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Sample records for chinese bean oil

  1. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  2. Oil from Chinese deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesegart, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    From 18–25 March the United Nations’ “International Meeting on Petroleum Geology” will take place in China, a country whose oil reserves up to the mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world’s oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy m...

  3. Effects of plant oils on oviposition preference and larval survivorship of Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) on azuki bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Kazi Shahanara; Itino, Takao; Ichikawa, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of four kinds of oils, neem, castor, sunflower and sesame, was evaluated for the control of infestation of stored azuki bean with Callosobruchus chinensis. Neem and sesame oil-treated beans were less preferred and oviposition of adults on these beans decreased. After three days of release, 100% adults were found dead on neem oil-treated beans and very few eggs were laid. Effects on the survival rate of immature beetles and percentage of seed weight loss were also recorded, Neem a...

  4. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  5. Ionic Liquids as Additives of Coffee Bean Oil in Steel-Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Grace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness and ever-growing restrictive regulations over contamination have increased the need for more environmentally-friendly lubricants. Due to their superior biodegradability and lower toxicity, vegetable oils are a good alternative to replace currently-used mineral oils. However, vegetable oils show low oxidation and thermal stability and poor anti-wear properties. Most of these drawbacks can be attenuated through the use of additives. In the last decade, ionic liquids have emerged as high-performance fluids and lubricant additives due to their unique characteristics. In this study, the tribological behavior of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids is investigated as additives of coffee bean oil in steel-steel contact. Coffee bean oil-ionic liquid blends containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% of each ionic liquid are studied using a block-on-flat reciprocating tribometer and the test results are compared to commercially-available, fully-formulated lubricant. Results showed that the addition of the ionic liquids to the coffee bean oil reduces wear volume of the steel disks, and wear values achieved are comparable to that obtained when the commercially-available lubricant is used.

  6. Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report examines inaccuracies in some commonly held views of China's National Oil Companies (NOCs). Until now, there has been little analysis to test the widely held presumption that these companies act under the instructions and in close co-ordination with the Chinese government. Nor have critics been challenged on the validity of their concerns about investments made by these NOCs, and how they could be blocking supplies of oil for other importing countries. The IEA analysis, however, finds that contrary to these views, the NOCs actually operate with a high degree of independence from the Chinese government, and their investments have in fact largely boosted global supplies of oil and gas, which other importers rely on.

  7. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasheed A; Aroke U. O; Muazu M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9), foam height (16cm), alcohol insoluble (3.45%), moisture content (4.2%) and free acidity of (0.10). The antibact...

  8. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Shelat, Vishal G.; Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet.Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups...

  9. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Dina Qahwaji; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Mohammad Abu Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four group...

  10. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  11. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  12. Whither Chinese involvement in the Canadian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese oil companies have become increasingly focused on securing Canadian oil. However, most of the oil sands leases with good geological and economic prospects are owned by Canadian or Canadian subsidiary companies that have proven unwilling to sell future revenue and reserves bases to the Chinese. The opportunity for a trade of Canadian oil assets for improved Chinese market entry has been limited to Husky, which has existing Chinese connections, as well as to global companies such as Exxon, Shell and BP. In May 2005, the Chinese company Sinopec completed a $105 million deal with Calgary-based Synenco and formed a joint venture for oil sands production and an upgrader. Chinese interests are also involved in the Calgary-based Value Creation Group of Companies as well as in BA Energy. Enbridge has recently invested $25 million in the Heartland upgrader project, presumably with the aim of building pipelines to move new products to Asia. The most significant problem for Canadian oil sands companies and the greatest opportunity for Chinese companies involves the utilization of trained Chinese workers for the $100 billion in oil sands construction planned for the next decade. Significant immigration barriers exist for Chinese workers in Canada, and there is a legitimate concern that Chinese workers may want to stay in Canada. It was concluded that while there may be mutual opportunities for collaboration between Chinese and Canadian energy companies, the Alberta government currently faces challenges in work shortages, immigration, and pressures from unions and environmental lobbyists. 1 fig

  13. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  15. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  16. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil...

  17. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  18. Determination of some micro and macro elements of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants after addition of olive oil solid waste to soil

    OpenAIRE

    İlay, Remzi; SÜMER, Ali

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effects of olive oil solid waste (OSW) applications on bean and sunflower macro and micro element contents were investigated. Olive oil solid waste mixed with soil at the rates of 0, 3, 5 and 7 % by weight. Plants were grown in the pots under controlled conditions throughout 45 days for sunflower and 30 days for bean. Plant carbon/nitrogen (C/N), some macro elements; nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and micro elements; boron...

  19. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  20. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  1. Chinese Players Active in International Oil and Gas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Chinese oil companies have been pacing the globe to secure energy assets to fuel the fast- growing Asian powerhouse's economy.China's enterprises eyed global expansion via mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in 2010 as the country's economic power was on increase.Apparently, China accelerated the pace of cross-border cooperation "in" its "go-world" policy last year, to tap into more natural resources through the M&A activities of its big oil and gas producers.Among the deals, 80 percent took place in Canada and South America and unconventional sources, including deepwater drilling and oil sands assets.

  2. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  3. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  4. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion. PMID:23221697

  5. Assessment of and Countermeasures against International Political Risk for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Considering the circumstances of Chinese oil companies and the latest development of international politics and world oil situation, this paper analyzes the implication and main factors of international political risk for Chinese oil companies, and presents the principles, mode and scoring method for the assessment of international political risk.Strategies and suggestions to manage international political risk in their overseas business are provided for Chinese oil companies.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R4M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of 60Co in the generation R4M4 (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  7. Effects of compression ratio on variation of stresses and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans and its curve fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝宽; 许方雷; 肖志红; 李昌珠; 李辉; 曾凡涛; 叶红齐

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among compression ratio and stress, compression ratio and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans were studied using the test equipment under different states of oilseeds and ways of pressing manners. The results show that variation of stress increases nonlinearly and residual oil rate decreases with the increase of compression ratio. Lower residual oil of cake was obtained by pressing gently and frequently. Curve fitting on both relationships had been built and parameters for the model were obtained by least square procedure and deepening research on pressing process of the castor beans for castor oil. By assuming that the value of oil production is equivalent to the value of energy consumption, the critical compression ratio of intact seeds is 6.2 while that of crushed seeds is 3.6.

  8. The effects of olive oil solid waste applications on the some physiological and morphological parameters of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sümer, Ali; İlay, Remzi; Kavdır, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    By considering the storage problems and the environmental harms caused by agricultural by-products and industrial wastes, researches on reusing these wastes are gaining great importance. In this study we investigated the olive oil solid waste applications on beans and sunflower growth. Olive oil solid waste (OSW) mixed with soil at the rates of 0, 3, 5 and 7 % by weight. Some physiological and morphological parameters such as chlorophyll contents, plant height, plant thickness etc...

  9. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  10. Study of the Castor Oil Plant Pie in the Planting of the Castor Beans with Different Global Density of the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; José Sebastião de Melo Filho

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed at with this work to evaluate the chlorophyll tenor in the leaves, of potassium in the pecíolos of the castor beans, the physical analysis of the soil and the tenors of the present macronutrientes in the leaves of the castor beans cultivated with growing doses of castor oil plant pie and degrees different from density of the soil. The experiment had beginning in the period of May 02, 2006 and he/she extended to September 02, 2006, in house-of-vegetation, without atmosphere contro...

  11. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60 male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Group I serve as male control, group II serve as diabetes control which were fed with normal rat chow while rats in the test group were fed with graded doses of soya bean oil supplements and water ad libitum for 4weeks, at the end of the supplementation, plasma lipid profile and glucose level were determined. Results: All the diabetic induced rats had significantly higher (p<0.01 Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but lower HDL-C levels than all the non-diabetic rats. The data obtained after supplementation revealed that soya bean oil significantly reduced the glucose level and ameliorated the lipid profile with attendant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels, but with a corresponding increases in HDL-C levels respectively when compared to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: The observation of significant changes in plasma lipid profile, glucose level might be as a result of supplementation with soybean oil. It is therefore concluded that Soya bean oil possess significant antidiabetic activity that can improve the physiological and biochemical parameters which are abnormally altered due to diabetes mellitus.

  12. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye; Akinola, Franklin Folasele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60) male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz...

  13. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol. PMID:26365705

  14. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quansah, E.; Preko, K.; Amekudzi, L.K. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah, University of Science and Technology (KNUST), University Post Office, PMB Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel), B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene), B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene) and B0 (pure kerosene). The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  15. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  16. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation. PMID:25522633

  17. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of Chinese Accounting Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry and Related Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accounting standards are the tools for distribution of the revenues. Their development trend is influenced by their stakeholders. The evolution of American oil and gas accounting standards has been shaped by the profit-maximizing process of American oil and gas company shareholders, which for outside lobbying relied on their huge capital and organization. The development and perfection of Chinese new oil and gas accounting standards should consider not only the criterion of standards but also the real political fact in China oil and gas industry. The research on oil and gas accounting standards is an academic study as well as a political analysis.

  19. Cultural challenges to Chinese oil companies in Africa and their strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the cultural challenges faced by Chinese oil companies in Africa with the linguistic method and raises five corresponding suggestions in the end. First, the languages and culture of both African countries and China were studied, and the differences between them were uncovered. Second, the effects of colonization on African languages and culture were studied in a historically comparative way; the African tradition and modern culture were considered jointly. Third, the acknowledgement that African people give to Chinese culture was studied; the future development of Chinese cultural influence in Africa was anticipated. Based on all these studies, the cultural challenges to overseas investment management of Chinese oil companies in Africa were summarized into five aspects, i.e., the challenge in communication, working habit, religion, orientation and coexistence. Considering the lessons that some of the western oil companies have learnt in Africa and the development status of Chinese oil companies, five suggestions were given as follows: going aligned with the foreign policy of Chinese government, investigating and setting regulations, strengthening cross-cultural training for staff, developing harmonious relationship with the local communities and the application of localization.

  20. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil from oil of castor beans cultivated in tropical and sub tropical zones of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available castor oil was analysed for specific gravity at 25/25 degree C (0.959), acid value (0.5), iodine value (85), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4769), viscosity at 25 degree C (6.8), and hydroxyl value (162). Fatty acid composition, including palmitic acid (I. 7%), stearic acid (1.39%), oleic acid (5.73%), linoleic acid (6.25%), and ricinoleic acid (84.2%) was estimated by means of GLC. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil (DCO- 15) 93% was prepared by using sodium bisulphate and sodium bisulphite and other reaction conditions. Unbodied DCO was analysed for iodine value (139), acid value (3.6), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4820), specific gravity at 25/25 degree C and 30/30 degree C (0.9333 and 0.925) viscosity at 25 degree C and 30 degree C (200 cps and 1.85 poise), respectively. Fatty acid composition was also determined to ascertain the extent of dehydration due to the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 36.9%) and non conjugated linoleic acid (NCLA, 46.8%). Ricinoleic acid was estimated as 3.83%. Unbodied DCO-15 was in good conformance with the standard specification of ASTM and other values cited in the literature. (author)

  1. Chinese Government Approves Nanhai Oil Refinery Project of CNOOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Nanhai Oil Refinery Project independently funded by CNOOC was approved by the related governmental departments in late July. The offshore oil giant builds the 12 million ton-per-year oil refinery in Guangdong Province in the next three years to tap the lucrative South China oil market.The investment in the project will total at least 16 billion yuan (US$1.93 billion).

  2. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  3. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  4. Revelation of Multinational Acquisition Theory for Chinese Oil Companies' Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces multinational acquisition theory and explains its importance in the context of Chinese petroleum industry and overseas acquisition activities of three major oil companies, CNPC, SINOPEC and CNOOC.Strategic options for their overseas investment are recommended and further assessed in terms of geopolitics.

  5. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Transnational Operation Environment for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method was developed to assess the transnational operation environment in host countries for Chinese oil companies. This method includes an assessment criterion system of the environment, which is to be scored by the experts. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematical methods were used to make evaluation and get the assessment result and ranking of three host countries.

  6. Oil Price Likely to Spur Chinese Industry Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Concern over surging oil prices could mean the restructuring and upgrading of China's industries,according to a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) official, who made those remarks in Changchun, the capital of Northeastern China's Jinlin Province, in early September, when the 4th Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Exno was held.

  7. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, JI-XIN; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...

  8. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  9. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:27605771

  10. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  11. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines. PMID:24506013

  12. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program. PMID:27357917

  13. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro; Eliane Dias Quintela; Jaison Pereira de Oliveira; José Carlos Seraphin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem) extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC) determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT) determination. The number of ...

  14. Transesterified Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei-gang; Ma Lei; Jiang Jian-xin; Jiang Li; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the transesterification of the Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed (LCS) oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel. The methyl esters of LCS oil were compared with soybean esters to determine biodiesel fuel performance and properties. The fatty acids content in the seed kernel oil (LKO) and coat oil (LCO) were quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). LKO contains 95.1% saturated acids (capric, lauric, myristic and palmitic)and 2.3% unsaturated acids (oleic). LCO contains 24.6% saturated acids (palmitic and stearic) and 73.6% unsaturated acids (oleic,linoleic and palmitoleic). The kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point, cloud point, flash point and cetane index were determined. The methyl esters of LKO had a higher kinematic viscosity and a lower cold filter plugging point value, so it has better performance in cold weather. The biodiesel of LCS oil has fuel properties within the limits prescribed by American (ASTM D 6751-02)standards, except for a slightly lower flash point of LKO biodiesel than that prescribed by these standards (130℃). Thus, LKO and LCO biodiesel have great potential to be used on a large scale as fuel for diesel engines.

  15. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  16. Low-Temperature Performance of Chinese Automotive Engine Oils-Status and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Performance of automotive engine oils at low temperature has been extensively investigated in the last 50 years. The resulting understanding of engine oil rheology has been used to devise bench tests that predict their performance under cold starting conditions. Cold starting the engine has been essentially overcome for passenger car engines with fuel injection but pumpability of the engine oil has grown more demanding. Two tests (MRV TP1 and the Scanning Brookfield Technique with Gelation Index measurement) have become the measures of quality in pumpability response at low temperatures. As such they have become ASTM Methods and are included in a number of international specifications such as SAE J300 and ILSAC/API GF-1, 2, 3, and 4 accompanied by appropriate limits.For a number of years, the Institute of Materials (IOM) has generated a database for Asia-Pacific engine oils for IOM Subscribers. This database can be used to assess and compare the performance of Chinese engine oils at low temperature to one another and to the larger world of engine oils also covered by the IOM database. This IOM survey of Asia-Pacific provides a complete 36-test analysis of 300 passenger car engine oils from the region including a wide range of chemical analysis, rheological measurements and performance assessments. In this paper we concentrate on the low temperature analysis of the rheology of samples collected in China since 2000.The important factors affecting formulation of engine oils in China today are:1. The recent inclusion of the MRV TP-1 and Scanning Brookfield Gelation Index requirements in China's National Standards for engine oil quality; 2. The availability of higher quality oils; 3. The higher treat rate of additives will require increased attention from the formulators in the selection of VI Improvers and Pour Point Depressants (PPDs). In the latter case, new PPDs are likely to be required to provide formulators with robust and economical solutions to face these new

  17. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  18. A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yingxue; He, Zhen; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study inclu

  19. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p corn, soya bean meal and DLRM. PMID:17615009

  20. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  1. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beans (15 oz.) ½ medium onion 2 garlic cloves 2 tablespoons vegetable oil ½ teaspoon cumin (ground) ½ teaspoon salt ¼ ... pieces. Set the onions aside. Peel the garlic cloves and mince ... heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. Add the onions and ...

  2. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  3. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    potential vehicle fuel economy, we projected that China's on-road vehicles could consume approximately 614-1016 million metric tons of oil per year (12.4-20.6 million barrels per day) and could emit 1.9-3.2 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year in 2050, which will put tremendous pressure on the balance of the Chinese and world oil supply and demand and could have significant implications on climate change. Our analysis shows that, while improvements in vehicle fuel economy are crucial for reducing transportation energy use, containing the growth of the vehicle population could have an even more profound effect on oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. This benefit is in addition to other societal and environmental benefits--such as reduced congestion, land use, and urban air pollution--that will result from containing vehicle population growth. Developing public transportation systems for personal travel and rail and other modes for freight transportation will be important for containing the growth of motor vehicles in China. Although the population of passenger cars will far exceed that of all truck types in China in the future, our analysis shows that oil use by and CO{sub 2} emissions from the Chinese truck fleet will be far larger than those related to Chinese passenger cars because trucks are very use intensive (more vehicle miles traveled per year) and energy intensive (lower fuel economy). Unfortunately, the potential for improving fuel economy and reducing air pollutant emissions for trucks has not been fully explored; such efforts are needed. Considering the rapid depletion of the world's oil reserve, the heightened global interest in addressing greenhouse gas emissions, and the geopolitical complications of global oil supply and demand, the study results suggest that unmanaged vehicle growth and limited improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency will lead to an unsustainable and unstable transportation system in China. In other words, while our projections do

  4. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  5. Migration of epoxidised soya bean oil into foods from retail packaging materials and from plasticised PVC film used in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Mayo, A; Gilbert, J

    1990-01-01

    Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser and heat stabiliser in a number of feed contact materials, in particular in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and gaskets. The level of ESBO migration into foods has been determined using a combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analytical procedure. The study has included both the use of ESBO-containing materials for retail packaged foods and the domestic use of plasticised PVC films for applications such as wrapping food and covering food for re-heating in a microwave oven. Levels of ESBO in fresh retail meat samples wrapped in film ranged from less than 1 to 4 mg/kg, but were higher (max. 22 mg/kg) in retail cooked meat. Migration into sandwiches and rolls from 'take-away' outlets ranged from less than 1 to 27 mg/kg depending on factors such as the type of filling and the length of the contact time prior to analysis. The levels of migration of ESBO into cheese and cakes were consistent with previous experience with plasticiser migration--direct contact with fatty surfaces leading to the highest levels. When the film was used for microwave cooking in direct contact with food, levels of ESBO from 5 to 85 mg/kg were observed, whereas when the film was employed only as a splash cover for re-heating foods, ESBO levels ranged from 0.1 to 16 mg/kg. For a variety of baby foods there was no significant difference in ESBO levels between foods packaged in glass jars with PVC gaskets and foods in cans containing ESBO in the can lacquer. In both cases ESBO levels were low, ranging from less than 0.1 to 7.6 mg/kg. It is not clear for these retail samples, if the low levels observed (average 1.9 mg/kg) result solely from migration or contain some contribution from naturally occurring epoxides. PMID:2307263

  6. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  7. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium Ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae Against Blattella Germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiang Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three mainactive ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluatecontact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method.Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z-ascaridole(29.7%, isoascaridole (13.0%, ρ-cymene (12.7% and piperitone (5.0%. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole,isoascaridole and -cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13,0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds weretoxic to male German cockroaches and (Z-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 g/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 g/adult.Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches.

  8. 杉木油的提取及干馏油的精制%Extraction of Chinese fir wood oil and refinement of pyroligneous oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凯; 曹少元; 陈科

    2012-01-01

    水蒸气蒸馏得到的杉木油品质优良,但得率低,为1.7%,干馏法粗杉木油得率高,为9.6%,但质量差,不能直接用于调香.为了提高杉木油得率和质量,该文以杉木根为原料,分别采用水蒸气法和干馏法制备杉木油,并对干馏油进行精制研究,重点研究过氧化物和脂肪醇存在下的自由基取代反应,及反应条件对干馏油香气改善效果的影响,得出较佳的工艺条件为:反应温度140℃,反应时间1h.采用GC-MS对提取的杉木油化学成分进行鉴定,其中水蒸气杉木油含有26种成分、杉木粗干馏油含有50种成分、干馏精油含有34种成分,它们的主要化学成分基本一致,都含有α-柏木烯、β-柏木烯、柏木醇、罗汉柏烯等体现柏木油特征香气的化学成分.粗干馏油成分复杂,经过精制处理,除去了大量的羧酸类、酚类及α,β-不饱和羰基化合物等影响干馏油香气质量的物质.干馏精油色浅、具有柔和的木香、膏香、树脂样的气息,基本能满足调香的要求,在香料工业中有广阔的应用前景.%With the steam distillation method, high quality of Chinese fir oil could be obtained, but low yield of 1.7%. With the retorting method, yield of the crude pyroligneous oil was as high as 9.6%, but its quality was poor and the oil could not be directly used in the perftimery.In order to improve the quality and yield of Chinese fir oil, the Chinese fir oil was extracted from Chinese fir root by the steam distilling and retorting methods. The purification process of the crude pyroligneous oil was also studied, which focusing on the radical substitution reaction in the presence of the peroxide and the fatty alcohol and the influence of the reacting condition on the smell of the pyrolysis oil, and suitable technological conditions of reaction temperature and time (140癈 and lh) were obtained. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the steam distillation oil, the crude

  9. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese appetite for energy could potentially result in two scenarios. Each of these will systematically be developed and examined in the course of this paper. The pessimistic scenario foresees energy-driven foreign policy placing China in a dangerous confrontation with the U.S., Japan, the EU and India. American, Indian and Chinese navies are already competing across the Indian Ocean, with participants upgrading their naval forces, building deep-sea ports, constructing military bases and forging alliances across the Indian Ocean. They have not yet entered into conflict, but as their naval presence increases, the possibility of an armed clash grows. This scenario represents a 'nightmare option' that could have grave consequences for the entire globe, as the U.S., China, India and two EU members are all states armed with nuclear weapons. Conversely, an opposite scenario can be envisaged. A liberal integrationist perspective offers huge potential for multilateral energy security cooperation. Despite all tensions, China, the West and India are oil importers, and, as consumers, they could work together in fostering common strategies. What is more, their economies are mutually intertwined, and any conflict would bring about fatal collateral damage to the economic well-being of all parties. In short, China and America and potentially India could synchronize approaches to energy issues and address worries about growing global competition for crude oil. Being that as it may, China's further integration into multilateral energy organizations - notably the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Energy Agency (IEA) - will not be an easy task. Introduction of the new standards and requirements could be a burden for Chinese economic development. Membership in the IEA would reduce freedom in energy policy-making as it requires intelligencesharing, market liberalization and surrendering a certain degree of national

  10. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  11. Oil puzzle in Chinese stock market%中国股票市场的石油效应之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董坤; 谢海滨; 汪寿阳

    2012-01-01

    本文对股票市场是否具有可预测性进行探讨,通过石油价格的变动,进而预测上海证券交易所综合指数(SSEC)的收益率.检验结果显示,自2003年后,上证综指收益率存在显著的石油效应,这种中国所特有的石油效应之谜,既不能用有效市场假说来解释,也无法被信息反应不足假说所解释.%This paper reinvestigates the predictability of equity market index return of Chinese Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index (SSEC) using the changes in oil prices. We find a significant oil effect on the predictability of SSEC returns after the year 2003. The effect can neither be explained by the efficient market hypothesis nor be explained by the information under-reaction hypothesis, which presents a Chinese oil puzzle.

  12. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  13. Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Blumea balsamifera leaves, was found to possess fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. The main components of the essential oil of B. balsamifera were 1,8-cineole (20.98%, borneol (11.99%, β-caryophyllene (10.38%, camphor (8.06%, 4-terpineol (6.49%, α-terpineol (5.91%, and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate five constituent compounds, namely, 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, α-terpineol, and 4-terpineol. 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 2.96 mg/L, 4.79 mg/L, and 7.45 mg/L air, resp. and were more toxic than camphor (LC50 = 21.64 mg/L air and borneol (LC50 = 21.67 mg/L air. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 10.71 mg/L air.

  14. Determination of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors by HRGC/HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Matsumura, Toru; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2011-09-01

    Homologue and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs formulations are key information for the source identification of PCBs contamination as well as for the risk assessment caused by potential exposure. The isotope dilution technology in combination with high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) has made the accurate determination of such profiles possible. So far, various commercial PCB formulations except Chinese products have been successfully determined. Two PCBs containing insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors have been determined with the same methodology for comparability. The total concentration PCBs in two oil samples were 790,000 μg g(-1) and 720,000 μg g(-1), respectively. TriCBs, TetraCBs, and DiCBs were found to be most abundant. Concentration of dioxins contamination in two samples is 650-670 ng TEQ g(-1), of which 69-71ngTEQg(-1) from PCDD/Fs with the predominant congeners of 1,2,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF. The contributions of DL-PCBs in total TEQ in both samples were more than 85%. The dioxin-like toxicity in insulating oils contained in electrical capacitors could be considered receive attention as an important dioxins source if such wastes are not managed in an environmentally sound manner. PMID:21741068

  15. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  16. Waste cooking oil as an energy resource: review of Chinese policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huiming; Wang, Qunwei; MORTIMER Simon R

    2012-01-01

    Converting waste cooking oil into biofuel represents a three-win solution, dealing simultaneously with food security, pollution, and energy security. In this paper, we encode the policy documents of waste cooking oil refining biofuel in China based on content analysis, and explore the related policies from the two dimensions as basic policy tools and enterprises supply chain. Research indicates the weak institution coordination of policy issuing entities. Also, the findings show that tools of...

  17. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  18. Can leek interfere with bean plant–bean fly interaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Bandara, PB; V Kumar; Ninkovic, Velemir; Ahmed, Elham; Pettersson, Jan; Glinwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean ßy, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult ßies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the ßy. Leek and several...

  19. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Uk Kim; Su-Jin Jung; Kyeong-Ryeol Lee; Eun Ha Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Kyung Hee Roh; Jong-Bum Kim

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but dif...

  20. Oil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable body of economic literature shows the adverse economic impacts of oil-price shocks for the developed economies. However, there has been a lack of similar empirical study on China and other developing countries. This paper attempts to fill this gap by answering how and to what extent oil-price shocks impact China's economy, emphasizing on the price transmission mechanisms. To that end, we develop a structural vector auto-regressive model. Our results show that an oil-price increase negatively affects output and investment, but positively affects inflation rate and interest rate. However, with price control policies in China, the impact on real economy, represented by real output and real investment, lasts much longer than that to price/monetary variables. Our decomposition results also show that the short-term impact, namely output decrease induced by the cut in capacity-utilization rate, is greater in the first 6 periods (namely half a year), but the portion of the long-term impact, defined as the impact realized through an investment change, increases steadily and exceeds that of short-term impact in the 7th period. Afterwards, the long-term impact dominates, and maintains for quite some time. (author)

  1. Fundamental geological elements for the occurrence of Chinese marine oil and gas accumulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Paleozoic strata in the Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin are the major targets for marine petroleum exploration, with developed high quality hydrocarbon, mainly argillite. The deep burial of these source rocks suggests that they mainly develop gas instead of oil. But different maturities of organic matter may lead to different hydrocarbon facies. Through thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), the hydrocarbon in the carbonate rocks may undergo a process of pyrolytic cracking and be catalyzed into gases. The marine reservoirs mainly consist of carbonate and clastic rocks, and the former is controlled by sedimentary facies, dolomitization, solution, TSR and cracking. The multiphase tectonic cycling develops multiple source-reservoir-cap combinations and diversified types of traps and reservoirs, featuring multiphase reservoir formation, mainly late-phase formation or consolidation.Palaeo-uplifts play a controlling role in hydrocarbon accumulation. Differences in major source rocks in the three basins lead to different locations of oil-gas accumulation layers, different types and patterns of reservoirs and different features of reservoir formation.

  2. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  3. Controle do caruncho-do-feijoeiro Zabrotes subfasciatus com óleos vegetais, munha, materiais inertes e malathion Control of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus with vegetable oils, trashing residues, inert materials and malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rabelo Barbosa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Na busca de alternativas ao controle químico do caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera:Bruchidae, avaliou-se, em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., o efeito de três genótipos, cv. Carioca e duas linhagens contendo a proteína arcelina (Arc1 e Arc3, e da adição nos grãos armazenados de óleo de soja (Glycine max Merrill; óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., munha (resíduo de trilha da colheita, calcário dolomítico e terra de formigueiro, comparativamente aos grãos não tratados e ao controle químico com malathion 500 CE. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, localizado no Município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em condições não controladas. Na linhagem Arc1, constatou-se maior proteção aos danos do caruncho, observando-se redução do número de ovos e de adultos emergidos e da porcentagem de sementes danificadas em relação à Arc3 e à cv. Carioca. Quando os grãos foram tratados com malathion, óleo de nim e óleo de soja, observou-se menor número de ovos e de adultos emergidos e redução de danos, e não houve diferença na porcentagem de sementes danificadas entre o malathion e o óleo de nim. A mistura das sementes com terra de formigueiro conferiu baixa proteção ao caruncho, enquanto os tratamentos com munha e calcário dolomítico não apresentaram eficiência na redução da progênie e dos danos de Z. subfasciatus.The effects of malathion 500 CE, neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and soybean (Glycine max Merrill oils, inert materials and trashing residues on the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera:Bruchidae were evaluated on bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L., using the cultivar Carioca and two lines containing the protein arcelin (Arc1 and Arc3. The experiment was carried in a laboratory at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, under noncontrolled conditions. The highest

  4. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  5. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.A. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. As sementes fumigadas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros avaliados em relação à testemunha. O óleo essencial de citronela revelou potencialidade alelopática sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão que variou de acordo com a concentração do óleo.Seed treatment with essential oils is an alternative method tool in integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bean seeds with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. The effect of C. winterianus essential oil on P. vulgaris was evaluated at levels of 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. The fumigated bean seeds showed the statistics differences among the analyzed parameters when was compared with the no treated check. The essential oil of Java grass revealed allelopathic potentiality on bean seed germination which varied according to the oil concentration.

  6. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F0 animals and growth and development of the F1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  7. Studies on preparations and analysis of essential oil from Chinese fir%杉木精油的制备及其成分分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洛华; 秦特夫; 大平辰郎

    2004-01-01

    Three steam distillation devices (D-1, D-2 and D-4) or one simultaneous distillation (D-3, water-diethyl ether) as well as the process of CO2-SFE (Supercritical fluid extraction) were adopted in extraction of essential oils from Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lancedata (Lamb) Hook.) and the chemical components of the extracted essential oil were analyzed by Gas chromatograph-MS analyses. The results showed that the essential oil could be almost extracted out within 2 hours and the device-3 had the highest extraction efficiency. The major chemical component of the oil was cedrol. The yield of the extracted essential oils from Chinese fir decreased gradually with the increase of the distillation time. The best condition for extraction by means of CO2-SFE is 100 kg·cm-2 in pressure and 40℃ in temperature for .%本文研究了杉木精油的提取方法及其化学成分.采用了四种蒸馏装置来提取杉木精油.结果表明:大部分精油在蒸馏的2小时内被提取出;装置3具有较高的提取效率;杉木精油的主要化学组成为松柏醇;精油获得率随蒸馏时间段的增加而逐渐减小;采用CO2-超临界流体萃取法提取杉木精油, 压力为100kg/cm2和温度为40(C时为其最佳条件.图1表4参10.

  8. Diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacteria in the near-surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkane-degrading bacteria have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but their ecological characteristics in hydrocarbon microseep habitats are still poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacterial community in the near-surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field were investigated using molecular techniques. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of alkB genes revealed that Gram-negative genotypes (Alcanivorax and Acinetobacter dominated n-alkane-degrading bacterial communities in the near-surface soils of oil and gas reservoirs, while the dominant microbial communities were Gram-positive bacteria (Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus in background soil. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR results furthermore showed that the abundance of alkB genes increased substantially in the surface soils above oil and gas reservoirs even though only low or undetectable concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in these soils. The results of this study implicate that trace amounts of volatile hydrocarbons migrate from oil and gas reservoirs, and likely result in the changes of microbial communities in the near-surface soil.

  9. Diversity and abundance of n-alkane degrading bacteria in the near surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alkane degrading bacteria have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but their ecological characteristics in hydrocarbon microseep habitats are still poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and abundance of n-alkane degrading bacterial community in the near surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field were investigated using molecular techniques. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of alkB genes revealed that trace amount of volatile hydrocarbons migrated from oil and gas reservoirs caused a shift of the n-alkane degrading bacterial community from Gram-positive bacteria (Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus to Gram-negative genotypes (Alcanivorax and Acinetobacter. Real-time PCR results furthermore showed that the abundance of alkB genes increased substantially in the surface soils underlying oil and gas reservoirs even though only low or undetectable concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in these soils due to efficient microbial degradation. Our findings broadened the knowledge on the ecological characteristics of alkane degrading community in hydrocarbon microseeps and may provide a new approach for microbial prospecting for oil and gas (MPOG.

  10. Diversity and abundance of n-alkane degrading bacteria in the near surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Tang, Y.; Ren, C.; Zhao, K.; Sun, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Alkane degrading bacteria have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but their ecological characteristics in hydrocarbon microseep habitats are still poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and abundance of n-alkane degrading bacterial community in the near surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field were investigated using molecular techniques. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of alkB genes revealed that trace amount of volatile hydrocarbons migrated from oil and gas reservoirs caused a shift of the n-alkane degrading bacterial community from Gram-positive bacteria (Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus) to Gram-negative genotypes (Alcanivorax and Acinetobacter). Real-time PCR results furthermore showed that the abundance of alkB genes increased substantially in the surface soils underlying oil and gas reservoirs even though only low or undetectable concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in these soils due to efficient microbial degradation. Our findings broadened the knowledge on the ecological characteristics of alkane degrading community in hydrocarbon microseeps and may provide a new approach for microbial prospecting for oil and gas (MPOG).

  11. Diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacteria in the near-surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Tang, Y.; Ren, C.; Zhao, K.; Sun, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Alkane-degrading bacteria have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but their ecological characteristics in hydrocarbon microseep habitats are still poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacterial community in the near-surface soils of a Chinese onshore oil and gas field were investigated using molecular techniques. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of alkB genes revealed that Gram-negative genotypes (Alcanivorax and Acinetobacter) dominated n-alkane-degrading bacterial communities in the near-surface soils of oil and gas reservoirs, while the dominant microbial communities were Gram-positive bacteria (Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus) in background soil. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results furthermore showed that the abundance of alkB genes increased substantially in the surface soils above oil and gas reservoirs even though only low or undetectable concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in these soils. The results of this study implicate that trace amounts of volatile hydrocarbons migrate from oil and gas reservoirs, and likely result in the changes of microbial communities in the near-surface soil.

  12. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  13. purple_bean_crithab_streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This linear coverage represents critical habitat deliniation for the Purple Bean in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. Linear segments were digitized over a...

  14. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  15. The overseas acquisitions and equity oil shares of Chinese national oil companies: A threat to the West but a boost to China's energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that both China and the Western countries need to de-politicize China's global quest for energy security. The Western politicians need to recognize that their rhetoric in relation to China's efforts to secure energy supplies overseas has done nothing but intensify China's fear that they might seek to deny China's access to the oil it needs for the development. China needs to reconsider its stance of distrusting global oil markets and to recognize that the reliance on aggressive acquisitions of overseas oil fields and equity oil production has been of little help in strengthening its energy security. Given that China's energy security depends increasingly and deeply on the stability of global oil markets and reliable and growing oil supplies to the market, China shares with other major oil importing countries profound common interests in maintaining and strengthening the stability of global oil markets and reducing the chance of potential disruptions to oil supply and the resulting damaging oil price shocks.

  16. Study of the Formation Mechanism of International Crude Oil Price and Chinese Oil Secure Strategy%国际油价形成机制及我国石油安全战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕青

    2012-01-01

    The paper uses the international crude oil price as plotline,and uses the regression analysis tools to build the oil price model,which analyses quantitatively the effects and the formation mechanism from the supply and demand factors.In the end,the paper provides choices of Chinese strategy in the context of future global energy supply and demand pattern changes.%本文以国际原油价格为主线,采用回归分析工具构建油价供需模型,从供需因素着手,定量分析国际原油价格影响因素和形成机制,并提出在未来全球能源供需格局变化的背景下我国的战略选择。

  17. Sustainable and economic feasibility of castor bean oil production: a methodology to support investments decision taking; Viabilidade economica e sustentabilidade da producao de oleo de mamona: uma metodologia de suporte a decisao de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Glawther Lima [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Mestrado em Logistica e Pesquisa Operacional; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean agribusiness is supported by a complex supply chain that involves several inputs, main products and other derived products. So, the control of production costs is a basic and extremely important activity for the optimization of management processes. Using literature research, case study and assessment of scenarios, the present work was developed with the objective of conceiving a methodology, based on theoretical and economical aspects, the formation of costs and the revenue forecasting, which is applied with the aid of a computational program for supporting decision taking in the castor bean small producers agribusiness. The results obtained in the case study show, for example, that about 40% of the projects are considered accepted under the criterion of recovering the invested capital in less than 2 years. Also, it reveals that 75% of the projects contribute for the increase of the producer income and about 63% of the projects provide enough profit to add value to the producer's properties. Finally, it is clear that the proposed methodology makes easier a better agricultural planning, allowing a better utilization of the raw material and it facilitates the analysis of diversifying other derived products and revenue sources in the castor bean chain. (author)

  18. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of French Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Runner Bean, Phaseolus... as follows: Sec. 319.56-51 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya...

  19. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and ...

  20. The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prices,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges%The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prioes,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateo Radnic

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ .EDIBLE OIL CONSUMPTION IN CHINA According to the data of Edible Oil Consumption in China,this market has constantly growth over the last years, doublingits size in only 8 years.For the past year 2010, the market sizereaches over 29 thousand tons.

  1. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit. PMID:22204023

  2. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  3. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  4. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  5. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  6. 石油企业海外投资风险预警研究综述%Review of Early Warning Research on Overseas Investment Risk of Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨嵘; 王丽君

    2016-01-01

    随着我国石油企业海外投资规模的不断扩大,我国石油企业海外投资面临的风险也越来越大。如何预警这些风险、避免损失也就成为石油企业海外投资必须重视和解决的问题。对此,在梳理了我国专家学者关于石油企业海外投资风险预警各种观点的基础上,重点从风险识别、风险评估和风险预警三个方面,阐述了我国石油企业海外投资风险的预警措施,并提出了未来我国石油企业海外投资风险的预警研究重点和方向。%With the increasing expansion of overseas investment scale,Chinese oil Companies are facing bigger and bigger risks in the overseas investment. How to give an early warning to these risks and avoid the losses has become an important problem that needs to be emphasized and solved in oversea investment of Chi-nese oil companies. Therefore,based on the analysis of scholarsˊdifferent views about the early warning in the overseas investment of Chinese oil companies,the paper mainly explained the early warning measures of over-seas investment of Chinese oil companies from three aspects:risk identification,risk assessment,and risk early warning,and also pointed out the future early warning research focuses and direction of Chinese oil companiesˊoverseas investment risk.

  7. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Sharma; Rajinder Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 2...

  8. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun-Bo; Tian Bo; Yang Chun; Qiu Lijun; Liu Aizhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular...

  9. 中国油画民族化中的认识误区及其再思考%On the Misunderstanding in the Nationalization of Chinese Oil Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正虹

    2013-01-01

    Nationalization of Chinese oil painting is a gradually practical process at different levels , which is the only way out for oil painting in China .Nationality of oil painting in China has aroused so many worries and many people have a misunderstanding of it.Therefore, we put foreword some globalised rethinking on the basis of these misunderstandings .That is to say, nationalization of Chinese oil painting should inherit European oil paintings ’ rules and then receive Chinese national spirit and consciousness .Only in this way can nationalization of Chinese oil painting win their own world in the world .%中国油画民族化历程是一个从不同层面逐步推进的实践性过程,这是油画在中国发展的唯一出路。进入中国之后的油画,其民族化过程中遭遇了不少质疑,很多人对其民族化有着一定的认识误区。针对这些认识误区,提出基于全球化背景下的中国油画民族化的发展建议,指出中国油画民族化的道路应该是继承欧洲油画的基底,并深刻融入中国民族意识和民族精神的发展道路,只有这样,中国油画才能在世界舞台上赢得自己的天地。

  10. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.)

  11. Propoxur (2-iso propoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate) residues in cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 mg/kg. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. Experiments were also designed to provide data on 14C-propoxur residues in cocoa beans, uptake of the chemical from pod surfaces and persistence on the leaves and in the soil. Leaves were picked from the lowest five branches of the cocoa trees, 13 months after the application of 14C-propoxur, dried at 800 for 4 days, stored and analysed for their 14C-activity. Soil samples were collected at 15 cm and 30 cm distances from the trunk base of treated trees, dried, stored and analysed. The analytical procedure involved extraction and clean-up steps after a standard method using acetone, chloroform and a coagulating agent. Propoxur residues in cocoa leaves collected 13 months after the insecticide application ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg. Residues in shells from cocoa pods treated with 14C-propoxur 2 months prior to harvest did not exceed 0.02 mg/kg. Propoxur residues in soil samples collected at 6, 16, and 19 months following application ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg. These low levels are probably related to volatilization and heavy rains. Possible binding to soil cannot be precluded. The low levels of propoxur are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to humans

  12. 中国燃油期货市场的VaR与ES风险度量%Backtesting Risk Models for Chinese Fuel-oil Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 魏宇

    2012-01-01

    By taking four representative indices of Chinese fuel-oil futures market as sample, VaR predic ting is used for eight risk models. Furthermore, two robust backtesting methodologies, unconditional coy erage test and conditional coverage test, are introduced to estimate the accuracy for VaR predictions pro duced by different models. The main results show that adding international fuel-oil price volatility as ex planatory variable in typical models is helpful to improve risk estimation accuracy of Chinese fuel-oil fu tures market. In addition, FIGARCHcsT-SST is moderately good in overall consideration of description ef ficiency and estimation accuracy to extreme risk.%近年来,我国燃油期货市场取得快速发展,但有关该市场波动特征和风险状况的研究却非常缺乏。以上海期货交易所燃油期货价格指数为例,分别在多头和空头两种头寸状况以及5种不同分位数水平下,运用条件覆盖检验、非条件覆盖检验等后验分析方法,实证对比了不同风险测度模型对VaR和ES两种不同风险指标估计的精度差异。研究结果表明:在我国燃油期货市场的风险测度估计中考虑国际燃油价格波动因素有助于获得更为精准的风险测度精度;在综合考虑了模型对价格变化动力学的刻画效果以及对极端风险的测度精度等因素后,FI—GARCHCST-SST模型是一个相对合理的风险测度模型选择。

  13. 杉木屑精油提取工艺研究%Extraction technology of essential oil from Chinese fir sawdust was studied

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓媛; 黎继烈; 钟雄; 李楠; 韦晓菊

    2013-01-01

    Fir essential oil is a kind of widely used natural spices, which is used for food antiseptic and preservation. The essential oil can be acquired by extraction technology from Chinese fir sawdust. Taking the content of cedrol as an indicate, the monofactorial experiment and the Box-Behnken experimental were applied to optimize the conditions of steam distillation and got the best distillation conditions; Chinese fir sawdust soaking in the water of 40℃ for 60 min, using the three-stage distillation of varied tempcrtures method, the water vapor flow rate of 94 mL/min and the total distillation time 185 min. The first-stage distillation temperature was 130℃ and time 60 min; the second-stage distillation temperature was 150℃ and time 65 min; the third-stage distillation temperature was 160℃ and 60 min. Under these conditions, the mass fraction of cedrol could reach 41.39% and the essential oil 0.91%.%杉木精油是一种用途广泛的天然香料,可用于食品防腐保鲜.杉木屑经水蒸气蒸馏可以提取杉木精油.以柏木醇为考察指标,通过单因素试验、Box-Benhnken试验,对杉木屑精油水蒸气蒸馏条件进行优化,确定其最适蒸馏条件:先用40℃热水浸泡60 min,采用三级变温蒸馏方式,水蒸气流量94 mL/min,蒸馏总时间185 min,第1级水蒸气温度130℃蒸馏60 min,第2级蒸馏温度150℃蒸馏65 min,第3级160℃蒸馏60 min.在此条件下,精油得率0.91%,柏木醇质量分数为41.39%.

  14. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  15. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  16. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  17. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  18. Research on Chinese Oil Reserves Strategy%我国石油储备发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新新

    2014-01-01

    Oil is an important fossil fuel and also raw materials indispensable for modern industry. Building the self-contained oil reserve system is a vital step to ensure a country’s national security and its sustainable development. Oil reserves, which are divided into national oil reserves and commercial reserves, have features like the tangibility, legal mandate, availability and publicity. At present, China, as the world’s second-largest oil-demanding country and the biggest contributor to the annual increase in oil consumption, increasingly depends on imports, therefore, it is extremely urgent for China to establish its scientiifc and complete oil reserve system. The paper elaborates the implication, impact and signiifcance with respect to oil reserves, and gives some suggestions on China’s petroleum reserve system construction in aspects of legislation and fund-raising strategy.%石油是重要的能源和现代工业不可缺少的原材料,其稳定的供给关系到一个国家经济社会的持续、健康发展和国家安全,因此,构建完善的石油储备体系是必不可少的重要措施。石油储备具有实物性、法律强制性、可动用性及公共性等特性,其储备模式主要分为国家石油储备和商业储备。目前,我国已成为世界石油市场需求量第二大国家和增长量最快的国家,同时,石油对外依存度逐年扩大,建立科学完备的石油储备体系亟待我们认真研究、高度关注。通过阐述石油储备的内涵,分析了石油储备的作用和意义,从石油储备立法、石油储备结构完善、石油储备资金筹集等诸多方面,对我国石油储备体系建设的发展策略提出了建议。

  19. 我国油企与乌兹别克油气市场的合作策略选择%Cooperation Strategies Between Chinese Oil Companies and Uzbekistan Oil and Gas Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余冠军; 黄瑾; 颜玉川

    2015-01-01

    乌兹别克斯坦油气资源较为丰富,是其独立之后依靠自身资源搞建设的重要依托。随着中国能源战略的变化,近年来我国部分油企先后进入该国市场,随着我国“一带一路”(“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”)发展战略的提出,中国和乌兹别克斯坦的能源利益联系必然更加紧密。但是,由于乌兹别克斯坦的油气储量较为丰富但开发不足,同时政治相对保守,市场经济体系尚未建立,我国油企进入乌兹别克斯坦市场遇到诸多困难,因此,从政治、社会安全及宏观经济运行等方面研究乌兹别克斯坦的市场特点,探索与该国的油气合作策略十分必要。我国油企与乌兹别克斯坦油气市场合作应该从利用政府间友好关系开辟油气合作市场、合理规避法律陷阱、探寻多种合作模式、主动承担一定的社会责任、加强人才培养和储备等方面入手。%Oil and gas resources are abundant in Uzbekistan,which are an important resources support for the construction after its independence. After the development strategy of One Belt and One Road(Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road)was put forward,China and Uzbekistan will certainly have a closer relationship in energy interests. However,Chinese oil companies have encountered lots of difficulties when entering Uzbekistan market for the following reasons:underdeveloped Uzbekistan oil and gas in spite of its rich reserve,conservative politics and the unestablished market economic system. Therefore,it is necessary to explore the cooperation strategies between China and Uzbekistan by studying the characteristics of Uzbekistan market from the aspects of politics,social security and macro-economy operation and so on. This paper suggests that the cooperation between Chinese oil companies and Uzbekistan oil and gas market should start from opening up the oil and gas

  20. 国际石油市场变化对中国能源安全的启示%Suggestions of changes in international crude oil market for Chinese national energy security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海峰

    2011-01-01

    今年以来,受国际地缘政治事件影响,国际石油市场发生了较大变化.部分产油国出口中断,国际油价高位震荡,国际原油航运风险加大.为保障中国能源安全,中国应加快石油进口来源地多元化步伐,加快国家石油储备体系建设,并通过中国油轮船队建设、运输方式多元化等措施,提升进口原油运输安全水平.%This year a serial of geopolitical events cast significant influence on international crude oil market. As a result, oil export from some North African and Middle East countries was interrupted. World crude oil prices are driven to a high level. Besides, oil marine transportation via Suez Canal and Aden Bay is exposed to more pirating risks. In order to ensure Chinese national energy security, China need to further diversify its oil import originations. Also, national oil reservation system shall be established as soon as possible. To improve oil transportation safety, China should build more oil pipelines as well as self-owned VLCCs.

  1. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  2. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  3. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of droug...

  4. Propoxur residues in cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October, 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 ppm. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. (author)

  5. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  6. Radiation disinfestation of dry leaf tobacco and coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary tests conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation in Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer indicated little differences in the mortality of insects exposed to 0.10-0.40 kGy. Other insects in the 2 kg bean lots were minimally affected by a dose of 0.05 kGy, but doses of 0.10-0.40 kGy resulted in nearly complete mortality. In 60 kg jute bags of export coffee exposed to 0.665-0.958 kGy, all the insects were dead when examined 1 month after irradiation. At 6 months, most of the untreated beans were damaged. In 15 kg tin cans, all the insects in both the irradiated and untreated cans were dead within 1 month; the insects in the untreated cans probably died from lack of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide. Irradiation had no detectable effect on the caffeine, fat and moisture contents, or on the pH. No moisture was gained by the coffee beans in cans, while the moisture in beans in jute bags increased from 9.6% to about 13.7% within 1 month. Export bales of leaf tobacco (about 100 kg, 100 cm x 75 cm x 40 cm) were artificially infested with Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and irradiated with 0.30-0.60 kGy at a rate of 0.5-1.0 kGy per hour. The bales were repositioned 12 times to provide thorough exposure to the gamma rays. There was no increase in the number of insects during the 6 months of storage; however, live insects were found at 2 months. Live insects found at the initial examination in phosphine fumigated bales indicated inadequate fumigation. A dose of 5 kGy had no effect on the nicotine content, the volatile oil content or composition, or the pH. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  7. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  8. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA, in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of castor-oil and organic compost (four doses of each and three witnesses, with further study of orthogonal contrasts . The castor bean showed effective results in the variables chlorophyll content (ppm in leaves and number of days to flowering of the first cluster (DIAFI. Compost organic waste not produced any significant result for both variables.

  10. 蓖麻饼粕的脱毒及综合开发利用%The Detoxification and Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Castor Bean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树军; 狄建军; 白靓; 黄凤兰; 穆莎茉莉; 魏永春; 张国文

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean meal is a by-product after oil extraction,it contains rich protein and amino acids castor bean hulls and a spot of castor toxins,has a high utilization value.This paper reviewes the detoxification of castor bean meal,the development and utilization of proteins in detoxificated castor bean meal,castor toxins and castor bean hull.%蓖麻饼粕是蓖麻籽榨油后的副产品,含有丰富的蛋白和氨基酸、蓖麻壳及少量的蓖麻毒素,具有较高的综合利用价值.本文综述了蓖麻饼的脱毒,脱毒蓖麻饼蛋白质、蓖麻饼中毒素及蓖麻壳的开发利用.

  11. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  12. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  13. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  14. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  15. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  16. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  17. Development and turning of Chinese oil industry in the future five years%未来5年中国油脂行业的发展与转机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚

    2012-01-01

    Chinese current economic environment and development trend were analyzed from a macroeco-nomic perspective,and households' consumption, edible oil consumption trends and evolution of oil industry were also analyzed. The development of Chinese oil industry and favorable turning in the future five years were discussed, such as focus, accurate position, excavating value of industry chain, raising the level of comprehensive utilization of oil,deepening the brand marketing, enhancing the products value, extensive innovation, establishing differentiated competiveness,etc.%从宏观方面分析了我国的经济环境现状及其发展变化趋势,同时分析了居民消费、油脂消费趋势及油脂行业的演变.对我国油脂行业未来5年发展与转机进行了阐述,如在专注如一,准确定位;挖掘产业链价值,提高油脂综合利用水平;深化品牌营销,提升产品价值;广泛创新,建立差异化竞争力等方面做了一些探讨.

  18. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East and So

  19. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  20. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833)

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-01-01

    In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae) and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules)...

  1. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  2. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Oil of Chinese medicine for preventing radiation dermatitis%中药油外涂预防放射性皮炎的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明华; 蔡超; 贾荣娟; 张文军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the preventive measures for radiation dermatitis in cancer patients.Methods 85 cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were randomly divided into an observation group (n=43) and a control group (n=42).Self-made oil of Chinese medicine was smear on the skin of radiotherapy area before the radiotherapy every time in the observation group,while MEBO in the control group.After the radiotherapy,both groups continued the treatment for 3 days,3 times a day.The incidences of radiation dermatitis were observed.Results The incidence of radiation dermatitis was 13.95%,4 cases got grade Ⅰ radiation dermatitis,2 grade Ⅱ,but no grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ in the observaiton group.The incidence of radiation dermatitis 38.09%,7 cases occurred grade Ⅰ radiation dermatitis,6 grade Ⅱ,3 grade Ⅲ,and no grade Ⅳin the control group.There were statistical differences between the two groups(P < 0.05).Conclusion Selfmade oil of Chinese medicine for preventing radiation dermatitis has some effect.%目的 探讨肿瘤患者放射性皮炎的预防措施.方法 将85例接受放射治疗的肿瘤患者随机分为观察组(n=43)和对照组(n=42).观察组每次接受放疗前外涂自制中药油于放疗区皮肤,对照组涂抹湿润烧伤膏,照射后两组均继续用药3天,每天3次,观察放疗性皮炎的发生情况.结果 观察组,放疗性皮炎发生率13.95%,其中Ⅰ级放射性皮炎4例,Ⅱ级放射性皮炎2例,未发生Ⅲ、Ⅳ级放射性皮炎;对照组放射性皮炎发生率38.09%,其中Ⅰ级放射性皮炎7例,Ⅱ级放射性皮炎6例,Ⅲ级放射性皮3例,未发生Ⅳ级放射性皮炎;两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 自制中药油外涂对预防放射性皮炎有一定的效果.

  5. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  6. 中国石油产业全球战略研究—CPGS模型构建%Study on Global Strategy of Chinese Oil Industry: Establlishing the CPGS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉昌

    2012-01-01

    The paper points out that in view of the accelerating steps of the Chinese transnational oil enterprises into the international market, studies on the global strategy of this industry are relatively scarce and, to remedy this, formulates a CPCS theoretical model for the Chinese oil industry in its endeavor toward globalization on the basis of the CGMS model after taking into consideration the properties of the oil industry, thus expanding the application of the globalization theory in the logistics field.%指出中国的石油跨国企业加快了进入国际市场步伐,但现有研究对于这个重要产业的全球化战略研究却相对不足,并以CGMS模型为基础,融入石油产业特性后构建了中国的石油产业全球化战略的理论模型CPGS,拓展了全球化理论在行业的应用.

  7. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East and Southeast Asia to the United States, Western Europe, Japan and China. It is often on these busy routes that the oil pollution incidents occur. Since the Second World War, oil has become the main sour...

  8. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  9. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  12. 不同工艺提取的杉木精油组分含量研究%Analysis on Components of Essential Oil from Chinese fir by Different Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文珠; 吴青思; 哈力克; 许婉丽

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from Chinese fir were extracted by atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, hydro-distillation and dry distillation, and determined by GC/MS. The results showed that essential oils extracted by different methods had evident fragrance of Chinese fir. 26 compounds were identified from essential oil extracted by atmospheric, accounting for 90.44% of the total oils. 6 compounds were identified from that by vacuum distillation, accounting for 90.14% of total oils. 47 compounds were identified from that by hydro-distillation, accounting for 96.71% of total oils. 37 kinds of compounds were identified from that by dry distillation, accounting for 99.21% of total oils.%采用常压水中蒸馏、减压水中蒸馏、直接蒸汽蒸馏和干馏等方法分别提取杉木精油,用 GC/MS 进行组分含量测定。结果表明:提取的4种杉木精油均具有明显的杉木香气;常压水中蒸馏提取的杉木精油主要组分为高沸点的柏木醇,鉴定出26种化合物,占精油总量的90.44%;减压蒸馏提取的杉木精油大部分为酯类、酸类和醇类,鉴定出6种化合物,占精油总量的90.14%;直接蒸汽蒸的杉木精油主要含有柏木醇、α-柏木烯及多种萜烯类物质,鉴定出47个化合物,占精油总量的96.71%;干馏法提取的杉木精油主要含有高沸点结晶状的柏木脑和低沸点的α-柏木烯等烯烃类,鉴定出37种化合物,占精油总量的99.21%。

  13. 5000 L中国南极科学考察油囊设计与应用%STUDY ON THE USE OF FLEXIBLE OIL TANKS IN THE CHINESE ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠东; 陈永祥; 王兆军; 李院生; 周长城; 马彦

    2013-01-01

    油料保障是南极内陆科学考察的主要任务之一,随着考察用油量的增加,使用油桶运输效率低、转运劳动强度大、空桶回收困难等问题越来越突出,用油囊能有效地解决这些问题.本文介绍了5000L中国南极科学考察油囊设计,包括容量确定、结构设计、材料选择和加工成形等等,新研制的油囊应用于中国南极昆仑站考察,结果表明,能够较好地解决油桶存在的问题,同时能够满足南极内陆考察严酷环境的使用要求.%Oil supply is one of the most important supporting infrastructures in inland Antarctic expeditions.When oil is transported in oil drums,it creates problems resulting from the increase in oil consumption,such as low transport efficiency,high levels of transfer labor,and difficulty in recycling the empty drums.An effective solution to these problems is the use of flexible tanks.In this study,an investigation into the use of 5 000 L flexible tanks for the Chinese Antarctic expedition was carried out,including meeting capacity requirements,structure design,material choice,and contour machining.Following the use of flexible tanks in the Chinese Antarctic expedition to Kunlun Station,the results showed that they met the requirements for inland Antarctic expeditions.

  14. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  15. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  16. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  17. Economic Viability of Small Scale Organic Production of Rice, Common Bean and Maize in Goias State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcido Elenor Wander

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the economic feasibility of small scale organic production of rice, common bean and maize in Goias State, Brazil. During 2004/05 and 2005/06 growing seasons, rice, common bean and maize were produced at the organic farm of Embrapa Rice and Beans in five mulching systems (fallow, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna aterrima and Sorghum bicolor , with and without tillage. Soil tillage consisted of heavy disc harrowing followed by light disc harrowing. All operations and used inputs were recorded. Based on those records, the production costs for each crop were estimated for each cropping season. The costs included operations like sowing, ploughing, harrowing, spraying, fertilizer broadcasting and harvesting, as well as inputs like seeds, inoculant strains of Rhizobium, neem oil and organic fertilizers. The benefits include the gross revenue obtained by multiplying the production amount with the market price for non-organic products. For the purpose of analysis of competitiveness of organic production in comparison to conventional farming the market prices assumed were those of conventional production. In the analysis, the costs of certification were not considered yet due to lack of certifiers in the region. For comparison between traits, net revenue, the benefit-cost-ratio (BCR and the break even point were used. In 2004/05 growing season the BCR varied from 0.27 for common bean on S. bicolor mulch system with tillage up to 4.05 for green harvested maize produced after C. juncea in no tillage system. Common bean and rice were not economically viable in this growing season. In 2005/06 growing season the BCR varied between 0.75 for common bean after S. bicolor in tillage system and 4.50 for green harvested maize produced after fallow in no tillage system. In this season common bean was economically viable in leguminous mulching systems and green harvested maize was viable in all mulching systems.

  18. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  19. On the Specification of Components - the JavaBeans Example

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, Maritta; Santen, Thomas; Souquières, Jeanine

    2002-01-01

    We specify the JavaBean component model and concrete beans using a combination of UML class diagrams, an extension of Object-Z, and life sequence charts. We extend Object-Z by keywords that allow one to concisely describe the interface of a bean by an Object-Z class specification. The component model specification provides specification templates consisting of class diagrams, Object-Z fragments, and life sequence charts that precisely capture the functional behavior of beans in general, inclu...

  20. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  1. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  4. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  5. HPLC法同时测定红油豆瓣酱中的7种非食用色素%Simultaneous Determination of Seven Non-edible Dyes in Broad Bean Paste with Chili Oil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟少枢

    2011-01-01

    建立了红油豆瓣酱中碱性嫩黄O、碱性橙Ⅱ、罗丹明B和苏丹红Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ同时测定的高效液相色谱法.样品用乙腈/水(7:3,V/V)超声提取后冷冻离心去油,以甲醇和乙酸铵缓冲溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,检测波长为435 nm、510nm和547 nm.上述7种色素组分在其质量浓度为0.1~10 μg/mL时有良好的线性关系,方法的检测限为0.005~0.025 μg/mL,平均加标回收率为88.5%~97.2%,相对标准偏差为1.3%~4.4%.该方法灵敏可靠,适合于红油豆瓣酱中多种非食用色素的同时检测.%A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of auramine O, basic orange Ⅱ, rhodamine B and sudan dye Ⅰ,Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water(7:3, V/V) and remove grease by freeze centrifuge, gradient eluted with methanol and ammonium acetate as the mobile phase and detected at 435 run, 510 nm and 547 nm. All of the seven compounds demonstrated good linear relationship in the range of 0.1-10 μg/mL. The limits of detection were 0.005 μg/mL~0.025 μg/mL; the average recovery for seven dyes ranged from 88.5% to 97.2%; and the relative standard deviations were from 1.3% to 4.4%. The method was sensitive, reliable and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of multiple non-edible dyes in broad bean paste with chili oil.

  6. Stem Anatomy of Country Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touhidul Islam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical investigation has been made on the stem of country bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet at different stages of growth following the standard paraffin method of microtechnique. The epidermis is single layered with multicellular hairs and glandular trichomes. Beneath the epidermis there are 5-10 layers of cortical cells. The primary vascular tissue appears after the elongation of the first internode of the stem. The vascular bundles are collateral and arranged in a ring. There are two types of vascular bundles, large and small. There are one or more small vascular bundles in between two large bundles. The large vascular bundle contains xylem and phloem but small bundle may or may not contain both xylem and phloem. There are several poles of primary phloem outside the primary xylem. The pericycle is discontinuous. Two adjacent groups of sclerenchyma are connected by one or two layers of sclerenchymatous cells. The cambium initiates in the primary vascular bundle between xylem and phloem at the basal part of the stem of 4 days old plant. Gradually it extends towards the upper part. The cambium is at first confined to the fascicular region. Subsequently it extends into the interfascicular region forming a complete cambial ring. After the formation of the fascicular cambium it gives rise to the secondary xylem adaxially and secondary phloem abaxially. In the mature stem, most of the vessels are multiple, some are paired while the others are solitary. Most of the fibre cells in the phloem region are found in groups. The fibre cells are arranged in such a way that the structure looks like a pyramid. Tannin cells are present in the phloem region of younger and mature stem. The secretory cells devoid of tanniniferous contents have been observed in the secondary phloem region of the mature stem. The phellogen appears in the deeper cortex and produces periderm with lenticel. The periderm consists of 3-5 layers of cork cells abaxially and 2-3 layers

  7. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  8. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  9. The Research and Development of Red Bean Paste Cake%红豆沙蛋糕的研究开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲玲; 张国悦; 石艳红; 张巍

    2011-01-01

    self-made red bean paste is taken as major material in the study, and conclusion is made through the single factor and orthogonal that ,the production of red bean paste cake formula: 100 g flour, eggs 125 g, red bean paste 125 g, soft sugar 60 g, water 30 g, baking soda 2 g, salad oil 50 g, production, soft taste sweet and nutrition complementary, strong fragrant bean cake of oil.%以自制红豆沙为蛋糕的主要添加材料,通过单因素及正交试验得出生产红豆沙蛋糕的配方:面粉100g、鸡蛋125g、红豆沙125g、绵白糖60g、水30g、泡打粉2g、拉油50g。用此配方生产的产品营养互补、口感松软香甜、豆香味浓郁。

  10. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  11. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  12. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (15N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  13. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  14. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  15. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  16. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  17. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  18. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  19. Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the Euphorbiacea Aleurites montana as consequence of growth under 700 ppm CO2 in air. A study on photosynthesis and photorespiration in the Chinese tung-oil tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three months old plants of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana (Euphorbiaceae) were cultivated for 4 months in air containing 700 ppm CO2. These plants, which grow substantially better in the CO2-enriched atmosphere, were analyzed by mass spectrometry for photosynthesis and photorespiration together with control plants grown all the time in normal (350 ppm CO2) air. Thereafter part of the plants was subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO2 in the atmosphere and again analyzed for photosynthesis and photorespiration. Gas exchange measurements carried out by mass spectrometry show that the ratio of O2 evolved to CO2 fixed is about 0.5. Apparently, part of the CO2 fixed is channelled into a metabolic path without concomitant O2-evolution. Although the plant has no succulent appearance, apparently a Crassulacean type metabolism is performed. When Aleurites plants grown all the time in normal air with 350 ppm, are exposed for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO2 the treatment completely inhibits this CO2-fixing portion. When Aleurites plants, grown for 4 months in a CO2-enriched atmosphere of 700 ppm CO2, are subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO2, the features of control plants show up again. When these plants are tested under 350 ppm CO2 the Crassulacean type CO2-fixation apparently is not inhibited by SO2. Photorespiration, although low, is present in the same activity as in the controls. Seemingly, an increased level of CO2 in air trends to alleviate the impact of the SO2 at least in the Chinese tung-oil tree. (orig./MG)

  20. Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the Euphorbiacea Aleurites montana as consequence of growth under 700 ppm CO{sub 2} in air. A study on photosynthesis and photorespiration in the Chinese tung-oil tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P. [Central South Forestry Univ., Zhuzhou/Hunan (China); Bader, K.P.; Radunz, A.; Schmid, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Zellphysiologie; Kahmann, U.; Ruppel, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Morphologie der Pflanzen und Feinbau der Zelle

    1998-03-01

    Three months old plants of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana (Euphorbiaceae) were cultivated for 4 months in air containing 700 ppm CO{sub 2}. These plants, which grow substantially better in the CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere, were analyzed by mass spectrometry for photosynthesis and photorespiration together with control plants grown all the time in normal (350 ppm CO{sub 2}) air. Thereafter part of the plants was subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and again analyzed for photosynthesis and photorespiration. Gas exchange measurements carried out by mass spectrometry show that the ratio of O{sub 2} evolved to CO{sub 2} fixed is about 0.5. Apparently, part of the CO{sub 2} fixed is channelled into a metabolic path without concomitant O{sub 2}-evolution. Although the plant has no succulent appearance, apparently a Crassulacean type metabolism is performed. When Aleurites plants grown all the time in normal air with 350 ppm, are exposed for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} the treatment completely inhibits this CO{sub 2}-fixing portion. When Aleurites plants, grown for 4 months in a CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere of 700 ppm CO{sub 2}, are subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2}, the features of control plants show up again. When these plants are tested under 350 ppm CO{sub 2} the Crassulacean type CO{sub 2}-fixation apparently is not inhibited by SO{sub 2}. Photorespiration, although low, is present in the same activity as in the controls. Seemingly, an increased level of CO{sub 2} in air trends to alleviate the impact of the SO{sub 2} at least in the Chinese tung-oil tree. (orig./MG)

  1. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  2. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription fa...

  3. Treatment Technology for VOC Emissions from Oil Refineries : Case study of measures taken to minimize VOC emissions at Swedish petrochemical companies to be appiled at Chineses Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Odén, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give suggestions on what measures to take to improve the VOC emission situation in refineries in Tianjin, China, through existing technologies in refineries in Sweden. This has been done by identifying the main places of leakage in oil refineries in Sweden, identifying what VOC compounds are emitted from the plants and the amounts emitted, mapping out different measures taken by oil refineries in Sweden to minimize VOC emissions, evaluating the different measures ...

  4. China's exports and the oil price

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, João Ricardo; Mollick, André Varella; Pedro H. Albuquerque; León-Ledesma, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    The increase in oil prices in recent years has occurred concurrently with a rapid expansion of Chinese exports in the world markets, despite China being an oil importing country. In this paper we develop a theoretical model that explains the positive correlation between Chinese exports and the oil price. The model shows that Chinese growth can lead to an increase in oil prices that has a stronger impact on its export competitors. This is due to the large labor force surplus of China. We then ...

  5. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  6. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  7. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  8. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  9. Physicochemical properties of starches obtained from three varieties of Chinese sweet potatoes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen Zenghong,; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Starches isolated from 3 typical types of Chinese sweet potato varieties (XuShu18, SuShu2, and SuShu8) were characterized and compared with starches isolated from potato and mung bean. The 3 sweet potato starches differed in granule size; particle size distribution; protein, lipid, and phosphorus co

  10. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  11. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  12. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  13. Study on the establishment of Chinese oil compensation fund%浅论中国油污基金的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵月林

    2007-01-01

    China, as a big shipping country and a council of International Maritime Organization (IMO), has great amount of oil imports and exports. However it is not a member state of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 1992 (FUND 92) and does not establish a national compensation fund for oil damage. This paper compares the current three different compensation fund models and analyzes the legal characters of the oil pollution compensation fund, then gives some suggestions on establishment of national oil pollution fund in China.%中国是一个航运大国,也是世界海事组织的理事国,且有着较大的油类进出口量,然而它却不是的成员国,而且也尚未建立国内油污基金.针对以上情况,论述国内油污赔偿基金建立的必要性,比较国际上现有的三种油污基金模式,分析油污基金的法律特征,提出建立国内油污基金的建议.

  14. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  15. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  16. Two distinct nanovirus species infecting faba bean in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Adane; Bencharki, Bouchaib; Torok, Valeria; Katul, Lina; Varrelmann, Mark; Josef Vetten, H.

    2009-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies raised against a Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) isolate from Egypt and a Faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV) isolate from Ethiopia, a striking serological variability among nanovirus isolates from faba bean in Morocco was revealed. To obtain a better understanding of this nanovirus variability in Morocco, the entire genomes of two serologically contrasting isolates referred to as Mor5 and Mor23 were sequenced. The eight circular ssDNA components, each ...

  17. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with...

  18. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  19. Effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia are major public health problems in many developing countries. Common beans are a staple food in various Eastern African countries. Beans contain high amounts of iron, but the iron is poorly absorbed due to the presence of the iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid. With the overall aim of increasing the intake of bioavailable iron from beans by plant breeding strategies, this study evaluates the importance bean polyphenols on iron absorption. In common beans the polyphenols are concentrated in the bean hulls. Therefore bean hulls were used as a source of natural bean polyphenols and added in three different amounts to a non-inhibitory test meal (phytic acid free bread rolls). Iron absorption from the test meals was measured in three groups of 16 apparently healthy female volunteers using stable iron isotope techniques. Each volunteer consumed a test meal with and a test meal without bean polyphenols extrinsically labeled with 57Fe and 58Fe respectively. Iron absorption was determined based on the incorporation of iron stable isotopes into red blood cells 14 days after administration. Isotopic analysis was performed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results of the absorption studies showed a dose dependent negative effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans. At the lowest polyphenol content tested (20 mg per test meal) no impact on iron absorption was found (p 0.92). A polyphenol content of 50 mg reduced the mean iron absorption significantly from 20.3% to 17.3% (p 0.044). The highest polyphenol content of 200 mg significantly reduced the mean iron absorption from 14.3% to 7.9% (p 0.0001). Further studies are planned to evaluate the relative effect of polyphenols and phytic acid on iron absorption from beans to provide guidance for breeding beans with improved iron bioavailability. (author)

  20. 气相色谱质谱联用技术对栝楼籽油亚麻酸和亚油酸含量的分析%GC-MS Analysis of Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid in Chinese Trichosanthes kirilowii Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常景玲; 邓小莉; 张军霞; 赵旭娜; 杨建磊

    2009-01-01

    通过皂化法和尿素包合法对热榨、冷榨栝楼(Trichosanthes kirilowii)籽油进行提取,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术检测分析栝楼籽油中亚麻酸、亚油酸成分、含量.结果表明,热榨栝楼籽油中亚麻酸相对含量为 4.16%~11.58%,亚油酸相对含量为 68.62%~95.84%.冷榨栝楼籽油中不含亚麻酸成分.此方法适用于栝楼籽油的成分分析.%The paper deals with how hot-rolled and cold-rolled Chinese trichosanthes oil are firstly pretreated through saponified method and urine packaging method.Then the content of both linolenic acid and linoleic acid can be analyzed by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrum(GC-MS).The purpose is to analyze the contents of linolenic acid and linoleic acid in Chinese trichosanthes oil. In hot-rolled Chinese trichosanthes oil,the contents of linolenic and Linoleic acid are 4.16%-11.58% and 68.62%-95.84% respectively while there is no linoleic acid in cold rolled trichosanthes oil.In conclusion,GC-MS analysis of can be applied to the composition of in Chinese trichosanthes oil.

  1. Crushing of roasted arabica coffee beans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Severa, L.; Stoklasová, Pavla; Buchar, J.

    Vol. 1. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 2010 - (Vozárová, V.). s. 24-25 ISBN 978-80-552-0463-5. [International Conference on Food Physics ICFP 2010 /9./. 20.10.2010-21.10.2010, Nitra] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : strain gauges * impactor * roasted beans Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  2. Business Model Build of Chinese Oil Enterprises on Mesoscopic Level%介观层面中国石油企业商业模式的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨嵘; 郭黎星

    2012-01-01

    Both for the emerging high-tech industry and traditional business, the business model has become the basic content of the managemental decision-making. As the sustentacular enterprise in China, the national oil companies need to construct a business model which is very important for the stable development of the most national oil enterprise. In this paper, the author uses the theory ofmesoscopic business model to analyse the environment of the Chinese oil companies, confirm the interface, and construct the business model to help the companies finding the value of the enterprise and the method of defense the rivals.%无论对于高新技术企业还是传统企业,商业模式已成为企业管理决策的基本内容。石油企业是国民经济支柱性企业,构建中国特色的石油企业商业模式,成为保障石油企业稳定持续发展的重要组成部分。本文采用介观商业模式理论对中国石油企业进行环境分析、交互界面确定,并最终构建商业模式,帮助企业寻找挖掘价值的切入点和防御竞争对手的方法。

  3. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  4. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  5. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  6. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. [Characterization of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Winged-Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. Protein Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Budijanto1,2*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. has similar protein concentration to soybean. Higher productivity of winged-bean as compared to soybean and ground nut makes it feasible to develop this legume as a natural source of vegetable protein. Protein isolate was made by isolating protein from defatted winged-bean flour employing its isoelectric point, and several stages of centrifugation. The protein content of winged-bean protein isolate was 83.87% (db. Analysis of physicochemical properties of winged-bean protein isolate, suggested that the bulk density was 0.60 g/ml with water and oil absorption capacity of 2.61 g H2O/g solid; 1.60 ml oil/g solid, respectively. Moreover, this protein isolate had emulsion capacity of 70.5%; foam capacity of 89.5% and formed gel at concentration of 15%. Data on amino acids composition indicated that glutamic acid was the highest concentration (6.37%, whereas tryptophan was the lowest one (0.37%. Several essential amino acids, such as leucine dan lysine, were found in winged-bean protein isolate at a concentration of 3.2% and 2.8%, respectively, calculated from the total amino acid.

  7. The Moche Lima beans recording system, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi S. Melka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One matter that has raised sufficient uncertainties among scholarsin the study of the Old Moche culture is a system that comprises patterned Lima beans. The marked beans, plus various associated effigies, appear painted by and large with a mixture of realism and symbolism on the surface of ceramic bottles and jugs, with many of them showing an unparalleled artistry in the great area of the South American subcontinent. A range of accounts has been offered as to what the real meaning of these items is: starting from a recreationaland/or a gambling game, to a divination scheme, to amulets, to an application for determining the length and order of funerary rites, to a device close to an accountancy and data storage medium, ending up with an ‘ideographic’, or even a ‘pre-alphabetic’ system.The investigation brings together structural, iconographic and cultural aspects, and indicates that we might be dealing with an original form of mnemotechnology, contrived to solve the problems of medium and long-distance communication among the once thriving Moche principalities. Likewise, by reviewing the literature, by searching for new material, and exploring the structure and combinatory properties of the marked Lima beans, as well as by placing emphasis on joint scholarly efforts, may enhance the studies.

  8. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  9. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (plectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  10. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  11. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  12. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Błaszczak; Grażyna Ellmann-Wąsik; Renata Lesiak-Jerzyk

    2013-01-01

    Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV) when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing prim...

  13. Strategic Planning for Environmental Protection of Chinese Oil Companies%中国石油企业环境保护战略规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽萍; 巩艳芬; 杨东红

    2011-01-01

    针对石油企业环境问题的现状,采用SWOT分析法,分析了石油企业实行环境保护战略的所面临外部的机会与威胁及内部的优势与劣势,从石油企业环境保护战略的基本原则,各阶段目标及战略重点方面进行了规划,研究结果有利于国家石油资源的战略安全、油田所在地的经济振兴和城市的稳定发展及石油企业的可持续发展.%Based on the status of environmental issues in oil companies, this paper analyzes the external opportunities and threats and internal strengths and weakness when the oil companies implement environmental protection strategy by SWOT analysis, plans the basic principles, objectives in each stage and strategic focus of the environmental protection strategies. The results are conducive to national strategic security of oil resources, economic revitalization the area where the oilfield located, the city's stable development and the sustainable develooment of the oil companies.

  14. Experimental research of fatigue resistance and antibacterial effects of volatile oils of three kinds of Chinese medicine%三种中药挥发油抑菌和抗疲劳作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭光; 戴王强; 韩彬; 王颖芳; 杨超燕; 钟志强

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究具有芳香气味的中药挥发油成分的抑菌和抗疲劳作用,为开发具有抗疲劳和抑菌作用的中药汽车芳香剂提供实验依据.方法 以空气、室内、车内常见的致病菌金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌为研究菌株,测定丁香、厚朴、苍术三种中药挥发油抑菌圈直径和最低抑菌浓度;采用小鼠负重游泳模型,研究丁香、厚朴、苍术挥发油对小鼠负重游泳后疲劳时间、血尿素氮含量和肝糖原含量的影响.结果 丁香、苍术和厚朴3种挥发油对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌圈直径分别为12.3与11.7mm、7.6与13.8mm,8.0与8.2mm;3种挥发油对大肠杆菌最低抑菌浓度分别为1.2,2.3,9.4g/L,对金黄色葡萄球菌最低抑菌浓度分别为12.5,3.1,6.3g/L;丁香、苍术、厚朴挥发油均能显著延长小鼠游泳时间,提高肝糖原含量和降低尿素氮含量.结论 丁香、苍术和厚朴3种挥发油具有显著的抑菌和抗疲劳作用.%Objective It is to study the fatigue resistance and antibacterial effect of traditional Chinese medicines with smell of sweet fragrance, to provide experimental evidences for developing car flavoring agent with fatigue resistance and antibacterial effect. Methods Universal bacterial( Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ) in air was chosen to test the size of inhibition zone diameter MIC. The model of loaded swimming continuously was taken in mice to test the influences on the mice' s swimming time, the reserve of blood urea nitrogen and the reserve of hepatic glycogen from the volatile oils of clove, bark of magnolia and the rhizome of Chinese atractylodes. Results The sizes of inhibition zone diameter ( mm ) of the volatile oils of Dingxiang, Cangzhu and Houpo were 12.3 mm, 11.7 mm, 7.6 mm, 13.8 mm;8.0 mm, 8.2 mm;the MIC for escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus of the oils were 1.2, 2.3, 9.4 g/L and 12.5, 3. 1, 6.3 g/L respectively. The volatile oils of Dingxiang, Cangzhu

  15. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  16. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  17. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  18. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata;

    common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show  that the...

  19. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  20. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  1. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  2. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  3. Influence of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean absolute growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Even when under low precipitations conditions, the castor bean production decrease, it constitutes a very good alternative. It has an elevated economical importance, because from the plant it is used their leaves, stem and seeds. From the stem it is obtained cellulose for the paper industry, from the leaves textile products and from the seeds oil and tort. The oil is the only glycerin soluble in alcohol and the base for several industrial products such as the biodiesel. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean, BRS 188 cultivar rate growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. It was observed that both, organic matter and available water for plants proportionated benefit effects to the growth rate of the plant. (author)

  4. Characteristics and trends of China's oil demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo

    2010-09-15

    Based on historical analysis of Chinese oil consumption from 1980 to 2008, the author develops an econometric modeling - Medium and Long-term Chinese Oil Demand Forecast Model. Results shows that, Chinese oil demand will be 632 MT in 2020 without consideration of substitutions, and the annual growth rate will be 4.2%, much slower than before. The demand ratio of diesel to gasoline will decline, while kerosene demand will grow faster. If new energy vehicles (NGV and electric vehicles, etc.) develop rapidly and industrial fuel-oil demand is substituted effectively, about 23 million tons of oil could be saved.

  5. Biology of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  6. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  7. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  8. Interaction between Polymorphisms in Pre-MiRNA Genes and Cooking Oil Fume Exposure on the Risk of Lung Cancer in Chinese Non-Smoking Female Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Yin

    Full Text Available Both genetic polymorphisms and environmental risk factors play important roles in the development of human chronic diseases including lung cancer. This is the first case-control study of interaction between polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure on the risk of lung cancer.A hospital-based case-control study of 258 cases and 310 controls was conducted. Six polymorphisms in miRNAs were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination method. The gene-environment interactions were assessed on both additive and multiplicative scale. The statistical analyses were performed mostly with SPSS.The combination of the risk genotypes of five miRNA SNPs (miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-608 rs4919510, miR-27a rs895819 and miR-423 rs6505162 with risk factor (cooking oil fume exposure contributed to a significantly higher risk of lung cancer, and the corresponding ORs (95% confidence intervals were 1.91(1.04-3.52, 1.94 (1.16-3.25, 2.06 (1.22-3.49, 1.76 (1.03-2.98 and 2.13 (1.29-3.51. The individuals with both risk genotypes of miRNA SNPs and exposure to risk factor (cooking oil fumes were in a higher risk of lung cancer than persons with only one of the two risk factors (ORs were 1.91, 1.05 and 1.41 for miR-146a rs2910164, ORs were 1.94, 1.23 and 1.34 for miR-196a2 rs11614913, ORs were 2.06, 1.41 and 1.68 for miR-608 rs4919510, ORs were 1.76, 0.82 and 1.07 for miR-27a rs895819, and ORs were 2.13, 1.15 and 1.02 for miR-423 rs6505162, respectively. All the measures of biological interaction indicate that there were not indeed biological interactions between the six SNPs of miRNAs and exposure to cooking oil fumes on an additive scale. Logistic models suggested that the gene-environment interactions were not statistically significant on a multiplicative scale.The interactions between miRNA SNPs and cooking oil fume exposure suggested by ORs of different combination were not statistically significant.

  9. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  10. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  12. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  13. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively whic

  14. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  15. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin ... de Palme Rouge, Huile de Palmiste, Main Ja, Oil Palm Tree, Palm, Palm Fruit Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, ...

  16. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean. PMID:27173211

  17. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Cui, Zhigang; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; Qian, Biyun; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zhou, Baosen

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be very important in the development of lung cancer. This study assesses the association between polymorphisms in miRNA-related (miR)-26a-1, miR-605, and miR-16-1 genes and risk of lung cancer, as well as the effect of gene–environment interaction between miRNA polymorphisms and cooking fume exposure on lung cancer. Methods A case–control study including 268 diagnosed nonsmoking female lung cancer patients and 266 nonsmoking female controls was carried out. Three miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) were analyzed. Both additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed. Results MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer. Carriers with TT genotype of miR-16-1 rs1022960 were observed to have a decreased risk of lung cancer compared with CC and CT genotype carriers (odds ratio =0.550, 95% confidence interval =0.308–0.983, P=0.044). MiR-26a-1 rs7372209 and miR-605 rs2043556 showed no statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. There were no significant associations between the three single nucleotide polymorphisms and lung adenocarcinoma. People with exposure to both risk genotypes of miR-26a-1 rs7372209 and cooking oil fumes were more likely to develop lung cancer than those with only genetic risk factor or cooking oil fumes (odds ratios were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively). The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. PMID:26855588

  18. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L.; Thompson, Sharon V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women...

  19. 33 CFR 151.47 - Category D NLSs other than oil-like Category D NLSs that may be carried under this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solutions Chlorine chloride solution Citric acid (70% or less) Coconut oil fatty acid methyl ester Copper... Octanoic acid Oil, edible: Babassu Beechnut Castor Cocoa butter Coconut Cod liver Corn Cottonseed Fish... Safflower Salad Sesame Soya bean Sunflower seed Tucum Vegetable Walnut Oil, misc: Animal, n.o.s. Coconut...

  20. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  1. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  2. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  3. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  4. Retail Market of Oil Products Reshuffled Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to its commitments to the World Trade Organization, the Chinese government opened up China's oil products retail market fully on December 11, 2004. Centering on this important transition, a market pattern of multi-major-body will be appeared.

  5. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  6. A Simulation Analysis of Barriers to Entry in China Refined Oil Market

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Zhou; Shuai Qi; Jianbing Liang; Yixian Liu

    2013-01-01

    The oil and gas industry is a high investment, high risk, high reward and high-tech industry with a need for highly qualified labour. China's oil and gas market has attracted more and more investors to join. However, due to oil and gas industry in all aspects of specificity, there are some Chinese oil and gas markets have barriers to entry. In this study, the Chinese oil and gas industry for effective market entry barriers based on the analysis, the use of ...

  7. Heat-Induced Structural Changes in Faba Bean Starch Paste: The Effect of Steaming Faba Bean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczynska, B.; Autio, K.; J. Fornal

    1993-01-01

    Heat-induced structural changes of faba bean starch dispersions were examined at a concentration range of 8-10% as a function of heat treatment. Faba bean starch was isolated from raw (RF-starch) and steamed (SF-starch) faba bean seeds. Hydrothermal treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of non-starch components in the isolated starch. Microstructure of low-sheared 8% starch suspensions heated at 75, 90 and 98°C (for 10 minutes) was studied by light microscopy. Heating induced huge s...

  8. 8种中药挥发油对布洛芬促透作用的比较分析%Comparative Analysis and Research of Permeation Enhancing Effect of Volatile Oil of Eight Kinds of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成考

    2012-01-01

    目的探讨8种中药挥发油对布洛芬的促透作用.方法 选取防风、吴茱萸、云木香、温郁金、沉香、荆芥、羌活以及茅苍术8种中药挥发油,在体外透皮实验装置上进行透皮吸收实验,然后采用高效液相色谱法对布洛芬的含量加以测定,并以增渗倍数作为上述8种中药挥发油对布洛芬促透作用的效果衡量参数.结果 8种中药挥发油对布洛芬均具有一定的促透作用,均具有较高的增渗倍数和渗透速率Jss;Logistics回归分析发现,上述8种中药挥发油均能够有效促进布洛芬透皮吸收,其中以防风、吴茱萸和云木香影响因子最大.结论 吴茱萸、防风与云木香等中药挥发油对布洛芬均具有较好的透皮吸收促透作用,上述8种中药挥发油对布洛芬透皮吸收Jss与增渗倍数具有较好的相关性.%Objective To discuss the permeation enhancing effect of eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine on ibuprofen. Methods Volatile oil of eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, namely windbreak, evodia, costusroot, curcuma, aloes, schizonepeta, notopterygium and atractylodes lancea,were selected, and percutaneous absorption experiment was done on the in vitro transdermal experiment device, and then high performance liquid chromatography( 11PLC )was done to test the ibuprofen content, and permeability increase ratio was set as the parameter to evaluate the permeation enhancing effect of the above eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine volatile oil on ibuprofen. Results Eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine volatile oil all have certain penetration enhancing effect with high permeability-increasing ratio and infiltration rate. Logistics regression analysis showed that, the above eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine volatile oil can effectively promote ibuprofen transdermal absorption, among which windbreak, evodia and costusroot have maximum influencing factors. Conclusion Volatile oil of

  9. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  10. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  11. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  12. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M1 was cultivated in 1978

  13. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 320C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  14. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  15. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  16. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  17. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  18. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  19. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. PMID:27283664

  20. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  1. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  2. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Robert E. Nurse; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2014-01-01

    Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013) in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI) in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE) in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83...

  3. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Yonara Poltronieri; Adriana Farah; Daniel Perrone

    2013-01-01

    Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots) and control without zinc supplementation (four plots). Pla...

  4. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO; Jose de J. BERRIOS; Vânia Zanella PINTO; Mariana Dias ANTUNES; Nathan Levien VANIER; Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared,...

  5. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compar...

  6. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; HARNLY, JAMES M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin...

  7. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules, castor (Ricinus communis, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove (Syzygium aromaticum and mustard (Brassica rapa against B. incarnatus adults. The treatments which contained essential oils at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and acetone (control were applied. All essential oils with 4% concentration repelled the B. incarnatus adult except castor oil. The percentage of repellence was higher when used essential oil of cinnamon with 2 and 4% concentration compared with other essential oils and concentrations. In residual film experiment, the cinnamon oil had the highest toxicity rate on B. incarnatus adult fallowed by clove, camphor, mustard and the lowest effect was by castor oil. Based on our results, I can conclude that essential oils of camphor, cinnamon, clove and mustard have potential for use in the integrated management of B. incarnatus adult.

  8. Yield Performance of Heat Tolerant Country Bean (Lablab purpureus Lin. as Influenced by Insecticides During Kharif Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mofazzal Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the research field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during 2009 kharif season to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for increasing yield of country bean by protecting pod damage by bean pod borers. The spray plots gave significantly higher yield than the control plots. Among the insecticides, Neem oil, Fenitrothion50 EC and Emamectin benzoate 5 SG performed best by reducing 59.46, 51.35 & 45.95 % infested pod production respectively. For marketable pod yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenotrothion 50 EC and Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 5.78, 5.48 & 5.39 ton/hectate at the same time increasing 46.70, 38.58 & 36.80 % marketable pod yield over control respectively. Thus for gross yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 6.11, 5.65 & 5.61 ton/ha as well as increasing 41.76, 31.09 & 30.16 % gross pod production. Therefore, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP can be recommended for successful country bean cultivation with more production during kharif season.

  9. Characterization of castor bean genotypes under various environments using sds-page of total seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an indeterminate, non-edible oil seed crop grown in low rainfall regions of semi-arid tropics and sub-tropics. The present work was conducted to see the feasibility of electrophoresis for intra-specific characterization of castor bean on the basis of their total seed storage proteins. The protein profiles of all the four accessions were very much alike, both in number of bands and in their distribution on the gel, even though accessions represented a wide range of geographic origin. Occasionally, variation was observed in the density or sharpness of bands. The seed protein patterns were also uniform among various accessions grown under various environments. On the basis of banding pattern, polypeptides could be divided into three regions, A to C, equivalent to increasing Rf value and decreasing molecular weight. The present investigation revealed no variation in different accessions and under different environments with regards to their total seed protein profiles. The results clearly showed that it was impossible to discriminate various genotypes from each other, as they were characterized by same banding patterns. However, it might be useful to distinguish diverse forms of it from one another. The present investigation revealed very limited variation in castor bean genotypes in Pakistan. (author)

  10. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars. PMID:20492281

  11. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  12. Energy sources of plant origin in Madagascar - ethyl alcohol and seed oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaydou, A.M.; Menet, L.; Ravelojaona, G.; Geneste, P.

    1982-03-01

    Madagascar grows a number of energy crops: sugar cane, manioc, castor bean Jatropha and aleurites. Carbonic hydrates from sugar cane grown in rural areas and molasses from industrial sources can be converted to ethyl alcohol which can be used with a mixture of essential oils (10-15%). Castor bean and aleurites plantations can be profitable with regard to the production of essential oils. The fatty acid content of three aleurites oils (A. montana, A. moluccano and A. fordii) and two Jatropha oils (J. curcas and J. mahafalensis) species which are harvested in Madagascar has given rise to increased interest as these oils can be used as a source of diesel oil when refined or transesterified with ethanol. Catalytic cracking converts them to hydrocarbons which can be used as fuel substitutes or chemical feedstocks. (Refs. 20).

  13. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  14. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  15. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (76 FR 16700-16703, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0101) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by allowing... (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States...

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  17. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index. (author)

  18. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index

  19. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  20. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  1. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil. PMID:17727060

  2. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  3. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  4. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  5. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  6. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  8. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  9. Results of preliminary investigations at radio sensitivity of bean (Vicia faba L.) on fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated with fast neutrons. The radiation doses applied ranged from 40 to 600 rads. Then irradiated seeds were sowed. During bean vegetation radiation effects were observed. (A.S.)

  10. In vivo genetic toxicity studies in Chinese hamsters fed irradiated or unirradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two in vivo genetic toxicity studies were performed in Chinese hamsters fed irradiated or unirradiated diets of chicken, fish or dates in order to detect possible mutagenic effects caused by irradiating these foodstuffs. The tests selected for study were: 1. Chromosomal analysis of bone narrow cells and 2. DNA metabolism in spleen cells. Chicken, fish and dates were irradiated with doses of 7, 2.5 and 1 kGy respectively. These investigations were subsequently extended to include the effects of irradiated dried onions, pulses and cocoa beans on DNA metabolism in Chinese hamster spleen cells only. Dried onions were irradiated with doses of 0.15, 9 and 15 kGy, pulses with 10 kGy and cocoa beans with 3.2 to 5 kGy. In addition, a fumigated cocoa bean group was included. No significant differences in chromosomal aberration rate were detected between groups fed irradiated or unirradiated diets. Dried dates, whether irradiated or not, showed some evidence of genetic toxicity in their effect on DNA metabolism in the spleen cells of Chinese hamsters. Both date diets caused more strand breaks DNA than are usual for Chinese hamster spleen cells, but DNA repair was not adversely affected. Chicken, both irradiated and unirradiated, was found to enhance replicative DNA synthesis but had no effect on the DNA repair process. Irradiated fish, however, caused enhanced DNA synthesis compared to unirradiated fish, but also had no adverse effect on DNA repair. Irradiated white beans also enhanced DNA synthesis compared to controls whereas unirradiated samples inhibited synthesis. (orig./MG)

  11. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  12. Irradiation disinfestation of stored cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between effective dosages to induce mortality and sterility in several important storage beetles was investigated. To induce 100% mortality, doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 kGy require 4-7 weeks, 0.2-1.0 kGy need 1.5-3 weeks and 2.0 kGy require 1 week for Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Lasioderma serricorne, respectively. Only at 5.0 kGy did instant mortality occur in the insects tested. Total prevention of F1 progeny was achieved at the lowest dosage (0.05 kGy) for T. castaneum and O. surinamensis; for L. serricorne, the sterility level achieved was 92-99% for doses ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 kGy. Semi-pilot scale tests (12 months) were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of gamma irradiation to control insects (artificially infested L. serricorne and T. castaneum) and moulds in cocoa beans packed in either jute or laminated polypropylene or unlaminated polypropylene bags. Good control against insect infestations was achieved for the whole duration of storage. Laminated polypropylene afforded the best protection against insect reinfestation. Other than a change in moisture content, no changes in the physicochemical properties were observed in the flavour or in the total protein, soluble protein, amino acid and free fatty acid contents. 15 refs, 10 tabs

  13. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  14. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  15. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  16. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  17. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    OpenAIRE

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H.; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritiona...

  18. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily digested by nonruminants. The main aim of the present study was to find a reasonable ...

  19. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-01-01

    Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research In...

  20. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Troels

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized by a...

  1. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  2. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  3. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  4. Snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality profile by sensory descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Rodiño Míguez, Ana Paula; González Fernández, Ana María; Canosa Rodríguez, Pilar; Rodríguez Vega, Iria; Riveiro, Manuel; Santalla Ferradás, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Sensory quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) influence consumer preferences. The application of sensory descriptive analysis (SDA) for snap bean quality is shown in this work. SDA has allowed generatin gdescriptors for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture, which could be used to characterize snap bean varieties.

  5. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  6. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  7. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  8. 莲子绿豆糕的制作工艺研究%Research on Production Technology of Lotus Seed Green Bean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妍

    2013-01-01

    以绿豆、莲子为主要原料,制作一种新型糕点莲子绿豆糕。以莲子粉与绿豆粉比例、加糖量、加油量、烤制时间、烤制温度为单因素,以正交试验确定最佳制作工艺条件。试验结果表明,莲子绿豆糕最佳工艺条件为:烤制温度为130℃、烤制时间为30 min、莲子粉与绿豆粉比例为1∶2、加油量11 mL。%Green beans,lotus seeds were used to produce a new type of cake as the main raw material.According to the orthogonal experiment , superior production conditions were obtained taking the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds ,the amount of sugar ,the amount of edible oil ,the baking time and the baking temperature as the single factor. The results of the experiments showed that optimum conditions were that baking temperature was 130℃,baking time was 30 min,the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds was 1∶2,the amount of edible oil was 11 mL.

  9. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  10. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  11. Hyperspectral imaging for differentiation of foreign materials from pinto beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Zemlan, Michael; Henry, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Food safety and quality in packaged products are paramount in the food processing industry. To ensure that packaged products are free of foreign materials, such as debris and pests, unwanted materials mixed with the targeted products must be detected before packaging. A portable hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-to-NIR range has been used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from pinto beans that have been mixed with foreign matter. Bands and band ratios have been identified as effective features to develop a classification scheme for detection of foreign materials in pinto beans. A support vector machine has been implemented with a quadratic kernel to separate pinto beans and background (Class 1) from all other materials (Class 2) in each scene. After creating a binary classification map for the scene, further analysis of these binary images allows separation of false positives from true positives for proper removal action during packaging.

  12. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L-1 P as KH2PO4. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h-1 plant-1) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h-1 cm-1) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h-1 plant-1 and 0.05 nmol h-1 cm-1, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  13. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  14. Oil Refiners Looking to Shell to Help Reduce Sulfur Content%Oil Refiners Looking to Shell to Help Reduce Sulfur Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of Chinese oil refineries are cooperating with Shell Global Solutions International BV (SGSI), a division of the energy giant Royal Dutch Shell PLC, to lower the sulfur content in low-grade oil and achieve quicker returns. As Chinese

  15. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Jokura, Hiroko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Komai, Norio; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    Our previous study revealed the antihypertensive effects of green coffee bean extract (GCE) ingestion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggested that this antihypertensive action was due to the fact that GCE contains chlorogenic acid (CQA) as a major phenolic compound, and CQA in turn contains ferulic acid as a metabolic component that acts on nitric oxide (NO) derived from the vascular endothelium. In this study, the effects of GCE on blood vessels were evaluated in healthy males. The subjects were 20 healthy males with reduced vasodilation responses measured by strain gauge plethysmograms (SPG) to ischemic reactive hyperemia. Of the 20 subjects, 10 (mean age, 37.2 years) ingested a test drink containing GCE (CQA: 140 mg/day), and the other 10 (mean age, 34.8 years) ingested a placebo drink for 4 months. During the ingestion period, SPG, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and serum biochemical parameters were measured, and acceleration plethysmograms (APG) were taken. The reactive hyperemia ratio (RHR) in the test drink group began to increase after ingestion for 1 month and was significantly higher (p <0.05) than that in the placebo group after ingestion for 3 months and 4 months. In addition, after ingestion for 4 months, the test drink group showed a significant decrease (p <0.01) in the plasma total homocysteine level compared with the pre-ingestion level. However, there were no significant differences in PWV or APG between the test drink group and the placebo drink group. The improvement in RHR after ingestion of a drink containing GCE suggested an improvement in vasoreactivity by this component. PMID:15785008

  16. Medical image of the week: coffee bean and whirlpool signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented with altered mental status, poor oral intake, and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal x-ray demonstrated dilated loops of bowel and the coffee bean sign concerning for sigmoid volvulus (Figure 1. The coffee bean sign occurs when a thick “inner wall” represents the double wall thickness of opposed loops of bowel while the thinner outer walls due single thickness. A contrast CT abdomen showed dilated sigmoid loop and whirlpool sign confirming sigmoid volvulus (Figure 2. She underwent a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and full recovery.

  17. Technique of irradiation sterilization of local flavor bean products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local flavor bean products were packed with 0.07 - 0.10 mm nylon-polythene plastic bags, vacuumed, sealed and irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 5 - 10 kGy and stored for 30 days at normal temperature (25 degree C) and for 90 days at (2 - 7) degree C, respectively. The results show that the bacteria number of irradiated bean products accords with the national standard and the protein and fat contents have no obvious change compared with the CK

  18. Effect of Oil Content and Processing Conditions on the Thermal Behavior and Physicochemical Stability of Oil-in-water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Tippetts, Megan; Martini, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The destabilisation mechanism of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions was studied as a function of oil content (20% and 40% o/w), homogenisation conditions and crystallisation temperatures (10, 5, 0, −5 and −10 °C). A mixture of anhydrous milk fat and soya bean oil was used as the lipid phase and whey protein isolate (2 wt%) as emulsifier. Crystallisation and melting behaviours were analysed using differential scanning calorimetry. Physicochemical stability was measured with a vertical scan macroscop...

  19. Extraction of caffeine, chlorogenic acids and lipids from green coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. A.de Azevedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on experimental data on the extraction of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids from green coffee beans using pure supercritical CO2 and supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol (5% w/w and isopropyl alcohol (5% w/w at 50 and 60ºC and 15.2 24.8 e 35.2 MPa. In this study extraction kinetics were obtained for all assays i.e. samples were collected at several time intervals for each solvent and mixed solvent. When pure CO2 and CO2-ethanol mixed solvent were used, an increase in pressure resulted in an increase in the amount of oil extracted. When CO2 was modified with isopropyl alcohol, the amount of coffee oil extracted also increased with pressure. Caffeine extraction initially increased and subsequently decreased with pressure. Chlorogenic acids were only extracted when isopropyl alcohol was used as a co-solvent. An increase in extraction temperature resulted in a decrease of caffeine and oil extraction (retrograde condensation when only CO2 was used as solvent. With the use of co-solvent this retrograde behavior was no longer observed and the increase in temperature resulted in the increase in the extracted amounts of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids.

  20. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  1. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment. PMID:26589321

  2. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  3. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  4. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26471657

  5. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  6. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Not surprisingly, institutions and practices continue to reflect millennia of Chinese history, which in some measure focused on nurturing the authority of an emperor. Students of China, who have long recognized its 'command and control' economy, are now aware of the limits of those concepts and the consequences of a bureaucratic hierarchy living in a sometimes conflicted condominium with the Communist Party, even as the economy surges on. The second study seeks to answer the questions: What are the economic and strategic drivers of Chinese energy policy? How does China plan to manage its increasing reliance on foreign sources of oil, gas and now coal? How will these drivers shape the guiding principles of Chinese national companies and their relations with international operators and foreign sources of energy resources? How does China define and shape its international diplomacy and practices in order to succeed in its quest to secure access to upstream oil, gas, coal and uranium - just to mention the fuels? The third study explores the Chinese approach to climate change. The Chinese have long been victims of their own internal deserts and know only too well the challenges that the power of nature imposes on their society. The recent spectacular growth of the Chinese economy has left China with a plethora of weeping environmental wounds. While these are increasingly urgent short-term challenges, Chinese leaders are only too aware that, in the longer term, under any probable climate change scenario, China is a loser

  7. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation will...... discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were a...... mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed. The...

  8. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  9. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

  10. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  11. Germination test for identification of gamma-irradiated bean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of germination test for the practical detection of irradiated beans has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the relationship between the root growth rate and radiation dose could be used to produce a rapid analytical method for identification of irradiated beans. Such detection method could be potentially used for both (a) identification of irradiated food, and (b) for quarantine inspection (to certify that the agricultural product has been irradiated, and the pests present in it do not pose a quarantine risk). Results presented in this paper indicate that the germination test is not always capable of discriminating satisfactorily between irradiated and unirradiated samples of bean seeds, because the sensitivity of the test is often higher than the low doses which are suggested for disinfestation purposes. However, using the germination test, an unexperienced person can easily discriminate untreated bean seeds from those irradiated with 0.3-1.5 kGy doses of gamma radiation. (orig./vhe)

  12. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  13. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  14. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  15. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2-2.5 min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans

  16. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  17. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K251Cr2O7 and 51Cr(NO3)3.9H2O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible

  18. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. PMID:27507478

  19. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  20. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 174-175, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  2. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diversity panel of 250 dry bean lines from the Andean gene pool was evaluated for cooking time. Cooking time ranged from 17 to 90 min with an average of 36 min. A faster cooking time was also correlated with a number of other seed characteristics, most notably, higher levels of boron and potassium...

  3. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  4. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Jiao, Jian-Ling;

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing...

  5. 芪白平肺胶囊药材挥发油β-环糊精包合物的制备及其表征%Preparation and Characterization of β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound of Volatile Oils from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials in Qibai Pingfei Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 李泽庚; 孟楣; 韩燕全; 高家荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion compound of volatile oils from traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Qibai Pingfei Capsules, and to identify its characterization. Methods An orthogonal design was carried out to optimize the preparation of β-CD inclusion compound of volatile oils from traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Qibai Pingfei Capsules. The inclusion compound was identified by thin layer chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffractometry.Results The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: the ratio of oils to β-CD was 1:8(ml/g) , the temperature of inclusion was 50℃, the inclusion time was 2 h. The main compositions of volatile oils in the inclusion compound did not change significantly. The difference between the inclusion and physical mixtures in the curve was significant. Conclusion The optimized process is simple and reasonable. A stable inclusion compound of volatile oils and β-CD is formed.%目的 制备芪白平肺胶囊药材挥发油-β-环糊精(β-cyclodextrin, β-CD)包合物,并考察其表征.方法 采用正交试验法,优选芪白平肺胶囊药材中挥发油-β-CD包合物的制备工艺,采用薄层色谱法、差示扫描量热法、X射线粉末衍射法对包合物进行物相鉴定.结果 最佳包合工艺为:挥发油与β-CD的投料比为1∶8(ml/g),温度为50 ℃,包合时间为2 h.混合挥发油包合后,成分未见明显改变,包合物与β-CD物理混合物的图谱有显著性差异.结论 优选的包合工艺合理、简便易行,挥发油与β-CD形成稳定的包合物.

  6. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  7. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  8. 不同碱金属乌桕油皂微波极化脱羧成烃类燃料的工艺%Microwave polarizing decarboxylation of different saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil for the preparation of renewable hydrocarbon fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允圃; 刘玉环; 阮榕生; 温平威; 马雯; 万益琴

    2014-01-01

    不饱和脂肪酸盐微波极化条件下更容易脱羧成烃,本研究分别以氢氧化锂、氢氧化钠、氢氧化钾皂化乌桕油,以不同碱金属乌桕油皂化物和乌桕油为研究对象,在恒定的微波功率下裂解脱羧成烃,通过GC-MS等分析裂解产物,微波能选择性地加热乌桕油皂羧基端,不饱和键在微波极化过程中与碳负离子中间体形成P-π共轭体系,使裂解反应(脱羧、端烯化、异构化和芳构化等)顺利进行。皂化物极性越大,升温速率越快,液体烃类产率越高,脱羧效果越明显,裂解液体的密度为0.825~0.865 g/cm3,黏度为2.10~2.55 mm2/s,与柴油的性质非常相似,从而证明微波极化乌桕油皂脱羧制烃类燃料的可行性。%It is easier for the decarboxylation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid salt. The Chinese tallow seed oil was saponified by lithium hydroxide,sodium hydroxide,potassium hydroxide. Different saponificated Chinese tallow seed oils were used as model compounds to study the decarboxylation leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology,the pyrolysis products were analyzed by GC-MS and FT-IR. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil. During decarboxylation,the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a P-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting P-πconjugated system was more stable and beneficial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation,terminal allylation,isomerization,and aromatization). The saponificated oil has a stronger polarity,the heating rate is higher,liquid hydrocarbon yield is bigger. The viscosity(2.10-2.55 mm2/s) and density(0.825-0.865 g/cm3) of the pyrolysis liquid obtained from this experiment were similar to those of diesel. It was proved feasible to derive renewable hydrocarbon fuel from saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil by microwave

  9. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  10. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  11. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism. PMID:24641587

  12. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  13. Guo Nian-Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    The 8th day of the 12th lunar monthis called Laba,the celebration of Chinese Lunar Nev Year starts from Laba on which day people enjoy a congee called Laba Zhou made of glutinous rice,dates and various beans.In ancient China,the main activity during Chinese New Year is to beat the ghosts,no matter royal family or common people.On the 23rd day of the same month,people offer sacrifice to the Kitchen God who decides weal and woe for abundant food and clothes.In the meantime,people do the cleaning to prevent diseases.On the 30th day,people paste pictures of door gods and couplets,put the flag out,make and eat dumplings and play fireworks.On the eve,people all stay up late to welcome the New Year.When the daybreak arrives,people visit each other to make New Year wishes.

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  15. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed Coconut Oil, Fermented Coconut Oil, Huile de Coco, Huile de Noix de Coco, Huile de Noix ... Vierge de Noix de Coco, Narikela, Noix de Coco, Palmier, Virgin Coconut Oil.

  16. Phenotypic Variability and Diversity Analysis of Bean Traits of Some Cocoa Hybrids in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the economic potential and superiority among cocoa hybrids. Therefore, the present study aims at detecting variability among cocoa hybrids for bean index in Nigeria. Dried bean of fourteen genotypes of cocoa were evaluated for their bean values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to understand the variability among the fourteen genotypes and Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to identify distinguishing traits and the grouping of the genotypes based on similarities. The fourteen cocoa genotypes were significantly (p≤0.05 different from each other with respect to weight of one bean, bean length, width, thickness, 100 bean weight, bean length to width, length to thickness and width to thickness ratio. All the studied morphometric characters exhibited high (>70% broad sense heritability. G8, the hybrid between T53/5 and N38 was the most superior genotype for bean weight and some other bean characteristics. The mass of seventy-four dried cocoa bean of G8 approximated 100 g. The first three Principal Component axes explained 91% of the total variation and the PCA grouped the fourteen genotypes into four distinct clusters. Genotypes could be selected for specific traits and improvement of traits seemed to be genetically reliable.

  17. Influence of the environment in 40K concentration in Brazilian common beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of beans constitutes an important dietary habit in many Latin American, Asian and African countries. Carioca beans and the black type stand out among the many consumed common beans in Brazil. 40K was used as a natural radiotracer to evaluate the influence of the season growing and the bean type in the potassium content into grain. The activity concentrations of 40K and 137Cs were evaluated on samples of beans by γ-ray spectrometry. 137Cs was less than 1.3 Bq kg-1. The highest potassium content in the grain were observed in the dry and winter seasons. The black beans showed higher potassium content than the carioca type. The potassium levels were compared with that of beans grown and consumed in other regions of the world. A method to estimate the bean consumption rates in Brazil independently of the location of the meal is proposed. The ingestion of common beans was estimated in 14.6 kg year-1 per person. The two regions with the highest consumption are the Southeast (19.2 kg year-1) and the Middle West (18.7 kg year-1), whose account for about 60 % of the intake of common beans is related to consumption out home. (author)

  18. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  19. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  20. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  1. Evaluation of Cymbopogon martinii oil extract for control of postharvest insect deterioration in cereals and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Manisha; Dubey, N K

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil of Cymbopogon martinii was tested for its potency as a botanical pesticide to protect stored wheat (Triticum aestivum) and gram (garbanzo bean, Cicer arietinum) from insect infestation. The C. martinii oil was potent as a fumigant in stored gram. The oil was an effective repellent against the beetles Callosobruchus chinensis and Tribolium castaneum. Geraniol, the major component of the oil, was not as effective as the oil itself. C. martinii oil significantly affected oviposition, adult development, and mortality of C. chinensis in cow peas (Vigna unguiculata). The C. martinii oil when used as fumigant did not affect viability, germination, and seedling growth of gram. Because of its insecticidal and semiochemical nature, the oil could be used as an alternative to synthetic pesticides in an integrated pest management program to protect stored food commodities. PMID:17265877

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  3. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  4. Foreign direct investment vs. development assistance as tools of foreign policy: Chinese policy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Květová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines Chinese foreign direct investments in Sub-Saharan Africa and their influence on Chinese foreign policy on the continent between the years 2004 and 2010. It is often believed that oil and raw materials are the principal determinants of Chinese investments in Africa. However, this research suggests that even though there exists strong correlation between the existence of reserves of raw materials and FDI distribution, such motivation is not the only one. Pragmatism, manifes...

  5. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes. PMID:27283632

  6. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  7. 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits, held in Beijing from August 18 to 21, 2006, was hosted by Chinese Society of Particuology and organized jointly by Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,China University of Petroleum.

  8. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Vartanian, Oshin; Cant, Jonathan S; Cupchik, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore the behavioral and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task)-administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioral data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain's attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings. PMID:25610386

  9. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of stink bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) pod extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Suchanuch Wonghirundecha; Soottawat Benjakul; Punnanee Sumpavapol

    2014-01-01

    Parkia speciosa Hassk. is a stink bean known as “Sataw”. This bean is popular in the Southern part of Thailand and believed by the locals to have the medical properties. Stink bean pod, regarded as waste material, was reported to possess various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sataw-Khao and Sataw-Dan pod extracts. It was found that the extraction yield, total phenolic and ...

  10. Effects of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Flour on Viability of Probiotic Bacteria During Kefir Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Souhila Boudjou; Farid Zaidi; Farah Hosseinian; B. Dave Oomah

    2014-01-01

    Whole ground faba bean was investigated for its capability and efficiency to enhance bacterial survival and growth during kefir storage. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were measured in kefir samples, containing starter cultures with or without probiotic bacteria, (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) supplemented with whole ground faba bean during 28 days cold storage at 4 ºC. Faba bean flour supplementation (4%) stimulated bifidogenic microbial gro...

  11. Research on Development Strategy of Industry of Edible Beans in West China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhou-ping; Xie, Song-feng; Li, Hai-ju; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Yun-hua; Zhang, Bao-jun

    2011-01-01

    The West China is main producing region and advantageous producing region of edible beans. Developing industry of edible beans in West China has prominent regional advantage, production advantage, quality advantage, market advantage, and price advantage. We analyze the problems existing in the process of development of industry of edible beans in West China as follows: the cognition is insufficient; fund for scientific research is short; the basic research is weak; the planting is sparse; the...

  12. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco; surveying, identification, and ecological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortass, M

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron microscopy, biological indexing, and serology, and their incidence and geographical distribution were assessed: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean mottle virus (B...

  13. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  14. ALIMENTARY ALLERGY AND HYPERSENSIVITY TO SOYA BEAN PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Gervazieva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In connection with the increasing number of allergic diseases in Russia and in the world, the exogenic factor responsible for the development of food allergy in children have been discussed. The main types of alimentary allergens have been determined; their biochemical features, as well as aggravation of the food allergy clinical symptoms to the extent of anaphylaxis, have been reported. With the development of genetic engineering food products, the special attention has been paid to hypersensitivity to soya bean proteins. The major and minor allergens of soya beans, their homologues in other vegetable allergens, e.g. birch pollen allergens, have been described. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 15520

  15. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. BEANS - a software package for distributed Big Data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    BEANS software is a web based, easy to install and maintain, new tool to store and analyse data in a distributed way for a massive amount of data. It provides a clear interface for querying, filtering, aggregating, and plotting data from an arbitrary number of datasets. Its main purpose is to simplify the process of storing, examining and finding new relations in the so-called Big Data. Creation of BEANS software is an answer to the growing needs of the astronomical community to have a versatile tool to store, analyse and compare the complex astrophysical numerical simulations with observations (e.g. simulations of the Galaxy or star clusters with the Gaia archive). However, this software was built in a general form and it is ready to use in any other research field or open source software.

  17. Effects of Companion Crops (Bean, Soybean and Mungbean) on Uptake of Cadmium from Soil by Corn and Sunflower as the Main Crops

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hassanpour; M Zahedi; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh

    2014-01-01

    In a pot experiment, the effect of soybeans, mung beans and beans on the corn and sunflowers in a cadmium contaminated soil was studied in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments consisted of intercropping of corn and mung bean corn and beans, corn and soybean, sunflower and mung bean, sunflower and beans, sunflower and soybean monoculture of corn, and monoculture of sunflower. There were significant effects of cocropping of companion crops on shoot dry weigh, t...

  18. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos; Eduardo Alves; Luciane Cristina Rozwalka; Elaine Aparecida de Souza; Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-01-01

    Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of th...

  19. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  20. FLEXIBLE, RISK-ORIENTED MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR PINTO BEAN PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robert P.; Lybecker, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A model designed to identify preferred postharvest marketing strategies for pinto bean producers is presented. The model evaluates flexible strategies that use current market information to determine whether or not storage should continue. Explicit consideration is given to price uncertainty and risk preferences. The results indicate that nearly all decision makers prefer flexible strategies to fixed strategies that call for a predetermined pattern of sales. They also show that the choice of ...

  1. Protein determination in soya bean by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis was applied. To check the method, the results obtained by X-ray fluorescence analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g with 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%. (author) 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Co-application of herbicides and insecticides in dry bean

    OpenAIRE

    Peter H. Sikkema; Christy Shropshire; Robert E. Nurse; Nader Soltani

    2012-01-01

    Eight field trials were conducted from 2006 to 2008 at various locations in Ontario to evaluate the co-application of postemergence herbicides with cyhalothrin-lambda or dimethoate insecticides in cranberry and white bean. At 2 weeks after treatment, the addition of cyhalothrin-lambda or dimethoate insecticides to sethoxydim, quizalofop-p-ethyl, bentazon, fomesafen and bentazon plus fomesafen did not increase injury at the Exeter and Ridgetown locations except for bentazon plus dimethoate whi...

  3. Two distinct nanovirus species infecting faba bean in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane D; Bencharki, Bouchaib; Torok, Valeria; Katul, Lina; Varrelmann, Mark; Josef Vetten, H

    2010-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies raised against a Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) isolate from Egypt and a Faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV) isolate from Ethiopia, a striking serological variability among nanovirus isolates from faba bean in Morocco was revealed. To obtain a better understanding of this nanovirus variability in Morocco, the entire genomes of two serologically contrasting isolates referred to as Mor5 and Mor23 were sequenced. The eight circular ssDNA components, each identified from Mor5- and Mor23-infected tissues and thought to form the complete nanovirus genome, ranged in size from 952 to 1,005 nt for Mor5 and from 980 to 1,004 nt for Mor23 and were structurally similar to previously described nanovirus DNAs. However, Mor5 and Mor23 differed from each other in overall nucleotide and amino acid sequences by 25 and 26%, respectively. Mor23 was most closely related to typical FBNYV isolates described earlier from Egypt and Syria, with which it shared a mean amino acid sequence identity of about 94%. On the other hand, Mor5 most closely resembled a FBNSV isolate from Ethiopia, with which it shared a mean amino acid sequence identity of approximately 89%. The serological and genetic differences observed for Mor5 and Mor23 were comparable to those observed earlier for FBNYV, FBNSV, and Milk vetch dwarf virus. Following the guidelines on nanovirus species demarcation, this suggests that Mor23 and Mor5 represent isolates of FBNYV and FBNSV, respectively. This is the first report not only on the presence of FBNSV in a country other than Ethiopia but also on the occurrence and complete genome sequences of members of two nanovirus species in the same country, thus providing evidence for faba bean crops being infected by members of two distinct nanovirus species in a restricted geographic area. PMID:20069400

  4. Microstructural Differences Among Adzuki Bean (Vigna Angularis) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Engquist, Anup; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study microstructural differences among five adzuki bean cultivars: Erimo, Express, Hatsune, Takara and VBSC. Seed coat surfaces showed different patterns of cracks, pits and deposits . Cross-sections of the seed coats revealed well organized layers of elongated palisade cells followed by many layers of amorphous parenchyma cells. Typical sub-epidermal layers of organized columnar, hour-glass cells were characteristica11y absent in the five culti...

  5. 力争第二的Coffee Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正蓁

    2003-01-01

    一个小雨的午后,在新加坡繁华的Orchard大街上的连锁咖啡店“Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf”里,维克多·沙宣从他的座位上一跃而起,脱口而出:“下雨了,我得把屋顶打开。”短短几秒钟之内,在天井上方。

  6. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos; Elói Panachuki; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho; Paulo Tarso Sanches de Oliveira; Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in thre...

  7. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  8. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  9. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  10. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  11. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. PMID:26743883

  12. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  13. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  14. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. PMID:25922214

  15. Changes in flavour and taste of irradiated coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% +-2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  16. Changes in Flavour and Taste of Irradiated Coffee Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50 krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% ± 2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  17. Olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of phytosterol classes of olive and hazelnut oils collected from different countries by TLC, GC and GC-MS revealed considerable quantitative differences. The composition of 4-desmethyl- and 4-monomethylsterols was similar in both oils, but 4,4'-dimethylsterols composition differed. Lupeol and an unknown (lupane skeleton) compound were exclusively present in hazelnut oil 4,4´-dimethylsterols and could be used as markers to detect virgin olive oil adulteration with hazelnut oil at leve...

  18. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Microbiological Quality and Protein Patterns of 4 Selected Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on microbiological quality and protein pattern of four selected beans: mung beans, soy beans, peanuts and black beans. All beans samples were exposed to irradiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 kGy before evaluated for their microbiological quality using AOAC method and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the amount of bacteria, yeast and mold of irradiated mung beans and peanuts were reduced, whereas these microbiological quality values remained relatively the same for irradiated soy beans and black beans compared to non-irradiated samples. In terms of protein analysis, the protein patterns of the irradiated beans were of the same quality as the non-irradiated samples. To further tested the effect of irradiation on the bean's protein at higher doses, all four selected beans were exposed to gamma ray at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. We found that the protein patterns of mung beans, peanuts and black beans were altered at doses above 50 kGy.

  19. Marine oil spill contingency planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation (PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  20. Bean counting: fair trade, Delft Reactor Institute shoots neutrons at coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from oil, coffee is the worlds most important export product. The large-scale intensive coffee plantations are also one of the worlds biggest users of pesticides. But cautious signs are emerging of return to the traditional, practically pesticide-free, organic growing methods, a trend that sta

  1. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  2. Correlation between Chinese and international energy prices based on a HP filter and time difference analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a reasonable system and mechanism for Chinese energy prices, we use the Granger causality test, Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter and time difference analysis to research the pricing relationship between Chinese and international energy prices. We find that Chinese and international crude oil prices changed synchronously while Chinese refined oil prices follow the changes of international oil prices with the time difference being about 1 month to 2 months. Further, Australian coal prices Granger causes Chinese coal prices, and there is a high correlation between them. The U.S. electricity price is influenced by the WTI crude oil price, the U.S. gasoline price and the HenryHub gas price. Due to the unreasonable price-setting mechanism and regulation from the central government, China′s terminal market prices for both electricity and natural gas do not reflect the real supply–demand situation. This paper provides quantitative results on the correlation between Chinese and international energy prices to better predict the impact of international energy price fluctuations on China′s domestic energy supply and guide the design of more efficient energy pricing policies. Moreover, it provides references for developing countries to improve their energy market systems and trading, and to coordinate domestic and international energy markets. -- Highlights: •The Hodrick-Prescott filter and time difference analysis are used to research the correlation among energy prices. •Our study finds that the U.S. and British refined oil prices Granger cause the Chinese refined oil price. •Both Chinese and the Australian coal prices play an important role in the international coal market. •The Chinese terminal electric power and terminal natural gas prices are not highly correlated. •The results are useful for guiding the design of more efficient energy pricing policies in China

  3. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

  4. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  5. CNPC Cooperates with Russian Company in Oil Products Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) plans to set up a joint venture with Russian oil giant Rosneft to open up to 300 service stations in China. The joint venture, in which the Chinese company has a controlling stake, will cover oil refinery and retail business.

  6. The EU’s dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Visser Cornelis Leonardus Maria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described and underline the need for change. The EIP Agri process resulted in the assessment of the present-day yield gap of protein crops using an approach based on the market values of the protein, starch and plant oil components. Oil-based protein crops seemed to be overall better positioned than starch based protein crops because the price of oil levels is higher than that of starch. Alfalfa was identified as being interesting for regions where drying cost are low. The process also resulted in the identification of opportunities and constraints to be encountered by the innovation process, combining the knowledge and physical infrastructure, market structure, co-operation and interaction and the influence of culturally determined values and beliefs. Therefore, the recommendation is to develop a comprehensive approach to meet the challenge of substantially increasing the EU’s protein crop production.

  7. SINOPEC RAISES 2006 OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp., the nation's second-biggest oil company,is expected to produce 1.9 percent more crude oil and 11percent more gas in 2006 as the nation's energy demand continually rises. The company may pump 40 million tons of crude oil and 7 billion cubic meters of natural gas from domestic fields this year, said Sinopec Corp in a statement released in late December. The company produced 39.27million tons of crude oil and 6.3 billion cubic meters of gas last year. Chinese oil companies are increasing investments in oil and gas exploration to meet demands by the world's fastest-growing major economy, which expanded 10.7 percent in the first three quarters of this year.

  8. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  9. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Tax Exempted Import tax exemption on equipment used in oil and gas drilling programs was granted by the Chinese Government in order to support the drilling industry,according to a statement released on the website of the Ministry of Finance on September 1.

  10. Detecção do Southern bean mosaic virus no Paraná, e separação do Bean rugose mosaic virus em feijoeiro Detection of Southern bean mosaic virus in the State of Paraná and separation from Bean rugose mosaic virus in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. G. Gasparin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris da cultivar Carioca Comum, no município de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, foram encontradas plantas com sintomas de necrose da haste, mosaico clorótico leve e porte reduzido, semelhantes aos sintomas causados por infecção viral. Exames de microscopia eletrônica revelaram a presença de partículas isométricas. Em testes de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar os extratos foliares de plantas infetadas reagiram positivamente com anti-soro específico para o Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV. O vírus foi purificado e a massa molecular de sua proteína capsidial foi estimada em 30 kDa, valor esperado para proteínas do capsídeo de vírus do gênero Sobemovirus. A gama de hospedeiras do SBMV isolado no Paraná foi restrita ao feijoeiro e a algumas cultivares de soja (Glycine max. A separação de dois vírus isométricos comuns em infecções mistas no feijoeiro foi possível através da reação de imunidade ao SBMV apresentada por Crotalaria sp, Chenopodium quinoa e Mucuna deeringiana, e da reação de susceptibilidade dessas mesmas hospedeiras ao Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV.Plants of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, showing symptoms of stunt, stem necrosis and chlorotic mosaic, similar to those induced by virus infection were found in a bean field in Londrina, Paraná. Electron microscopy examinations showed isometric virus particles in the cell cytoplasm. Double immunodifusion serological tests with antiserum for Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV gave positive results when tested against plant sap from infected bean plants. The virus was purified and the molecular mass of its coat protein was estimated as 30 kDa, the expected value for the coat protein of viruses from the genus Sobemovirus. The host range of the virus was restricted to bean and some soybean (Glycine max cultivars. It was possible to separate two isometric viruses commonly found in bean based on the immunity reaction of Crotalaria sp

  11. The Effect of Essential Oil of Nigella sativa and Satureia hortensis on Promastigot Stage of Lishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi; A Dehghani-Samani; M Adel; F Hoseinpour

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used for topical effects of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa on the Leishmania major. Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of the plant’s essential oils and savory black beans on the Leishmania major form were studied. Eval...

  12. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with fructose, glucose and sucrose concentration in snap bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Differences between dry and snap bean cultivars and among snap bean cultivars in the patterns of accumulation of sugars have been observed. In ‘Eagle...

  14. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... distributed within the United States. Currently, we do not allow the importation of fresh beans (Phaseolus... accessing Regulations.gov ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of Fresh Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Shelled... allow the importation of commercial shipments of fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), shelled or in...

  15. Effect of partial genetic resistance on efficacy of Topsin fungicide for control of white mold disease in pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto bean is the most important dry bean market class grown in the U.S., but is one of the most susceptible to white mold disease. Developing pinto bean with partial resistance is a major goal of plant breeders, but the effect of partial resistance on efficacy of fungicide application for disease m...

  16. A new method to select the drought resistance azuki bean germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Peerasak Srinives

    2006-01-01

    120 azuki bean germplasms from different regions of China were selected for drought-resistance. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between drought-resistance and photooxidation-resistance. So, the detecting technique for photooxidation-resistance should be suggested as a reference method to select the drought-resistance germplasms in azuki bean.

  17. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  18. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  19. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta, is a destructive insect pest of dry beans within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, starting in the early 1990s, a range expansion of S. albicosta has resulted in damage to corn crops through the Midwest and more...

  20. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  1. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and...

  2. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  3. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos;

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grai...

  4. Registration of Drought Tolerant, Rust Resistant, High Yielding Pinto Bean Germplasm Line CO46348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought stress reduces dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield in more than 60 % of the production regions worldwide. The release of CO465348 will provide plant breeders with drought tolerant, pinto bean germplasm that takes advantage of full-growing season (95 to 98 d), has high yield potential, exc...

  5. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) have many health benefits attributed to their high content of protein, non-digestible starches, fiber, and other bioactive components. Hulls from dry beans are rich in phenolics known to possess antioxidant activity that is beneficial to human health. The object...

  6. Selenium from Pinto Beans is Bioavailable to Support Bone Structure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficiency of selenium (Se), an essential trace mineral for animals and humans, has been shown to induce growth retardation and to impair bone metabolism. The objective of the study was to determine whether Se from pinto beans (SeBean) is as bioavailable as Se from selenomethionine (SeMet) to suppor...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Strain Mor30.16, Isolated from the Bean Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Ríos, José Antonio; Ramírez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are commonly found in the soil and plant rhizosphere. In this study we report the draft genome of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain Mor30.16 that was isolated from rhizosphere of beans grown in Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. This strain promotes growth and ameliorates drought stress in bean plants.

  8. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  9. Selection of markers for mapping and cloning disease resistance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestation of diseases is one of the major constraints of subsistence production and economic yield of common bean. Genetic resistance is an important component of integrated strategies to combat problematic diseases in common bean and development of cultivars with improved resistance to pest and d...

  10. A reference genome for common bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the common bean genome and geneti...

  11. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  12. Response of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean genotypes to inoculation with rhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production regions of Latin America, inoculants are rarely used by farmers in spite of several studies that demonstrate the importance of Rhizobium inoculation on commercial production of legume crops. This study investigated specific bean host plant-Rhizo...

  13. Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline in Interests of Two Countries - CNPC Boss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an interview by reporters from ITAR-TASS and Russian News Agency on February 10, President of CNPC Ma Fucai answered the questions concerning the Chinese-Russian crude oil pipeline project and the prospect for oil and gas cooperation with five Central Asian countries.

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  15. CNPC Active on International Oil Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has strived to operate itself successfully worldwide in the past decade to show the competitiveness of China's State-owned industries. The Chinese oil giant has continued to boost its cooperation with its foreign counterparts in a large variety of sectors for sustainable business development both at home and overseas.

  16. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Foster Common Name: peppermint oil Latin Name: Mentha x piperita Introduction This fact sheet provides basic ... naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Peppermint oil ( Mentha x piperita L.). Natural Standard Database Web site. ...

  17. Challenges and Opportunities of China Oil & Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xingkun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese economy has turned from rapid development into new normal. With economic transition, demand for oil and gas decreases as well. Consumed diesel-gasoline ratio keeps declining, and diesel export increases considerably. Gas demand grows at medium speed, and supply meets demand in general. Alternative energy dominated by gas and electricity will develop faster. As crude oil import right is gradually liberalized, domestic oil market structure will be changed. Oil price drop brings the best opportunity for oil and gas market reform, and environmental protection becomes main force boosting natural gas development.

  18. 棕榈油复配物代替猪油用于桃酥制作%Substitution of Palm Oil Blend for Lard Used in Chinese Crisp Peach Cookie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏喜; 肖志红; 季敏

    2011-01-01

    The changes of sensory quality,acid value,peroxide value of crisp peach cookies made using palm oil blend or lard were compared during storage at the same conditions,in order to judge the substitutability of palm oil for lard.It was shown that crisp peach cookies made using palm oil blend exhibited not only the same good sensory quality as ones made using lard,but also better oxidation stability than ones made using lard.This study suggests that palm oil-based shortening can provide a promising substitute for lard in crisp peach cookies.%比较棕榈油桃酥和猪油桃酥产品的感官品质以及在同等储藏条件下的酸价和过氧化值的变化情况,以判断棕榈油对猪油的可替代性。结果表明:复配棕榈油基起酥油不仅可以达到猪油基起酥油用在桃酥制作上的良好效果,而且棕榈油桃酥具有比猪油桃酥更好的氧化稳定性。本实验为棕榈油基起酥油代替猪油用于桃酥制作提供一定理论依据。

  19. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  20. Effect of 60Co-γ ray irradiation on green coffee beans, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green coffee beans were irradiated with 60Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Mrad and the changes of general components in green and roast coffee beans were investigated together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage according to the cup testing. In case of Brazil santos beans, irradiation of some 0.05 Mrad 60Co-γ ray gave rather favourable mild flavour and no harmful influence on the quality of coffee, and moreover, would tend to extend the shelf life of roast beans. But influence of irradiation on the quality of coffee differed somewhat between two cultivars, Brazil santos and Colombia. (auth.)

  1. Uncertainty measurement in the homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieisson Pivoto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study aimed to i quantify the measurement uncertainty in the physical tests of rice and beans for a hypothetical defect, ii verify whether homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification tests of rice and beans is effective to reduce the measurement uncertainty of the process and iii determine whether the increase in size of beans sample increases accuracy and reduces measurement uncertainty in a significant way. Hypothetical defects in rice and beans with different damage levels were simulated according to the testing methodology determined by the Normative Ruling of each product. The homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans are not effective, transferring to the final test result a high measurement uncertainty. The sample size indicated by the Normative Ruling did not allow an appropriate homogenization and should be increased.

  2. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  3. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  4. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  5. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nozomi Satoh; Tatsuya Kon; Noriko Yamagishi; Tsubasa Takahashi; Tomohide Natsuaki; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic sym...

  6. Gene-based SNP discovery in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common bean (P. vulgaris) for diversity analysis and comparative mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Sharpe, Andrew G; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Daniel G. Debouck; Tar’an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important grain legume and there has been a recent resurgence in interest in its relative, tepary bean (P. acutifolius), owing to this species’ ability to better withstand abiotic stresses. Genomic resources are scarce for this minor crop species and a better knowledge of the genome-level relationship between these two species would facilitate improvement in both. High-throughput genotyping has facilitated large-scale single nucleotide polymor...

  7. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively. PMID:26297125

  8. Short term toxicity studies of irradiated black beans (P. vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, we presented a paper on irradiated black beans with the dose levels of 0.2 and 0.5 kGy to verify the mutagenic potentiality, using male mice. The dose level required for insect disinfestation of the legume referred to is 0.1 kGy. At this time, we resolved to repeat the dominant lethal test with the same product and kind of animals, but with increasing dose levels to appraise its effects on the reproduction of these animals. In this study we carried out work related to the evaluation of the mutagenic potential of the irradiated black beans with 0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 kGy, and the biological value evaluation of the same irradiated legume with 0, 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy respectively, in male mice and rats. For the dominant lethal test, the following parameters were analysed: body weight (only males), pregnancy rates, total implants, live implants, dead implants, distribution of sexes and abnormality in foetuses. In general, the variations found cannot be considered as being the result of radiation. This can be verified through the outcome from the groups which were fed non-irradiated and irradiated black beans, and commercial rations. For biological protein value, the following parameters were tested: alimentary efficacy ratio, protein efficacy ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and digestibility. We observed small variations in the results obtained. These small differences were considered not significant and not attributable to the irradiation treatment. (author)

  9. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyfa Kon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma ray on germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from seeds of long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis. Seeds of this crop were treated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 Gy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT. The treated seeds including control were sown in sand beds in size 4.6 x 0.7 m2 in a greenhouse at Horticulture Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB. After germination, plants were transferred into polybags. Each polybag contained 1.2 kg blended growth medium with top soil, sand, and processed chicken dung ratio of 3:2:1. Standard procedures were used to observe and record the variables studied in this research. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 6 factorial Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Lethal dose 50 % of population (LD50 was assayed. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight decreased with increasing dose of gamma ray. The 800 Gy gamma ray dose in particular had a pronounced effect on these morphological characteristics probably because of injury it might have caused to the seeds of the long bean. As a result, poor growth and development was noticed. The LD50 for survival and height ranged between 600-800 Gy and 400-500 Gy, respectively. Generally, higher gamma ray doses particularly 800 Gy significantly affected the morphological characteristics of long bean seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds.

  10. Simulation About the Growth of Chinese Firm's Safety Management Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tie-zhong; LI Zhi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of exterminating measures of Chinese firm safety management,a simulation model of Chinese firm's safety management capability based on the organizational learning theory,in which the simulation method of system dynamics is utilized.The level variable and rate vailable are designed based on the practical situation and change situation of corresponding variables of firm's safety management capability.Simulation firms are built with accident ease groups of the oil industry,chemieal industry,machine industry,coal mining industry,and weapon industry.Through analyzing the simulation result,the growth law of Chinese firm's safety management capability is obtained as follows:the accumulating and the coupling of safety knowledge should be emphasized at the same time;the balance of learning behavior of individual,group and organization should be considered together;different types of Chinese firm should take different safety policies according to their practical situations.

  11. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS, FUNGI AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS IN STORED COFFEE BEANS IN LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY s. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on postharvest handling and technology processing of coffee beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels was conducted in West Lampung a nd Tanggamus regencies of Lampung province during harvest time (July 1998. Interviews and sampling of coffee beans were carried out during the survey. The number of respondents at farmer, trader and exporter levels was 22, 20 and 4, respectively, while the number of samples collected from each level was 20. All samples were analyzed for moisture content, physical quality, insect and fungal infestation, reducing sugar content, and coffee cupping. The results of the interviews indicated that posth arvest handling and technol ogy processing became better from farmers to exporters. Moisture contents of coffee beans collected from farmers and traders were higher than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (13%. Physical quality of coffee beans collected from exporters was higher than that collected from farmers and traders. Insects were found on coffee beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters, but the number of species and the percentage of samples infested by insects from each level were relatively low. The predominant species was Liposcelis entomophila. The number of fungal species on coffee beans collected from farmers was higher than that collected from traders and exporters. The predominant species at the three levels was Aspergillus niger, but the lowest percentage of beans infected by this fungus was found on coffee beans collected from expo rters. The lowest percentage of samples infected by all fungi was also found on coffee beans collected from exporters. Reducing sugar content of coffee beans collected from exporters was lower than that from farmers and traders. Aroma and flavor values tended to increase from farmers through traders to exporters, while the body decreased. Some off-flavors (i.e. earthy, mouldy, fermented and woody were encountered in a few coffee samples from farmers as

  12. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  13. Studies on semi-technical separation of Mung bean starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, N.U.; Tegge, G.; Thu, N.M. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Getreide- und Kartoffelverarbeitung, Detmold (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-02-01

    Starch of mung beans is the raw material for high grade glass noodles, but until now industrial starch separation is often less efficient. For testing new fields of commercial use it is of benerfit to experiment with very pure starches. Regarding this, possibilities of starch isolation on a semi-technical scale are described, which resulted in most pure starches. Crude protein content could be lowered down to 0.3% and crude fibre content down to 0.5% dry matter base. (orig.).

  14. Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

  15. Drought resistance characters of induced mung bean mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induced mung bean mutants were studied at three stages (the seedling stage, the flower and pod stage, the filling stage) by the means of synthetical indexes and the theory of grey systems. An excellent mutant with better drought resistance character than CK1 in all three stages and than CK2 in the seedling and the filling stages was found. As the orders of the drought resistance varied with the growth period, the drought resistance of one period can not replace that of the whole life period

  16. Response of Dry Bean to Sulfentrazone Plus Imazethapyr

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2014-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the Huron Research Station, Exeter, Ontario and from 2009 to 2011 at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus, Ridgetown, Ontario to evaluate the sensitivity of four market classes of dry bean to sulfentrazone applied preemergence at 105, 140, and 280 g ai/ha alone and in combination with imazethapyr at 37.5 g ai/ha. At 1 week after emergence (WAE), sulfentrazone alone or in combination with imazethapyr at all doses evaluated caused no signifi...

  17. Osmoregulation and nutritional relationships between Orobanche foetida and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Abbes, Zouhaier; Kharrat, Mohamed; Delavault, Philippe; Chaïbi, Wided; Simier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at comparing the phloem composition of the tolerant XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1 and the susceptible Bachaar genotypes and the impact of the faba bean genotype on the levels of the major solutes and invertase activities in the parasite Orobanche foetida. In comparison to Bachaar, the XBJ90.03-161-1-1 genotype limited the growth of orobanche tubercles under in vitro conditions. The limited growth was due to low soluble invertase activity, low osmotic potential of the infected roots...

  18. Texture losses of green beans along frozen storage

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Martins; Silva, C. L. M.

    2000-01-01

    The texture loss of frozen green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variety Bencanta) was macroscopically evaluated by a puncture test, using the INSTRON (Universal Testing Machine, model 4500) with a 4,85 mm diameter plunger, along 250 days of isothermal storage at -7, -15 and -30°C. The force deformation curves were recorded for data analysis of: i) Energy - the area below the force deformation curve, as a measurement of the resistance to compression by the plunger, ii) Stress at the fai...

  19. Induced mutations for a determinate habit in rice bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation techniques were used to create polygenic variability in rice bean (Vigna umbellata). Dry seeds of the genotype (sel. I) were irradiated with 40-80 kR of gamma rays at 10 kR intervals. A wide variation in quantitative characters was induced in both the M2 and M3 generations. Some mutants were isolated that showed a determinate growth habit, earliness, a high yield and photoinsensitivity. These mutants were found to be breeding true. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  20. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  1. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  2. 蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥及其应用%Castor Bean Cereal Based Bio-Organic-Inorganic Compound Fertilizers and Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍荣; 邵建华; 赵立新; 刘园园

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥的性能及特点。通过玉米、水稻、花生大田肥效试验,结果证明蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥具有较好的增产改土效果,可在粮油作物上推广应用。%A brief account is given of the properties and features of castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.By field experiment of fertilizer efficiency with corn, rice and peanut , it is proved that castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers have better effects on increasing production and improving the properities of soil, and can be widely applied to grain and oil crops.

  3. 薄荷精油循经推拿调治社会应激性亚健康抑郁状态93例%Used mint essential oil Chinese massaging meridians and acupoints to treat sub-health depressive state caused by social stress in 93 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷龙鸣; 伦轼芳; 黄锦军; 庞军; 胡跃强; 周海丰; 唐宏亮; 李燕燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluated the clinical effect of mint essential oil Chinese massaging meridians and acupoints in treatment of sub-health depressive state caused by social stress. Methods: A sub-health depressive state population of 200 cases was randomly divided into the test group (100 cases) were treated with mint essential oil Chinese massaging meridians and acupoints and the control group (100 cases) with psychological counseling. Two groups were scored before and after treatment by using Hamilton depression rating scale scores (HAMD-24). The clinical curative effect of two groups was determined by the improvements of the sub-health depressive state main clinical symptoms. Results: Before and after the treatment, scores on HAMD-24 had significant difference in the test group (18.25±6.82)and(3.24±1.27), (P<0.05), but had not significant difference in the control group (17.72±6.56)and(16.21±6.23). After the treatment, scores on HAMD-24 had a significant difference between the test group and the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate (94.62%, 55.56%) and cure& effective rate (70.97%, 23.33%) between the two groups have a significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: It showed a good clinical effect in treating sub-health depressive state caused by social stress with mint essential oil Chinese massaging meridians and acupoints.%目的:观察薄荷精油循经推拿对社会应激性亚健康抑郁状态的干预效应.方法:将200例社会应激性亚健康抑郁状态人群随机分为观察组和对照组.每组100例.观察组采用薄荷精油背部循经推拿调治,对照组给予心理疏导.记录两组调治前后汉密尔顿抑郁量表24项版(HAMD-24)记分.以亚健康抑郁状态主要症候群的改善情况判定两组的临床疗效.结果:观察组和对照组实际进入结果分析分别为93例和90例,观察组调治前后HAMD-24记分分别为(18.25±6.82)与(3.24±1.27),调治前后比较.差异有显著性(P<0.05)

  4. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: A population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. Methods A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Results Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15–2.64. Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37–0.83 and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34–0.89 was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Conclusion Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  5. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  6. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  7. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  8. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  9. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  10. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  11. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  12. Accumulated Meanings and Sublimated Forms: Chinese Oil Paintings as a Phase in the Development of Beauty%沉淀的意味升华的形式——美的历程之中国油画阶段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese aesthetics history, Li Zehou (1930-) has occupied an important position, for his book "The Development of Beauty" is very influential in the academic circle. In this book, Li Zehou has presented the readers a clear understanding of the development of various forms of arts in China by discussing about the artis-tic theories in different historical periods. And the author has also summarized the causes and characteristics of the artistic beauty in Chinese literary theories and put forward such aesthetic concepts as "accumulation" and "mean-ingful forms". However, the book has just analyzed the literary theories before Qing Dynasty, saying nothing about the arts in modern times. And the author of this article thinks that it should be of significance to have a probe into Chinese oil paintings with the theories set up by Li Zehou in the book "The Development of Beauty".%李泽厚在中国美学史上占有举足轻重的地位,他的在中国美学理论界闪闪发光,影响深远.通过对中国历代文艺的梳理展示,向我们理清了各种艺术形式的历史发展脉络,总结了艺术美所形成的根基和特点,形成了"积淀"、"有意味的形式"等美学概念,但它对艺术历史现象的分析止于清代文艺,而对近现代艺术没有做系统内的梳理和阐释.在的理论框架内,以李泽厚的美学理论现对中国近代油画做出理论上的解读无疑具有一定的理论探索意义.

  13. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  14. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  15. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  16. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  17. Improvement of tuber yield in yam bean by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The genus Pachyrrhizus, a native of Mexico and Central America is now widely distributed throughout the tropics. Pachyrrhizus erosus (L.) Urb., commonly known as the yam bean is cultivated in many parts of India for its edible tubers. The young tubers have a crisp and juicy flesh and can be eaten raw or cooked. Genetic variability for agronomically important characters is rare. It was therefore felt desirable to increase it by mutation induction. Seeds of a locally adapted variety were subjected to gamma irradiation (10, 15, 20 and 25 kR). Evaluation of the M3 raised from the different treatments unveiled mutants possessing significantly higher yields than the control. While the control plants showed a mean tuber yield of 168 g, one of the higher yielding mutants from the progenies of 10 kR treatment recorded 415 g. Two other mutants selected from the 25 kR treatment showed yields of 401 and 411 g. These mutants, first identified in M2, were found to breed true in M3-M5 generations. Yield trials conducted in M5 generation showed more than two-fold increase in yield by the mutants. Apparently there are remarkable possibilities of improving the yield potential in yam bean by mutation induction. (author)

  18. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Roopa Lavanya; Jyoti Srivastava; Shirish A. Ranade

    2008-04-01

    RAPD profiles were used to identify the extent of diversity among 54 accessions of mung bean that included both improved and local land races. Out of the 40 primers screened, seven primers generated 174 amplification products with an average of 24.85 bands per primer. The RAPD profiles were analysed for Jaccard’s similarity coefficients that was found to be in the range from 0 to 0.48, indicating the presence of wide range of genetic diversity at molecular level. Cluster analysis was carried out based on distances (1-similarity coefficient) using neighbour-joining method in Free Tree package. The dendrogram resolved all the accessions into two major clusters, I (with 11 accessions) and II (with 43 accessions). However, the cluster was further divided into four subclusters (II A with six, II B with nine, II C with 15 and II D with 13 accessions). The distribution of the accessions in different clusters and subclusters appeares to be related to their performance in field conditions for 10 morphological traits that were scored. This study indicated that the RAPD profiles provide an easy and simple technique for preliminary genetic diversity assessment of mung bean accessions that may reflect morphological trait differences among them.

  19. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization. PMID:26345029

  20. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  1. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

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    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  2. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-1). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m-1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m-11density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  3. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of sunning (solar heating) as a small farm technique for controlling the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) was investigated. Bean seeds infested with mixed-stage larvae were placed on clear or black polyethylene sheets or inside polyethylene pouches with clear upper and black lower surfaces and exposed to the sun for five hours each day for 0, 3 and 5 successive days. No live insects emerged from seeds heated in the pouches while the few that emerged from seeds on the black sheets resulted in damage to less than 1% of the seeds. Of the three polyethylene systems used, the clear sheet was the least useful, while the pouches even for only 3 days, were the most effective in eliminating infestations. These studies demonstrated that effective bruchid control can be achieved with daily 5-h exposure periods of seeds for a successive 5-day duration. However, the success of the method of control may be influenced by the time of the year and prevailing environmental conditions

  4. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  5. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  6. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    JAMILI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a cocoa farmer in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi using yeast mannitol agar (YMA media. Yeast was characterized and identified using phenotypic characters based on numeric-phenetic analysis. Yeast isolates applied to cocoa bean to determine its role in cocoa bean fermentation. The result was obtained seven isolates the dominant yeast during cocoa bean fermentation in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The result of numerical-phenetic analysis based on phenotypic characters to seven yeast isolates showed that 1 isolates (Klk1 identical with Candida krusei. Three isolates (Klk4, Klk5 and Klk7 identical with Candida tropicalis, one isolate (Klk2 identical with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, one isolate (Klk3 identical with Kloeckera sp. and one isolate (Klk6 identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result also showed that fermentation of cocoa with seeding of yeast inoculums served to increase the quality of cocoa beans than spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, the seven yeast isolates potentially be used as an inoculum to improve the cocoa quality.

  7. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  8. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g-1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g-1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g-1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g-1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g-1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g-1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties

  9. In Vivo Antistress and Antioxidant Effects of Fermented and Germinated Mung Bean

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase theadrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, and malondialdehyde (MDA level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.

  10. Hydration properties and texture fingerprints of easy- and hard-to-cook bean varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanjui, Peter K; Njoroge, Daniel M; Makokha, Anselimo O; Christiaens, Stefanie; Ndaka, Daniel S; Hendrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the factors that affect the hydration and cooking profiles of different bean varieties. During this study, nine bean varieties were classified as either easy-to-cook (ETC) or hard-to-cook (HTC) based on a subjective finger pressing test and an objective cutting test. Rose coco, Red haricot, and Zebra beans were classified as ETC, while Canadian wonder, Soya fupi, Pinto, non-nodulating, Mwezi moja, Gwaku, and New mwezi moja were HTC. The effect of different soaking (pre)-treatments on the cooking behavior and/or water absorption of whole or dehulled beans was investigated. Dehulling, soaking in high pH and monovalent salt solutions reduced the cooking time of beans, while soaking in low pH and CaCl2 solutions increased the cooking time. Moisture uptake was faster in ETC and dehulled beans. Soaking at high temperatures also increased the hydration rate. The results point to pectin-related aspects and the rate of water uptake as possible factors that influence the cooking rate of beans. PMID:25650021

  11. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  12. Influence of Relative Humidity on Radiosensitivity of Aspergillus Flavus Link Infecting Cocoa Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH postirradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  13. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans. PMID:26344962

  14. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  15. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf E-mail: ralf.greiner@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 1.8 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 13.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 0.42 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 7.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  16. Effect of oil price on Nigeria’s food price volatility

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    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of oil price on the volatility of food price in Nigeria. It specifically considers the long-run, short-run, and causal relationship between these variables. Annual data on oil price and individual prices of maize, rice, sorghum, soya beans, and wheat spanning from 2000 to 2013 were used. The price volatility for each crop was obtained using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedascity (GARCH (1, 1 model. Our measure of oil price is the Refiner acquisition cost of imported crude oil. The Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillip–Perron unit root tests show that all the variables are integrated of order one, I (1. Therefore, we use the Johansen co-integration test to examine the long-run relationship. Our results show that there is no long-run relationship between oil price and any of the individual food price volatility. Thus, we implement a VAR instead of a VECM to investigate the short-run relationship. The VAR model result revealed a positive and significant short-run relationship between oil price and each of the selected food price volatility with exception of that of rice and wheat price volatility. These results were further confirmed by the impulse response functions. The Granger causality test result indicates a unidirectional causality from oil price to maize, soya bean, and sorghum price volatilities but does not show such relationship for rice and wheat price volatilities. We draw some policy implications of these findings.

  17. Relationship between Physiological Characteristic and Bean Quality on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the physiological process that influence the bean weight and this process related with the efectiveness of the stomata character and chlorophyll content in the leaves. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Design of experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD consisted of six clones as treatment were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, Sca 6, ICS 60, TSH 858, ICCRI 03, PA 300. Each treatment was replicated three times.  Stomata resistance diffusion, tranpiration,the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, bean number and bean weight were observed. The resuts  of experiment showed that  difference in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, stomata resistance diffusion, bean number and bean weight existed within  six clones tested. Transpiration rate did not show the significantly different between six clones tested. Sulawesi 1 showed the highest content of chlorophyll a and  ICS 60 and ICCRI 03 showed higher content of chlorophyll b than the other clones. Chlorophyll a, b and total (a+b showed positively influence on bean number and bean weight. Transpiration rate had negatively influence to bean number per pod, on the otherhand it showed positively influence to bean weight. Chlorophyll total (a+b showed high genetic variance (σg2, high phenotypic variance (σf2  and high estimated value of heritability (H.  The chlorophyll a,b had moderate genetic variance, moderate phenotypic variance and high of estimated value of heritability.  Chlorophyll total (a+b could be used a selection criteria based on the value of correlation, genetic variance, phenotypic variance and estimated value of heritability would give high opportunity in selection process. 

  18. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. PMID:26878790

  19. Bean responds to Endospor 33® at reduced dose of Nitrogen and

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    Juan Manuel Sanchez-Yañez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bean is a legume its production requires nitrogen (N combined as ammonium (NH4 or nitrate (NO3 and phosphates (NPF, its indiscriminate application causes soil lost productivity. An alternative solution for reducing and optimizing NPF is applying mixed inoculant which could be improved by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and mycohrrizae. The objective of this research was to analyze the response of beans to mixed inoculant Endospor 33® at 50% reduced dose of NPF. In that sense a red ferralitic soil poor in N and organic matter was used. By experimental design: 5 treatments and 6 replications. Results showed a positive bean responds achieving 100% germination at 20mg/seed with Endospor 33® at 50% NPF dose. At seedling level bean was 6.63g of total fresh weight (TFW and 0.66g total dry weight (TDW with the same Endospor 33® dose compared to 0.28g of TDW of bean used as relative control (RC at 100% NPF dose. At flowering with 30 mg/plant got 1.5 g of TDW compared to 1.0g TDW of bean as CR. At physiological maturity bean with 30mg/plant had 34.83g/100 grains compared to 20.39g/grains of bean as CR. Those data supporting that Endopre 33® is an excellent choice in bean’s production at NPF 50% dose but not adverse effect on bean growth and yield in protected agriculture.

  20. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of corn tortilla, black beans, and tortilla-bean mixture: effect of cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Tovar, Juscelino; Osorio-Díaz, P; Paredes-López, Octavio; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2005-02-23

    People in the rural areas of Mexico consume corn tortillas and beans as basic components of their diet. However, little is known about the nutritionally relevant features of starch present in such combined meals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro bioavailability of starch in tortilla-bean mixtures stored at 4 degrees C for different times, as compared to that of corn tortilla and boiled black beans kept separately under the same conditions. Available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS), and retrograded resistant starch (RRS) contents were measured. The in vitro starch hydrolysis indices (HI) of freshly cooked and cold-stored samples were evaluated using a chewing/dialysis digestion protocol. HIs were used to predict glycemic indices (pGI) of the samples. AS in tortilla and beans decreased between 3 and 6% after 48-72 h, whereas values in the mixture fell by 3% after 48 h, with no further change by 72 h. Only minor rises in RS contents (1.5-1.6%) were recorded for tortilla and beans after 72 h of storage, and a lower increase (0.4%) was recorded in the mixture. Judging from RRS values, an important proportion of RS is due to starch retrogradation. The HI and pGI were higher in tortilla than in bean and the mixture. Hydrolysis rate values decreased in the stored samples, a pattern that corresponded with RS and RRS changes. The slow digestion features of common beans are largely retained by the legume-tortilla combination. Data support the perceived health beneficial properties of starch in this traditional cereal-legume food. PMID:15713053