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Sample records for chinese bean oil

  1. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  2. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  3. Study on Drying Edible Soya-bean Oil Using Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengyong; LIU Peng; SHEN Xiaozhen; XU Guizhuan; SU Chaojie; CAI Xianjie

    2010-01-01

    Soya-bean oil(bean dregs)was dried in a solar energy drying system.Characteristics of the process were measured and the corresponding curves were done.The practicability of this process has been discussed.The results showed that the solar drying system could completely meet technological requirements of drying soy-bean oil,and it was feasible in technology to use the solar drying system to dry the vegetable oil.

  4. Catalytic production of biodiesel from soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, R.; Amores, J.; Canoira, L.; Fidalgo, E.; Franco, M.J.; Navarro, A. [Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Fuels

    2000-07-01

    Three fatty materials, soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow, were transformed into two different types of biodiesel, by transesterification and amidation reactions with methanol and diethylamine respectively. The ignition properties of these types of biodiesel were evaluated calculating the cetane index of the transesterification products, and the blending cetane number of the amide biodiesel blended with conventional diesel. Amide biodiesel enhances the ignition properties of the petrochemical diesel fuel, and it could account for the 5% market share that should be secured to biofuels by 2005. (author)

  5. Design and Fabrication of a Hand Fed Motorized Oil Bean Slicing Machine

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    O. Oduma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hand fed African oil bean slicing machine which would be affordable, simple to operate and easy to maintain by local and/or small scale farmers and processors was designed and fabricated with locally available materials. The design was based on the engineering standard and specifications. Factors such as physical and mechanical properties of oil bean seeds, mechanical properties of construction materials, mach inability or deformability of construction materials, wear resistance, availability of power and cost of materials were considered in the fabrication of the device. 1hp electric motor powered the machine. The machine was tested for performance and it recorded an efficiency of 96.64% with minimal damage of the product. The bill of engineering measurement and evaluation revealed that the machine was fabricated at a total cost of ₦91,353.00. The device match the need of the oil bean processors and with adequate maintenance and/or management, it would ameliorate the difficulties involved in oil bean processing and, therefore boost the farmers’ production

  6. Ionic Liquids as Additives of Coffee Bean Oil in Steel-Steel Contacts

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    James Grace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness and ever-growing restrictive regulations over contamination have increased the need for more environmentally-friendly lubricants. Due to their superior biodegradability and lower toxicity, vegetable oils are a good alternative to replace currently-used mineral oils. However, vegetable oils show low oxidation and thermal stability and poor anti-wear properties. Most of these drawbacks can be attenuated through the use of additives. In the last decade, ionic liquids have emerged as high-performance fluids and lubricant additives due to their unique characteristics. In this study, the tribological behavior of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids is investigated as additives of coffee bean oil in steel-steel contact. Coffee bean oil-ionic liquid blends containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% of each ionic liquid are studied using a block-on-flat reciprocating tribometer and the test results are compared to commercially-available, fully-formulated lubricant. Results showed that the addition of the ionic liquids to the coffee bean oil reduces wear volume of the steel disks, and wear values achieved are comparable to that obtained when the commercially-available lubricant is used.

  7. Novozym 435-catalysed transesterification of crude soya bean oils for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jing; Liu, De-hua

    2004-10-01

    When crude soya-bean oil was used as the source for biodiesel production, the yield of methyl ester was significantly lower than that from refined soya-bean oil. The major difference between refined and crude soya-bean oils was found to be due to the contents of phospholipids, free acid and water, which have varied influences on biodiesel production. Phospholipid content was the most influential factor; the higher the phospholipid content in the oil, the lower is the methyl ester yield. The optimal water activity was found to be in the range 0.12-0.44, and free acid included in crude soya-bean oils showed no negative effect on enzymic transesterification. During our study of three-step methanolysis of crude soya-bean oils for biodiesel production, we noted that the second-step methanolysis was much faster than the first-step reaction. On the basis of this finding, the proposal that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils contributes to improvement in enzyme activity has been put forward. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils could improve both the reaction rate and methyl ester yield significantly. A methyl ester yield of 94% could be achieved by immersing lipase in crude oils for 120 h and this was just as high as the yield for refined oils.

  8. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  9. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  10. OIL CONTENT OF GREEN BEANS FROM SOME COFFEE SPECIES

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    MAZZAFERA PAULO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content was determined in seeds of several continental African species of the coffee germplasm bank of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Oil was extracted from seeds with hexane in Soxhlet apparatus. Due to the economic importance, C. arabica and C. canephora have been the best studied species concerning oil content and composition, and the results obtained are in agreement with the reported in the literature. On the other hand, only one report in the literature describes the results of oil analyses in other few species of the African continent, although it does not allow comparison with our results. The oil content of most of the species varied from 9 to 15%, therefore, similar to the range observed for C. arabica and C. canephora. The exception was C. salvatrix, with 29% of oil in the seeds.

  11. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

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    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  12. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  13. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

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    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  14. Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report examines inaccuracies in some commonly held views of China's National Oil Companies (NOCs). Until now, there has been little analysis to test the widely held presumption that these companies act under the instructions and in close co-ordination with the Chinese government. Nor have critics been challenged on the validity of their concerns about investments made by these NOCs, and how they could be blocking supplies of oil for other importing countries. The IEA analysis, however, finds that contrary to these views, the NOCs actually operate with a high degree of independence from the Chinese government, and their investments have in fact largely boosted global supplies of oil and gas, which other importers rely on.

  15. Purification and some properties of African oil bean seed lipoxygenase--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2003-11-01

    Lipoxygenase was extracted from African oil bean seed and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE--cellulose column. The enzyme was purified 79.63 fold and 36% of the enzyme activity was recovered. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 102,000 daltons and the peroxide value was 10.56 x 10(-3) mM. The Vmax was 0.14 OD min-1 while the Km value was 1.92 x 10(-4) M. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 7.0 and optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. While diethyl-dithiocarbamate was the best inhibitor of the enzyme's oxidation of linoleic acid, nordihydroguiaretic acid was the best antioxidant for its oxidation of the fatty acid. African oil bean seed lipoxygenase had high enzyme activity of 86% when compared to soybean lipoxygenase (considered to be the best source of the enzyme). This means that African oil bean seed is a good source of lipoxygenase for biotechnology such as the bleaching of browned yam tubers.

  16. Evaluation of biocompatible stabilised gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles as new hydrophobic reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, Ariane; Kirilov, Plamen; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Hadioui, Laila; Roques, Christine; Perez, Emile; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Based on the organogel concept, in which an oil is trapped in a network of low-molecular-mass organic gelator fibres creating a gel, a formulation of gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles was evaluated for its capacity to form biocompatible hydrophobic reservoirs. The aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (T° > Tgel) and cooling at room temperature in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The dispersions were stabilised by the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged amino groups of the PEI and the negatively charged carboxylates of the gelator fibres present at the surface of the particles. The aqueous dispersions were highly stable (several months) and the gelled particles were able to entrap a hydrophobic fluorescent model molecule (Nile red), allowing testing in cells. The gelled oil nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible with the tested cells (keratinocytes) and had the ability to become rapidly internalised. Thus, organogel-based nanoparticles are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system.

  17. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  18. Diazepam submicron emulsions containing soya-bean oil and intended for oral or rectal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, M; Sznitowska, M; Janicki, S

    2001-03-01

    Physically stable diazepam submicron emulsions were prepared using soya-bean oil. Diazepam concentration 4 mg/ml, suitable for rectal or oral delivery, was achieved in 20% emulsions. Mixture of egg lecithin (1.2%) and poloxamer (2.0%) has been chosen as the most suitable emulsifying agent. Composition of the emulsion may be supplemented with alpha-tocopherol and parabens. However, the system was not stable when either phenylethanol or chlorhexidine gluconate was added. Taste masking agents commonly used as food additives decreased stability of the preparation and were not efficient in elimination of a bitter taste of the drug-loaded emulsions.

  19. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  20. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

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    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  1. Kinetic analysis of the thermostability of peroxidase from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds

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    Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi EZE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A major problem in the storage and marketing of processed African oil bean seeds is its high deterioration rates due to the undesirable activity of peroxidases. The effect of heat treatment on the activity of peroxidase (POD from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds was studied over a range of 30°C to 80°C. A simple first-order reaction which assumes a biphasic thermoinactivation curves was used to study the denaturation of this enzyme. Results suggested that peroxidase is a stable enzyme with a Z-value as low as 0.0147. This indicates that it is more sensitive to increase in temperature than to the duration of the heat treatment making high temperature short time treatment a technique to be used for its inactivation. The results of the thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions were: (a not spontaneous (ΔG > 0 for peroxidase at 323oK, and at all the temperatures (2 slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0 at 323 K and (3 reversible (ΔS < 0 at all the temperatures under study.

  2. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

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    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  4. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  5. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  6. Losses Reported in Overseas Projects of Chinese Oil Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of three Chinese oil majors' hefty overseas investments have sustained losses. China's three oil giants, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group), and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), invested in as many as 144 overseas projects to the tune of US$70 billion by the end of 2010, according to the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association (CPCIA).

  7. Role of bacteria isolates in the spoilage of fermented African oil bean seed ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwamaka, Nwagu Tochukwu; Chike, Amadi; Obiajulu, Alaekwe

    2010-05-15

    Study was carried out to determine the spoilage association of traditionally fermented ugba, product of African oil bean seed. Samples were collected from three markets within Enugu metropolis in Eastern Nigeria. Microbial population of ugba was isolated, characterized and identified. Effect of time on product quality, total viable cell count and individual growth pattern of isolates was evaluated. Microorganisms isolated were Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Initial viable cell count increased from 4.6 x 10(8) -6.2 x 10(8), 6.0 x 10(9) -6.9 x 10(9) and 3.9 x 10(8) -5 x 10(8) cfu g(-1) by the 4th day for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets, respectively. Organoleptic changes in texture and colour were seen to be a factor of time of storage. A decline in growth of Proteus sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp. and S. epidermidis by the 4th day of storage was observed for all samples. Viable cells of B. licheniformis increased from 6.1 x 10(7) -17.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1), 13.9 x 10(8) -20.0 x 10(8) and 8.7 x 10(7) -15.5 x 10(7) by the 4th day of storage for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Growth of B. subtilis increased from 9.2 x 10(7) -19.9 x 10(7), 14.9 x 10(8) -21.2 x 10(8) and 11.5 x 10(7) -17.2 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Our results indicate that ugba spoilage is primarily a result of the continued activity of African oil bean seed fermentative organisms B. subtilis and B. licheniformis.

  8. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  9. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

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    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  10. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

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    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  11. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  12. Chinese Oil Giants on Overseas Acquisition Spree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaocheng

    2012-01-01

    Energy security is a priority and concern for China. In recent years, China's big three oil companies China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) - have been learning a great deal about doing business abroad, and have emerged as significant players in global mergers and acquisitions in upstream oil and natural gas.

  13. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion.

  14. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  15. Chinese Players Active in International Oil and Gas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Chinese oil companies have been pacing the globe to secure energy assets to fuel the fast- growing Asian powerhouse's economy.China's enterprises eyed global expansion via mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in 2010 as the country's economic power was on increase.Apparently, China accelerated the pace of cross-border cooperation "in" its "go-world" policy last year, to tap into more natural resources through the M&A activities of its big oil and gas producers.Among the deals, 80 percent took place in Canada and South America and unconventional sources, including deepwater drilling and oil sands assets.

  16. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  17. Chinese Petroleum Policy Facing High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2005-01-01

    @@ China had overpaid foreign exchange US$7.24 billion (RMB60 billion yuan) for importing crude oil last year due to the rise in crude oil prices in the international market. The total operation cost for national economy in China has been increased. Some wealth created has been transferred into the hands of the crude oil suppliers.Meanwhile, the gasoline and diesel prices in China have been raised four times and twice respectively since last year resulting in a significant influence to the national economy.

  18. Effects of compression ratio on variation of stresses and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans and its curve fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝宽; 许方雷; 肖志红; 李昌珠; 李辉; 曾凡涛; 叶红齐

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among compression ratio and stress, compression ratio and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans were studied using the test equipment under different states of oilseeds and ways of pressing manners. The results show that variation of stress increases nonlinearly and residual oil rate decreases with the increase of compression ratio. Lower residual oil of cake was obtained by pressing gently and frequently. Curve fitting on both relationships had been built and parameters for the model were obtained by least square procedure and deepening research on pressing process of the castor beans for castor oil. By assuming that the value of oil production is equivalent to the value of energy consumption, the critical compression ratio of intact seeds is 6.2 while that of crushed seeds is 3.6.

  19. Assessment of and Countermeasures against International Political Risk for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Considering the circumstances of Chinese oil companies and the latest development of international politics and world oil situation, this paper analyzes the implication and main factors of international political risk for Chinese oil companies, and presents the principles, mode and scoring method for the assessment of international political risk.Strategies and suggestions to manage international political risk in their overseas business are provided for Chinese oil companies.

  20. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  1. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  2. Research of the Epoxidation Kinetics of the Soy Bean Oil%大豆油的环氧化反应宏观动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广学; 李广田; 马建华; 宋晓敏

    2001-01-01

    By the lab and pilot experiments of the epoxidised soy bean oilpreparation, the paper gives the optimal condition of the epoxidised soy bean oil preparation and the epoxidation macro-kinetics formula: rEO=d(EO)/dt=0.075 2. The conclusion is that the epoxidation of soy bean oil is mass-transfer-determined.%通过对环氧大豆油制备的小试和中试实验,给出了大豆油环氧化反应的最佳工艺条件,宏观动力学关系公式:rEO=d(EO)/dt=0.0752.得出大豆油环氧化反应在该条件下为传质控制的结论.

  3. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  4. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.

  5. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  7. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  8. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  9. [Studies of aroma components on essential oil of Chinese kushui rose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-ping; Zhao, Guo-hong; Liu, Hong-wei; Ding, Lan; Chen, Li-ren

    2002-11-01

    The main chemical components of the rich peculiar aroma in the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose (R. Setate x R. Rugosa) is reported. The differences in chemical components between Chinese Kushui rose oil and Bulgaria rose oil are compared. By OV1701 capillary column, more than 130 compounds were separated from the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose. Using GC/MS and GC/IR techniques and some reference standards as the control, 101 compounds were tentatively identified from the separated compounds. This study shows that there are different aromas in rose essential oils. The oil of Chinese Kushui rose would be an important type of rose oil in the world due to its special rose aroma.

  10. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  11. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quansah, E.; Preko, K.; Amekudzi, L.K. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah, University of Science and Technology (KNUST), University Post Office, PMB Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel), B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene), B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene) and B0 (pure kerosene). The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  12. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansah E., K. Preko, L. K. Amekudzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel, B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene, B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene, B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene, B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene and B0 (pure kerosene. The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  13. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P. PMID:28240321

  14. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-02-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P.

  15. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  16. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nonisocyanate soy-bean oil-polyurethane%大豆油型非异氰酸酯聚氨酯的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 阮家声; 张宏元

    2012-01-01

    Nonisocyanate soy-bean oil-polyurcthane (E-NIPU) was synthesized with aliphatic primary diamines and soy-bean oil-cyclocarbonates.As the intermediate of E-NIPU,Soy-bean oil-cyclocarbonates were prepared by epoxidized soybean oil and carbon dioxid.The structure of E-NIPU was characteristized by FT-IR,GPC and element analysis.%以环氧大豆油为原料合成了大豆油环碳酸酯(CSBO),并进一步与脂肪族伯胺反应合成了大豆油型非异氰酸酯聚氨酯(E-NIPU).利用FT-IR、GPC、元素分析等分析手段对产物的结构进行了表征.

  18. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  19. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  20. Organosulfide profile and hydrogen sulfide-releasing capacity of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa) oil: Effects of pH and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Liang, Dong; Wang, Chenhui; Poh, Jerlin; Huang, Dejian

    2016-01-01

    Stinky beans (Parkia speciosa) were hydrodistilled and solvent-extracted and the oil obtained was analyzed by GC-MS/FID. Nine cyclic and one acyclic organosulfides were identified comprising 36% of total volatiles. Solvent extracts contained significantly (p oil (444 ppm). The concentrations of organosulfides are highly dependent on the pH values of the matrix, with control sample (pH 5.40) giving the highest total organosulfides (424 ppm) followed by that of pH 7.0 (234 ppm), pH 9.0 (195 ppm), and pH 3.0 (152 ppm). The H2S-releasing capacity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E in mmol DATS/g), corresponded well with the differences in organosulfide concentrations as affected by pH with control having the highest value (24.35) followed pH 7.0 (7.27), pH 9.0 (3.27), and pH 3.0 (1.80). We conclude that stinky bean oil is a potent H2S-releasing agent that could have health-beneficial properties.

  1. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  2. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  3. Analysis of Chinese Accounting Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry and Related Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accounting standards are the tools for distribution of the revenues. Their development trend is influenced by their stakeholders. The evolution of American oil and gas accounting standards has been shaped by the profit-maximizing process of American oil and gas company shareholders, which for outside lobbying relied on their huge capital and organization. The development and perfection of Chinese new oil and gas accounting standards should consider not only the criterion of standards but also the real political fact in China oil and gas industry. The research on oil and gas accounting standards is an academic study as well as a political analysis.

  4. Epoxidized soy bean oil migrating from the gaskets of lids into food packed in glass jars. Analysis by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2005-08-01

    The migration of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) from the gasket in the lids of glass jars into foods, particularly those rich in edible oil, often far exceeds the legal limit (60 mg/kg). ESBO was determined through a methyl ester isomer of diepoxy linoleic acid. Transesterification occurred directly in the homogenized food. From the extracted methyl esters, the diepoxy components were isolated by normal-phase LC and transferred on-line to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the on-column interface in the concurrent solvent evaporation mode. The method involves verification elements to ensure the reliability of the results for every sample analyzed. The detection limit is 2-5 mg/kg, depending on the food. Uncertainty of the procedure is below 10%.

  5. Effects of xanthan-locust bean gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of whey protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Puli, Goutham; Williams, Kevin; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilised oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. At higher concentrations, the apparent viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures was significantly higher (pbean gum showed the greatest phase separation, followed by XG. Microstructure images showed depletion flocculation at lower biopolymer concentrations, and thus led to an increase in creaming instability and apparent viscosity of the emulsions. Addition of 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% XG/LBG mixtures greatly decreased the creaming of the emulsions. The rate of lipid oxidation for 8-week storage was significantly lower (p<0.05) in emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures than in emulsions containing either of the biopolymer alone.

  6. Research on supercritical fluid CO2 extraction of green bean oil%青豆油超临界CO2萃取技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况楠; 裴云生; 王喜刚; 史永革

    2012-01-01

    运用超临界CO2萃取技术提取青豆油,采用正交设计试验法,研究了温度、压力、萃取时间对青豆油提取率的影响,以提取率最大为目标,确定了最佳工艺条件。试验结果表明,最佳提取条件:萃取时间2.5h,压力30MPa,温度40℃。%The green bean oil was extracted with supercritical fluid CO2. The orthogonal ar- ray design method was adopted to research the influence of temperature, pressure, extraction time on extraction rate of green bean oil. On the aim of the maximal extraction rate, the optimum technological condition was determined. Results show that the optimum extraction condition was as follows: dynamic time as 2.5 h, pressure as 30 MPa, temperature as 40℃.

  7. Cultural challenges to Chinese oil companies in Africa and their strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, George; Mu, Xianzhong [Institute of Recycling Economy, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper investigates the cultural challenges faced by Chinese oil companies in Africa with the linguistic method and raises five corresponding suggestions in the end. First, the languages and culture of both African countries and China were studied, and the differences between them were uncovered. Second, the effects of colonization on African languages and culture were studied in a historically comparative way; the African tradition and modern culture were considered jointly. Third, the acknowledgement that African people give to Chinese culture was studied; the future development of Chinese cultural influence in Africa was anticipated. Based on all these studies, the cultural challenges to overseas investment management of Chinese oil companies in Africa were summarized into five aspects, i.e., the challenge in communication, working habit, religion, orientation and coexistence. Considering the lessons that some of the western oil companies have learnt in Africa and the development status of Chinese oil companies, five suggestions were given as follows: going aligned with the foreign policy of Chinese government, investigating and setting regulations, strengthening cross-cultural training for staff, developing harmonious relationship with the local communities and the application of localization. (author)

  8. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Green Bean Oil%超临界C02萃取青豆油工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳佳; 鹿保鑫

    2012-01-01

    试验以青豆为原料,对超临界萃取青豆毛油工艺进行了研究,并对影响超临界萃取的主要因素进行了单因素试验,在其基础上又进行了正交优化,最终得到该方法的最佳工艺条件:萃取压力为25MPa,萃取温度为50℃,萃取时间为60min。而随着CO2流量的变化,出油率几乎不受影响,因此CO2流量不作为探讨因素。该条件下得到的青豆油最大出油率为15.81%。%Green beans were used as raw material, and crude oil process for supercritical fluid extraction peas,in addition,the single factor experiment was made to that factors which influence supercritical extraction,using these factors to proceed orthogonal optimization, and finally obtained the best conditions of this method: extraction pressure was 25 MPa,extraction temperature was 50 ℃,extraction time was 60 min. With the CO2 flow rate changed,the oil yield almost unaffected,so CO2 flow not as the factors to investigate in this experiment .Under these conditions the maximum green bean oil degumming rate was 15.81%.

  9. Comparative analysis on technologies between Chinese and American large-sized oil companies based on patentometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patent information is critical and important object to reflect differences in technology capacity; the paper makes statistical analysis on structural elements of five large-sized oil companies from America and China as collected in Derwent Innovations Index, and compare technical similarities and differences between such companies′ patents with visualization tools, by further research on academic classes, Derwent Class Code and co-occurrence of Manual Code. It is shown from the researches that Chinese enterprises is advantaged in growth in number of patents and cooperation rate, but their patents are characterized by poor influence, less relevance and connection between various disciplines, as well as relatively backward development of patented technology. Finally, according to current status of patents of Chinese and American oil companies, the paper proposes a series of recommendations and countermeasures for improvement in patents quality and future expansion in patented technology by Chinese oil companies.

  10. Chinese Government Approves Nanhai Oil Refinery Project of CNOOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Nanhai Oil Refinery Project independently funded by CNOOC was approved by the related governmental departments in late July. The offshore oil giant builds the 12 million ton-per-year oil refinery in Guangdong Province in the next three years to tap the lucrative South China oil market.The investment in the project will total at least 16 billion yuan (US$1.93 billion).

  11. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  12. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were

  13. Characterization of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers produced during microbial biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids from canola and soya bean oil in the rumen of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, J J; Bandara, A B P A; Herbein, J H

    2002-12-01

    Ruminal production of biohydrogenation intermediates in response to unsaturated oils was assessed using 24 Jersey cows fed a control diet or the control diet supplemented at 35 g/kg dry matter (DM) with canola, soya bean, or a mixture of equal amounts of canola plus soya bean oil for 4-weeks. Total fatty acid content averaged 63 or 35 g/kg DM for oil-supplemented diets or control. Oleic acid accounted for 6, 29, 21 or 12 g/kg DM in the control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil diet, respectively. Linoleic acid averaged 17, 19, 26, or 33 g/kg DM and linolenic acid 5, 5, 6 or 8 g/kg DM for control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil. Concentrations of cis12-, trans11-, trans13+14, and trans15-18:1 were 0.81, 2.99, 2.24, and 0.73 mg/g rumen fluid, respectively, in response to soya bean oil and were 126, 90, 45, and 38% greater compared with other diets. Trans11cis15-, cis9trans11- and cis9 cis11-18:2 also were greater when soya bean oil (0.30, 0.34 and 0.01 mg/g, respectively) was fed compared with other treatments (0.12, 0.21 and 0.004 mg/g, respectively). Feeding canola oil resulted in greater concentrations of trans4-, trans5-, trans6+7+8-, trans9- and trans10-18:1 (0.20, 0.25, 0.87, 0.39 and 0.70 mg/g, respectively) compared with other diets (0.09, 0.15, 0.36, 0.20 and 0.46 mg/g, respectively). Trans10cis12-18:2 concentration did not differ as a result of diet and averaged 0.002 mg/g rumen contents. The pattern of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers formed during ruminal biohydrogenation depends greatly on dietary profile of unsaturated fatty acids.

  14. The chinese oil companies and their contribution to national energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Laura Sánchez César

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese oil companies play a role of extraordinary influence in the energy security strategy of the Chinese government. The industrial reestructuring of the past three decades achieved to alter the original nature of these, the changes were able to define the framework action of each enterprise. Nevertheless, the form in which they operate turns out to be not so clear. It is true that the Chinese Communist Party has the control of the political and economic forces. However it is necessary to think that at the end these companies operate according to their own logic based on corporate interests.

  15. Relationship between 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione Concentration and Intensity of Light-induced Off-odor in Soy Bean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A beany and green off-odor is developed in soy bean oil (SBO) under light-induced oxidative conditions. 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) was inferred as the compound responsible for the off-odor. In this study, we designed a simple quantification method for 3-MND in SBO, and evaluated the relationship between the 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the off-odor. 3-MND was analyzed by GC/MS with a thermal desorption unit system. By our method, the 3-MND concentration was found to increase with storage days and the SBO content under light exposure, and there was a high correlation between the measured 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the light-induced off-odor in SBO (R = 0.9586).

  16. Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

    2014-01-17

    This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates.

  17. The Asymmetric Effects of Oil Price Shocks on the Chinese Stock Market: Evidence from a Quantile Impulse Response Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quantile impulse response approach to investigate the impact of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns. This process allows us to uncover asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on stock market returns by taking into account the different quantiles of oil price shocks. Our results show that the responses of Chinese stock market returns to oil price shocks differ greatly, depending on whether the oil and stock market is in a bust or boom state and whether the shock is driven by demand or supply. The impacts of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns present asymmetric features. In particular during a bust phase, oil supply and demand shocks significantly depress stock market returns, while during a boom period, the aggregate demand shock enhances stock market returns. These results suggest some important implications for investors and decision makers.

  18. Chinese national oil companies in Ghana: the cases of CNOOC and Sinopec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article uses the case of Ghana to provide insight into the policies and strategies used by, as well as the cooperation between, Chinese state actors in their quest for natural resources in Africa. In 2007, Ghana discovered commercial quantities of oil. While the so-called Jubilee oilfield was i

  19. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Transnational Operation Environment for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method was developed to assess the transnational operation environment in host countries for Chinese oil companies. This method includes an assessment criterion system of the environment, which is to be scored by the experts. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematical methods were used to make evaluation and get the assessment result and ranking of three host countries.

  20. Revelation of Multinational Acquisition Theory for Chinese Oil Companies' Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces multinational acquisition theory and explains its importance in the context of Chinese petroleum industry and overseas acquisition activities of three major oil companies, CNPC, SINOPEC and CNOOC.Strategic options for their overseas investment are recommended and further assessed in terms of geopolitics.

  1. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  2. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis.

  4. Insecticidal Components from the Essential Oil of Chinese Medicinal Herb, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Ligusticum chuanxiong dried rhizome was found to possess insecticidal activity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. The main components of L. chuanxiong essential oil were Z-3-butylidenephthalide (20.56%, Z-ligustilide (19.61%, 4-terpinenol (8.82%, 4-vinylguaiacol (6.81% and α-selinene (6.01%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate three compounds namely 3-butylidenephthalide, Z-ligustilide and 4-vinylguaiacol. Z-liqustilide and Z-3-butylidenephthalide showed pronounced toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50= 10.23 and 15.81 μg/adult respectively and were more toxic than 4-vinylguaiacol (LD50 = 63.75 μg/adult. The crude essential oil also possessed contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 13.09 μg/adult.

  5. Oil Price Likely to Spur Chinese Industry Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Concern over surging oil prices could mean the restructuring and upgrading of China's industries,according to a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) official, who made those remarks in Changchun, the capital of Northeastern China's Jinlin Province, in early September, when the 4th Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Exno was held.

  6. Brilliant Achievements of Chinese Offshore Oil Giant Highlighted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In early December of 2010,China National Offshore Oil Corporation Limited(CNOOC Ltd)won two awards from Platts-"Enrgy COMPANY of the Year "and "Energy"Producer of the Year"which honor the outstandingachieyements in the energy industry,and recgnizecorporate and individual accomplishments,innovation and entreprenurship .

  7. Essential plant oils in reducing the intensity of soft rot in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrzânia de Lira Guerra

    Full Text Available The action of essential oils in reducing soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and their influence on the colorimetry and physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable were evaluated. In the greenhouse, plants of the cultivar Natsume were sprayed with 11 oils selected in preliminary tests for phytotoxicity: bergamot, lemongrass, copaiba, Eucalyptus citriodora, blue gum, fennel, ginger, spearmint, sweet orange, lemon and clary sage (0.5% and also the antibiotic Mycoshield® (3 g L-1. After 72 hours the plants were inoculated with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc-c. The oils and the Mycoshield® significantly reduced (P<0.05 the severity (SEV and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange were then tested for the stability of their effectiveness in the control of three isolates of P. carotovora subsp. carotovorum. These oils reduced the SEV (30.5 to 38.6% and the AUDPC (23.1 to 26.6% with no differences between them or the Mycoshield® (SEV 45.2 and AUDPC 32.8%, except for the copaiba (20.3% which was less effective than the antibiotic in the reduction of the AUDPC. In vitro, only Mycoshield® inhibited the pathogen. None of the treatments altered the colorimetry, levels of ascorbic acid or pH of the leaves of the Chinese cabbage. The spearmint oil increased the total titratable acidity in the same way as the oils of sweet orange, E. citriodora and bergamot increased the total soluble solids. Therefore, spraying with the oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange has potential in the control of this disease.

  8. 基于新误差函数的豆油脂光谱BP模式识别研究%The New Error Function Study on BP Pattern Recognition of Bean Oil Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关勇

    2014-01-01

    通过构造新的误差函数,实现了基于近红外透射光谱结合BP神经网络辨识合格豆油和地沟油的方法。在10000 cm-1~3500 cm-1范围内采集优质豆油和地沟油透射光谱,对光谱数据依次作出卷积平滑、基线校正预处理,采用主成分分析方法提取8个主成分(累计贡献率达到99.62%)作为神经网络输入神经元,建立三层8个输入,1个输出,8个隐节点的BP神经网络模型,模型能够有效辨识豆油脂和地沟油,类别预测正确率为100%,其中豆油脂相对偏差在0.4%以内,地沟油相对偏差控制在1.0%以内。新的误差函数可以有效避免BP神经网络陷入局部极小值而未能收敛,并且提高了网络收敛速度。%A method was developed to recognition bean oil or garbage refine d oil by BP neural network with the new error function based on near infrared transmittance spectroscopy. The transmittance spectrum of bean oil and garbage refined oil were preprocessed by Savitky-Golay and baseline correction at first , then eight principal components acted as input nerve cell of artificial neural network (Cumulative contribution rate is 99.62%) have extracted. Three layer BP networks which have 8 inputs, 1 output and 8 hidden notes can identify bean oil or garbage refined oil and the average correct rate is 100%. The relative deviation of bean oil is within 0.4%, and the relative deviation of garbage refined oil is 0.1%. The new error function can prevent BP network from local minima and improve its convergence rate.

  9. Antibacterial and physical effects of modified chitosan based-coating containing nanoemulsion of mandarin essential oil and three non-thermal treatments against Listeria innocua in green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Renato; Vu, Khanh Dang; Donsì, Francesco; Salmieri, Stephane; Ferrari, Giovanna; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-11-17

    The antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua of three different combined non-thermal treatments, along with the impact on color and texture on green bean samples, was evaluated. In this study a bioactive coating formulation based on modified chitosan containing 0.05% nanoemulsion of mandarin essential oil was tested in combination with γ-irradiation, UV-C and ozonated water treatments, and the results in terms of antimicrobial activity, color and texture changes, were evaluated during 14 days storage. The combined coating and γ-irradiation treatment gave promising results, showing 3.3 log CFU/g initial microbial reduction, and exhibiting a strong synergistic antimicrobial effect. The treatment based on UV-C and coating formulation allowed a 3 log CFU/g reduction of initial L. innocua population on samples, showing a good residual antimicrobial activity and preventing loss of firmness and color changes during storage. The combined treatment of coating and ozonated water did not show any synergistic or additive antimicrobial effect, but they showed an impact on firmness and color. In conclusion UV-C and γ-irradiation treatments, in combination with the bioactive coating, represent an effective approach to control the growth of L. innocua on vegetable foods.

  10. THE QUALITY OF SOYA BEAN OIL REFIND ANALYSIS%成品大豆油的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊英

    2011-01-01

    This text combines the actual work circumstance that the writer analyzes the gold dragon fish soybean oil, introduce carry on humidity, sour price and lead to oxidize a value, iodine price, smoke to order to the soybean oil etc. the item analyze of the princi- ple and method, for supervise and control the oil article safety to provide the valid technique and path.%本文结合笔者化验金龙鱼大豆油的实际工作情况,介绍对大豆油进行水分、酸价、过氧化值、碘价、烟点等项目化验的原理及方法,为监控油品安全提供有效技术和途径。

  11. Teor de óleo e de cafeína em variedades de café Oil and caffeine content in the coffee bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Tango

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a porcentagem de óleo e de cafeína em sementes de diversas variedades de Coffee arabica. As sementes provieram de frutos despolpados, secos em terreiro sem despolpar, ou secos na própria planta. O tratamento des frutos influiu sôbre o teor de óleo, sendo também significativa a diferença entre as variedades. Os dados confirmam resultados anteriores de que a variedade mucronata é rica e a, variedade laurina, pobre, em óleo. No que concerne ao teor de cafeína, o tratamento dos frutos não mostrou influência, mas pronunciada diferença se constatou entre as variedades. Sete das variedades se mostraram mais pobres do que o café 'Sumatra', tomado comg padrão. A variedade laurina destacou-se das demais pelo baixo teor dêsse alcalóide com, aproximadamente, a metade do nível encontrado nas demais variedades analisadas, o que a torna valiosa para um piano de melhoramento visando a redução do nível de cafeína nas sementes.Oil and caffeine contents were determined for seed samples obtained from cherries of sixteen varieties of Coffea arabica which were submitted to three types of treatments pulped, non pulped and left to dry with pericarp in the sun, or naturally dried on the tree. Cherry processing seems not to have influence on the oil content in the seeds (table I, but significant differences were noted among the varieties with respect to this characteristic. Mucronata revealed to have high oil content while the laurina is a low oil producing variety. Coffee cherries left to dry on the trees gave lower caffeine content. Seven of the sixteen varieties presented a lower caffeine content than the standard 'Sumatra'. The laurinis variety had an exceptional lower caffeine content of about half the amount found in the control. Laurina characteristics are controlled by a recessive allele lr with strong pleiotropic effects. It is not yet known how the laurina allele affects the chemical reactions which lead to a so low caffeine

  12. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  13. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program.

  14. Transesterified Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei-gang; Ma Lei; Jiang Jian-xin; Jiang Li; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the transesterification of the Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed (LCS) oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel. The methyl esters of LCS oil were compared with soybean esters to determine biodiesel fuel performance and properties. The fatty acids content in the seed kernel oil (LKO) and coat oil (LCO) were quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). LKO contains 95.1% saturated acids (capric, lauric, myristic and palmitic)and 2.3% unsaturated acids (oleic). LCO contains 24.6% saturated acids (palmitic and stearic) and 73.6% unsaturated acids (oleic,linoleic and palmitoleic). The kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point, cloud point, flash point and cetane index were determined. The methyl esters of LKO had a higher kinematic viscosity and a lower cold filter plugging point value, so it has better performance in cold weather. The biodiesel of LCS oil has fuel properties within the limits prescribed by American (ASTM D 6751-02)standards, except for a slightly lower flash point of LKO biodiesel than that prescribed by these standards (130℃). Thus, LKO and LCO biodiesel have great potential to be used on a large scale as fuel for diesel engines.

  15. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  16. Low-Temperature Performance of Chinese Automotive Engine Oils-Status and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Performance of automotive engine oils at low temperature has been extensively investigated in the last 50 years. The resulting understanding of engine oil rheology has been used to devise bench tests that predict their performance under cold starting conditions. Cold starting the engine has been essentially overcome for passenger car engines with fuel injection but pumpability of the engine oil has grown more demanding. Two tests (MRV TP1 and the Scanning Brookfield Technique with Gelation Index measurement) have become the measures of quality in pumpability response at low temperatures. As such they have become ASTM Methods and are included in a number of international specifications such as SAE J300 and ILSAC/API GF-1, 2, 3, and 4 accompanied by appropriate limits.For a number of years, the Institute of Materials (IOM) has generated a database for Asia-Pacific engine oils for IOM Subscribers. This database can be used to assess and compare the performance of Chinese engine oils at low temperature to one another and to the larger world of engine oils also covered by the IOM database. This IOM survey of Asia-Pacific provides a complete 36-test analysis of 300 passenger car engine oils from the region including a wide range of chemical analysis, rheological measurements and performance assessments. In this paper we concentrate on the low temperature analysis of the rheology of samples collected in China since 2000.The important factors affecting formulation of engine oils in China today are:1. The recent inclusion of the MRV TP-1 and Scanning Brookfield Gelation Index requirements in China's National Standards for engine oil quality; 2. The availability of higher quality oils; 3. The higher treat rate of additives will require increased attention from the formulators in the selection of VI Improvers and Pour Point Depressants (PPDs). In the latter case, new PPDs are likely to be required to provide formulators with robust and economical solutions to face these new

  17. 黑豆馏油软膏治疗小儿湿疹疗效观察%Observation of the Curative Effect of Black Bean Distillate Oil Ointment in the Treatment of Infantile Eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新; 刘亚萌; 郭艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative ef ect of black bean distil ate oil ointment in the treatment of infantile eczema.Methods 110 cases of eczema were divided into the observation group and the control group,were treated with Bufexamac Cream and black bean distil ate oil ointment in treatment,the clinical ef icacy was compared between the two groups.Results After one week of treatment,two groups of children were significantly bet er in the control group,the total ef ective rate was 95.8%,total ef ective rate of observation group was 96.8%,the two groups showed no significant dif erence( >0.05).Conclusion The good ef ect of black bean distil ate oil ointment in the treatment of infantile eczema,but toxicity,long-term use,it is worth to promote the use.%目的:观察黑豆馏油软膏治疗小儿湿疹的临床疗效。方法将110例湿疹患儿分为对照组和观察组,分别予丁苯羟酸乳膏和黑豆馏油软膏外用治疗,比较两组临床疗效。结果治疗1w后,两组患儿均显著好转,其中对照组总有效率为95.8%,观察组总有效率为96.8%,两组相比无显著差异(>0.05)。结论黑豆馏油软膏治疗小儿湿疹疗效较好,可长期应用无毒副反应。

  18. A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yingxue; He, Zhen; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study inclu

  19. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PDemodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  20. ABSORÇÃO DE ÓLEO DE SOJA E SÓDIO EM ARROZ E FEIJÃO PREPARADOS ABSORPTION OF SOYBEAN OIL AND SODIUM IN COOKED RICE AND BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillsa da Costa Xavier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a absorção de óleo de soja e sódio em arroz e feijão preparados, mediante análises de umidade, lipídios totais, sódio e da aceitabilidade das amostras. Arroz do tipo longo fino e feijão do tipo carioca foram preparados com 2%, 4% e 6% de sal refinado e com óleo de soja nas proporções de 2%, 7% e 12% para o arroz, e 4%, 12% e 20% para o feijão. O teste de aceitabilidade foi conduzido com 52 consumidores, os quais avaliaram as características de degustação e aparência do arroz e do feijão preparados, conforme escala hedônica de nove pontos. O delineamento de tratamentos foi um fatorial 3x3. Para a análise estatística dos dados utilizou-se o procedimento de superfície de resposta, de acordo com esse delineamento. A aceitação das amostras foi influenciada apenas pelo teor de sódio nas preparações. Os tratamentos mais aceitos foram aqueles preparados com 7% de óleo e 4% de sal, para arroz, e 12% de óleo e 4% de sal, para feijão. Os valores de absorção para esses tratamentos foram 1,6 g/100g de óleo e 0,6 g/100g de sódio, para arroz, e 1,5 g/100g de óleo e 0,5 g/100g de sódio, para feijão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cereal; leguminosa; gordura; sal; superfície de resposta.

    The absorption of soybean oil and sodium was assessed in cooked rice and common bean, analyzing moisture, total lipids, sodium, and acceptability of the samples. Rice (long and thin grain and beans (Carioca type were prepared with 2%, 4% or 6% salt and soybean oil in the proportion of 2%, 7% and 12% for rice and 4%, 12% and 20% for beans. An acceptability test was carried out with fifty two consumers and a nine-point hedonic scale, which was used to evaluate taste characteristics and appearance of cooked rice and beans. The experiment was carried

  1. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  2. Multicenter study to assess potential hazards from exposure to lipid peroxidation products in soya bean oil from Trilucent breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G M; Caldwell, J; Armstrong, D; Bartsch, H; Bevan, R; Browne, R W; Chipman, J K; Iatropoulos, M J; Jeffrey, A M; Lunec, J; Nair, J; Page, D L; Reeves, B C; Richardson, A; Silverstein, B; Williams, D F

    2009-03-01

    In response to a Hazard Notice by the Medical Devices Agency of the UK in 2000 regarding the Trilucent breast implant (TBI), an expert panel was convened to implement a research program to determine whether genotoxic compounds were formed in the soybean oil filler (SOF) of TBIs and whether these could be released to produce local or systemic genotoxicity. The panel established a research program involving six laboratories. The program recruited 47 patients who had received TBIs (9 patients had received silicone implants previously). A reference group (REBI) of 34 patients who had exchanged either silicone (17 patients) implants (REBI-E) or patients (17) who were to receive primary implantation augmentation with silicone (REBI-PIA), and who were included as needed to increase either the pre- or post-explantation sample number. Of the 17 REBI-E patients, 5 had silicone implants and 12 had saline implants previously (prior to the last exchange). Investigation was undertaken before and after replacement surgery in the TBI patients and before and after replacement or augmentation surgery in the REBI patients. The pre- to post-operative sample interval was 8-12 weeks. Pre-operative samples were collected within 7 days prior to the operation. Information on a variety of demographic and behavioral features was collected. Biochemical and biological endpoints relating to genotoxic lipid peroxidation (LPO) products potentially formed in the SOF, and released locally or distributed systemically, were measured. The SOF of explanted TBIs was found to have substantial levels of LPO products, particularly malondialdehyde (MDA), and low levels of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) not found in unused implants. Mutagenicity of the SOF was related to the levels of MDA. Capsules that formed around TBIs were microscopically similar to those of reference implants, but MDA-DNA adducts were observed in capsular macrophages and fibroblasts of only TBI capsules. These cell types are not

  3. A Chinese resource curse? The human rights effects of oil export dependence on China versus the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Daxecker, U.

    2015-01-01

    Critiques of China’s ‘oil diplomacy’ center on its alleged disregard for transparency and human rights, yet such claims ignore that the problematic relationship between resource extraction and human rights precedes Chinese market entry. This article explores whether human rights implications are mor

  4. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  5. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    potential vehicle fuel economy, we projected that China's on-road vehicles could consume approximately 614-1016 million metric tons of oil per year (12.4-20.6 million barrels per day) and could emit 1.9-3.2 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year in 2050, which will put tremendous pressure on the balance of the Chinese and world oil supply and demand and could have significant implications on climate change. Our analysis shows that, while improvements in vehicle fuel economy are crucial for reducing transportation energy use, containing the growth of the vehicle population could have an even more profound effect on oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. This benefit is in addition to other societal and environmental benefits--such as reduced congestion, land use, and urban air pollution--that will result from containing vehicle population growth. Developing public transportation systems for personal travel and rail and other modes for freight transportation will be important for containing the growth of motor vehicles in China. Although the population of passenger cars will far exceed that of all truck types in China in the future, our analysis shows that oil use by and CO{sub 2} emissions from the Chinese truck fleet will be far larger than those related to Chinese passenger cars because trucks are very use intensive (more vehicle miles traveled per year) and energy intensive (lower fuel economy). Unfortunately, the potential for improving fuel economy and reducing air pollutant emissions for trucks has not been fully explored; such efforts are needed. Considering the rapid depletion of the world's oil reserve, the heightened global interest in addressing greenhouse gas emissions, and the geopolitical complications of global oil supply and demand, the study results suggest that unmanaged vehicle growth and limited improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency will lead to an unsustainable and unstable transportation system in China. In other words, while our projections do

  6. 两种豆制品厂煎炸油净化方法效果的比较研究%The comparative analysis of two kinds of purification methods of frying oil in processing factory of bean products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志镭; 任莉萍; 杨琦

    2015-01-01

    This paper has conducted the research of the effection of purification methods on quality in two different bean products factory of frying oil. It choosed two companies using the method of natural sedimentation purification and water purification,then choosed two similar products to study the index of acid value,carbonyl value and polar compounds in frying oil which under factory conditions. The results showed that the two kind of frying oil purification methods has significant effect on the quality of frying oil.%本文对两种不同的豆制品厂煎炸油净化方法对煎炸油品质的影响进行了研究,选择了两家分别采用自然沉降净化法和加水净化法的企业,再选择两种相同的产品,在工厂条件下对煎炸油的酸价、羰基价和极性物质指标进行研究。研究结果显示两种煎炸油净化方法对煎炸油品质具有显著影响。

  7. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently.

  8. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    potential vehicle fuel economy, we projected that China's on-road vehicles could consume approximately 614-1016 million metric tons of oil per year (12.4-20.6 million barrels per day) and could emit 1.9-3.2 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year in 2050, which will put tremendous pressure on the balance of the Chinese and world oil supply and demand and could have significant implications on climate change. Our analysis shows that, while improvements in vehicle fuel economy are crucial for reducing transportation energy use, containing the growth of the vehicle population could have an even more profound effect on oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. This benefit is in addition to other societal and environmental benefits--such as reduced congestion, land use, and urban air pollution--that will result from containing vehicle population growth. Developing public transportation systems for personal travel and rail and other modes for freight transportation will be important for containing the growth of motor vehicles in China. Although the population of passenger cars will far exceed that of all truck types in China in the future, our analysis shows that oil use by and CO{sub 2} emissions from the Chinese truck fleet will be far larger than those related to Chinese passenger cars because trucks are very use intensive (more vehicle miles traveled per year) and energy intensive (lower fuel economy). Unfortunately, the potential for improving fuel economy and reducing air pollutant emissions for trucks has not been fully explored; such efforts are needed. Considering the rapid depletion of the world's oil reserve, the heightened global interest in addressing greenhouse gas emissions, and the geopolitical complications of global oil supply and demand, the study results suggest that unmanaged vehicle growth and limited improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency will lead to an unsustainable and unstable transportation system in China. In other words, while our projections do

  9. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  10. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family. PMID:28275379

  11. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  12. Oil puzzle in Chinese stock market%中国股票市场的石油效应之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董坤; 谢海滨; 汪寿阳

    2012-01-01

    本文对股票市场是否具有可预测性进行探讨,通过石油价格的变动,进而预测上海证券交易所综合指数(SSEC)的收益率.检验结果显示,自2003年后,上证综指收益率存在显著的石油效应,这种中国所特有的石油效应之谜,既不能用有效市场假说来解释,也无法被信息反应不足假说所解释.%This paper reinvestigates the predictability of equity market index return of Chinese Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index (SSEC) using the changes in oil prices. We find a significant oil effect on the predictability of SSEC returns after the year 2003. The effect can neither be explained by the efficient market hypothesis nor be explained by the information under-reaction hypothesis, which presents a Chinese oil puzzle.

  13. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  14. Research on Chinese Crude Oil Import Efficiency%中国原油进口效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆方

    2012-01-01

    Chinese crude oil import scale is increasing and imports of crude efficiency becomes more and more important. China itself is a crude oil production country which provides the solid foundation for improving the efficiency of oil imports. In recent years China's oil import efficiency according to the price of imports and international oil price on the interstate data of quantitative analysis is low; but if China's crude oil inherent rigid demand from the rapid growth of the internal is taken into account China's crude imports efficiency isn 't too low; China's import efficiency of crude oil has not been extended and improved with import development. China's crude low efficiency imports will bring the domestic economy much damage. In order to improve the efficiency of China's oil imports, we need to improve the ability to predict oil prices in the international trend, perfect supporting measures and trading mechanism.%中国原油进口规模不断增大,原油进口效率变得日益重要。中国是原油生产大国,为提高原油进口效率提供了坚实基础。从近几年中国原油进口量、进口价格和国际油价波动的月际数据量化分析的结果看,中国原油进口效率总体上是比较低的。如果将由中国原油需求快速增长所产生的内在刚性压力考虑在内,中国原油进1:7效率表现得不是太低,但是中国原油进口效率没有随着原油进口历史延伸而得到改善。中国原油进口效率过低会对国内经济造成很大损失。为了提高原油进口效率,中国需要在提高国际油价走势预测能力、完善相应配套措施和交易机制等方面做出努力。

  15. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  16. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  17. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  18. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  19. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  20. Phytoassessment of a waste engine oil-polluted soil exposed to two different intervals of monitored natural attenuation using African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhajiagbe, B; Anoliefo, G O; Jolaoso, M A; Oshomoh, E O

    2013-07-15

    The present study comparatively investigated the phytotoxic effects of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil exposed to monitored natural attenuation up to 5 and 14 months respectively. Soil was previously polluted with WEO at 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w oil in soil. Although, there was significant reduction in heavy metal concentration of soil as well as total hydrocarbon contents, performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa was greatly retarded when sown at 5 months after pollution (MAP), with death of all seedlings except in the control. However, growth and yield performances were significantly (p > 0.05) enhanced at 14 MAP. Computation of hazard quotient showed that ecological risk factor initially posed by the presence of heavy metals in the soil at 5 MAP was significantly (p > 0.05) reduced to safe levels at 14 MAP.

  1. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M.; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae genome sequence. Our analysis shows that most key castor oil metabolism genes are single-copy while the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage. PMID:20729833

  2. 国际油价波动对中国经济的影响分析%Effects of International Oil Price Fluctuations on the Chinese Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴有君

    2016-01-01

    Affected by geopolitical and economic situation,the international oil price has fluctuated greatly in recent years,which significantly affected the global and Chinese economy.Based on analysis of the various causes of fluctuations in oil price,it was concluded that the volatility in oil price would continue,but high oil price was unlikely to be repeated in the long run.Low oil price is generally favorablefor Chinese economy,but will have some impacts on the new energy and oil extraction industries.Proposal was raised thatthe government should take measures to support the above industries.%受经济形势和地缘政治的影响,近年来石油价格的波动幅度比较大,对世界乃至我国的经济影响很大。对导致油价波动的各种原因进行了分析,认为石油价格的大幅波动还将持续,而从长期趋势看高油价时代已不太可能重现。低油价对我国经济总体有利,但会对我国的新能源和采油等产业造成一定影响,建议国家采取一定的措施予以扶持。

  3. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  4. Effect of acetylation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, O S; Adebowale, K O

    2004-04-01

    Mucuna protein concentrate was acylated with succinic and acetic anhydride. The effects of acylation on solubility, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties were investigated. The pH-dependent solubility profile of unmodified mucuna protein concentrate (U-mpc) showed a decrease in solubility with decrease in pH and resolubilisation at pH values acidic to isoelectric pH (pH 4). Apart from pH 2, both acetylated mucuna protein concentrates (A-mpc) and succinylated mucuna protein concentrate (S-mpc) had improved solubility over the unmodified derivative. Acylation increased the water absorption capacity (WAC) at all levels of ionic strength (0.1-1.0 M). WAC of the protein samples increased with increase in ionic strength up to 0.2 M after which a decline occurred with increase in ionic strength from 0.4-1.0 M. When protein solutions were prepared in salts of various ions, increase in WAC followed the Hofmeister series in the order: NaSCN oil absorption capacity while the lipophilic tendency reduced the following succinylation. Emulsifying capacity increased with increase in concentration up to 2, 4 and 5% w/v for U-mpc, A-mpc and S-mpc, respectively, after which an increase in concentration reduced the emulsifying capacity. Both acetylation and succinylation significantly (P < 0.05) improved the emulsifying capacity at pH 4-10. Initial increase in ionic strength up to 0.4 M for U-mpc and 0.4 M for A-mpc and S-mpc increased the emulsion capacity progressively. Further increase in ionic strength reduced emulsion capacity (EC). Contrary to the effect of various salts on WAC, increase in EC generally follows the series Na2SO4 < NaCl < NaBr < NaI < NaClO4 < NaSCN. At all levels of ionic strength studied, S-mpc had a better emulsifying activity (EA) than both A-mpc and U-mpc. EA and emulsifying stability (ES) were pH-dependent. Maximum EA and ES were recorded at pH 10. ES of protein derivatives were higher than those of U-mpc in the range

  5. Black gold and Chinese influence : a hegemonic study of China's role in the Angolan oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    China has since the end of the Angolan civil war in 2002 been an important partner in rebuilding Angola and expanding the infrastructure throughout the country, making Angola a more integrated and predictable country. The Chinese economy has at the same time experienced a thriving economic growth while the US has been experiencing the opposite. This has led to a shift in the international system in which the US hegemony is challenged while China gains momentum as a growing worl...

  6. Mr. Wu Yaowen Answers Questions About Sino-Foreign Cooperation of Chinese Onshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pu

    1994-01-01

    @@ The reporter interviewed Mr. Wu Yaowen on June 21, 1994. Mr. Wu, former director of the Department of Energy of State Planning Commission, was transferred to CNPC two months ago to form the International Cooperation Bureau (ICB)and act as director of ICB and president of China National Oil & Gas Exploration and Development Corporation (CNODC).

  7. 中国油田服务企业海外投资研究%Research onOverseas Investment of Chinese Oil Field Service Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琛

    2016-01-01

    中国油田服务企业多数具有比较清晰的海外业务发展战略,从初期的海外设点、技术跟进,到全球业务布局,乃至资源收购等,但与国外油田服务企业,特别是发达国家的大型油田服务企业的海外业务拓展力度相比,中国企业仍存在诸如国际化程度低、技术水平落后、产业集中化程度低、企业组织制度不健全等问题.因此,中国油田服务企业应"走出去",积极开拓海外石油市场,打造一体化的大型油田服务公司、加强技术创新以及不断提高人才素质.%Most of Chinese oil field service enterprises have a relatively clear strategy for overseas business development: from the beginning branches abroad and and technical follow up to global business layout and resource acquisition. But compared with the overseas business development efforts of foreign oil field service enterprises, especially the large oil field service enterprises in developed countries, Chinese enterprises still have many problems, such as low degree of internationalization, lagging technical level, low industrial concentration and enterprise organization system is not perfect. So, Chinese oil field service enterprises should go out, actively explore overseas oil market, build a large oil field in the integration of Service Corporation, strengthen technological innovation and continuously improve the quality of talents.

  8. Study on Fatty Acids from Chinese Tallow Kernel Oil%乌桕梓油脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶俊杰; 陈文伟; 高荫榆; 洪瑶

    2011-01-01

    乌柏是我国四大木本油料之一,种子含油量高,乌桕梓油是由种仁榨取所得的液体油脂,是轻工业、食品和国防等行业的重要油源。乌桕梓油甲酯化后,利用100 m×0.25 mm的GC毛细管柱,气相色谱法测定乌桕梓油的脂肪酸组成。测定结果表明:乌桕梓油中饱和脂肪酸占10.68%,以棕榈酸含量最高,占7.52%。不饱和脂肪酸占89.13%,单不饱和脂肪酸占18.63%,以油酸含量最高,占14.55%;多不饱和脂肪酸占70.50%;其中含量最高的为人体所必需的脂肪酸亚油酸和α-亚麻酸,分别占30.77%和39.30%。还含有相当数量天然植物中少有的奇数碳原子脂肪酸十一烷酸,占0.29%。其中月桂烯酸(占3.19%)和十一烷酸未见报道。%The Chinese tallow was ranked in top four woody oil plants for high seed oil content.The Chinese tallow oil can be used as a source of edible oil,industrial oil,and lubricant oil.After esterified,the fatty acids of Chinese tallow oil was determined by capillary column GC with 100 m×0.25 mm.The results indicated that the saturated fatty acid content was 10.68 %,the unsaturated fatty acid content was 89.13 %,containing single-unsaturated fatty acid 18.63 % and poly-unsaturated 70.50 %;Content of linoleate and linolenic acid necessary to body were highest 30.77 % and 39.30 % respectively.A good few odd number fatty acid unwonted in natural plant were found in Chinese tallow oil.There was no reported about lauroleic acid and undecanoicacid.

  9. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.A. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. As sementes fumigadas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros avaliados em relação à testemunha. O óleo essencial de citronela revelou potencialidade alelopática sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão que variou de acordo com a concentração do óleo.Seed treatment with essential oils is an alternative method tool in integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bean seeds with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. The effect of C. winterianus essential oil on P. vulgaris was evaluated at levels of 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. The fumigated bean seeds showed the statistics differences among the analyzed parameters when was compared with the no treated check. The essential oil of Java grass revealed allelopathic potentiality on bean seed germination which varied according to the oil concentration.

  10. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  11. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  12. 电子鼻在低盐调味豆瓣分析中的应用%Discrimination of Low-saIt FIavoring Bean Paste by EIectronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪锋; 阎红; 辛松林; 何江红; 孙晋康; 侯智勇

    2015-01-01

    Based on traditional method for processing spicy bean paste,low-salt spicy bean paste and low-salt flavoring bean paste are developed.The optimum formula is as follows:diced chicken of 300 g,starch of 30 g,spicy bean paste of 600 g,monosodium glutamate of 10 g,Chinese prickly ash powder of 15 g,sugar powder of 20 g,sesame oil of 350 g,chitosan of 0.6%.Analyzed by electronic nose,it is found that the content of salt could influence the flavor of bean paste,but this influence would be reduced by seasoning process.%在传统辣豆瓣酱加工的基础上,开发了低盐辣豆瓣酱,并确定了低盐调味豆瓣的工艺条件:鸡丁300 g、淀粉30 g、辣豆瓣酱600 g、味精10 g、花椒粉15 g、糖粉20 g、芝麻油350 g、壳聚糖添加量0.6%。通过电子鼻分析发现:盐浓度的降低会影响其香气物质;但通过后期的调味加工操作可以明显地降低样品间的差异性,弥补发酵对低盐豆瓣品质的影响。

  13. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum.

  14. Utilisation of vegetable oils in the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Sripalakit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetable oils as a supplementary carbon source during the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged culture was investigated. The six vegetable oils tested were sesame oil, sunflower oil, soya bean oil, corn oil, palm oil and olive oil. Lovastatin concentration and biomass were measured. Lovastatin production was higher in several oil-containing media compared to control medium. In particular, palm oil and soya bean oil significantly improved lovastatin production. Yields with palm oil and soya bean oil were 4.5- and 1.4-fold higher respectively, compared with control. Sesame oil and corn oil, however, had a negative effect on lovastatin production. Biomass was proportional to vegetable oil concentration, but an excessive vegetable oil concentration resulted in a lower yield of lovastatin. Thus, some vegetable oils appear to be excellent adjuvants for improving efficiency of lovastatin production.

  15. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  16. Influence of foreign dumping to Chinese oil industry%倾销对我国油料产业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新华; 刘洁; 方凯

    2012-01-01

    With the background of the foreign oil product dumping in China, Chinese oil industry had been affected as analyzed in this paper, in order to provide adequate theoretical basis to overcome the foreign dumping. Generalized matrix method of estimation (GMM) was adopted to estimatie the causal rela-tionship simultaneous equations between the dumping and simplified system of industrial injury indicators. The results showed that the foreign of dumping oil products was the major harmful reason to the Chinese oil industry. The appropriate anti-dumping measures should be strengthen to supported the domestic oil industry, with which protect the security of oil industry.%在国外油料产品倾销和我国油料产业遭受损害已成事实的背景下,文章着重分析了主要油料出口国的倾销行为与我国油料产业损害的因果关系,旨在为我国脆弱的油料产业反倾销措施的实施提供理论依据.通过运用广义矩阵估计法(Generalized matrix method of estimation, GMM),对倾销与损害之间因果关系的联立方程组进行模拟,实证分析结果显示,国外油料产品的倾销行为是造成我国油料产业受损的主要原因.同时提出了我国应积极采取适当的反倾销措施,加强对国内油料产业发展的支持力度,以维护国家油料供给安全.

  17. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Taliane Leila Soares; Daniel Vieira Morais; Simone Alves Silva; Everton Hilo Souza

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germinat...

  18. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantino,Maria Selma Alves Silva; Costa,Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho; Soares,Taliane Leila; Morais,Daniel Vieira; Silva,Simone Alves; Souza,Everton Hilo de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitr...

  19. Development and Perfection of Chinese Crude Oil Futures Market%发展和完善我国原油期货市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柳钦

    2012-01-01

    It is of great significance for listing of Chinese crude oil futures, and the time is ripe by now. To perfect the crude oil futures market, it needs to break the monopoly of crude oil market, attract extensive market participators, establish an open trading mechanism with stronger operability, establish and perfect strategic reserves system for petroleum, vigorously develop capital market, construct multi -level financial market system, propel integration of oil and finance, and select a good opportunity to promote establishment of oil RMB system to promote upraising of RMB, and so on.%中国原油期货上市意义重大,上市时机已经成熟。完善原油期货市场需要采取打破石油市场的垄断,吸引广泛的市场参与主体;建立更具开放性、操作性更强的交易机制;建立并完善石油战略储备体系;大力发展资本市场,构建多层次金融市场体系,推进石油金融一体化;多视角择机推动“石油人民币”体系的建立,促进人民币的崛起等措施。

  20. 中俄油气管道运行标准差异分析%Analysis on difference between Chinese and Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟平; 张晓明; 刘士超; 潘腾; 吴凯旋; 曹燕; 张妮

    2013-01-01

    To ensure safe operation of the Russia-China Oil Pipeline, Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards are sorted comprehensively. The difference between Chinese and Russian pipeline operation standards is studied deeply from four aspects such as pipe pressure testing, crude oil, product oil and natural gas pipeline operation technology. In addition, advancements in Russian standards are systematically described, including pressure re-testing in the case of pipeline operation delay, mandatory pressure testing and periodic pressure testing of operating pipeline, pigging operation, emergency shutdown principle of pumping station, contamination cutting and blending, operating procedures of compressors under abnormal conditions and auxiliary equipment inspections. Finally, it is recommended to revise Chinese oil and gas pipeline operation standards in accordance with Russian standards.%为保障中俄原油管道安全运行,全面梳理了俄罗斯油气管道运行标准.从管道试压及原油、成品油、天然气管道运行技术4个方面,深入研究了中国和俄罗斯管道运行标准的差异.系统阐述了俄罗斯标准的先进性,包括管道投产延迟条件下重新试压、运行管道强制性试压和周期性试压、清管作业、输油站紧急停输准则、混油控制切割和掺混、压缩机异常条件操作程序和辅助设备检验等.建议借鉴俄罗斯标准对我国油气管道运行标准进行修订.

  1. Studies on preparations and analysis of essential oil from Chinese fir%杉木精油的制备及其成分分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洛华; 秦特夫; 大平辰郎

    2004-01-01

    Three steam distillation devices (D-1, D-2 and D-4) or one simultaneous distillation (D-3, water-diethyl ether) as well as the process of CO2-SFE (Supercritical fluid extraction) were adopted in extraction of essential oils from Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lancedata (Lamb) Hook.) and the chemical components of the extracted essential oil were analyzed by Gas chromatograph-MS analyses. The results showed that the essential oil could be almost extracted out within 2 hours and the device-3 had the highest extraction efficiency. The major chemical component of the oil was cedrol. The yield of the extracted essential oils from Chinese fir decreased gradually with the increase of the distillation time. The best condition for extraction by means of CO2-SFE is 100 kg·cm-2 in pressure and 40℃ in temperature for .%本文研究了杉木精油的提取方法及其化学成分.采用了四种蒸馏装置来提取杉木精油.结果表明:大部分精油在蒸馏的2小时内被提取出;装置3具有较高的提取效率;杉木精油的主要化学组成为松柏醇;精油获得率随蒸馏时间段的增加而逐渐减小;采用CO2-超临界流体萃取法提取杉木精油, 压力为100kg/cm2和温度为40(C时为其最佳条件.图1表4参10.

  2. Determination of elemental composition of volatile organic compounds from Chinese rose oil by spectral accuracy and mass accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming

    2011-10-30

    Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.

  3. 花椒籽油青睐型脂肪酶产生菌的筛选及产酶条件的研究%Study on Screening and Culture Condition of Strain Producing Chinese Prickly Ash Seed Oil Favorite Lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 张志敏; 王斌; 陈斌; 何玉婷; 万一; 马晓迅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] The strains with transesterification activity to Chinese prickly ash seed oil were screened. [ Method ] Strains with transesterification activity were screened from 11 methyl-resistant lipase-producing strains, which have been isolated by previous research in our laboratory. And the optimum enzyme producing conditions were optimized. [ Result ] In 11 strains, the conversions of Chinese prickly ash seed oil catalyzed by D-l-4 lipase was up to 43.05% , and the optimum culture conditions were as follows; 2.5% sucrose as carbon source, 2.0% soy bean power +1.0% corn power as compound nitrogen sources, adding 1.0% olive oil to the culture medium, initial Ph 6.0, incubated at 30 1] for 24 h ,the lipase activity reached 79.30 U/ml. [ Conclusion] All those provided basis for the application of lipase and lipaseproducing strains.%[目的]筛选对花椒籽油具有偏好性的脂肪酶产生菌.[方法]采用甘油法和气相色谱相结合的方法,从实验室分离到的11株具有甲醇耐受性脂肪酶菌株中筛选对花椒籽油具有转酯活性的菌株,并进行了最佳产酶条件的优化.[结果]11株菌株中以D-1-4菌脂肪酶催化花椒籽油的转酯率最高,达到43.05%;其最佳产酶条件为:以2.5%蔗糖为碳源、2.0%黄豆粉+1.0%玉米粉为复合氮源、1.0%橄榄油为诱导物,在初始pH6.0、30℃培养48h时脂肪酶活力达到79.30 U/ml.[结论]为脂肪酶产生菌及其脂肪酶的应用提供了依据.

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  5. Sustainable and economic feasibility of castor bean oil production: a methodology to support investments decision taking; Viabilidade economica e sustentabilidade da producao de oleo de mamona: uma metodologia de suporte a decisao de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Glawther Lima [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Mestrado em Logistica e Pesquisa Operacional; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean agribusiness is supported by a complex supply chain that involves several inputs, main products and other derived products. So, the control of production costs is a basic and extremely important activity for the optimization of management processes. Using literature research, case study and assessment of scenarios, the present work was developed with the objective of conceiving a methodology, based on theoretical and economical aspects, the formation of costs and the revenue forecasting, which is applied with the aid of a computational program for supporting decision taking in the castor bean small producers agribusiness. The results obtained in the case study show, for example, that about 40% of the projects are considered accepted under the criterion of recovering the invested capital in less than 2 years. Also, it reveals that 75% of the projects contribute for the increase of the producer income and about 63% of the projects provide enough profit to add value to the producer's properties. Finally, it is clear that the proposed methodology makes easier a better agricultural planning, allowing a better utilization of the raw material and it facilitates the analysis of diversifying other derived products and revenue sources in the castor bean chain. (author)

  6. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  7. 豆渣调味酱的研制%Study on Bean Dregs Tartare Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 黄宇; 黄莉萍; 林琳

    2009-01-01

    利用豆渣为主要原料,加入白砂糖、食盐、豆油、豆酱、酱油、白酒、味精、食品添加荆等辅料,开发出风味较好、酱香味浓郁的豆渣调味酱.研究了去除豆渣油腻味最佳的方法,通过正交试验确定了豆渣调味酱的最佳配方.%Bean dregs tartare sauce regard fresh bean dregs as main raw materials,adding such batching as sugar,sah,oil,sauce,soy sauce,liquor,MSG,food additives,etc.,to make delicious food.This experiment studied the best way of Ilemoving the bean dregs'greasy taste,and determined the best formula of bean dregs tartare sauce through orthogonal test.

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  10. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. Most beans are also low in fat. Legumes ... pressure, heart rate, and other heart disease and diabetes risks. Beans and legumes contain antioxidants that help ...

  11. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Shi; Yang Yao; Yingying Zhu; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing;however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3%of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4%and 36.1%of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70%ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  12. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.

    2017-01-01

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136

  13. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowy Yi Hoong Seah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6 status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6 is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3 concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  14. The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prices,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges%The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prioes,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateo Radnic

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ .EDIBLE OIL CONSUMPTION IN CHINA According to the data of Edible Oil Consumption in China,this market has constantly growth over the last years, doublingits size in only 8 years.For the past year 2010, the market sizereaches over 29 thousand tons.

  15. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  16. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  17. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  18. Research on Quality Improvement for Essential Oil of Chinese Rose Kushui - Type%改进苦水玫瑰精油质量途径初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢乐华; 吴亮; 张宁

    2016-01-01

    Rose essential oil samples of Kushui - type (produced in two years) and Damascena - type were analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC - MS). The chemical components and their relative contents in two types were compared, the difference between Kushui - type rose oils produced in different years and these two types were discussed systematically. Meanwhile, large - scale cultivation, standardization and quality control in processing were proposed, it was significant for the improvement and stability of Chinese Kushui - type rose oil's quality.%通过气相色谱-质谱联用法(GC-MS)对不同年份的苦水玫瑰精油和大马士革玫瑰精油的化学成分进行分析,从它们在化学成分及相对含量上的差异比较出发,较系统地探讨了苦水玫瑰精油与大马士革玫瑰精油,以及不同年份苦水玫瑰精油之间的质量差异,提出了玫瑰种植规模化、加工规范化和产品质量控制规格化的思路,对于提升苦水玫瑰精油的品质及保持产品质量的稳定性具有参考价值.

  19. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  20. An Empirical Research on Volatility Spillover Effects between Canadian and Chinese Rapeseed Oil Futures Market%中加菜籽油期货市场波动溢出实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少恋

    2013-01-01

    Through Error Correction Model, BEKK-GARCH Model and Granger Causality Test, this paper makes empirical research on the information transmission, price volatility spillover and price guiding relationships between Canadian and Chinese rapeseed oil futures markets. The empirical results reveal that there is a certain information transmission relationship between these two markets. Further, there is significant volatility spillover effect from Canadian rapeseed oil futures market to Chinese rapeseed oil futures market, while the volatility spillover effect from Chinese rapeseed oil futures market to Canadian rapeseed oil futures market is not signiifcant. In the short term, the price leading relationship is stronger from Canadian rapeseed oil futures market to Chinese rapeseed oil futures market, which is consistent with the fact that Canada is the pricing center of global rapeseed oil futures market, and the competitiveness of Chinese rapeseed oil futures market should be further improved.%利用误差修正模型、BEKK-GARCH模型和格兰杰因果关系实证研究了加拿大和中国菜籽油期货市场之间的信息传导、波动溢出和价格引导关系。实证结果显示:这两个市场之间存在一定的信息传导关系;加拿大菜籽油期货市场对中国菜籽油期货市场存在显著的波动溢出效应,而中国菜籽油期货市场对加拿大菜籽油期货市场的波动溢出不显著;短期内加拿大菜籽油期货市场对中国菜籽油期货市场的价格引导作用更强些,这与加拿大菜籽油期货市场是全球菜籽油定价中心的实际相吻合,而中国菜籽油期货市场的竞争力有待进一步提升。

  1. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  2. 中国油画民族化中的认识误区及其再思考%On the Misunderstanding in the Nationalization of Chinese Oil Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正虹

    2013-01-01

    Nationalization of Chinese oil painting is a gradually practical process at different levels , which is the only way out for oil painting in China .Nationality of oil painting in China has aroused so many worries and many people have a misunderstanding of it.Therefore, we put foreword some globalised rethinking on the basis of these misunderstandings .That is to say, nationalization of Chinese oil painting should inherit European oil paintings ’ rules and then receive Chinese national spirit and consciousness .Only in this way can nationalization of Chinese oil painting win their own world in the world .%中国油画民族化历程是一个从不同层面逐步推进的实践性过程,这是油画在中国发展的唯一出路。进入中国之后的油画,其民族化过程中遭遇了不少质疑,很多人对其民族化有着一定的认识误区。针对这些认识误区,提出基于全球化背景下的中国油画民族化的发展建议,指出中国油画民族化的道路应该是继承欧洲油画的基底,并深刻融入中国民族意识和民族精神的发展道路,只有这样,中国油画才能在世界舞台上赢得自己的天地。

  3. Optimal offshore supply vessel planning: a case study of a Chinese offshore oil and gas production area

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    In the offshore oil and gas industry, the drilling or production installations scattered in the offshore oilfields require supplies from onshore depots. These supply services are performed specially by the offshore supply vessel fleets shuttling between offshore installations and onshore depots. In practice, the offshore supply vessels owned by a service company are normally under time charter and their operations are arranged by their charterer, the oil company. The planning of the supply se...

  4. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  5. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  6. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  7. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  8. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  9. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  10. Cooperation Strategies Between Chinese Oil Companies and Uzbekistan Oil and Gas Market%我国油企与乌兹别克油气市场的合作策略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余冠军; 黄瑾; 颜玉川

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas resources are abundant in Uzbekistan,which are an important resources support for the construction after its independence. After the development strategy of One Belt and One Road(Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road)was put forward,China and Uzbekistan will certainly have a closer relationship in energy interests. However,Chinese oil companies have encountered lots of difficulties when entering Uzbekistan market for the following reasons:underdeveloped Uzbekistan oil and gas in spite of its rich reserve,conservative politics and the unestablished market economic system. Therefore,it is necessary to explore the cooperation strategies between China and Uzbekistan by studying the characteristics of Uzbekistan market from the aspects of politics,social security and macro-economy operation and so on. This paper suggests that the cooperation between Chinese oil companies and Uzbekistan oil and gas market should start from opening up the oil and gas cooperation market by taking advantage of the friendly relationship among the governments,taking reasonable measures to avoid law traps,exploring various cooperation models,taking the initiative to assume social responsibilities and strengthening personnel training and reserve and so on.%乌兹别克斯坦油气资源较为丰富,是其独立之后依靠自身资源搞建设的重要依托。随着中国能源战略的变化,近年来我国部分油企先后进入该国市场,随着我国“一带一路”(“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”)发展战略的提出,中国和乌兹别克斯坦的能源利益联系必然更加紧密。但是,由于乌兹别克斯坦的油气储量较为丰富但开发不足,同时政治相对保守,市场经济体系尚未建立,我国油企进入乌兹别克斯坦市场遇到诸多困难,因此,从政治、社会安全及宏观经济运行等方面研究乌兹别克斯坦的市场特点,探索与该国的

  11. The field development of the extra heavy oil Orinoco Belt in Morichal : a joint Chinese-Venezuelan effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivodo, E. [Grupo KC, Caracas (Venezuela); Li, G.; Lu, F. [Orifuels Sinoven S.A., Barcelona, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Proper planning and a systemic approach along with a continual evaluation are important foundations to the development of an extra heavy oil field. This paper discussed a joint effort between China and Venezuela in the field development of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt in Morichal. Background information on the Morichal Oilfield was first presented. The paper discussed the field development approach for pre-operations, including project execution plan; procedures/documents development and review; procurement and services contracts; commissioning and startup; and operations stabilization. The paper also addressed cultural recognition as a judicious approach as well as considerations and recommendations. It was concluded that extra heavy oil field development during the pre-operation stage is a continuous process from planning to startup and stable operations. In addition, a cultural recognition is recommended as a judicious approach to efficient personnel and community affairs management. 9 refs, 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. 杉木屑精油提取工艺研究%Extraction technology of essential oil from Chinese fir sawdust was studied

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓媛; 黎继烈; 钟雄; 李楠; 韦晓菊

    2013-01-01

    Fir essential oil is a kind of widely used natural spices, which is used for food antiseptic and preservation. The essential oil can be acquired by extraction technology from Chinese fir sawdust. Taking the content of cedrol as an indicate, the monofactorial experiment and the Box-Behnken experimental were applied to optimize the conditions of steam distillation and got the best distillation conditions; Chinese fir sawdust soaking in the water of 40℃ for 60 min, using the three-stage distillation of varied tempcrtures method, the water vapor flow rate of 94 mL/min and the total distillation time 185 min. The first-stage distillation temperature was 130℃ and time 60 min; the second-stage distillation temperature was 150℃ and time 65 min; the third-stage distillation temperature was 160℃ and 60 min. Under these conditions, the mass fraction of cedrol could reach 41.39% and the essential oil 0.91%.%杉木精油是一种用途广泛的天然香料,可用于食品防腐保鲜.杉木屑经水蒸气蒸馏可以提取杉木精油.以柏木醇为考察指标,通过单因素试验、Box-Benhnken试验,对杉木屑精油水蒸气蒸馏条件进行优化,确定其最适蒸馏条件:先用40℃热水浸泡60 min,采用三级变温蒸馏方式,水蒸气流量94 mL/min,蒸馏总时间185 min,第1级水蒸气温度130℃蒸馏60 min,第2级蒸馏温度150℃蒸馏65 min,第3级160℃蒸馏60 min.在此条件下,精油得率0.91%,柏木醇质量分数为41.39%.

  13. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  14. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  15. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  16. 蓖麻饼粕的脱毒及综合开发利用%The Detoxification and Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Castor Bean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树军; 狄建军; 白靓; 黄凤兰; 穆莎茉莉; 魏永春; 张国文

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean meal is a by-product after oil extraction,it contains rich protein and amino acids castor bean hulls and a spot of castor toxins,has a high utilization value.This paper reviewes the detoxification of castor bean meal,the development and utilization of proteins in detoxificated castor bean meal,castor toxins and castor bean hull.%蓖麻饼粕是蓖麻籽榨油后的副产品,含有丰富的蛋白和氨基酸、蓖麻壳及少量的蓖麻毒素,具有较高的综合利用价值.本文综述了蓖麻饼的脱毒,脱毒蓖麻饼蛋白质、蓖麻饼中毒素及蓖麻壳的开发利用.

  17. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA, in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of castor-oil and organic compost (four doses of each and three witnesses, with further study of orthogonal contrasts . The castor bean showed effective results in the variables chlorophyll content (ppm in leaves and number of days to flowering of the first cluster (DIAFI. Compost organic waste not produced any significant result for both variables.

  18. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  19. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  20. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  1. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  3. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  4. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  5. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  6. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  7. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  8. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East and So

  9. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  10. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  11. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  12. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  13. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  14. Development and turning of Chinese oil industry in the future five years%未来5年中国油脂行业的发展与转机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚

    2012-01-01

    Chinese current economic environment and development trend were analyzed from a macroeco-nomic perspective,and households' consumption, edible oil consumption trends and evolution of oil industry were also analyzed. The development of Chinese oil industry and favorable turning in the future five years were discussed, such as focus, accurate position, excavating value of industry chain, raising the level of comprehensive utilization of oil,deepening the brand marketing, enhancing the products value, extensive innovation, establishing differentiated competiveness,etc.%从宏观方面分析了我国的经济环境现状及其发展变化趋势,同时分析了居民消费、油脂消费趋势及油脂行业的演变.对我国油脂行业未来5年发展与转机进行了阐述,如在专注如一,准确定位;挖掘产业链价值,提高油脂综合利用水平;深化品牌营销,提升产品价值;广泛创新,建立差异化竞争力等方面做了一些探讨.

  15. 基于时变Copula的中外石油市场风险联动性分析%Study on Co-Movement of Chinese and Foreign Oil Market Risk Based on Time-varying Copula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文华; 张博强; 刘玲; 张清朵

    2015-01-01

    In this essay ,two different types of time‐varying Copula models have been used to analyze price correlation among three major oil markets including Brent (Brent crude oil in North Atlantic Ocean) ,WTI(light crude in western Texas ,U .S) and Daqing (price index of crude oil in Daqing) .The marginal distribution model of the profitability of three oil markets was established and depicted by the Egarch‐t model .Then two different time‐varying Copula models were used to build a model by the dependent structure between WTI‐Daq and Brent‐Daq . The paper depicts the risk dependence structure between the Chinese and foreign oil market .The results show that compared with time‐varying Clayton‐Copula ,the SJC‐Copula model can capture dependent structural relations of the upper and lower tail between markets .The dependent relation of lower tail between Chinese and foreign oil markets are much stronger than the upper tail relation ,and especially ,the price fluctuation of Brent crude oil affects Chinese oil price conspicuously .%采用了3种不同类型的时变Copula函数模型,对三大石油市场Brent(北大西洋布伦特原油),WTI(美国西德克萨斯轻质原油),Daq(大庆原油价格指数)之间的价格相关性进行分析。通过Egarch-t模型构建描述三大石油市场收益率的边缘分布模型,然后分别用两种不同的时变Copula模型对WTI-Daq ,Brent -Daq两个相关市场之间的相依结构进行建模,刻画了国内外石油市场之间的风险相依结构。实证结果表明:与时变Clayton-Copula相比,时变SJC -Copula能够有效捕捉市场间的上下尾相依结构关系,且国外石油市场与国内石油市场间的下尾相依关系要明显强于上尾相依关系,尤其是北大西洋布伦特原油(Brent )价格波动对于我国石油市场价格影响显著。

  16. Humanity in the Oil Paintings of Chinese Customs%当代中国风俗油画中的人文精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梅

    2014-01-01

    The contents of oil paintings of Chinese customs are ordinary people’s daily life and customs, close to the reality and spirit of the grass roots.They reflect the artists’ enough attention to humanity, the sympathy for the present life of human be-ings and the desire for conscientiousness.It is highlighted that humanity of customs is precious and significant in today’s society full of material desire.%当代中国风俗油画表现的内容是老百姓的日常生活和风俗人情,贴近底边社会群体的生活实际与精神面貌,表明艺术家对人文精神的强烈关注,对人类生活现状的同情与人性自觉的渴望,凸显了民俗文化中的人文情怀在当今物欲社会中的价值和意义。

  17. Engineering soya bean seeds as a scalable platform to produce cyanovirin-N, a non-ARV microbicide against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barry R; Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Ramessar, Koreen; Saucedo, Carrie J; Wilson, Jennifer; Buckheit, Karen W; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Araújo, Ana Claudia G; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Madeira, Luisa; McMahon, James B; Rech, Elibio L

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to provide effective anti-HIV microbicides to resource-poor areas worldwide. Some of the most promising microbicide candidates are biotherapeutics targeting viral entry. To provide biotherapeutics to poorer areas, it is vital to reduce the cost. Here, we report the production of biologically active recombinant cyanovirin-N (rCV-N), an antiviral protein, in genetically engineered soya bean seeds. Pure, biologically active rCV-N was isolated with a yield of 350 μg/g of dry seed weight. The observed amino acid sequence of rCV-N matched the expected sequence of native CV-N, as did the mass of rCV-N (11 009 Da). Purified rCV-N from soya is active in anti-HIV assays with an EC50 of 0.82-2.7 nM (compared to 0.45-1.8 nM for E. coli-produced CV-N). Standard industrial processing of soya bean seeds to harvest soya bean oil does not diminish the antiviral activity of recovered rCV-N, allowing the use of industrial soya bean processing to generate both soya bean oil and a recombinant protein for anti-HIV microbicide development.

  18. Effects of burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs on wound healing in scalded rats%中药烧伤油对大鼠深Ⅱ度烫伤创面愈合的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 张殿增; 刘晓瑾; 白转丽; 郭敏峰; 王瑞; 彭慧子; 段辉

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs on wound healing in scalded rats. METHODS: Three deep-Ⅱ-degree circular skin wounds with a diameter of 2.5 cm were prepared in the back of rats and were treated respectively with burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs, zinc sulfadiasine cream and matrix ointment 1 time per day. The healing of the wounds was observed. The wound tissue samples were harvested at different times for histopathological examination and the content of hydroxyproline, type Ⅰ/Ⅱ collagen ratio and the fibrocyte eyele of the dermal wound were detected by ELISA assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS : The application of burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs reduced the swelling and effusion and shortened the healing time of the wound with no wound infection. Pathological examination showed that bum oil of Chinese medicinal herbs alleviated topical inflammation. All layers of derma were well-differentiated. Effect of hydroxyproline and wound type Ⅰ/Ⅲ collagen ratio showed that bum oil of Chinese medicinal herbs promoted the collage hyperplasy of wounds and palliated scars. The observation of the fibrocyte cycle showed that burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs promoted the dermal fibrocyte proliferation. CONCLUSION: Burn oil of Chinese medicinal herbs promotes the wound healing in scalded rats.%目的:探讨中药烧伤油对大鼠深Ⅱ度烫伤创面愈合的影响.方法:制备深Ⅱ度大鼠背部皮肤圆形创面,直径2.5 cm,共3个,行同体对照实验.分别外用烧伤油,磺胺嘧啶锌软膏和基质软膏,1次/d.观察创面愈合情况,留取不同时相的创面组织,进行组织病理学检查,创面羟脯氨酸含量检测,ELISA法测定创面Ⅰ/Ⅱ型胶原比例和流式细胞仪测定创面真皮成纤维细胞周期.结果:外用烧伤油使创面肿胀和渗出减轻,无感染迹象及创面愈合时间缩短.病理形态学观察发现烧伤油组创面的局部组织炎症

  19. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  20. Ingestive behavior of finishing sheep fed detoxified castor bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cézar da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Castor bean crops stand out in the Northeastern Brazil for oil production, producing coproducts with potential for animal diets. Thus, this work evaluated the effect on ingestive behavior when 0, 33, 67 and 100% of detoxified castor bean meal (DCBM were included to substitute soy bean meal in diets for sheep. The randomized blocks design was used with five sheep in each treatment. Dry matter intake and neutral detergent fiber intake were not affected (P > .05 by the inclusion of DCBM in the diet, with means of 1362.6 and 582.98 g/animal/day, respectively. Substitution of soybean meal by DCBM did not affect (P > .05 times of rumination, idle and total chewing, with averages of 181.33, 347.04 and 366.24 minute/12 h, respectively. A quadratic effect (P < .05 was found for feeding time, with minimum of 164.56 min/12 h, when 60% of DCBM was included in the diet. A quadratic effect (P < .05 was verified for eating efficiency with maximum of 4.43 g DM/minute and 2.08 g NDF/minute. Rumination efficiency in g DM and NDF/minute were not affected (P < .05, with means of 4.31 and 1.84, respectively. The substitution of soybean meal by DCBM decreases feeding time when 60% of it was used but does not influence the intake of DM and NDF, time spent in ruminating and idle, and total chewing time. The use of 60% of DCBM increases feeding efficiency of DM and NDF, and does not compromise the efficiency of rumination.

  1. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaisey, M.T. E-mail: istd@uruklink.net; Alwan, A.-K.H.; Mohammad, M.H.; Saeed, A.H

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  3. 中国石油产业全球战略研究—CPGS模型构建%Study on Global Strategy of Chinese Oil Industry: Establlishing the CPGS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉昌

    2012-01-01

    The paper points out that in view of the accelerating steps of the Chinese transnational oil enterprises into the international market, studies on the global strategy of this industry are relatively scarce and, to remedy this, formulates a CPCS theoretical model for the Chinese oil industry in its endeavor toward globalization on the basis of the CGMS model after taking into consideration the properties of the oil industry, thus expanding the application of the globalization theory in the logistics field.%指出中国的石油跨国企业加快了进入国际市场步伐,但现有研究对于这个重要产业的全球化战略研究却相对不足,并以CGMS模型为基础,融入石油产业特性后构建了中国的石油产业全球化战略的理论模型CPGS,拓展了全球化理论在行业的应用.

  4. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  5. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (psilages were lower than those of corn silage (psilages was higher than for those fed corn silage (psilages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (psilages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  6. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs from castor bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L., one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. RESULTS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2 and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor

  7. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  8. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  9. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  10. Effects of biomass particle size on yield and composition of pyrolysis bio-oil derived from Chinese tallow tree (Triadica Sebifera L. and energy cane (Saccharum complex in an inductively heated reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of fluctuating petroleum costs and a growing demand for energy, the need for an alternative and sustainable energy source has increased. A viable solution for this problem can be attained by using thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, of existing biomass sources for the production of liquid fuels. This study focuses on the effect that biomass particle size has on the conversion of biomass into liquid pyrolysis oil. Energy cane and Chinese tallow tree biomass were pyrolyzed at 550 ℃. The particle size ranges studied were < 0.5, 0.5 to 1.4, 1.4 to 2.4 and, 2.4 to 4.4 mm. The results indicate that the range from 0.5-1.4 mm is a better range for optimizing bio-oil production while keeping water content low.

  11. 不同工艺提取的杉木精油组分含量研究%Analysis on Components of Essential Oil from Chinese fir by Different Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文珠; 吴青思; 哈力克; 许婉丽

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from Chinese fir were extracted by atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, hydro-distillation and dry distillation, and determined by GC/MS. The results showed that essential oils extracted by different methods had evident fragrance of Chinese fir. 26 compounds were identified from essential oil extracted by atmospheric, accounting for 90.44% of the total oils. 6 compounds were identified from that by vacuum distillation, accounting for 90.14% of total oils. 47 compounds were identified from that by hydro-distillation, accounting for 96.71% of total oils. 37 kinds of compounds were identified from that by dry distillation, accounting for 99.21% of total oils.%采用常压水中蒸馏、减压水中蒸馏、直接蒸汽蒸馏和干馏等方法分别提取杉木精油,用 GC/MS 进行组分含量测定。结果表明:提取的4种杉木精油均具有明显的杉木香气;常压水中蒸馏提取的杉木精油主要组分为高沸点的柏木醇,鉴定出26种化合物,占精油总量的90.44%;减压蒸馏提取的杉木精油大部分为酯类、酸类和醇类,鉴定出6种化合物,占精油总量的90.14%;直接蒸汽蒸的杉木精油主要含有柏木醇、α-柏木烯及多种萜烯类物质,鉴定出47个化合物,占精油总量的96.71%;干馏法提取的杉木精油主要含有高沸点结晶状的柏木脑和低沸点的α-柏木烯等烯烃类,鉴定出37种化合物,占精油总量的99.21%。

  12. Economic Viability of Small Scale Organic Production of Rice, Common Bean and Maize in Goias State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcido Elenor Wander

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the economic feasibility of small scale organic production of rice, common bean and maize in Goias State, Brazil. During 2004/05 and 2005/06 growing seasons, rice, common bean and maize were produced at the organic farm of Embrapa Rice and Beans in five mulching systems (fallow, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna aterrima and Sorghum bicolor , with and without tillage. Soil tillage consisted of heavy disc harrowing followed by light disc harrowing. All operations and used inputs were recorded. Based on those records, the production costs for each crop were estimated for each cropping season. The costs included operations like sowing, ploughing, harrowing, spraying, fertilizer broadcasting and harvesting, as well as inputs like seeds, inoculant strains of Rhizobium, neem oil and organic fertilizers. The benefits include the gross revenue obtained by multiplying the production amount with the market price for non-organic products. For the purpose of analysis of competitiveness of organic production in comparison to conventional farming the market prices assumed were those of conventional production. In the analysis, the costs of certification were not considered yet due to lack of certifiers in the region. For comparison between traits, net revenue, the benefit-cost-ratio (BCR and the break even point were used. In 2004/05 growing season the BCR varied from 0.27 for common bean on S. bicolor mulch system with tillage up to 4.05 for green harvested maize produced after C. juncea in no tillage system. Common bean and rice were not economically viable in this growing season. In 2005/06 growing season the BCR varied between 0.75 for common bean after S. bicolor in tillage system and 4.50 for green harvested maize produced after fallow in no tillage system. In this season common bean was economically viable in leguminous mulching systems and green harvested maize was viable in all mulching systems.

  13. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  15. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3′UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5′UTRs and 3′UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (~70% amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  16. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  17. Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, E E C; Costa, E T S; Guilherme, L R G; Faquin, V; Nascimento, C W A

    2009-08-30

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 microg L(-1)) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 microg L(-1). The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  19. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  20. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  1. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  2. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  3. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  4. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  5. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an..., or that could be received, for contract seed beans under a seed bean processor contract if the... total production under contract with the seed company. Beans—Dry beans and contract seed...

  8. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  9. The Research and Development of Red Bean Paste Cake%红豆沙蛋糕的研究开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲玲; 张国悦; 石艳红; 张巍

    2011-01-01

    self-made red bean paste is taken as major material in the study, and conclusion is made through the single factor and orthogonal that ,the production of red bean paste cake formula: 100 g flour, eggs 125 g, red bean paste 125 g, soft sugar 60 g, water 30 g, baking soda 2 g, salad oil 50 g, production, soft taste sweet and nutrition complementary, strong fragrant bean cake of oil.%以自制红豆沙为蛋糕的主要添加材料,通过单因素及正交试验得出生产红豆沙蛋糕的配方:面粉100g、鸡蛋125g、红豆沙125g、绵白糖60g、水30g、泡打粉2g、拉油50g。用此配方生产的产品营养互补、口感松软香甜、豆香味浓郁。

  10. 高油价下中国炼油企业发展对策探讨%Discussion on Development Countermeasures of Chinese Petroleum Refining Enterprises under High Crude Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 杨硕

    2012-01-01

    With the influences of tight supply - demand relation, unstable geopolitical changes, devaluation of US dollars,and Europe' s debt crisis, international crude oil price has been remained high in the recent years, which has exerted great effects on global energy resources supply and economic development. Based on analysis of characteristics of global petroleum refining industry and tactics of overseas petroleum refining enterprises, development countermeasures for Chinese petroleum enterprises under high crude oil price were discussed. Proposals were raised for Chinese refining enterprises to optimize strategic layout for enhancing integration degree of petroleum refining enterprises, expand deep processing of crude oil for increasing yield of light oil, increase capacity of plants for processing inferior crude oil, attach importance to energy conservation and consumption reduction for increasing availability of resources, execute delicacy management for promoting profit, using alternative energy sources for diversifying energy resources, accelerate construction and development of petroleum refining layout in foreign countries, fix crude oil resources, and so on.%受供求关系紧张、不稳定的地缘政治变化、美元贬值、欧洲债务危机等影响,近年来国际原油价格持续保持高位,对国内外能源供应和经济发展产生了重要影响。围绕国际油价持续保持高位这一焦点问题,分析了高油价下全球炼油业的特点、国外炼油企业的策略和措施,探讨了高油价下中国炼油企业的发展对策。提出了优化战略布局,增强炼油企业集中度;加大原油深加工,提高轻油收率;提高装置能力,适应加工低质原油;重视节能降耗,提高资源利用率;实施精细化管理,提高效益;结合替代能源,实现加工资源多样化;加快海外炼油布局建设和发展,锁定原油资源等对策。

  11. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  12. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  13. 中国沉香挥发油的化学成分与抗耐甲氧西林金葡菌活性%Chemical composition and anti-MRSA activity of the essential oil from Chinese eaglewood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅文莉; 曾艳波; 吴娇; 崔海滨; 戴好富

    2008-01-01

    分析中国沉香的挥发油成分,并测试其抗耐甲氧西林金葡菌活性.采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取中国沉香挥发油进行GC/MS分析,峰面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量,采用NIST05和WILEY275L数据库匹配,以及将质谱图与文献数据进行对照的方法进行鉴定.采用滤纸片琼脂扩散法测试挥发油抗菌活性.挥发油对耐甲氧西林金葡菌显示强活性.共检测到66个色谱峰,其中30个化合物得到鉴定,占挥发油总量的59.80%.26个化合物被鉴定为倍半萜类化合物,占挥发油总量的54.26%.B.沉香呋喃(8.96%),枯苏醇(7.82%),(-)-jinkh-eremol(5.04%),沉香螺旋醇(4.53%),白木香呋喃酸(4.09%)为主要的倍半萜.4个降倍半萜和其他一些倍半萜,如10-表-γ-桉叶油醇,α-沉香呋喃,epi-ligulyl oxide等为首次从中国沉香中检出.本文首次报道了中国沉香挥发油对耐甲氧西林金葡菌具有抗菌活性.%To analyze the constituents of essential oil from Chinese eaglewood [resinous wood of Aquilaria sinensis (Lout.)Gilg]and its anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. The essential oil was extracted by water-steam distillation and analyzed by GC/MS method. The relative contents of the compounds were determined by normalization. The compounds were characterized by NIST05 and WlLEY275L database matching and comparison of their MS spectra with those of literature data. Antibacterial activity of the oil was assayed by the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. The oil showed sig-nificant antibacterial activity against MRSA. Sixty-six chromatographic peaks were detected, among them thirty compounds com-prising 59.80% of the total essential oil were characterized. Twenty-six compounds comprising 54.26% of the oil were identified as sesquiterpenes.β-Agarofuran (8.96%), kusunol (7.82%), (-)-jinkoh-eremol (5.04%), agarospirol (4.53%), baimuxifuranic acid (4.09%) were the major sesquiterpenes. Four nor-sesquiterpenes and some

  14. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  15. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  16. Main Influence Factors on Oil-water Separation by Ultrafiltration of Five Kinds of Traditional Chinese Medicine%5种中药油水分离超滤工艺的主要影响因素考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文玲; 郭立玮; 韩志峰; 李娟英

    2012-01-01

    采用截留分子量为50 000的聚醚砜膜(PES-5W)对陈皮、豆蔻仁、藿香、肉桂和蛇床子五味中药含油水体进行超滤,富集挥发油.考察了操作参数和不同种类含油水体对超滤工艺的影响.以膜时通量和化学需氧量(COD)截留率为因变量,采用SPSS软件进行相关性分析和多元线性回归分析.结果显示,操作压力、含油水体的电导率对膜时通量影响较显著(P<0.01);含油水体的pH对COD截留率影响较显著(P<0.01).%The volatile oil of five kinds of traditional Chinese medicine (Pericarpium Citri rrticulatae, Fructus Amomi rotundus, Herba Agastache rugosa, Cortex Cinnamomi cassiae and Fructus Cnidii) were enriched from corresponding oil-bearing water by ultrafiltration with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane (MWCO 50 000). The influences of operating parameters and the kinds of oil-bearing water on ultrafiltration process were investigated. The correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out by SPSS software with membrane flux and interception ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) as dependent variables. The results showed that the operation pressure and conductivity of oil-bearing water had the significant influence on membrane flux (P<0.01) and the pH value of oil-bearing water had a significant influence on interception ratio of COD (P<0.01).

  17. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  18. Carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007: A 135-sector inventory and input-output embodiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.

    2010-11-01

    A 135-sector inventory and embodiment analysis for carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007 is presented in this paper by an ecological input-output modeling based on the physical entry scheme. Included emissions and resources belong to six categories as: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O; (2) energy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and firewood; (3) water in terms of freshwater; (4) exergy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, grain, bean, tuber, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, jute, sugarcane, sugar beet, tobacco, silkworm feed, tea, fruits, vegetables, wood, bamboo, pulp, meat, egg, milk, wool, aquatic products, iron ore, copper ore, bauxite, lead ore, zinc ore, pyrite, phosphorite, gypsum, cement, nuclear fuel, and hydropower; (5) and (6) solar and cosmic emergies in terms of sunlight, wind power, deep earth heat, chemical power of rain, geopotential power of rain, chemical power of stream, geopotential power of stream, wave power, geothermal power, tide power, topsoil loss, coal, crude oil, natural gas, ferrous metal ore, non-ferrous metal ore, non-metal ore, cement, and nuclear fuel. Accounted based on the embodied intensities are carbon emissions and resources use embodied in the final use as rural consumption, urban consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, and export, as well as in the international trade balance. The resulted database is basic to environmental account of carbon emissions and resources use at various levels.

  19. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean.

  20. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  1. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  2. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  3. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  4. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  5. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  6. Chinese Tallow Kernel Oil: Characterization and Application in Biodiesel Production%乌桕梓油理化特性及其酶法制备生物柴油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 辛红玲; 闫云君

    2009-01-01

    测定了乌桕梓油常规理化特性.采用柱层析、薄层层析和气相色谱法,研究了乌桕梓油中甘油酯种类及其脂肪酸组成.采用高温气相色谱/EI质谱联用仪直接分析了乌桕梓油中甘油酯结构.结果表明,乌桕梓油中性脂占98.79%,磷脂占0.22%,糖脂占0.99%.乌桕梓油中性脂的脂肪酸组成主要有C12:0、C14:0、C16:0、C17:0、C18:0、C18:1、C18:2和C18:3,磷脂中没有检出C12:0和C17:0,糖脂中则没有检出C17:0.乌桕梓油中甘油酯组成主要有月桂酸棕榈酸亚油酸甘油三酯、硬脂酸亚油酸亚麻甘油三酯、双棕榈酸亚油酸甘油三酯、棕榈酸亚油酸亚麻酸甘油三酯和双亚油酸亚麻酸甘油三酯等5种.最后,比较了无溶剂体系和叔丁醇体系中,以杂醇油为酰基受体,初步研究了脂肪酶法制备乌桕梓油生物柴油效果.结果表明,对于无溶剂体系和叔丁醇体系而言,当Novozym435与Lipozyme TLIM脂肪酶复合比例为2:4时,生物柴油转化率达到最高,分别为98.28%和76.33%.%The physico - chemical properties of Chinese tallow kernel oil were determined, and the fatty acid compo-sition of the oil was studied with column chromatography, thin - layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Results show:Neutral fat, phospholipid and glycolipid accounts for98.79%, 0.22% and 0.99%, respectively in the Chinese tal-low kernel oil. The fatty acid components of the neutral fat are C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C18: 1, C18:2 and C18:3, while the fatty acid composition of the phospholiid is free of C12:0 and C17:0, and the fatty acid composition of the glycolipid is free of C17:0. Five types of triglyeeride are included in Chinese tallow kernel oil, and the prominent type is LLLn triglyceride. Finally, production of biodiesel from Chinese tallow kernel oil using lipase as biocatalyst was ex-plored in solvent free system and t - butanol system, respectively. With Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TLIM complex ratio of 2

  7. Huge Oil Spill off North China Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaojie

    2011-01-01

    ConocoPhillips China, a subsidiary of the US oil giant, operates an oilfield in Bohai Bay in partnership with Chinese offshore oil producer China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC), where a massive oil slick was detected on June 4 this year. The spill from the oilfield, which the United States' ConocoPhillips operates with China's state-run oil giant CNOOC, has polluted a total area of almost 4,250 square kilometers. The figures,

  8. Identification and expression analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis) genes encoding enzymes from the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Loss, Guilherme; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; Margis, Rogério

    2010-11-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil contains ricinoleic acid-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs). As a result of its physical and chemical properties, castor oil and its derivatives are used for numerous bio-based products. In this study, we survey the Castor Bean Genome Database to report the identification of TAG biosynthesis genes. A set of 26 genes encoding six distinct classes of enzymes involved in TAGs biosynthesis were identified. In silico characterization and sequence analysis allowed the identification of plastidic isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidate acyltransferase enzyme families, involved in the prokaryotic lipid biosynthesis pathway, that form a cluster apart from the cytoplasmic isoforms, involved in the eukaryotic pathway. In addition, two distinct membrane bound diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes were identified. Quantitative expression pattern analyses demonstrated variations in gene expressions during castor seed development. A tendency of maximum expression level at the middle of seed development was observed. Our results represent snapshots of global transcriptional activities of genes encompassing six enzyme families involved in castor bean TAG biosynthesis that are present during seed development. These genes represent potential targets for biotechnological approaches to produce nutritionally and industrially desirable oils.

  9. Renewable hydrocarbon fuel prepared from microwave assisted decarboxylation of the potassium soap of Chinese tallow seed oil%乌桕籽油钾皂微波脱羧制备可再生烃类燃料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉环; 马雯; 王允圃; 阮榕生; 温平威; 万益琴

    2013-01-01

    Chinese tallow seed contains as high as 40%oil. It is a good raw material for production of biodiesel. By microwave assisted decarboxylation of the potassium soap of Chinese tallow seed oil, renewable hydrocarbon fuel is obtained. In this efficient oil extraction process,high pressure vapor is used as extractor. In order to obtain a high extraction yield,some factors including solid/liquid ratio, baking time,baking temperature,pH value and high pressure processing time are investigated. The weight of microwave assisted pyrolysis liquid product is 60%of dry soap weight. The density of the liquid is 0.865 g/cm3 and the viscosity is 2.73 mm2/s,while its characteristic is similar to that of diesel fuel. Results in this study will give a useful information for the industrial production of biodiesel from Chinese tallow seed.%乌桕籽的含油率高达40%,是生产生物柴油的优质原料。本研究采用绿色环保节能高效的乌桕籽油提取方法,以高压蒸汽作为水剂提取油脂的方法,进行了相关工艺的实验研究,以乌桕油脂皂化物为研究对象,通过微波极化皂化物羧基端促进脱羧制备优质烃类燃料。探讨了料液比、烘烤时间、烘烤温度、pH值、高压蒸汽处理时间等因素对油脂提取率的影响。微波裂解所得到液态产物为皂类干重的60%以上,裂解液态产物的密度为0.865 g/cm3,黏度2.73 mm2/s,与柴油的性质基本相似。研究结果为利用乌桕籽油生产生物柴油的工业化提供了一定基础。

  10. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  11. The morama bean (Tylosema esculentum): a potential crop for southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jose C; Duodu, Kwaku G; Holse, Mette; Lima de Faria, Margarida D; Jordaan, Danie; Chingwaru, Walter; Hansen, Aase; Cencic, Avrelija; Kandawa-Schultz, Martha; Mpotokwane, Selalelo M; Chimwamurombe, Percy; de Kock, Henrietta L; Minnaar, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The morama bean is an underutilized leguminous oilseed native to the Kalahari Desert and neighboring sandy regions of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, and Northern Cape provinces), and forms part of the diet of the indigenous population in these countries. It is also known as gemsbok bean, moramaboontjie, elandboontjie, braaiboonjie, marama, marumana, tsi, tsin, gami, and ombanui. It is reported as an excellent source of good quality protein (29-39%); its oil (24-48%) is rich in mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids and contains no cholesterol. Morama is a good source of micronutrients such as calcium, iron, zinc, phosphate, magnesium, and B vitamins including folate. It is also reported to be a potential source of phytonutrients including phenolic compounds (e.g., tannins), trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and oligosaccharides, components which have been shown in other foods to contribute to health in particular, prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and some cancers. From a nutritional and health perspective, the morama bean has potential commercial value as a cash crop and value-added products, particularly in the communities where it is found.

  12. 黑豆糕的研制%Preparation of black bean cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤舞; 朴美子; 李文凤

    2012-01-01

    The cake was prepared with black soybean powder mixed with adzuki bean powder and flour, which was nutritional and healthy food with full aroma and proper sweet taste. The technology was studied by single factor and orthogonal experiment, and sensory evaluation. The optimum technological condition was that the proportion of black bean and adzuki bean powder was 7:3 ( amount 25 g), soft white sugar 15 g, blended edible oil 14 g, water 20 mL and flour 8 g.%以黑豆粉为主要原料,在黑豆糕制作中加大红小豆粉和面粉,研制出香气浓郁、甜度适口、口感优良、具有营养保健作用的豆糕。通过单因素和正交实验对黑豆糕的加工工艺进行研究,以感官评定为依据,得到生产黑豆糕的最佳工艺配方是:黑红豆粉的比例7:3(总计25g)、绵白糖15g、调和油14g、水20mL、面粉8g。

  13. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  14. Double Win for China and Russia in Oil & Gas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum industry plays an important role in both the Chinese and Russian economy.Petroleum cooperation between the two countries continue to accelerate since China opening wider to the outside world, and Chinese oil companies have increased their presence in Russia. Sino–Russia joint-ventures, oil& gas trade has progressed smoothly, there is a better future for cooperation in oil& gas development in Russian Far Eastern region. Chinese and Russian companies will continue to benefit from collaboration in petroleum industry.

  15. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  16. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed....... The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study...

  17. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  18. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altunina, L K; Kuvshinov, V A [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  19. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  20. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. [Characterization of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Winged-Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. Protein Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Budijanto1,2*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. has similar protein concentration to soybean. Higher productivity of winged-bean as compared to soybean and ground nut makes it feasible to develop this legume as a natural source of vegetable protein. Protein isolate was made by isolating protein from defatted winged-bean flour employing its isoelectric point, and several stages of centrifugation. The protein content of winged-bean protein isolate was 83.87% (db. Analysis of physicochemical properties of winged-bean protein isolate, suggested that the bulk density was 0.60 g/ml with water and oil absorption capacity of 2.61 g H2O/g solid; 1.60 ml oil/g solid, respectively. Moreover, this protein isolate had emulsion capacity of 70.5%; foam capacity of 89.5% and formed gel at concentration of 15%. Data on amino acids composition indicated that glutamic acid was the highest concentration (6.37%, whereas tryptophan was the lowest one (0.37%. Several essential amino acids, such as leucine dan lysine, were found in winged-bean protein isolate at a concentration of 3.2% and 2.8%, respectively, calculated from the total amino acid.

  1. Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the Euphorbiacea Aleurites montana as consequence of growth under 700 ppm CO{sub 2} in air. A study on photosynthesis and photorespiration in the Chinese tung-oil tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P. [Central South Forestry Univ., Zhuzhou/Hunan (China); Bader, K.P.; Radunz, A.; Schmid, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Zellphysiologie; Kahmann, U.; Ruppel, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Morphologie der Pflanzen und Feinbau der Zelle

    1998-03-01

    Three months old plants of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana (Euphorbiaceae) were cultivated for 4 months in air containing 700 ppm CO{sub 2}. These plants, which grow substantially better in the CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere, were analyzed by mass spectrometry for photosynthesis and photorespiration together with control plants grown all the time in normal (350 ppm CO{sub 2}) air. Thereafter part of the plants was subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and again analyzed for photosynthesis and photorespiration. Gas exchange measurements carried out by mass spectrometry show that the ratio of O{sub 2} evolved to CO{sub 2} fixed is about 0.5. Apparently, part of the CO{sub 2} fixed is channelled into a metabolic path without concomitant O{sub 2}-evolution. Although the plant has no succulent appearance, apparently a Crassulacean type metabolism is performed. When Aleurites plants grown all the time in normal air with 350 ppm, are exposed for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} the treatment completely inhibits this CO{sub 2}-fixing portion. When Aleurites plants, grown for 4 months in a CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere of 700 ppm CO{sub 2}, are subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2}, the features of control plants show up again. When these plants are tested under 350 ppm CO{sub 2} the Crassulacean type CO{sub 2}-fixation apparently is not inhibited by SO{sub 2}. Photorespiration, although low, is present in the same activity as in the controls. Seemingly, an increased level of CO{sub 2} in air trends to alleviate the impact of the SO{sub 2} at least in the Chinese tung-oil tree. (orig./MG)

  2. Research and Produce of Olive Oil and Chinese Angelica Oil Soft Capsules Reducing Blood Lipid of Rats%橄榄岷归油软胶囊辅助降血脂功能保健食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵煜; 于长青; 朱刚; 魏文慧

    2011-01-01

    The study adopt centrifugal separation technology to refine olive oil and supereritical CO2 extraction technology to extract angelica oil, blend olive oil with angelica oil and make them into to Olive and Angelica Oil Soft Capsules, according to the property of olive and angelica. This product has been already tested for the functions and toxicity, the result shows that the Olive and Angelica Oil Soft Capsules could assist to reduce blood lipid.%本研究根据油橄榄鲜果和当归原料特性,分别采用离心分离技术提取橄榄油和超临界CO2流体萃取技术提取当归油,进而以橄榄油为主要原料复配当归油,制备橄榄岷归油软胶囊保健食品,并进行了功能试验和毒理学安全性评价试验,试验结果证明橄榄岷归油软胶囊具有辅助降低血脂功效。

  3. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  4. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

  5. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  6. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  7. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  8. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  9. FTIR and DSC studies of the thermal and photochemical stability of Balanites aegyptiaca oil (Toogga oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Baba, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The oil extracted from the bean of Balanites aegyptiaca was characterized, and its photochemical and thermal stabilization were evaluated. The chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC), revealing that the oil is very rich in unsaturated fatty acids (72% omega-6 and omega-9). The photochemical stability was assessed by subjecting it to artificially accelerated photo-aging and then examining the changes using infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability was studied at six different temperatures ranging from 130 to 200°C and monitored in situ by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetic parameters (EA and k) describing the thermal degradation of this oil were calculated. It has been shown that the antioxidants present in the oil delay the oxidation process (induction period). The degradation of the Toogga oil was compared with that of oleic and linoleic fatty acids. In addition, the degradation of the Toogga oil extracted with hexane was compared to that of the neat oil.

  10. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  11. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  12. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  13. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  14. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  15. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  16. Characteristics and trends of China's oil demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo

    2010-09-15

    Based on historical analysis of Chinese oil consumption from 1980 to 2008, the author develops an econometric modeling - Medium and Long-term Chinese Oil Demand Forecast Model. Results shows that, Chinese oil demand will be 632 MT in 2020 without consideration of substitutions, and the annual growth rate will be 4.2%, much slower than before. The demand ratio of diesel to gasoline will decline, while kerosene demand will grow faster. If new energy vehicles (NGV and electric vehicles, etc.) develop rapidly and industrial fuel-oil demand is substituted effectively, about 23 million tons of oil could be saved.

  17. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  18. Study on the Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil Extracted from Bupleuri Chinese by Different Methods%不同方法提取的柴胡挥发油化学成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施铮; 陈仁寿; 陈勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察不同提取方法柴胡挥发油中成分的差异。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法、酸水蒸气蒸馏法、水蒸馏法、酸水蒸馏法及溶剂提取法提取柴胡挥发油,并采用 GC-MS 法分析所得挥发油的成分。结果溶剂提取法的挥发油得油率最高,用酸水处理后再提取的得油率最低;GC-MS 分析结果表明,主要成分为茴香脑及其同分异构体蒿脑,酸水处理后提取的挥发油含有反式-2-壬烯醛、松油醇。结论不同提取方法所得的挥发油成分差异较大,主要成分茴香脑及其同分异构体蒿脑在解热方面的药效需进一步研究。%OBJECTIVE To study the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Bupleuri Chinese by different methods.METHODS The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation,acid water vapor distillation,water distillation, acid water distillation and solvent extraction methods,and the chemical composition of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS.RESULTS The yields of essential oil extracted by solvent extraction method was highest,while the yields with acid water treatment was lowest;GC-MS analysis showed the main chemical composition were anethole and its isomer estragole.CON-CLUSION The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by different methods is distinct,and further study on the antipyretic effect of the main composition anethole and its isomer estragole is needed.

  19. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  20. 气相色谱质谱联用技术对栝楼籽油亚麻酸和亚油酸含量的分析%GC-MS Analysis of Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid in Chinese Trichosanthes kirilowii Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常景玲; 邓小莉; 张军霞; 赵旭娜; 杨建磊

    2009-01-01

    通过皂化法和尿素包合法对热榨、冷榨栝楼(Trichosanthes kirilowii)籽油进行提取,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术检测分析栝楼籽油中亚麻酸、亚油酸成分、含量.结果表明,热榨栝楼籽油中亚麻酸相对含量为 4.16%~11.58%,亚油酸相对含量为 68.62%~95.84%.冷榨栝楼籽油中不含亚麻酸成分.此方法适用于栝楼籽油的成分分析.%The paper deals with how hot-rolled and cold-rolled Chinese trichosanthes oil are firstly pretreated through saponified method and urine packaging method.Then the content of both linolenic acid and linoleic acid can be analyzed by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrum(GC-MS).The purpose is to analyze the contents of linolenic acid and linoleic acid in Chinese trichosanthes oil. In hot-rolled Chinese trichosanthes oil,the contents of linolenic and Linoleic acid are 4.16%-11.58% and 68.62%-95.84% respectively while there is no linoleic acid in cold rolled trichosanthes oil.In conclusion,GC-MS analysis of can be applied to the composition of in Chinese trichosanthes oil.

  1. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  2. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  3. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  4. China Oil Reserve and Major Refined Products Marketing Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xunying

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Current Status and Forecast on Supply and Demand for Oil in China 1.1 Chinese oil trade balance China's demand for crude oil has increased sharply since the 1990's. From 1991 to 2000, the consumption of China's crude oil increased by 6% a year, but the output still lagged far behind the domestic need (See Table 1).

  5. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  6. Influence of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean absolute growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Even when under low precipitations conditions, the castor bean production decrease, it constitutes a very good alternative. It has an elevated economical importance, because from the plant it is used their leaves, stem and seeds. From the stem it is obtained cellulose for the paper industry, from the leaves textile products and from the seeds oil and tort. The oil is the only glycerin soluble in alcohol and the base for several industrial products such as the biodiesel. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean, BRS 188 cultivar rate growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. It was observed that both, organic matter and available water for plants proportionated benefit effects to the growth rate of the plant. (author)

  7. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  9. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  10. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  11. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  12. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  13. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  16. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  17. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  18. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  19. Physicochemical properties of starches obtained from three varieties of Chinese sweet potatoes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen Zenghong,; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Starches isolated from 3 typical types of Chinese sweet potato varieties (XuShu18, SuShu2, and SuShu8) were characterized and compared with starches isolated from potato and mung bean. The 3 sweet potato starches differed in granule size; particle size distribution; protein, lipid, and phosphorus co

  20. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  1. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  2. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  3. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  4. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  5. Complete genome sequence of a natural reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus found in bean goose (Anser fabalis): direct evidence for virus exchange between Korea and China via wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, we isolated a natural recombinant H9N2 avian influenza virus from fecal droppings of bean goose (Anser fabalis) in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the A/bean goose/Korea/220/2011(H9N2) isolate is a reassortant of Eurasian and North American lineages of avian influenza virus. In addition, the complete genome sequence, including all 8 gene segments, was associated with Chinese H9N2 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve. These data provide direct evidence for the exchange of avian influenza viruses between Korea and China via wild birds.

  6. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  7. Retail Market of Oil Products Reshuffled Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to its commitments to the World Trade Organization, the Chinese government opened up China's oil products retail market fully on December 11, 2004. Centering on this important transition, a market pattern of multi-major-body will be appeared.

  8. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  9. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong Ronggang [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 8712, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wei Yiming [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 8712, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: ymwei@deas.harvard.edu; Jiao Jianlin [Hefei University of Science and Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Fan Ying [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 8712, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index.

  10. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rong-Gang [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 8712, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wei, Yi-Ming; Fan, Ying [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 8712, Beijing 100080 (China); Jiao, Jian-Lin [Hefei University of Science and Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index. (author)

  11. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Jiao, Jian-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing...... index and some oil companies. Some “important” oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain...

  12. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  14. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  15. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  16. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  17. On Construction of Image Spacing Between Traditional Chinese Landscape Painting and Realistic Oil Painting%论中国传统山水画和写实风景油画中空间的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈桂林

    2014-01-01

    中国传统山水画与西方的写实风景油画对画面空间的构建有着不同的理解和表述,它们构建了两种不同类型的画面空间,体现出不同的情感特点,它们在画面空间的构建方式上的差别集中表现为透视的运用、画面色彩的表现、形体的塑造、虚实的处理这四个方面。%Though both the traditional Chinese landscape painting and the realistic Western oil painting represent an identical landscape, they have different comprehension and statement in construction methods of image spacing. For diverse purposes of performance goal, they construct two different kinds of image spacing. In this paper we will research on their performance goal and technique of expression to figure out their different construction methods of image spacing by a comparative study in four aspects:the application of perspective, the performance of picture color, the shaping of form and the processing of vitual and actual.

  18. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  19. Fish oil increases atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, although decreases serum cholesterol in Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo M-Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil during pregnancy and lactation and the pups were weaned onto the same diet. Fasting blood samples, hepatic and aortic specimens were taken from pups on day 70 postnatal. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Medians for fatty streak in aorta of fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.042. Also, medians for ductular cell hyperplasia of liver in fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.014. Total cholesterol in pups fed with fish oil was 52.20 mg/dl and in pups fed with soy bean oil was 83.90 mg/dl (p < 0.00 and for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C values were 8.79 mg/dl and 13.16 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.031. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, a diet which provided 15.9% of energy from fish oil as the only source of dietary fat, induced aortic atherosclerosis as well as hepatic steatosis in Wistar rat, although it decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C.

  20. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  1. Yield Performance of Heat Tolerant Country Bean (Lablab purpureus Lin. as Influenced by Insecticides During Kharif Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mofazzal Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the research field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during 2009 kharif season to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for increasing yield of country bean by protecting pod damage by bean pod borers. The spray plots gave significantly higher yield than the control plots. Among the insecticides, Neem oil, Fenitrothion50 EC and Emamectin benzoate 5 SG performed best by reducing 59.46, 51.35 & 45.95 % infested pod production respectively. For marketable pod yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenotrothion 50 EC and Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 5.78, 5.48 & 5.39 ton/hectate at the same time increasing 46.70, 38.58 & 36.80 % marketable pod yield over control respectively. Thus for gross yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 6.11, 5.65 & 5.61 ton/ha as well as increasing 41.76, 31.09 & 30.16 % gross pod production. Therefore, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP can be recommended for successful country bean cultivation with more production during kharif season.

  2. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  3. Functional properties of proteins from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, L; Gallegos-Tintoré, S; Martínez-Ayala, A; Castellanos-Ruelas, A; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2011-04-01

    Functional properties were identified for the total globulin (TG), 7S and 11S fractions of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds. The 11S component accounted for 58.3% of TGs and the 7S for 41.7%. Solubility was higher in the 7S fraction, especially at alkaline pHs. Water-holding capacity was similar (3 g water/g sample) in both globulin fractions. Oil-holding capacity was higher in the 11S fraction, which also exhibited better foaming capacity and foam stability than the 7S and TG fractions at alkaline pHs. The TG and 7S fractions exhibited low emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability at different pHs (5, 7 and 9), but the 11S fraction had relatively higher values. In suspension at low concentrations, all fractions exhibited shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The studied Lima bean globulin fractions exhibit functional properties which make them potentially apt for use in some industrial food systems.

  4. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  5. Inactivation of jack bean urease by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Adam; Zaborska, Wiesława; Sepioł, Janusz; Góra, Maciej; Zaborska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Allicin--diallyl thiosulfinate--is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic. Allicin was synthesized as described elsewhere and was tested for its inhibitory ability against jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 22 degrees C. The results indicate that allicin is an enzymatic inactivator. The loss of urease activity was irreversible, time- and concentration dependent and the kinetics of the inactivation was biphasic; each phase, obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants for inactivation were measured for the fast and slow phases and for several concentrations of allicin. Thiol reagents, and competitive inhibitor (boric acid) protected the enzyme from loss of enzymatic activity. The studies demonstrate that urease inactivation results from the reaction between allicin and the SH-group, situated in the urease active site (Cys592).

  6. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  7. Comparative Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Four Species of Cowpea Beans Seed Coat (Vigna Ungucuilata in Enugu State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ape David I

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is an important bean which play significant role in the diets of Africans. It serves as a major source of protein in the absence of sufficient animal protein for the population. Four varieties large white beans seed coat (LWB small white beans seed coat (SWB large brown beans seed coat (LBB and small brown beans seed coat (SBB of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata were analyzed for their proximate and elemental contents. These varieties belong to the same species in the family leguminosae. The brown and white seed coats were found to be nutritious. Both contained carbohydrate, protein, fibres and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese and phosphorus. The moisture content was found to be 9.70 and 14.0% for (LWB and (SWB, and 11.20 and 10.80% for (LBB and (SBB respectively with the (SWB having the higher amount. The carbohydrate content analyzed was found to be 9.0 and 10.81% for (LWB and (SWB, and 8.40 and 7.80% for (LBB and (SBB with the (SWB having the higher value. The oil content was 0.37 and 0.21% for (LWB AND (SWB and 0.41 and 0.29% for (LBB and (SBB. The crude fibre was 70.55 and 68.20% (LWB AND (SWB and 68.17 and 70.01% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The protein was 2.28 and 1.98% for (LWB AND (SWB and 2.52 and 2.40% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The ash content was 8.1 and 4.8% for (LWB AND (SWB and 9.3 and 8.7% for (LBB and (SBB. The elemental analysis in the four species gave the following ranges:- Mg from 0.72 – 0.49ppm with (SWB having highest concentration and (LBB with lowest, Ca from 3.10 – 2.29ppm with (LBB highest and (LWB lowest, Mn from 0.31 – 0.18ppm with (LWB highest concentration and (SBB having the least, and finally P from 0.03 – 0.01ppm with (LBB with highest concentration and (SWB least concentration. From the analyses carried out it shows that cowpea beans seed coats are a good nutritional food source with higher crude fibre content.

  8. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  9. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  10. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  11. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  12. Effects of Essential Oils Combined with Meat Flavor on the Microbial Characteristics and Qualities of Chinese Sausage%植物精油结合肉味香精对中式香肠微生物特征和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何守魁; 王一非; 王进; 肖作兵

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are generally regarded as safe, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. Researching and developing essential oils-based natural preservatives may be a new idea to replace the chemical ones. The aim of this paper was to study the effects of essential oils on shelf life of Chinese sausage and provide data support for new kinds of safe and natural preservatives. Here sausages were treated with garlic essential oil(GEO), cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and meat flavor (MF) alone or in combination with garlic essential oil. And then microbial characteristics and quality changes of the sausages during storage were observed. The results of in vivo tests indicated that both GEO and CEO delayed the count increasement of total bacteria and corruption bacteria in Chinese sausage. And stronger antibacterial activity was achieved with higher concentration. 0.16% CEO exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity, with a total viable count of 0.40×105 cells/g in Chinese sausage after storage for 30 days. What is more, there was a synergistic antibacterial effect between GEO and MF with a concentration of 0.08%. Plant essential oils had a positive influence on the quality change of Chinese sausage during storage. After storage for 30 days, no evident difference in pH was found among all treatments. Besides, the h° value of combination process was only 40° (control 68°), which showed that combination process delayed the color change of Chinese sausage.%植物精油是GRAS物质,具有抑制细菌、真菌、抗病毒、杀寄生虫和抗氧化的作用.研发植物精油天然防腐剂,是取代化学防腐剂的新思路.本文通过观察大蒜精油(garlic essential oil,GEO)、肉桂精油(cinnamon essential oil,CEO)以及肉味香精(meat flavor,MF)单独或结合处理的中式香肠在贮藏期间微生物特征和品质的变化,研究植物精油对中式香肠货架期的影响,从而为开发新型天然

  13. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  14. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  15. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  16. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  17. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  18. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  19. China Thirst for Overseas Oil and Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wuyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's oil companies are currently accelerating their efforts for implementation of the strategy to operate the oil business worldwide in the attempt to secure the energy supply as the country becomes more and more dependent on oil imports.The Chinese government has also adopted every possible means to diversify the sources of energy supply.

  20. Effect of abscisic and gibberellic acids on malate synthase transcripts in germinating castor bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D; Dommes, J; Northcote, D H

    1987-05-01

    Several clones complementary to malate synthase mRNA have been identified in a complementary-DNA library to mRNA from castor bean endosperm. One of these clones has been used as a probe to measure levels of transcripts during seed germination and the effects of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid on these levels have been examined.Malate synthase transcripts increased during germination and GA3 advanced their appearance in the endosperm. Exogenously applied ABA inhibited the accumulation of transcripts over a time course of germination but the addition of GA3 counteracted its inhibitory effects. The data confirmed previous reports which indicated that the action of both growth regulators was on transcript accumulation and that there is a coordinated induction of the enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism in oil seeds.

  1. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  2. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  3. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  4. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  5. ‘CHINA FACTOR’OVERPLAYED IN GLOBAL OIL PRICE HIKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Many statistical figures on the Chinese and world oil markets in 2005 finally became available. Based on those figures, the truth about the so-called "Chinese factor" in the soaring international oil price was also disclosed - it has been seriously overplayed. The average WTI price in 2005 soared by 36.8 percent year on year to a record high of US$56.7 per barrel, while both the domestic oil consumption and oil import of China fell in the year.

  6. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

  7. If There Were No Frontier,Where Would the Mainland Be:An Interpretation of A Tour along the Chinese Frontier-the Distant Home Based on Cultural-Geography%没有边疆,哪有内地*--《远方的家·边疆行》的文化地理学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖群

    2015-01-01

    Based on a number of documentaries on “China frontier”by CCTV Station and some foreign tele-vision stations,the serial documentary of A Tour along the Chinese Frontier -the Distant Home is selected for re-search and for an interpretation based on cultural geography from the space meaning.Though both the frontier and the mainland are both categorized as the territory of China,the consciousness of binary space varies from each other.It is the additional value of the video to enhance the consistency and cultural identity of the layout of the cultural geography of China.The success of the documentary,A Tour along the Chinese Frontier -the Distant Home,is to impress the people with detailed descriptions and reflect humanistic care.It shows a style of transfor-ming Chinese documentary and provides a good example for future similar documentary processing the country and the nation,culture and stable subject.At the same time,the frontier tourism can effectively promote the “de marginalization”border area,eliminate invisible boundary between the frontier and the Inland.%针对中央电视台和国外电视台推出多部“中国边疆”的纪录片,选取《远方的家·边疆行》作为研究对象,进行文化地理的空间意义阐释。边疆与内地同属于中国,却呈现不一样的二元空间意识。增加中国文化地理版图的一致性和文化认同是该影视节目流露的额外价值。《远方的家·边疆行》的成功之道在于以细节打动人,体现人文关怀。它显示中国纪录片的一种风格转型,对以后的类似纪录片处理国家、民族、文化、稳定等主题时候提供了很好的样板。同时,边疆旅游可以有效推动边疆地区的“去边缘化”运动,消弭边疆与内陆之间的无形界线。

  8. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  10. The study on essential oil components and comparison of identification in Chinese cassia and Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu.%国产肉桂和大叶清化桂的鉴别比较及其挥发油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世伟

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares Chinese cassia with Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu in macroscopical identification, microscopical identification, and physicochemical identification, and determing the content of essential oil in different parts of two plants.The results showed Cinnamadehyde content in Cinnamomum cassia var.macrophyllum Chu is higher than Chinese cassia, its quality is superior.%对国产肉桂与大叶清化桂的性状鉴别、显微鉴别、理化鉴别进行了比较,并测定了二者不同部位挥发油含量,论证了大叶清化桂皮中桂皮醛含量要高于国产肉桂,其质较优.

  11. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  12. 莲子绿豆糕的制作工艺研究%Research on Production Technology of Lotus Seed Green Bean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妍

    2013-01-01

    以绿豆、莲子为主要原料,制作一种新型糕点莲子绿豆糕。以莲子粉与绿豆粉比例、加糖量、加油量、烤制时间、烤制温度为单因素,以正交试验确定最佳制作工艺条件。试验结果表明,莲子绿豆糕最佳工艺条件为:烤制温度为130℃、烤制时间为30 min、莲子粉与绿豆粉比例为1∶2、加油量11 mL。%Green beans,lotus seeds were used to produce a new type of cake as the main raw material.According to the orthogonal experiment , superior production conditions were obtained taking the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds ,the amount of sugar ,the amount of edible oil ,the baking time and the baking temperature as the single factor. The results of the experiments showed that optimum conditions were that baking temperature was 130℃,baking time was 30 min,the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds was 1∶2,the amount of edible oil was 11 mL.

  13. Progress Toward Demonstrating SAR Monitoring of Chinese Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weigen; Johannessen, Johnny; Alpers, Werner; Yang, Jingsong

    2010-12-01

    "Demonstrating SAR monitoring of Chinese seas" is a project of the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 program. This paper presents the progress of the project. Retrieval algorithms for SAR monitoring of sea surface currents, oceanic internal waves, sea surface winds, oil spills and ships have been advanced. SAR monitoring of Chinese seas in near-real-time is now in demonstration phase.

  14. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  15. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  16. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  17. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  18. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  19. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... % and replaced by a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape in the proportion of 1:1:0.7. In the last two diets, the inclusion of fish oil was reduced by 50 and 100 %, respectively and replaced by flax seed oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. Digestibility was measured directly using a modified, flow....... The results indicate that a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape may partially replace fish meal, and flax seed oil may replace fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout without compromising growth performance and feed utilization....

  20. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  1. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  2. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems.

  4. Oil components modulate physical characteristics and function of the natural oil emulsions as drug or gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H; Kim, T W; Kwon, M; Kwon, I C; Jeong, S Y

    2001-04-28

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsions were formulated by using 18 different natural oils and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) to investigate how emulsion particle size and stability change with different oils. Cottonseed, linseed and evening primrose oils formed emulsions with very large and unstable particles. Squalene, light mineral oil and jojoba bean oil formed stable emulsions with small particles. The remaining natural oils formed moderately stable emulsions. Emulsions with smaller initial particle size were more stable than those with larger particles. The correlation between emulsion size made with different oils and two physical properties of the oils was also investigated. The o/w interfacial tension and particle size of the emulsion were inversely proportional. The effect of viscosity was less pronounced. To study how the oil component in the emulsion modulates the in vitro release characteristics of lipophilic drugs, three different emulsions loaded with two different drugs were prepared. Squalene, soybean oil and linseed oil emulsions represented the most, medium and the least stable systems, respectively. For the lipophilic drugs, release was the slowest from the most stable squalene emulsion, followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Cationic emulsions were also prepared with the above three different oils as gene carriers. In vitro transfection activity was the highest for the most stable squalene emulsion followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Even though the in vitro transfection activity of emulsions were lower than the liposome in the absence of serum, the activity of squalene emulsion, for instance, was ca. 30 times higher than that of liposome in the presence of 80% (v/v) serum. In conclusion, the choice of oil component in o/w emulsion is important in formulating emulsion-based drug or gene delivery systems.

  5. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  6. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  7. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  8. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  9. 一种新发现的侵染绿豆的菜豆普通花叶病毒分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of a Newly Discovered Bean common mosaic virus Infection of Mung Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈良; 崔瑾; 夏妍; 崔晓艳; 陈新

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to identify one isolate with wizened ,mottle and vein clearing mosaic symp-tom collected from greenhouse mung bean(Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)in Jangsu.We used electron micrograph, PCR,determination of nucleotide sequence and ELISA .We can see the characteristics of the virus under transmis-sion electron microscopy .We used Potyvirus universal primers for RT-PCR,found the symptom was caused by Bean common mosaic virus(BCMV).This isolate was called BCWV-JAAS.The nucleotides sequences of the genes from the isolate shared homologies from 95% with reported BCMV-HB.Total RNA was amplified by RT-PCR with the specific primers designed on the basis of the reported coat protein gene of Bean common mosaic virus( BCMV) .An 1 082 bp gene fragment was amplified from total RNA of isolate ,and subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the 862 bp fragment contained complete cp gene which encoded 228 amino acids.By amplification cp genes and construct phylogenetic trees get BCMV-JAAS with other Chinese isolates of BCMV have a close genetic relationship . We performed the virus samples by ELISA ,the results shown positive we ensured that was infecting by Bean com-mon mosaic virus(BCMV) to cause the mung bean plant disease .This is the first time found the mung bean was in-fected by BCMV in China .%为确定从江苏省农科院蔬菜所温室大棚所采集到的表现花叶、皱缩、明脉症状的绿豆植株是由何种病毒引起的,采取了透射电子显微镜观察、RT-PCR、序列测序以及酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA)等方法进行鉴定。结果表明,在透射电镜下可观察到风轮状、束状病毒内含体,与Potyvirus属病毒粒子形态一致;对所提取的病样总RNA使用Poty-virus通用引物进行RT-PCR扩增,得到由1082个核苷酸组成的序列,包含编码228个氨基酸的完整cp基因,产物通过NCBI比对,发现和已报道的菜豆普通花叶病毒( Bean common mosaic virus,BCMV) HB

  10. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  11. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  12. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  13. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  14. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  15. Algeria Hopes to Strengthen Oil Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Algerian Energy and Minerals Minister said that Algeria welcomed the Chinese companies to participate in the oil and gas cooperative projects in the country. He made those remarks in a meeting with the delegation from CNPC and Sinopec. Algeria hoped to cooperate with China in oil and gas exploration and development as well as petroleum trade, the minister added. The two sides can join hands in the oil and gas projects both inside and outside Algeria. He also said that Algeria was willing to further step up exchange between the Algerian and Chinese oil companies.

  16. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean.

  17. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  18. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  19. Differences in the Responses to Iron Deficiency Stress between Bean and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    米谷, 力; 森次, 益三; 河﨑, 利夫

    1995-01-01

    The responses to iron deficiency stress in bean and maize were compared. The susceptibility to iron deficiency stress was smaller in bean than in maize;i.e., the tolerance to iron deficiency was greater in bean than in maize. The roots of the bean plants exposed to iron deficiency stress, developed iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity,but not the roots of maize. The iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity of the bean roots were inhibited by a shadowing, detopp...

  20. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  1. Characteristics of Tectonic Evolution and Distribution and Enrichment Patterns of Oil and Gas in the Chinese Marginal Basin%中国边缘海盆地构造演化与油气分布富集规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 何家雄; 颜文; 张景茹; 李晓唐

    2014-01-01

    中国边缘海盆地处在欧亚、印度-澳大利亚及太平洋三大板块相互作用之新生代最活跃区域,其中,南部边缘海盆地尚受南海裂解扩张作用等多种因素的深刻影响,形成了具有断拗双层结构不同类型伸展型或伸展、走滑、挤压复合型盆地,沉积充填了古近纪断陷裂谷早期中深湖相地层及其烃源岩、古近纪断陷晚期煤系地层及烃源岩、新近纪拗陷期海相地层及其烃源岩,为油气形成奠定了雄厚的物质基础。受区域地质背景影响,边缘海盆地地壳性质及厚度从陆缘区到深海洋盆区具有逐渐递变的特点;盆地沉降沉积中心亦逐渐向深海洋盆迁移,导致其大地热流及地热场向洋盆区逐渐升高增强,加之与晚期新构造运动和烃源供给系统时空上的相互耦合配置,最终控制了边缘海盆地油气分布富集规律。%The Chinese marginal basin is located at the most active Cenozoic era,which is formed by the interaction of Eurasia, India-Australia and the Pacific plates,and its southern marginal basin is still subjected to the impact of the South China Sea cracking and expansion and many other factors,so the rift-depression double-layer structure basins have formed,which have different types,such as extensional or composite strike-slip-extrusion type. The sedimentation has filled in the basin,which is mid-deep lake face strata and hydrocarbon source rocks in the early phase of the Paleogene rift Valley,coal-bearing strata and hydrocarbon source rocks in the late phase of the Paleogene rift,and marine strata and hydrocarbon source rocks in the Neogene depression,which has laid a foundation for oil and gas formation. Due to the impact of the regional geological setting, the characteristics and thickness of the marginal basin crust has gradually graded features from the continental margin area to the deep ocean basin area. The basin subsidence deposition center has

  2. Suggestions on Marketing Heilongjiang’ s Non-GMO Soya-bean Oil outside the Province---Based on Studies of Consumer Purchasing Behaviors%黑龙江省非转基因大豆油省外市场营销建议--基于消费者购买行为因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金明华; 陈文杰; 张真珍

    2015-01-01

    黑龙江省是我国非转基因大豆主产区之一。黑龙江省大豆油生产企业以当地优质大豆为原料生产销售非转基因大豆油,在省内已形成较为稳定的消费群。近年来,随着省外消费者对非转基因大豆油消费意识的增强,省外非转基因大豆油市场机会逐渐显现。黑龙江省大豆油生产企业应在了解省外四个地区消费者非转基因大豆油消费行为特点的基础上制定恰当的营销策略,满足省外消费者的需求,加快企业省外市场拓展。%Heilongjiang Province is one of the major districts producing non -transgenic soybean.With the local high-quality soybean as the raw material of non-transgenic soybean oil, soybean oil companies in Heilongjiang have attracted a stable group of consumers .In recent years, as the consumption awareness of consumers from other provinces grows, the potential of the market outside Heilongjiang Province gradually appears .On the basis of understanding characteristics of consumption activities of consumers from other four provinces in purchasing the non -transgenic soybean oil, related companies in Heilongjiang should draw up appropriate marketing strategies to meet demands of consumers and widen the market outside the province.

  3. Sweet and Sour Boneless Chinese Perch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh Chinese perch, about 1,500 grams; 50 grams diced carrot, 50 grams diced bamboo shoots, 50 grams diced dried mushroom, 50 grams peas, 1,000 grams vegetable oil, 50 grams sugar, 25 grams tomato paste, salt, vinegar, cooking wine, MSG and cornstarch. Directions:

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  5. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  6. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity.

  7. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  8. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  9. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans bo

  10. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  11. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  12. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  13. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  15. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  16. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  17. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear

  18. 豆油替代鱼油对中华条颈龟血脂代谢及相关酶活的影响%Effects of Partial Replacement of Fish Oil by Soybean Oil on Serum Lipid Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities in Chinese Striped-necked Turtle Mauremys sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘正元; 盛成; 洪美玲; 史海涛

    2015-01-01

    为缓解国际鱼油资源短缺,本研究从血脂代谢角度去评价豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中的适宜比例。选取体质量(1557±307) g的4龄雌性成体中华条颈龟,根据日粮中豆油与鱼油的添加比例不同随机分成四组,0S∶3F组(豆油∶鱼油0∶3),1S∶2F组(豆油∶鱼油1∶2),2S∶1F组(豆油∶鱼油2∶1)和3S∶0F组(豆油∶鱼油3∶0);外源油的添加量占日粮1%。每周投喂2次,连续投喂8个月。从每组中随机取6只中华条颈龟,冷冻麻醉处死,解剖。检测血液中甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量,肝脏组织中脂蛋白脂酶、肝脂酶和激素敏感性脂肪酶活性以及肠道胰脂肪酶活性,结果如下:(1)随着豆油替代比例的升高,只有1S∶2F组和3S∶0F组总胆固醇显著高于0S∶3F组,并且3S∶0F组低密度脂蛋白含量显著高于0S∶3F(P<0.05)。(2)总脂酶活力在2S∶1F组达到最高,显著高于0S∶3F组(P<0.05);2S∶1F组的激素敏感性脂肪酶活力与其余组相比,更接近于0S∶3F;胰脂肪酶的活力在2S∶1F与0S∶3F之间差异不显著,但均显著低于其余两组。综合上述两方面指标来看,豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中总体可行,较适宜的比例组为2S∶1F。%In order to study the effects of partial replacement of fish oil by soybean oil on serum lipid metabolism and the activity of correlated lipases . Four‐year old female Chinese striped‐necked turtle Mauremys sinensis [body weight(1557 ± 307) g] were randomly divided into four groups according to and fed the diets containing various proportions of fish oil (F) and soybean oil (S) including 0S∶3F (S∶F , 0∶3) ,1S∶2F (S∶F ,1∶2) ,2S∶1F(S∶ F ,2∶1) and 3S∶0F (S∶ F ,3∶0) for eight months .Six turtles were randomly selected from each group and determined for the content of

  19. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  20. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  1. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  2. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  4. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  5. Beans, Boats and Archaeobotany : A New Translation of Phasolus, or why the Romans ate neither Kidney beans nor Cow peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, Frits; Wilkins, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Among classicists, archaeobotanists and agricultural historians, the meaning of the word phasolus (ϕασηλος in Greek) is ambiguous. While Latin scholars have agreed that the word refers to a type of pulse or bean, there are various interpretations and subsequent identifications as to which botanical

  6. Chinese Oil Dependence: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    CCO D E=CH N& CNAM E=China& PTYPE =CP>; Internet; accessed 20 November 2004. 3Energy Information Agency, "China Country Analysis Brief," July 2004...Social Political, and Economic Ferment in China. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990. China Defense Today. "The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force...Data Profiles." August 2004. Available from <http://devdata.worldbank.org/ external/CPProfile.asp?SelectedCountry=CHN&CCODE=CHN&CNAM E=China& PTYPE = CP

  7. Chinese Renowned Oil Experts Enjoys Russian Reputation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ A ceremony was held at Petroleum University in Beijing on September 30, 2003, at which Russia's Academy of Natural Sciences awarded Dr. Wang Tao and Professor Zhang Yiwei as its academicians for their remarkable achievements in the petroleum geological field and their outstanding contributions in the petroleum educational field.

  8. Unconventional Resources Lure Chinese Oil Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong; Song Chengli

    2010-01-01

    @@ Development of section fits with the nation's move to use clean energy China has also commenced the exploration and development of flammable gas both onshore and offshore.The country is currently at the preliminary stage in the use of these unconventional gases, but these clean energies will become "effective substitutes" for natural gas.

  9. Marine oil spill contingency planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation (PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  10. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  11. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  12. Phenotypic Variability and Diversity Analysis of Bean Traits of Some Cocoa Hybrids in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the economic potential and superiority among cocoa hybrids. Therefore, the present study aims at detecting variability among cocoa hybrids for bean index in Nigeria. Dried bean of fourteen genotypes of cocoa were evaluated for their bean values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to understand the variability among the fourteen genotypes and Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to identify distinguishing traits and the grouping of the genotypes based on similarities. The fourteen cocoa genotypes were significantly (p≤0.05 different from each other with respect to weight of one bean, bean length, width, thickness, 100 bean weight, bean length to width, length to thickness and width to thickness ratio. All the studied morphometric characters exhibited high (>70% broad sense heritability. G8, the hybrid between T53/5 and N38 was the most superior genotype for bean weight and some other bean characteristics. The mass of seventy-four dried cocoa bean of G8 approximated 100 g. The first three Principal Component axes explained 91% of the total variation and the PCA grouped the fourteen genotypes into four distinct clusters. Genotypes could be selected for specific traits and improvement of traits seemed to be genetically reliable.

  13. Effect of processing on nutrient composition and anti-nutritive substances of African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea) and baobab seed (Adansonia digitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, E O; Salami, L I; Igboeli, L C; Remawa, H S

    1995-09-01

    The effects of various processing techniques on nutrient composition and anti-nutritional factors in baobab seeds (Adansonia digitata L.) and locust beans (Parkia filicoidea L.) were investigated. The methods used for processing include boiling in water, acid or alkali and fermentation. Using the water treated samples as controls, there were slight decreases in protein and carbohydrate contents of the fermented and alkali-treated meals. However, an increase in extractable oil content was observed in acid, alkali and fermented samples. The alkali treatment appeared to be the most effective method for reducing trypsin inhibitor and tannin contents and has the additional advantage of improving the protein digestibility.

  14. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  15. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  16. SINOPEC RAISES 2006 OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp., the nation's second-biggest oil company,is expected to produce 1.9 percent more crude oil and 11percent more gas in 2006 as the nation's energy demand continually rises. The company may pump 40 million tons of crude oil and 7 billion cubic meters of natural gas from domestic fields this year, said Sinopec Corp in a statement released in late December. The company produced 39.27million tons of crude oil and 6.3 billion cubic meters of gas last year. Chinese oil companies are increasing investments in oil and gas exploration to meet demands by the world's fastest-growing major economy, which expanded 10.7 percent in the first three quarters of this year.

  17. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  18. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  19. 绿豆蛋白营养及功能特性分析%Nutritional Quality and Functional Characteristics of Mung Bean Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志红; 王强; 林伟静; 王燕; 周素梅

    2012-01-01

    对国内16份绿豆主栽品种的蛋白质含量测定结果表明,绿豆中蛋白质含量丰富,平均为24.1%.分别从中提取绿豆蛋白,对绿豆蛋白的氨基酸与蛋白质亚基组成进行了分析.结果显示,绿豆蛋白中富含赖氨酸,含硫氨基酸为第一限制性氨基酸;绿豆蛋白主要由5个亚基组成,分子质量分别为23.4、28.9、31.4、52.9及63.1 ku.对绿豆蛋白的溶解性、保水性、乳化性、起泡性及吸油性等功能特性的研究表明,不同绿豆品种间蛋白功能特性差异显著,并分别筛选出对应功能特性较好的绿豆品种.%The protein content of 16 different major mung bean cultivars in china were determined in this paper, and this results indicated that the proteins of mung bean were rich,with an average of 24.1%. The compositions of a-mino acids and subunits of mung bean proteins were analyzed. The results proved that mung bean proteins were rich in lysine, but lack of sulf - containing amino acids. Mung bean proteins were mainly composed of 5 subunits, the molecular weight of which were 23.4,28.9,31.4,52.9 and 63.1 ku respectively. The functional characteristics of different mung bean proteins,including solubility, water - retaining ability,emulsification ability, oil - absorbing property and foamability,demonstrated differences in various degree,and cultivars with good properties were screened out.

  20. 不同碱金属乌桕油皂微波极化脱羧成烃类燃料的工艺%Microwave polarizing decarboxylation of different saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil for the preparation of renewable hydrocarbon fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允圃; 刘玉环; 阮榕生; 温平威; 马雯; 万益琴

    2014-01-01

    不饱和脂肪酸盐微波极化条件下更容易脱羧成烃,本研究分别以氢氧化锂、氢氧化钠、氢氧化钾皂化乌桕油,以不同碱金属乌桕油皂化物和乌桕油为研究对象,在恒定的微波功率下裂解脱羧成烃,通过GC-MS等分析裂解产物,微波能选择性地加热乌桕油皂羧基端,不饱和键在微波极化过程中与碳负离子中间体形成P-π共轭体系,使裂解反应(脱羧、端烯化、异构化和芳构化等)顺利进行。皂化物极性越大,升温速率越快,液体烃类产率越高,脱羧效果越明显,裂解液体的密度为0.825~0.865 g/cm3,黏度为2.10~2.55 mm2/s,与柴油的性质非常相似,从而证明微波极化乌桕油皂脱羧制烃类燃料的可行性。%It is easier for the decarboxylation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid salt. The Chinese tallow seed oil was saponified by lithium hydroxide,sodium hydroxide,potassium hydroxide. Different saponificated Chinese tallow seed oils were used as model compounds to study the decarboxylation leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology,the pyrolysis products were analyzed by GC-MS and FT-IR. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil. During decarboxylation,the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a P-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting P-πconjugated system was more stable and beneficial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation,terminal allylation,isomerization,and aromatization). The saponificated oil has a stronger polarity,the heating rate is higher,liquid hydrocarbon yield is bigger. The viscosity(2.10-2.55 mm2/s) and density(0.825-0.865 g/cm3) of the pyrolysis liquid obtained from this experiment were similar to those of diesel. It was proved feasible to derive renewable hydrocarbon fuel from saponificated Chinese tallow seed oil by microwave

  1. Two Newly Described Begomoviruses of Macroptilium lathyroides and Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Hiebert, E; Bird, J; Brown, J K

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Macroptilium lathyroides, a perennial weed in the Caribbean region and Central America, is a host of Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus (MaYMFV) and Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus (MaMPRV). The genomes of MaYMFV and MaMPRV were cloned from M. lathyroides and/or field-infected bean and the DNA sequences were determined. Cloned A and B components for both viruses were infectious when inoculated to M. lathyroides and common bean. Comparison of the DNA sequences for cloned A and B components with well-studied begomovirus indicated that MaMPRV (bean and M. lathyroides) and MaYMFV (M. lathyroides) are unique, previously undescribed begomo-viruses from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis of viral A components indicated that the closest relative of MaYMFV are members of the Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) group, at 76 to 78% nucleotide identity, whereas the closest relative for the A component of MaMPRV was Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus at 78% nucleotide identity. In contrast, BGYMV is the closest relative for the B component of both MaYMFV and MaMPRV, with which they share approximately 68.0 and approximately 72% identity, respectively. The incongruent taxonomic placement for the bipartite components for MaMPRV indicates that they did not evolve entirely along a common path. MaYMFV and MaMPRV caused distinctive symptoms in bean and M. lathyroides and were transmissible by the whitefly vector and by grafting; however, only MaYMFV was mechanically transmissible. The experimental host range for the two viruses was similar and included species within the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae, but only MaYMFV infected Malva parviflora and soybean. These results collectively indicate that MaMPRV and MaYMFV are new, previously undescribed species of the BGYMV group, a clade previously known to contain only strains and isolates of BGYMV from the Caribbean region that infect Phaseolus spp. Both MaYMFV and MaMPRV may pose an economic threat to

  2. 改性乌桕脂的液-液萃取脱酸工艺研究%Study on the investigation of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志强; 吴炜亮; 郑建仙

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the solution concentration of extraction solvent isopropyl alcohol,material ratio,extraction time on free fatty acid extraction ratio and the yield of modified lipid were investigated by single factor experiment and the response surface method to obtain the optimum process parameters of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil.The research showed that free fatty acid extraction ratio increased with extraction solution concentration,material ratio,extraction time increasing,while the yield decreased with these three process conditions increasing.The regression models established by the response surface method could observably reflect the relationships of various factors and free fatty acid extraction ratio yield.The sequences of two factors which influenced on free fatty acid extraction ratio and yield of modified lipid were both extraction solution concentrationmaterial ratio.Through overlaying two contour lines of free fatty acid extraction ratio and modified lipid yield,the optimal process was:IPA concentration 75.00%,material ratio 1.50.Under the optimum process parameters,when the extraction times was 5 and extraction temperature was 35℃,the extraction ratio was higher than 97%,and yield more than 95%.%通过单因素实验和响应面法研究了萃取溶剂异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数等因素对脱酸工艺的影响,以改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率为指标,确定了改性乌桕脂液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺参数。研究表明:改性乌桕脂脱酸率与异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数正相关,而得率则随这三个因素条件的增加而减少。由响应曲面法建立的回归模型反映了各因素水平与改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率之间的关系,对改性脂质脱酸率和得率的影响顺序均为异丙醇溶液浓度〉物料比。通过对改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率的等高线进行叠加得到异丙醇液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺

  3. CNPC Cooperates with Russian Company in Oil Products Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) plans to set up a joint venture with Russian oil giant Rosneft to open up to 300 service stations in China. The joint venture, in which the Chinese company has a controlling stake, will cover oil refinery and retail business.

  4. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  5. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  6. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  7. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  8. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  9. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  10. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  11. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. China Holds Exercises of Oil Spills Emergency Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese emergency services carried out their largest ever exercise in early June to tackle an oil spill in the Bohai Sea to test their ability to protect the ocean environment. The drill involved a scenario in which a 10,000-ton oil tanker exploded and spilt 500 tons of oil.Soon after the oil tanker Tianpeng "exploded", a fireboat arrived to fight the fire and a helicopter hovered above to spread chemicals to control oil spill, followed by more vessels and another helicopter.

  13. High oil Price Calls for More Motivated Actions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The oil price has been soaring since the early of this year, and lingered at above US$70per barrel for a while lately. International oil prices have repeatedly hit record high, imposing unprecedented impact on the economic growth and citizens' life in China. In order to stabilize the domestic oil market, ensure a safe oil supply, and reduce the impact of high oil price on China's economic growth, the Chinese government should take more active measures to address these issues as soon as possible.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities of China Oil & Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xingkun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese economy has turned from rapid development into new normal. With economic transition, demand for oil and gas decreases as well. Consumed diesel-gasoline ratio keeps declining, and diesel export increases considerably. Gas demand grows at medium speed, and supply meets demand in general. Alternative energy dominated by gas and electricity will develop faster. As crude oil import right is gradually liberalized, domestic oil market structure will be changed. Oil price drop brings the best opportunity for oil and gas market reform, and environmental protection becomes main force boosting natural gas development.

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IAC-Galante and IAC-Centauro: special common bean types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean types with pinkish and light brown teguments were predominant in Brazil before 1970, until therelease of the Carioca common bean. To avoid that these common bean types sink into oblivion, the Instituto AgronômicoCampinas applied for the registration of two cultivars by the MAPA/RNC: IAC-Galante (pinkish and IAC-Centauro (lightbrown, with high yield and resistance to anthracnose and common mosaic.

  16. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Heavy and Trace Elements on Safety and Stability of Confectionery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vītola Vineta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa beans kernels were tested making trials as milk chocolate prototype.

  17. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  18. An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachroo Aardra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks.

  19. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  20. BEANS - a software package for distributed Big Data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    BEANS software is a web based, easy to install and maintain, new tool to store and analyse data in a distributed way for a massive amount of data. It provides a clear interface for querying, filtering, aggregating, and plotting data from an arbitrary number of datasets. Its main purpose is to simplify the process of storing, examining and finding new relations in the so-called Big Data. Creation of BEANS software is an answer to the growing needs of the astronomical community to have a versatile tool to store, analyse and compare the complex astrophysical numerical simulations with observations (e.g. simulations of the Galaxy or star clusters with the Gaia archive). However, this software was built in a general form and it is ready to use in any other research field or open source software.

  1. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  2. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  3. Bean counting: fair trade, Delft Reactor Institute shoots neutrons at coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from oil, coffee is the worlds most important export product. The large-scale intensive coffee plantations are also one of the worlds biggest users of pesticides. But cautious signs are emerging of return to the traditional, practically pesticide-free, organic growing methods, a trend that sta

  4. 彩豆巧克力味曲奇饼干的研制%Development of Color Bean Chocolate Cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 吕新; 王海蓝

    2014-01-01

    Using wheat flour as the main material, the color generation of cocoa butter chocolate, edible vegetable oil, starch, cocoa, sugar, milk powder, salt, sodium bicarbonate, edible essence and so on as auxiliary materials, the best formula of color bean chocolate cookies was 30 g edible vegetable oil, 5 g milk powder, 30 g sugar, 15 g chocolate beans, 10 g eggs, 2 g salt, 0.4 g, sodium bicarbonate by the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. Baking surface fire temperature was 190℃and the bottom was 150℃for 10 min. The products conformed to the examination index of cookies, which not only could keep the original flavor of the cookies but also had chocolate flavor.%以面粉为主要原料,彩色代可可脂巧克力豆、食用植物油、淀粉、可可粉、白砂糖、奶粉、食盐、碳酸氢钠、食用香精等为辅料。通过单因素实验和正交试验确定出彩豆巧克力味曲奇饼干的最佳配方为:每100克面粉中食用植物油30 g、奶粉5 g、白砂糖30 g、巧克力豆15 g、鸡蛋10 g、食盐2 g、碳酸氢钠0.4 g。烘烤温度为面火190℃,底火150℃;烘烤时间为10 min。该产品符合曲奇饼干的各项检验指标,既保持饼干原有的风味,又具有巧克力味的浓香。

  5. The EU’s dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Visser Cornelis Leonardus Maria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described and underline the need for change. The EIP Agri process resulted in the assessment of the present-day yield gap of protein crops using an approach based on the market values of the protein, starch and plant oil components. Oil-based protein crops seemed to be overall better positioned than starch based protein crops because the price of oil levels is higher than that of starch. Alfalfa was identified as being interesting for regions where drying cost are low. The process also resulted in the identification of opportunities and constraints to be encountered by the innovation process, combining the knowledge and physical infrastructure, market structure, co-operation and interaction and the influence of culturally determined values and beliefs. Therefore, the recommendation is to develop a comprehensive approach to meet the challenge of substantially increasing the EU’s protein crop production.

  6. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  7. Efficacy of Locust Beans Husk Char in Heavy Metal Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola Ayodeji Ajayi-Banji; Temitayo Ewemoje; Adeniyi Ajimo

    2016-01-01

    Most solid waste management schemes minimally consider low concentration biodegradable agricultural waste management, though the environmental impact of this waste category is significant over a time frame. The column-mode study seeks to address the issue by suggesting potential utilisation of post-harvest waste for heavy metal sequestering. Locust beans husk char of 100 and 200 g was employed to inspect removal efficiency, isotherm and kinetic models of some heavy metals at 30, 60, 90, 120 a...

  8. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  9. 力争第二的Coffee Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正蓁

    2003-01-01

    一个小雨的午后,在新加坡繁华的Orchard大街上的连锁咖啡店“Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf”里,维克多·沙宣从他的座位上一跃而起,脱口而出:“下雨了,我得把屋顶打开。”短短几秒钟之内,在天井上方。

  10. A better bean. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D

    1997-01-01

    Researchers from the Colegio de Postgraduados, in partnership with the University of Guelph in Canada, have used horizontal resistance breeding, without the aid of pesticides, to more than triple the yield of locally grown black beans. J.E. Vanderplank, a South African plant pathologist, coined the terms "vertical" and "horizontal" for the types of crop plant resistance in 1963. The former involves a single gene and breaks down when new pathogens appear; the latter involves several genes and is a more durable form of resistance to disease or to insects. Enhancing vertical resistance, which is based on classical Mendelian breeding techniques, requires crossing a wild plant that possesses the desired gene with a cultivar to create a hybrid; the hybrid offspring are then backcrossed with the cultivar parent for several generations until a hybrid is created that is identical to the cultivar, except for the wild parent's resistance gene. In horizontal resistance breeding, the best individuals from each generation are selected and bred with each other. According to Raoul Robinson, a Canadian crop scientist and member of the plant breeding team supported by IDRC, breeding to enhance vertical resistance, or under the protection of insecticides and fungicides, has caused the level of horizontal resistance to decline and plant susceptibility to parasites to increase. Dr. Robinson and Dr. Roberto Garcia Espinosa (the Mexican project manager) began their work using horizontal resistance breeding in black beans in 1991. Yields of 1500 kg/hectare were achieved in two breeding cycles (two years) without the use of pesticides. The average bean yield in the Mixteca region of Mexico is 400 kg/hectare with the use of pesticides. The 200,000 small farmers in the area cultivate over 300,000 hectares, 40,000 of which are beans. The breeding techniques used in this project can be applied to other crops and in other countries.

  11. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  12. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  13. Development and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on three bean species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETERD.MUSA; SHUN-XIANGREN

    2005-01-01

    The development, survivorship and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci B-biotype on three bean species were studied at 26 ± 1 ℃ in the laboratory. The developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 27.80 days on garden beans to 18.20 days on soybeans. The survivorship from egg to adult on soybeans, cowpeas and garden beans was 77.14, 70.14 and 64.28%, respectively. The average longevity of female adults ranged from 12.30 days on soybeans to 9.80 days on garden beans, and the oviposition of B. tabaci varied from 160.85 eggs on soybeans to 98.00 eggs on garden beans. Life table parameters were calculated as biological attributes for Bemisia tabaci populations fed on three bean species. The results indicated that the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the finite rate of increase ( λ ) and net reproductive rate (R0) were high for populations fed on soybeans, with values of 0.1857,1.2041 and 82.1576, respectively. The corresponding values were less for populations fed on garden beans, with values of 0.1097, 1.1159 and 31.2661, respectively. The parametric values for cowpeas were intermediate between soybeans and garden beans but no significant difference were observed for the rm values for soybeans and cowpeas. Experimental evidence in our investigation indicated that Bemisia tabaci is best adapted and shows the greatest preference for soybean of the three bean species tested in this study.

  14. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  15. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  16. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  17. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  18. Studies on the detoxification effects and acute toxicity of a mixture of cis-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide and trans-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide isolated from crude essential oil of Ferula sinkiangensis K.M. Shen, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bengui; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Li

    2011-07-01

    There have, so far, been no papers about the detoxification effects on morphine-dependent animals of a mixture of cis-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide and trans-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide (SBD), which is isolated from crude essential oil of Ferula sinkiangensis K.M. Shen, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Naloxone-precipitated abstinent morphine-dependent models and naturally abstinent morphine-dependent models were used to evaluate the detoxification effects of intraperitoneal injection of SBD. In addition, the writhing test for mice was used to assess the anti-nociceptive effects of SBD, and the spontaneous activity test was used to verify the sedative effects of SBD. Acute toxicity tests of the SBD in mice were performed and the LD₅₀ values were calculated. The results indicated that SBD can inhibit the abstinent syndromes, and that SBD had good anti-nociceptive and sedative effects.

  19. Isolation and Purification of Thiamine Binding Protein from Mung Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine has fundamental role in energy metabolism. The organs mostly sensitive to the lack of thiamine levels in the body are the nervous system and the heart. Thiamine deficiency causes symptoms of polyneuritis and cardiovascular diseases. Because of its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, we need to measure the levels of thiamine in the body fluids by using an easy and inexpensive way without compromising the sensitivity and selectivity. An option to it is thiamine measurement based on the principle of which is analogous to ELISA, in which a thiamine binding protein (TBP act by replacing antibodies. The presence of TBP in several seeds have been reported by previous researchers, but the presence of TBP in mung beans has not been studied. This study was aimed to isolate and purify TBP from mung bean. The protein was isolated from mung bean through salting out by ammonium sulphate of 40, 70, and 90% (w/v. TBP has a negative charge as shown by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result obtained after salting out by ammonium sulphate was further purified bymeans of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and affinity chromatography. In precipitation of 90% of salting out method, one peak protein was obtained by using affinity chromatography. The protein was analyzed by SDS PAGE electrophoresis. The result of SDS PAGE electrophoresis showed that TBP has a molecular weight of 72.63 kDa.

  20. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  1. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  2. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk...... production and milk content of fat and protein were unaffected. Milk from cows fed the high proportion of maize silage had a lower (P = 0.04) long-chain fatty acid content (≥ C18). Furthermore, milk from cows fed the high proportion of maize silage had a lower (13-26%) content of luteine (P = 0.03), 13-cis...

  3. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  4. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  5. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  6. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  7. Evaluation of tolerance to water stress in beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Köop

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the genotypes of beans, and to sort them into groups that are tolerant and sensitive to water stress, by assessing their morphological characteristics for use in blocks of crosses and the study of gene expression. We evaluated nine bean genotypes: IAPAR 14, IAPAR 81, Pérola, IPR Colibri, IPR Juriti, IPR Chopim, IPR Gralha, and IPR Tiziu IPR Uirapuru. The genotypes were subjected to two irrigation conditions: i irrigation water as needed throughout the culture cycle and ii irrigation water as needed until the appearance of the first bud, followed by no irrigation water for 15 days. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replications. The characteristics evaluated were: i plant height; ii stem diameter, iii number of pods per plant, iv number of grains per pod, v root length and vi root dry mass. Stem diameter should not be used to determine if bean genotypes are tolerant or susceptible to water shortages. The results for the Pérola genotype were the highest for most of the characteristics evaluated, and, for this reason, it was classified as tolerant to water stress during flowering. The genotypes IAPAR and 81 IPR Juriti had the lowest results for the most features and were classified as susceptible to water stress during flowering.

  8. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İBRAHİM DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  9. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pphytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans.

  10. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  11. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  12. CNPC Active on International Oil Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has strived to operate itself successfully worldwide in the past decade to show the competitiveness of China's State-owned industries. The Chinese oil giant has continued to boost its cooperation with its foreign counterparts in a large variety of sectors for sustainable business development both at home and overseas.

  13. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  14. Vitamin E levels in soleus muscles of experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats differ consequent to feeding of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, Z; Suboh, B; Marzuki, A; Khalid, B A

    1999-12-01

    It has been shown that lipid peroxidation product levels in the soleus muscles of rats fed palm olein were lower than in the soleus muscles of rats fed soya bean oil. A study was carried out to test our hypothesis that the lower level of lipid peroxidation products in the soleus muscle of palm olein-fed rats is due, at least partly, to the higher amount of vitamin E in their soleus muscles. Experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats were fed either ground rat chow or ground rat chow mixed with palm olein oil or soya bean oil for a period of 8 weeks. Euthyroid rats fed ground rat chow for a similar period served as controls. At the end of the 8-week period, the rats were sacrificed and the α-tocopherol and tocotrienol levels in their soleus muscles were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. It was found that the levels of α-tocopherol (23.682 ± 0.363), α-tocotrienol (1.974 ± 0.040) and γ-tocotrienol (1.418 ± 0.054) in μg/g tissue wet weight in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil were statistically significantly higher than those found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil, which were 14.299 ± 0.378, 0.053 ± 0.053 and 0.184 ± 0.120μg/g tissue wet weight, respectively. The result shows that the increased level of a-tocopherol and tocotrienols found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil is responsible, at least partly, for the lower amount of lipid peroxidation products in these muscles compared with the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil in our earlier study.

  15. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  16. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  17. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  18. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields.

  19. Effect of oil price on Nigeria’s food price volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of oil price on the volatility of food price in Nigeria. It specifically considers the long-run, short-run, and causal relationship between these variables. Annual data on oil price and individual prices of maize, rice, sorghum, soya beans, and wheat spanning from 2000 to 2013 were used. The price volatility for each crop was obtained using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedascity (GARCH (1, 1 model. Our measure of oil price is the Refiner acquisition cost of imported crude oil. The Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillip–Perron unit root tests show that all the variables are integrated of order one, I (1. Therefore, we use the Johansen co-integration test to examine the long-run relationship. Our results show that there is no long-run relationship between oil price and any of the individual food price volatility. Thus, we implement a VAR instead of a VECM to investigate the short-run relationship. The VAR model result revealed a positive and significant short-run relationship between oil price and each of the selected food price volatility with exception of that of rice and wheat price volatility. These results were further confirmed by the impulse response functions. The Granger causality test result indicates a unidirectional causality from oil price to maize, soya bean, and sorghum price volatilities but does not show such relationship for rice and wheat price volatilities. We draw some policy implications of these findings.

  20. Solar-Terrestrial Effects on Bean Seed Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minorsky, P. V.

    2012-12-01

    Forty years ago, a lively debate ensued amongst biologists concerning the nature of biological rhythms. The "endogenous" school argued that biological rhythms that occur in the absence of any obvious environmental oscillation arise endogenously from within the organism itself. The "exogenous" school on the other hand proposed that subtle and pervasive exogenous factors (e.g., geomagnetic variations or cosmic radiation) underlie most biological rhythms. Much of the debate between the endogenous vs. exogenous schools focused on circadian (circa-24 h) rhythms in particular. The demonstration that circadian rhythms continue in orbiting spacecraft was widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the "exogenous" school, and the entire school sank into obscurity. Regrettably, the demise of the "exogenous" school also caused some interesting findings concerning non-circadian rhythms to fall into oblivion as well. Three different research groups, for example, reported that bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds display rhythms in imbibition that have ~7- or ~14-day periodicities. Consistent with the idea of an exogenous synchronizer, these rhythms often occurred synchronously in bean seed populations located 1500 km apart. The present experiment was initiated with the intention of examining whether these ~7 and ~14 d oscillations in imbibition corresponded to oscillations in solar-terrestrial parameters. Three replicates of ~25 g of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Provider) were weighed daily and placed into beakers containing 200 ml of distilled water at 25° C. This temperature was maintained by nesting the beakers inside larger, temperature-jacketed beakers through which water from a temperature-regulated water bath was circulated. Four hours later the experiments were terminated: the bean seeds were blotted and weighed. Experiments were conducted almost every day between 3 and 7 AM UT from Jan 18, 2007 to Feb 26, 2008. A major difference between the present study and

  1. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean.

  2. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets. After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  3. Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Growth Indices in Strip Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasiri Mahallati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems are one of the best approaches in development of sustainable agriculture. Based on this purpose, the present study was conducted to evaluate effect of strip intercropping on maize and bean growth analysis and their yield during 2009. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block with 3 replications and 6 treatments based on replacement design. The treatments were strip width, which included 2 rows bean plus 2 rows maize, 3 rows bean plus 3 rows maize, 4 rows bean plus 4 rows maize, 5 rows bean plus 5 rows maize, maize monoculture, and bean monoculture. Crop growth ratio, relative growth ratio, biological yield, economic yield, harvest index and land equivalent ratio were measured. Our results indicated that all of the measured traits were increased in the strip intercropping treatments compare to the monoculture treatments. Increasing of strip width in the central row of intercropping treatments in comparison with the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment led to decrease crop growth rate (15.3% and 28.7%, relative growth rate (17.5% and 19.2%, biological yield (30.9% and 14%, economic yield (52.9% and 20.2%, harvest index (31.9% and 7.3% in maize and bean, respectively. With increasing of strip width, all of the measured traits decreased more in the central rows than the side rows. The highest (1.45 and the lowest (1.22 land equivalent ratio were found in the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment and five rows bean plus five rows maize treatment, respectively. Partial of maize had more role compare to bean in terms of enhance land equivalent ratio.

  4. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of reproductive age found to be high. These results show that processing methods enhanced nutritional value of biofortified bean flour and that processed biofortified bean flour can be used to prepare nutrient and energy-dense gruel to improve on nutritional status of children under 5 years and women of reproductive age.

  5. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  6. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri, 27 rue de la Procession, 75740 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Andrews-Speed, Philip [Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen [China Institute of International Studies (China)

    2011-06-15

    's energy sector. Not surprisingly, institutions and practices continue to reflect millennia of Chinese history, which in some measure focused on nurturing the authority of an emperor. Students of China, who have long recognized its 'command and control' economy, are now aware of the limits of those concepts and the consequences of a bureaucratic hierarchy living in a sometimes conflicted condominium with the Communist Party, even as the economy surges on. The second study seeks to answer the questions: What are the economic and strategic drivers of Chinese energy policy? How does China plan to manage its increasing reliance on foreign sources of oil, gas and now coal? How will these drivers shape the guiding principles of Chinese national companies and their relations with international operators and foreign sources of energy resources? How does China define and shape its international diplomacy and practices in order to succeed in its quest to secure access to upstream oil, gas, coal and uranium - just to mention the fuels? The third study explores the Chinese approach to climate change. The Chinese have long been victims of their own internal deserts and know only too well the challenges that the power of nature imposes on their society. The recent spectacular growth of the Chinese economy has left China with a plethora of weeping environmental wounds. While these are increasingly urgent short-term challenges, Chinese leaders are only too aware that, in the longer term, under any probable climate change scenario, China is a loser

  7. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  8. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  9. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  10. Castor Bean Cereal Based Bio-Organic-Inorganic Compound Fertilizers and Use%蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍荣; 邵建华; 赵立新; 刘园园

    2014-01-01

    A brief account is given of the properties and features of castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.By field experiment of fertilizer efficiency with corn, rice and peanut , it is proved that castor bean cereal based bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers have better effects on increasing production and improving the properities of soil, and can be widely applied to grain and oil crops.%简要介绍了蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥的性能及特点。通过玉米、水稻、花生大田肥效试验,结果证明蓖麻粕基生物有机无机复混肥具有较好的增产改土效果,可在粮油作物上推广应用。

  11. A new method to select the drought resistance azuki bean germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Peerasak Srinives

    2006-01-01

    120 azuki bean germplasms from different regions of China were selected for drought-resistance. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between drought-resistance and photooxidation-resistance. So, the detecting technique for photooxidation-resistance should be suggested as a reference method to select the drought-resistance germplasms in azuki bean.

  12. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  13. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta, is a destructive insect pest of dry beans within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, starting in the early 1990s, a range expansion of S. albicosta has resulted in damage to corn crops through the Midwest and more...

  14. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  15. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  16. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  17. Resistance of common bean breeding lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola Sacc. Ferraris, is currently one of the most important factors limiting bean productivity in Central America. The development of breeding lines which combine resistance to ALS and Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) and tolerance...

  18. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  19. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  20. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats