, and hematopoiesis in the treated rats. The findings in this study suggest that V. mungo seed extract possesses profound immunostimulatory activities. Whether such outcomes are also evidenced by consumption of the intact seeds themselves, as is most likely to be the case with humans, remains to be determined. Nonetheless, the present study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  8. Antioxidant Status of Vigna mungo L. in Response to Sulfur Nutrition

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    Neelam Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo L. var. DPU-88-31, an edible legume, was grown at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 meq S L−1 to study the effect of deficient and excess level of sulfur on oxidative metabolism. Plants supplied by 4 meq S L−1 showed optimum yield. Sulfur deficient plants (1 and 2 meq S L−1 showed reduction in growth and chlorosis of young leaves. Tissue sulfur and cysteine concentration was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The thresholds for critical concentration of sulfur deficiency and toxicity were 0.315% and 0.434% dry weight. Biomass and photoassimilatory pigments were decreased and carbohydrates (sugar and starch were accumulated in leaves of sulfur deficient and excess plants. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in sulfur deficient and excess plants caused oxidative damage in plants which was also evident by the increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and concentration of ascorbate and nonprotein thiols.

  9. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

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    Riaz Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29% was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26% was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80% of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83% and serine (5.45% were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46% was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results.

  10. APPRAISAL OF GENE ACTION FOR INDETERMINATE GROWTH IN MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L. WILCZEK

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    Javed eIqbal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques implied for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made with the help of four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67% also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both the cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation in both the crosses and for seed yield per plant in one cross, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes which favour determinate plant growth and higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted.

  11. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

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    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  12. Vigna subterranea ammonium transporter gene (VsAMT1: Some bioinformatics insights

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    Adewole T. Adetunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium transporters (AMTs play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Vigna subterranea (VsAMT1 and Solanum tuberosum (StAMT1 AMT1s were characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. AMT1-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned VsAMT1 and StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that VsAMT1 is 92% and 89% similar to Phaseolus vulgaris PvAMT1.1 and Glycine max AMT1 respectively, while StAMT1 is 92% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, and correspond to the 5th–10th trans-membrane domains. Residues VsAMT1 D23 and StAMT1 D15 are predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of VsAMT1 W1A-L and S87A and StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport. In addition to nitrogen uptake from the roots, VsAMT1 may also contribute to interactions with rhizobia.

  13. Rhizobium vignae sp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium isolated from multiple legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Da Wei; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-03-01

    A group of rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of multiple legume species grown in different geographical regions of China had identical 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strains formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium huautlense and Rhizobium alkalisoli, with 99.8  % gene sequence similarity between the strains. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the representative strain CCBAU 05176(T) and R. galegae ATCC 43677(T), R. huautlense S02(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) were 22.6  %, 8.9  % and 15.9  %, respectively. The novel strains were distinguished from recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by using a polyphasic approach, including PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS), phenotypic and physiological tests, sequence comparisons of housekeeping genes and cellular fatty acid profiles. Therefore, it is suggested that this group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Rhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 05176(T) (=HAMBI 3039(T)=LMG 25447(T)).

  14. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

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    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  15. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

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    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  16. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  17. Optimization of Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of cotyledonary node explants of Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Katikala, Sweety; Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Kannepalle, Annapurna; Narayana, Jyothi Lakshmi; Maddi, Vanaja; Mandapaka, Maheswari; Shanker, Arun Kumar; Bandi, Venkateswarlu; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2012-12-01

    A reproducible and highly efficient protocol for genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium has been established for greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Double cotyledonary node (DCN) explants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 containing neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene as selectable marker, β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter (uidA) gene and annexin 1 bj gene. Important parameters like optical density of Agrobacterium culture, culture quantity, infection medium, infection and co-cultivation time and acetosyringone concentration were standardized to optimize the transformation frequency. Kanamycin at a concentration of 100 mg/l was used to select transformed cells. Transient and stable GUS expressions were studied in transformed explants and regenerated putative plants, respectively. Transformed shoot were produced on regeneration medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin and 250 mg/l cefotaxime and rooted on ½ MS medium. Transient and constitutive GUS expression was observed in DCN explants and different tissues of T(0) and T(1) plants. Rooted T(0) and T(1) shoots confirming Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) positive for npt II and annexin 1bj genes were taken to maturity to collect the seeds. Integration of annexin gene into the greengram genome was confirmed by Southern blotting.

  18. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. after tannery sludge compost amendment

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    Maria Doroteia Marçal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with tannery sludge compost (TSC. Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%. Only Cr accumulation was significant (P < 0.05 in the cowpea shoots after 3 yr of TSC amendment; accumulation increased as TSC rates were applied. However, there was no significant Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb accumulation in grains. After 3 yr of consecutive TSC soil amendments, Cr accumulated in the shoots, but it was not translocated to the grains.

  19. Genetic relationship of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Senegal based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, F A; Gowda, B S; Cissé, N; Diouf, D; Sadio, O; Timko, M P

    2012-02-08

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 22 local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties and inbred lines collected throughout Senegal were evaluated using simple sequence repeat molecular markers. A set of 49 primer combinations were developed from cowpea genomic/expressed sequence tags and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms among the various cowpea genotypes. Forty-four primer combinations detected polymorphisms, with the remaining five primer sets failing to yield PCR amplification products. From one to 16 alleles were found among the informative primer combinations; their frequencies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 (mean = 0.79). The genetic diversity of the sample varied from 0.08 to 0.42 (mean = 0.28). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 (mean = 0.23). The local varieties clustered in the same group, except 53-3, 58-53, and 58-57; while Ndoute yellow pods, Ndoute violet pods and Baye Ngagne were in the second group. The photosensitive varieties (Ndoute yellow pods and Ndoute violet pods) were closely clustered in the second group and so were inbred line Mouride and local cultivar 58-57, which is also one of the parents for inbred line Mouride. These molecular markers could be used for selection and identification of elite varieties for cowpea improvement and germplasm management in Senegal.

  20. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  1. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

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    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  2. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  3. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  4. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  5. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  6. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  7. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  8. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-07-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  9. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  10. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  11. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  12. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  13. Screening three cultivars of Vigna mungo L. against ozone by application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, M

    2010-10-01

    Three Indian black gram cultivars (Vigna mungo L. cv. Barkha, Shekhar and TU-94-2) were grown at a tropical suburban site in Varanasi, India to evaluate the varietal differences in response to ambient O(3) under field conditions using ethylenediurea (EDU). EDU (400 ppm) was given as soil drench at 10-day intervals during the growth period of the cultivars. O(3) monitoring data clearly showed high concentrations with a mean value ranging between 41.3 and 59.9 ppb. EDU treatment caused significant increases in various growth parameters and total biomass accumulation in Barkha and Shekhar. EDU caused retention of more biomass in leaves during vegetative period and translocated more photosynthates towards reproductive parts, which resulted into yield enhancement. Weight of seeds plant(-1) was higher by 36.4% and 35.6% in Barkha and Shekhar, respectively, treated with EDU compared to non-EDU-treated plants. However, TU-94-2 did not exhibit any significant difference in weight of seeds plant(-1). Starch, total sugar, amino acids and K contents increased in seeds of EDU-treated plants leading to improvement in quality response index (QRI) of seeds. EDU helped in identifying the cultivar susceptibility to O(3) stress and therefore is very useful as a monitoring tool to assess the impact of ambient O(3) on plants under natural field conditions particularly in areas experiencing moderate concentrations of O(3).

  14. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  15. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  16. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  17. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  18. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  19. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Ty1/Copia-like Reverse Transcriptase Sequences from Mung Bean%绿豆Ty1/Copia类反转录转座子逆转录酶序列的克隆和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖卫民; 坂本亘; 苏都莫日根

    2004-01-01

    利用Ty1/copia类反转录转座子的保守位点设计简并引物,从绿豆(Vigna radiata(L.)Wilczek)基因组中扩增得到了反转录转座子的逆转录酶序列.对扩增得到的约270bp的片段进行分离和克隆,并随机挑选了40个克隆进行测序,结果得到了36个单独的核酸序列,其中18个含有移码突变或终止子.根据序列比对,这些克隆可分为9组以及单个的9种.这40个克隆中,核酸序列相似性从8%到100%,显示出其核酸序列的高度异质性.将这些克隆的核酸序列与来自其他种植物的相应序列进行谱系分析,发现有些克隆与来自其他种植物的相应序列的亲缘关系比这些克隆之间更为接近.斑点杂交显示Ty1/copia反转录转座子约占绿豆基因组的9.3%.%Ty1/copia-like sequences were amplified from mung bean ( Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) genomic DNA, by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved domains in the Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons. PCR fragments of roughly 270 bp were isolated and cloned, and forty clones were sequenced. Thirty-six of the forty clones had unique nucleotide sequences, and eighteen clones had a frameshift, a stop codon, or both. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences indicated that these clones, denoted Tvr, fell into nine subgroups and nine ungrouped sequences. The nucleotide sequence similarity between these elements ranged from 8% to 100%, which indicates high level of sequence heterogeneity among these clones. A phylogenetic analysis comparing these clones with corresponding sequences from other plant species showed that some of the Tvr clones are more closely related to Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons from other species than to other Tvr clones. Dot blot analysis revealed that Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons comprise about 9.3% of the mung bean genome.

  1. Involvement of gibberellins in expression of a cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneyama, M; Okamoto, T; Yamane, H; Minamikawa, T

    2001-11-01

    The expression of a papain-type proteinase, designated SH-EP, in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings has been shown to require some factors in the embryonic axes. Gibberellin A1 (GA(1)) and GA(20) were identified by GC-MS in embryonic axes of V. mungo seedlings. The level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings was greatly reduced by treatment of the seeds with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor for GA biosynthesis. The reduced level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons by uniconazole-P was recovered by exogenous application of GA(1) and GA(20) to the seedlings.

  2. Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, M; Ravindran, A D; Hariharan, K

    1984-07-01

    A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shaken broth cultures of three other Streptomyces spp. resulted in phage infection.

  3. If There Were No Frontier,Where Would the Mainland Be:An Interpretation of A Tour along the Chinese Frontier-the Distant Home Based on Cultural-Geography%没有边疆,哪有内地*--《远方的家·边疆行》的文化地理学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖群

    2015-01-01

    Based on a number of documentaries on “China frontier”by CCTV Station and some foreign tele-vision stations,the serial documentary of A Tour along the Chinese Frontier -the Distant Home is selected for re-search and for an interpretation based on cultural geography from the space meaning.Though both the frontier and the mainland are both categorized as the territory of China,the consciousness of binary space varies from each other.It is the additional value of the video to enhance the consistency and cultural identity of the layout of the cultural geography of China.The success of the documentary,A Tour along the Chinese Frontier -the Distant Home,is to impress the people with detailed descriptions and reflect humanistic care.It shows a style of transfor-ming Chinese documentary and provides a good example for future similar documentary processing the country and the nation,culture and stable subject.At the same time,the frontier tourism can effectively promote the “de marginalization”border area,eliminate invisible boundary between the frontier and the Inland.%针对中央电视台和国外电视台推出多部“中国边疆”的纪录片,选取《远方的家·边疆行》作为研究对象,进行文化地理的空间意义阐释。边疆与内地同属于中国,却呈现不一样的二元空间意识。增加中国文化地理版图的一致性和文化认同是该影视节目流露的额外价值。《远方的家·边疆行》的成功之道在于以细节打动人,体现人文关怀。它显示中国纪录片的一种风格转型,对以后的类似纪录片处理国家、民族、文化、稳定等主题时候提供了很好的样板。同时,边疆旅游可以有效推动边疆地区的“去边缘化”运动,消弭边疆与内陆之间的无形界线。

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF VIGNA RADIATA LINN ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED WORKING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN MICE BY USING DIFFERENT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandurge Aruna P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory is the ability of an individual to record the information and recall it whenever needed. Dementia is a mental disorder characterized by loss of intellectual ability (judgment or abstract thinking which invariably involves impairment of memory. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of neurons in distinct brain areas and cord. Stressful conditions are often associated with loss of memory and cognitive functions which may lead to threats of schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Traditionally herbal drugs have been used to enhance cognitive functions and to alleviate other functions associate with the Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Vigna radiata Linn extract on learning and memory in mice. Vigna radiata Linn extract (Aqueous 700, 900 mg/kg and Ethanol 700, 900mg/kg ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4mg/kg which induced memory defiect in mice. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance paradigm served as an exteroceptive bevarioural model. Vigna radiata Linn extract decreases transverse latencies and increases step down latencies, when it is compared with the scopolamine induced group. Vigna radiata Linn preparation could be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders like Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  6. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  7. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ângela Celis de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.

  8. Activity of recombinant and natural defensins from Vigna unguiculata seeds against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Géssika Silva; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; de Carvalho, Laís Pessanha; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Fernandes, Keysson Vieira; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Retamal, Claudio Andres; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are differentiated from other antibiotic peptides, such as gramicidins and polymyxins, because they are synthesized by large enzymatic complex and bear modified amino acids including d-amino acids, are short polymers of l-amino acids synthesized by ribosomes upon which all living organisms rely to defend themselves from invaders or competitor microorganisms. AMPs have received a great deal of attention from the scientific community as potential new drugs for neglected diseases such as Leishmaniasis. In plants, they include several families of compounds, including the plant defensins. The aim of the present study was to improve the expression of recombinant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds (Vu-Defr) and to test its activity against Leishmania amazonensis promatigotes. Recombinant expression was performed in LB and TB media and under different conditions. The purification of Vu-Defr was achieved by immobilized metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography. The purified Vu-Defr was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD), and its biological activity was tested against L. amazonenis promastigotes. To demonstrate that the recombinant production of Vu-Defr did not interfere with its fold and biological activity, the results of all experiments were compared with the results from the natural defensin (Vu-Def). The CD spectra of both peptides presented good superimposition indicating that both peptides present very similar secondary structure and that the Vu-Defr was correctly folded. L. amazonensis treated with Vu-Defr led to the elimination of 54.3% and 46.9% of the parasites at 24 and 48h of incubation time, respectively. Vu-Def eliminated 50% and 54.8% of the parasites at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Both were used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. These results suggested the potential for plant defensins to be used as new antiparasitic substances.

  9. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  10. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURTUNATO Andréa A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp, estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prateleira desse produto por 180 dias, através de análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, preservando-se em boas condições para o consumo. Foi realizado também o teste de aceitação do produto comparando-se com o feijão verde fresco. Embora o nível de aceitação não tenha sido muito alto (71,1% quando comparado com o feijão fresco (96,6%, este resultado poderia ser diferente em regiões que não têm o hábito de consumir esta leguminosa no estádio de maturação verde fresco.

  11. Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov., a novel plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Ehsan, Muhammad; Sin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Rifat; Chang, Young H

    2014-02-01

    The taxonomic status of a bacterium, strain NCCP-246(T), isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain NCCP-246(T) can grow at 16-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), at pH ranges of 6-8 (optimum growth occurs at pH 7) and in 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based upon on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain NCCP-246(T) belonged to genus Sphingobacterium. Strain NCCP-246(T) showed highest similarity to the type strain of Sphingobacterium canadense CR11(T) (97.67 %) and less than 97 % with other species of the genus. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain NCCP-246(T) with S. canadense CR11(T) and Sphingobacterium thalpophilum JCM 21153(T) was 55 and 44.4 %, respectively. The chemotaxonomic data revealed the major menaquinone as MK-7 and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 [C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c] (37.07 %), iso-C15:0 (28.03 %), C16:0 (11.85 %), C17:0 cyclo (8.84 %) and C14:0 (2.42 %). The G+C content of the strain was 39.2 mol%. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses, physiological and, biochemical data, strain NCCP-246(T) can be differentiated from the validly named members of genus Sphingobacterium and thus represents as a new species, for which the name, Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-246(T) (= JCM18974 (T) = KCTC 23914(T)).

  12. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, W; Minamikawa, T

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 +/- 1 degrees C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme.

  13. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Minamikawa, Takao

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 ± 1°C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666526

  14. Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Y.Anbu Selvam and R.Elangaimannan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A diallele analaysis of 8 x 8 was studied in black gram (Vigna mungo with a view to understand the combining ability, nature of gene action andpotential for the exploitation of heterosis using nine quantitative characters viz., days to first flower, plant height, number of branches per plant,number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight and seed yieldper plant in 28 hybrids and their eight parents. The parent ADT 3 recorded relatively high per se performance for seed yield, hundred seedweight, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of branches per plant with early floweringand short stature. Among the hybrids, ADT 3/99V48, ADT 3/LBG 645 and 2KU 53/LBG 645 were found to have high mean performance foralmost all the yield component characters besides seed yield. The gca effect of the genotypes ADT 3, LBG 645 and 2 KU 53 was high andsignificant for the traits seed yield per plant besides number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod. The SCAvariance was greater than GCA variance for all the traits studied thus indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. Among thehybrids, ADT 3/99V48 recorded the maximum significant sca effect indicating their suitability for heterosis breeding. The hybrids ADT 3/ LBG645 and 2 KU 53/ LBG 645 recorded non significant sca effects for almost all the traits studied including seed yield per plant. Hence, these twocrosses were adjudged as superior for recombination breeding based on sca effects

  15. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean(Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod; Janardan; Dhole; Kandali; Srinivasalu; Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Mungbean(Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid(PA), an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid(lpa) in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus(IP), and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen’s modified method,respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g-1and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g-1in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA(0.87 and 0.86) and seed size(0.82 and0.83) but low heritability for IP(0.61 and 0.60). A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size(r =-0.183 and-0.267). Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM(6.001 mg g-1) and JL-781(6.179 mg g-1) showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  16. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Janardan Dhole

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid (PA, an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid (lpa in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen's modified method, respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in 102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g− 1 and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g− 1 in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA (0.87 and 0.86 and seed size (0.82 and 0.83 but low heritability for IP (0.61 and 0.60. A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size (r = − 0.183 and − 0.267. Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM (6.001 mg g− 1 and JL-781 (6.179 mg g− 1 showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  17. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  18. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  19. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of immature Vigna sinensis cotyledons via somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X B; Xu, Z H; Wei, Z M

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from immature cotyledons of Vigna sinensis and cultured in a modified MS Liquid medium containing 0. 2 mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0. 5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the dark at a density of 1 × 10(5)/ml. The protoplasts began to divide in 3-5 days. Sustained cell division resulted in formation of cell clusters and small calli, with the cell division frequency and plating efficiency of cell colonies reaching 27. 7% and 1. 7% respectively. When calli of 2 mm in size were transferred onto MSB medium (MS salts and B5 vitamins) containing 500mg/l NaCl, 500 mg/ 1 casein hydrolysate (CH), 2 mg/l 2,4-D and 0. 5 mg/l BAP for further growth, approximately 5% of the calli developed embryogenically. The embryogenic calli were selected and subcultured on the same composition of MSB medium and were able to maintain somatic embryogenesis capacity in subculture for a long time. When the calli were moved to MSB medium with 0. 1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0. 5mg/l kinetin(KT), 3-5% mannitol and 2% sucrose in the light, many somatic embryos formed from the calli. Only part of the embryoids developed further to the cotyledonary stage, and the others died at the globular, heart-shaped or torpedo stages. Finally, some cotyledonary embryoids germinated and developed into plants or shoots. The shoots were readily rooted on 1/2 strength MS medium with 0. 1-0.3 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The plants grew well in soil and were fertile.

  20. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-02

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

  2. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  3. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  4. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  5. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  6. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  7. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

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    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  8. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  9. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

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    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  10. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  11. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

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    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  12. Distribution of Bio-accumulated Cd and Cr in two Vigna species and the Associated Histological Variations

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    Ratheesh Chandra, P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In nutrient culture experiments, bioaccumulation and anatomical effects of cadmium (CdCl2 - 20μM and chromium (K2Cr2O7 - 600 μM on the structure of root and stem was studied by histochemical and analytical methods in Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata. Each metal exerted specific influences on the anatomy of various tissues in root and stem. Histochemical localisation of cadmium and chromium was observed in the stained sections of root and stem. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric study revealed maximum accumulation of cadmium and chromium in the root tissue as compared to shoot with significant variation among the species. Abundant occurrences of densely stained deposits of chromium were seen in the root stelar region of V. unguiculata and to a lesser extend in V. radiata. Cadmium accumulation in V. radiata was comparatively more than that of V. unguiculata. The findings also revealed that the accumulation pattern of cadmium and chromium varies between species and hence is species specific.

  13. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  14. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems.

  16. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

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    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  17. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  18. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

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    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  19. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  20. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

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    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean.

  2. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  3. Differences in the Responses to Iron Deficiency Stress between Bean and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    米谷, 力; 森次, 益三; 河﨑, 利夫

    1995-01-01

    The responses to iron deficiency stress in bean and maize were compared. The susceptibility to iron deficiency stress was smaller in bean than in maize;i.e., the tolerance to iron deficiency was greater in bean than in maize. The roots of the bean plants exposed to iron deficiency stress, developed iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity,but not the roots of maize. The iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity of the bean roots were inhibited by a shadowing, detopp...

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  5. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  6. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity.

  7. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

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    Eunsook Chung

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2 mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1. RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA, but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana. The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thalianaVrUBC1 Binding Partner 1, a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase.

  8. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunsook; Cho, Chang-Woo; So, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Jee-Sook; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1). RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thalianaVrUBC1 Binding Partner 1), a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Metabolites in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata) Extracts using NMR Techniques%绿豆(VignaRadiata)代谢物组成的核磁共振定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴香玉; 李宁; 唐惠儒

    2014-01-01

    绿豆(Vigna radiata)是重要的经济作物之一,具有抗氧化、抗炎和抗菌作用.然而迄今为止,绿豆代谢物组成信息仍不完善.为了系统地定量研究绿豆代谢物组成,该研究利用DOSY,J-RES,COSY,TOCSY,HSQC,HMBC和1D 1H NMR谱图在鄂绿4号(Elü No.4)绿豆水相提取物中鉴定和归属了48种代谢物,确定了绿豆中棉籽糖家族寡糖的构成,并且利用全弛豫谱对其中44种代谢物进行了定量分析.%Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is an important crop that has various beneficial functions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the metabolites in mungbean have only been partially identified and quantified in previous studies. In this study, we systematically identified and assigned 48 metabolites in mungbean (Elü No.4) seeds with J-RES, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and 2D NMR spectra. In particular, the composition of raffinose family oligosaccharides in the extracts was determined using DOSY experiments. Most of the metabolites in the extracts were quantified. This study will provide useful information for mungbean metabolomic and nutritional studies.

  10. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

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    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  11. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans bo

  12. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  13. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  14. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

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    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  16. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  17. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  18. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear

  19. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  20. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  1. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  2. Effects of cadmium-induced oxidative stress on growth and nitrogen assimilation in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Mobin Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation, oxidative damage, and nitrogen metabolism were studied in roots and leaves of 30-d-old blackgram plants [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], grown in a mixture of soil and compost (3:1 with different Cd concentrations. Significant reductions in both root and shoot dry weight were noted. The concentration of Cd in roots and leaves increased with increasing Cd levels. The level of lipid peroxidation elevated with a consequent increase in H2O2 content under Cd stress in both plant organs. The activity of enzymes mediating the nitrogen assimilation in roots and leaves was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd, except glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH which showed a significant increase.

  3. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  4. Theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of a disease resistance gene homolog encoding resistance protein in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit P

    2006-10-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes, the key players of innate immunity system in plants encode 'R' proteins. 'R' protein recognizes product of avirulance gene from the pathogen and activate downstream signaling responses leading to disease resistance. No three dimensional (3D) structural information of any 'R' proteins is available as yet. We have reported a 'R' gene homolog, the 'VMYR1', encoding 'R' protein in Vigna mungo. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the 'VMYR1' protein. The model was created by using the 3D structure of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Vibrio cholerae as a template. The strategy for homology modeling was based on the high structural conservation in the superfamily of P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in which target and template proteins belong. This is the first report of theoretical model structure of any 'R' proteins.

  5. Appearance and Disappearance of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Vigna mungo Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Y; Matsushima, H

    1983-09-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from black gram (Vigna mungo L.) cotyledons exhibited cyanide-resistant respiration which was of mitochondrial origin. The appearance and the disappearance of this alternative respiration took place during and following imbibition. During the first 6 hours of imbibition, the respiration was completely inhibited by cyanide, but after this time the alternative respiration markedly developed, reaching a maximal cyanide-resistance 12 to 16 hours after the start of imbibition. Subsequently, the alternative respiration gradually disappeared. The actions of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol indicated that the appearance was dependent on cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that the disappearance depended on both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The alternative pathway contributed to state 4 respiration, but not to state 3 respiration, in mitochondria from 1-day-old cotyledons. On day 3, it contributed to neither state 3 nor state 4.

  6. Comparison of hybrid vigor based on parental distance in SSR markers and agronomic traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

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    Worawit Sorajjapinun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis of seed yield in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek has created an interest among plant breeders todevelop hybrid mungbean cultivars. The objective of this study was to compare levels of heterosis among four F1 hybrids ofmungbeans with different genetic distance. The hybrids were developed by using Sukhothai (SKT as the female parent andpollinated by male parents of different genetic distance as revealed by SSR markers. They were H192 (close distance, C357(moderate distance, TC1965 (high distance and W166 (very high distance. The results revealed that the F1 from the parentswith larger genetic distance showed higher heterosis in yield per plant and number of pods per plant. Thus SSR markerscombined with yield components can be used to identify parental lines with high genetic distance for hybrid seed productionin mungbean. This approach potentially helps to reduce the amount of fieldwork required for evaluation of F1 hybrids.

  7. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  8. Effect of PGR producing bacterial strains isolated from vermisources on germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaj Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from vermisources andscreened for Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production among themonly nine strains produce IAA and they were identified asStreptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Alcaligenes spp., Erwinia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Among all other strains Bacillus sp. showed the higher IAA production hence selected for further molecular analysis and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus was grown in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/ml of tryptophan for seven days at pH 7 and at 37ºC. Crude IAA was used for in vitro phytostimulatory studies using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The plant growth parameters were analyzed at different day intervals (5, 10 and 15 days. Supplementation of 5 ml crude IAA (2mg/ml of tryptophan dynamically enhances the plant growth parameters after 15 days.

  9. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-05

    The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

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    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  11. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  13. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

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    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  14. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  15. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-02-02

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T) and B. liaoningense USDA 3622(T) and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar.

  16. Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  18. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  19. Beans, Boats and Archaeobotany : A New Translation of Phasolus, or why the Romans ate neither Kidney beans nor Cow peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, Frits; Wilkins, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Among classicists, archaeobotanists and agricultural historians, the meaning of the word phasolus (ϕασηλος in Greek) is ambiguous. While Latin scholars have agreed that the word refers to a type of pulse or bean, there are various interpretations and subsequent identifications as to which botanical

  20. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement