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Sample records for chinese anti-fever cure

  1. 18C. Chinese Herbs Cured a Kidney Calculus—A Retrospective Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is referred to as holistic or complementary and alternative medicine. Herbal remedy plays the main role of TCM. It has been widely used in preventive measures and treatment modalities for all stages of illness. Here is a retrospective case report about herb healing the kidney stone and improving type II diabetes and hypertension. Patient, Method and Result: A male, 46 years old, chief complaint: intermit...

  2. Effect of sucrose on the generation of free amino acids and biogenic amines in Chinese traditional dry-cured fish during processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinjie; Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Yaqin; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; YE, XINGQIAN

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C ha...

  3. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  4. Radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  5. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  6. Curing metastatic testicular cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, Lawrence H.

    2002-01-01

    Our initial studies with cisplatin + vinblastine + bleomycin began 27 years ago in 1974, changing the cure rate for disseminated disease from 5 to 60%. Subsequently, through random prospective clinical trials, we have modified the treatment regimen to reduce both the duration and dosages of the chemotherapy drugs. Cisplatin + etoposide was first used at Indiana University as salvage chemotherapy in 1978, representing the first time that a solid tumor had been cured with second-line chemothera...

  7. Radiation curing in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings). (U.K.)

  8. 防制胚泡着床障碍中药的筛选及药效研究%Screen and Pharmacodynamic Action of Chinese Materia Medica for Prevention and Cure Embryo Implantation Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 张世栋; 荔霞; 董书伟; 李世宏; 严作廷

    2012-01-01

    为了筛选防制胚泡着床障碍中药,本试验利用皮下注射米非司酮所致的小鼠胚泡着床障碍模型,以妊娠率、着床胚泡数、雌激素和孕激素及其比值为指标,将丹参、黄芪、川芎、黄芩、白术、菟丝子、桑寄生、续断、党参、当归等中药组成复方进行筛选和药效评价.筛选试验结果表明,方3组妊娠率显著高于方1组、菟丝子组和续断组(P<0.05),也高于方2组和对照组,说明方3有利于小鼠胚泡的着床.方3的药效试验表明,保胎组妊娠率极显著高于对照组和高剂量组(P<0.01),显著高于低剂量组(P<0.05).保胎组孕酮水平、孕酮和雌二醇比值极显著高于高、低剂量组、对照组和正常组(P<0.01),孕酮和雌二醇比值显著高于中剂量组(P<0.05),而保胎组、低剂量组和正常组雌二醇水平显著低于高剂量组和对照组(P<0.05),中剂量组孕酮水平显著高于对照组(P<0.05).这表明方3能提高小鼠的孕酮水平及孕酮和雌二醇比值,有利于小鼠胚泡着床.%To screen Chinese materia medica for prevention and cure embryo implantation dysfunction, mouse model with embryo implantation dysfunction was established by injected subcutaneously with mifepristone. Complex prescription composed of such Chinese materia medica as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix astragali, Szechwan lovage rhizome, Radix scutellariae, Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae , Semen cuscutae, Herba taxilli , Radix dipsaci, Radix codonopsis, Radix angelicae sinensis and some of them were evaluated in the model, pregnancy rate (PR), number of embryo implantation, progestin (P4), estradiol (E2) and ratio of progestin to estradiol (P4/E2) were the main index. The results of the screen test showed that PR was significantly higher in prescription 3 group than that in prescription 1 group, Semen cuscutae group and Radix dipsaci group (P<0. 05) , and was higher than those in the prescription 2 group and control group

  9. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  10. Let's Cure Cancer!

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Wallace; Schneider, Jessica; Amass, Sandra F

    2012-01-01

    From ancient Egypt to modern times, scientists have been learning new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. In this book, you’ll learn about cancer and how veterinarians, veterinary technicians, physicians, and other scientists are working together to find a cure for cancer in people and their pets.

  11. Radiation curing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers are presented on the surface coating applications, techniques and chemistry of radiation curing of polymers using ultraviolet, electron beam and laser radiation sources. Areas covered include printing, lacquers, wood finishes, adhesives and plastics. New work on photoinitiators is reported. (U.K.)

  12. Curing Efficacy of Light Emitting Diodes of Dental Curing Units

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and light emitting diode (LED) curing lights on polymerization of resin composite. Materials and methods A hybrid resin composite was used to prepare samples which were cured using two QTH and ten LED light curing sources. Twelve groups, each containing ten samples, were prepared using each light source. The cured depth of the resin was determined using ISO 4049 method and Vickers har...

  13. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  14. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  15. Accelerated Hazards Mixture Cure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new cure model for survival data with a surviving or cure fraction. The new model is a mixture cure model where the covariate effects on the proportion of cure and the distribution of the failure time of uncured patients are separately modeled. Unlike the existing mixture cure models, the new model allows covariate effects on the failure time distribution of uncured patients to be negligible at time zero and to increase as time goes by. Such a model is particularly useful in some...

  16. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. PMID:26686485

  17. Comparative static curing versus dynamic curing on tablet coating structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; Fayard, Barbara; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2013-09-10

    Curing is generally required to stabilize film coating from aqueous polymer dispersion. This post-coating drying step is traditionally carried out in static conditions, requiring the transfer of solid dosage forms to an oven. But, curing operation performed directly inside the coating equipment stands for an attractive industrial application. Recently, the use of various advanced physico-chemical characterization techniques i.e., X-ray micro-computed tomography, vibrational spectroscopies (near infrared and Raman) and X-ray microdiffraction, allowed new insights into the film-coating structures of dynamically cured tablets. Dynamic curing end-point was efficiently determined after 4h. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the influence of curing conditions on film-coating structures. Results demonstrated that 24h of static curing and 4h of dynamic curing, both performed at 60°C and ambient relative humidity, led to similar coating layers in terms of drug release properties, porosity, water content, structural rearrangement of polymer chains and crystalline distribution. Furthermore, X-ray microdiffraction measurements pointed out different crystalline coating compositions depending on sample storage time. An aging mechanism might have occur during storage, resulting in the crystallization and the upward migration of cetyl alcohol, coupled to the downward migration of crystalline sodium lauryl sulfate within the coating layer. Interestingly, this new study clearly provided further knowledge into film-coating structures after a curing step and confirmed that curing operation could be performed in dynamic conditions. PMID:23792043

  18. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  19. 对治疗糖尿病的传统中药中生命元素含量测定初步研究%Content Determination of Life Elements in Traditional Chinese Medicine to Cure Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲玲; 吴红艳; 关艳丽; 李鑫; 宗玉丽; 孟双; 孙玉禄; 孙丽梅; 于广峰

    2011-01-01

    The contents of some elements such as zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, chromium, selenium in several Chinese medicines most in use to treat diabetes were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The results showed that these selected Chinese medicines for treating diabetes were rich of life elements in content that closely related to the ailment, and the determined contents of the elements assumed a negative reciprocity with those within the body of diabetes patients.These provided certain information and theoretical foundation to explore the effective mechanism and the preparation technology of Chinese medicine.It may also serve as reference for the treatment of diabetic patients.%利用原子吸收分光光度法对几味治疗糖尿病的常用中药进行锌、镁、铁、铜、铬、硒元素的含量测定.结果表明,实验选取的中药中与糖尿病关系密切的生命元素含量较丰富,且所测元素含量与糖尿病患者体内其含量呈负相关性.为探讨中药的作用机理、中药配制工艺提供一定的信息和理论依据,对于糖尿病患者治疗具有参考价值.

  20. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Esposito Corcione; Fabrizio Freuli; Mariaenrica Frigione

    2014-01-01

    The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was als...

  1. Multibunch Instabilities and Cures

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, J

    2003-01-01

    The common approach to achieve the high luminosity needed for high precision measurements adopted by the particle factories now under construction consists in storing high current e sup + e sup - beams distributed in many bunches in separate rings. The beams are brought together to collide at one interaction point. An inconvenience of this strategy is that the performances can be seriously limited by unstable coupled-bunch oscillations excited by transients or noise and sustained by long-lasting parasitic resonating modes (high order modes-HOM) in the vacuum chamber, mainly in the RF cavities. Minimization of the HOM content and broad-band feedback systems together with the reduction of the driving transients are the complementary cures to this kind of disease. This paper introduces the subject with some examples and special emphasis on bunch-by-bunch feedback systems.

  2. Controversies in HIV cure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rowena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy significantly reduces HIV viral burden and prolongs life, but does not cure HIV infection. The major scientific barrier to a cure is thought to be the persistence of the virus in cellular and/or anatomical reservoirs. Discussion Most efforts to date, including pharmaco, immuno or gene therapy, have failed to cure patients, with the notable exception of a stem cell transplant recipient commonly known as the Berlin patient. This case has revived interest in the potential to cure HIV infection and has highlighted the need to resolve critical questions in the basic, pre-clinical and clinical research spheres as they pertain specifically to efforts to eradicate HIV from the body of an infected person (a sterilizing cure or at least render the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy obsolete (functional cure. This paper describes ongoing debates in each of these research spheres as they were presented and discussed at a satellite session that took place at the 6th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Rome in July 2011. Summary The resolution of these debates may have important implications for the search for a cure, the most efficient ways to identify and test promising interventions, and ultimately the availability of such a cure to diverse groups of HIV patients around the world.

  3. Radiation curing silicone acrylate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curing silicone systems by either ultra violet light (UV) or electron beam (EB) is introduced. The cure is based on the polymerization of the acrylic C = C double bond via a radical chain reaction. In the EB curing process a sufficient number of radicals for spontaneous polymerization is produced due to the high radiation energy whereas with UV light the energy is not as intensive thus a photo-initiator is required for a UV process. The required high local radical concentration provided by its decay. The radical generation immediate chain-growing leads to rapid and efficient crosslinking even at room temperature. It is for this reason that silicone acrylates cure immediately. All coater capable of handling 100% thermally curing silicones are suitable for the use with Goldschmidt's RC systems

  4. CURING EFFICIENCY OF DUAL-CURE RESIN CEMENT UNDER ZIRCONIA WITH TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT CURING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÜLTEKİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  5. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  6. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  7. Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heater, Don

    1995-01-01

    Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.

  8. Radiation curing of printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiant energy to dry or assist in the drying of printing inks has been in practice since ancient times when oxidizing ink systems were placed in the sun to speed drying. The two radiation curing methods discussed in this chapter are ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curing. This chapter introduces the radiation curing rationale, describes different printing processes, discusses UV and EB considerations, assesses UV sources, introduces the chemistry of ink and photoinitiators, discusses the formulation of UV and EB inks, and describes manufacturing and safety considerations. 10 refs., 17 tabs

  9. Industrial application of radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials

  10. Radiation curing: coatings and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial experiments conducted in the late 1960's at Radiation Dynamics, Inc. (now IBA Industrial, Inc.) showed that by removing the pigment from a radiation curable coating formulation, the same binder system could be used as a matrix system for electron beam (EB) cured fiber reinforced composites. Recently, the binder systems used for EB curable coatings have also been successfully used (without pigments) as the matrices for EB and X-ray cured fiber composites. Insights gained from the development of coatings were translated into desirable properties for matrix materials. For example, understanding the surface wetting characteristics of a coating facilitated the development of a matrix that would wet fibers; the development of coatings that would adhere to rigid substrates as metal while being bent, as for coil coatings, and which would exhibit impact resistance when cured on a metal also imparted impact resistance to cured composite materials. Thermal analyses conducted on the coating binder cured at low energies were consistent with analyses performed on thick cross-sections as used for matrices. The configuration of the final product then dictated the modality of curing, be it low-energy EB for coatings or higher energy EB or X-ray curing for composites. In industrial radiation chemistry, one deals with monomers and oligomers (∼ 102 and ∼ 103 to 104 Daltons molecular weight, respectively). Thus, one can approach the development of coating binders or matrix systems as one would approach the synthesis of organic polymers. The desired final material is a fully cured and cross-linked polymer. In contrast, concepts involved in '' formulating '' are often derived from dealing with high molecular weight polymers (∼ 105 + Daltons) in which intense mechanical mixing is used to bring different ingredients together. When synthesizing a radiation curable coating or matrix system, greater attention is given to microphase compatibility as reflected in the

  11. Heteroscedastic transformation cure regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chyong-Mei; Chen, Chen-Hsin

    2016-06-30

    Cure models have been applied to analyze clinical trials with cures and age-at-onset studies with nonsusceptibility. Lu and Ying (On semiparametric transformation cure model. Biometrika 2004; 91:331?-343. DOI: 10.1093/biomet/91.2.331) developed a general class of semiparametric transformation cure models, which assumes that the failure times of uncured subjects, after an unknown monotone transformation, follow a regression model with homoscedastic residuals. However, it cannot deal with frequently encountered heteroscedasticity, which may result from dispersed ranges of failure time span among uncured subjects' strata. To tackle the phenomenon, this article presents semiparametric heteroscedastic transformation cure models. The cure status and the failure time of an uncured subject are fitted by a logistic regression model and a heteroscedastic transformation model, respectively. Unlike the approach of Lu and Ying, we derive score equations from the full likelihood for estimating the regression parameters in the proposed model. The similar martingale difference function to their proposal is used to estimate the infinite-dimensional transformation function. Our proposed estimating approach is intuitively applicable and can be conveniently extended to other complicated models when the maximization of the likelihood may be too tedious to be implemented. We conduct simulation studies to validate large-sample properties of the proposed estimators and to compare with the approach of Lu and Ying via the relative efficiency. The estimating method and the two relevant goodness-of-fit graphical procedures are illustrated by using breast cancer data and melanoma data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887342

  12. Challenging Roadblocks to Cancer Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loda, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The Pezcoller Symposium in Trento, Italy, June 2015, focused entirely on the question of why advanced cancer cure is so uncommon despite the extraordinarily rapid growth of invaluable therapeutic information. Participants were asked to define and to critically evaluate real and potential obstacles to permanent disease eradication. High-level concepts on potential road blocks to cures as well as opportunities for intervention in diverse areas of investigation ranging from genomic alterations to metabolism, microenvironment, immunity, and mechanotransduction were discussed. Provocative concepts and novel therapeutic avenues were proposed. What follows is a critical analysis of the highlights of this meeting. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4924-30. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27520451

  13. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...

  14. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  15. Radiation cure of detonation transfer explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation cured detonation transfer plastic bonded explosive (PBX) provides the potential for achieving improvements in processability, storability, cure reproducibility, physical strength, and reliability of performance over the Navy's present injectable detonation transfer communications explosive. The composition and properties of the radiation cured system will be presented. Radiation cure of energetic materials is a relatively new process. It combines the advantages of an indefinitely long pot-life and storage life for the material mix with a very rapid cure. Neither of these features is available with conventional catalyzed thermal cure reactions. (Auth.)

  16. Rapid Development of the Radiation Curing Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Radiation curing is an advanced material surface treatment technology using ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electronic beams (EB). With the greater attention paid to environ mentel protection in recent years ,radiation curing has developed rapidly.

  17. Development situation of radiation curing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to fitting the '4E' principle, radiation curing technology, known as green technology, have shown its own superiority in many applications. It has been rapid developed in China and abroad in recent years, especially ultraviolet/electron beam (UV/EB) radiation curing technology. In order to let the researchers have a general understanding on the radiation curing materials and their development, in this paper a briefly introducing on the related radiation sources, chemical systems, curing mechanism, and the application, the common and difference of ultraviolet curing and electron beam curing has been made. A brief account of development of radiation-curable material in China and the outlook of the development of materials can be found in this paper. At last, we have proposed that the development of radiation curing technology will promote the development of the radiation curing material and benefit in the humanity. (authors)

  18. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1412 Well cured. Well cured means that...

  20. Clinical rabies: is cure possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Mithun C. Mohan; Sudeep K; Nived; Pramod V K; Ajith Kumar; Prasanna KvS; Narayanan P V

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal disease in humans and till date survivors of the disease after the clinical onset of the illness are rare. The approach to management of rabies is usually palliative. In rare cases of paralytic rabies a trial for cure has been tried. No single therapeutic agent is likely to be effective, but a combination of specific therapies could be considered, including rabies vaccine, rabies immunoglobulin, monoclonal antibodies, ribavirin, interferon alpha, ketamine etc. the only repor...

  1. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  2. Cancer: the consequences of cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers the consequences of curing children treated for cancer in terms of their relation to society and society's responsibility to them. However serious the interruption of their schooling, these children achieve normal educational standards, and, despite adverse reports on central nervous system function, appear in practice to do as well as their peers. They deserve to be encouraged to succeed at school and later, an attitude not always shown by their teachers. For whatever reason, earlier maturity, earlier close contact with the adult world, these young people achieve well in work and at university. They deserve better of the public services, various professions, and even the armed services, who frequently reject them out of hand. Now that there are large numbers of these youngsters entering adulthood (it has been estimated, e.g., that by 1990 one in every two thousand individuals aged 20 will be a cured childhood cancer patient), it is necessary to see that these young people integrate satisfactorily with society and that cure produces no adverse consequences. (author)

  3. BATAN's experiences on radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for the radiation curing of surface coating on wood products was installed in Jakarta at the end of 1984 under UNDP, IAEA-RCA and the government of Indonesia Project. The total budget spent for the plant investment was about one million US dollars. The main objective of this plant was training course, demonstration and the study on both technical and economical aspects of the radiation curing technology for surface coating. In this plant, a low energy (300 keV) electron beam machine of scanning type with variable beam current of 50 mA at maximum was installed, and also a number of wood coating and wood handling equipments are available. Although the size of the plant is commercially usable, technically it was not designed for commercial application. For a typical application, the flowsheet of the processes cannot be followed with the available plant layout. In this case, a batch process should be used. A number of activities were carried out in the last five years, therefore, the experiences are reported. The principle of radiation curing technology for surface coating, the specification of the pilot plant, local and regional activities, the troubles in the operation and so on are described. (K.I.)

  4. How visible light curing came into dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N H F

    2016-01-01

    The present paper details the history of the introduction of visible light curing into dentistry. This history provides an excellent example of 'out of the box', lateral thinking translation of innovative scientific technology into dentistry. Visible light curing is an important UK contribution to the recent history and current practice of dentistry, with several million visible light curing procedures being carried out globally on a daily basis. PMID:26930883

  5. Investigation of Film Curing by Dielectric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guma, Noemi Candelaria

    1995-01-01

    Dielectric analysis (DEA) relies on the response of molecules to a changing electric field. Permittivity (epsilon^') is a parameter obtained from DEA, which is proportional to the amount of molecular alignment (or motion). A DEA methodology was developed to evaluate and classify the degree of cure of films, and to demonstrate the mechanism of the curing phenomenon at a molecular level. The model material employed in the study was Eudragit^circler RS30D, an aqueous-based film forming polymeric material, containing 20% acetyl tributyl citrate as plasticizer. The data showed changes in the dielectric behavior of the polymer molecules in films that were subjected to accelerated stability or improper curing conditions. These dielectric changes were also manifested as changes in the permeability characteristics of the film, which ultimately influenced the final performance of the dosage form. By monitoring the dielectric behavior of the coating material during a curing cycle, a classification of three stages of curing was developed, namely undercured, optimally cured, and overcured. The changes in dielectric properties of the film reflected the changes in molecular structure, which correlated with changes in permeability and surface morphology. Based on the data, a mechanism of improper cure was proposed, which contends that the curing phenomenon is driven by two major forces, namely: the heterogenous loss and/or redistribution of plasticizer molecules during the curing process and the development of strain in the film structure during the coating process. A mathematical equation was derived to predict the epsilon^' of film-coated beads based on the epsilon^ ' data of free films cured under the same conditions. The model is based on the premise that "equal epsilon^' denotes equal mobility" for the same material, whether as free film or applied onto a substrate. The DEA technique developed and the proposed rationale of the curing phenomenon may be useful in optimizing the

  6. Electron Beam Curing of Advanced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental concept of electron beam method and the application in cure of composites are elaborated in this paper. The components of electron beam curing system are introduced. The mechanisms of interaction between electron beam and polymer matrix composites are presented. Recent studies reported including work of authors themselves on electron beam curing of composites are also discussed. Moreover, the authors believe that it is necessary to do the basic research about understanding how electron beam affects cured network and the mechanical/physical properties of the composites, for establishing a quantitative or semi-quantitative formulation.

  7. UV/EB curing market in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most application of UV curing of surface coating in Indonesia are on fancy plywood, furniture and wood flooring industry. Other application are on papers, printing ink/labelling, printed circuit board/PCB and dental materials. At present, application of EB curing coating is still in a pilot plant scale due to the high cost of production. Limited number of application of EB curing by using low energy electron beam machine are on wood panels, ceramics and marbles. This paper describes the market and the problem faced by the largest user of radiation curing systems such as the secondary process plywood, furniture and paper industries

  8. Curing efficiency of three light emitting diode units at different curing profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.

  9. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  10. Clinical rabies: is cure possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun C Mohan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease in humans and till date survivors of the disease after the clinical onset of the illness are rare. The approach to management of rabies is usually palliative. In rare cases of paralytic rabies a trial for cure has been tried. No single therapeutic agent is likely to be effective, but a combination of specific therapies could be considered, including rabies vaccine, rabies immunoglobulin, monoclonal antibodies, ribavirin, interferon alpha, ketamine etc. the only reported cases in literature were with rare success of the Milwaukee protocol. This is the case report of a 45 year old male who presented with clinical rabies and was started on the trial. Has the treatment had any benefit is to be debated and further options discussed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1735-1739

  11. Curing Mechanism of Condensed Polynuclear Aromatic Resin and Thermal Stability of Cured Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shibin; Sun Qiqian; Wang Yuwei; Wu Mingbo; Zhang Zailong

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal stability of condensed polynuclear aromatic (COPNA) resin synthesized from vacuum residue, 1,4-benzenedimethanol was added to cure COPNA resin. The curing mechanism was investigated by pro-ton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, solid carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy. Microstructures of the uncured and the cured COPNA resins were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The thermal stability of COPNA resins before and after curing was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis. The element composition of the cured COPNA resin heated at different temperatures was analyzed by an element analyzer. The results showed that the uncured COPNA resin reacted with the cross-linking agent during the cur-ing process, and the curing mechanism was conifrmed to be the electrophilic substitution reaction. Compared with the un-cured COPNA resin, the cured COPNA resin had a smooth surface, well-ordered and streamlined sheet structure with more crystalline solids, better molecular arrangement and orientation. The weight loss process of the uncured and cured COPNA resins was divided into three stages. Carbon residue of the cured COPNA resin was 41.65%at 600℃, which was much higher than 25.02%of the uncured COPNA resin, which indicated that the cured COPNA resin had higher thermal stability.

  12. Hard facts for radiation curing of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered under the headings: introduction; outline of chemistry (differences between conventional and radiation curing); compounding; green strength; response of rubbers to electron beam treatment; electron beam cured applications:(a) wire and cable applications;(b) rubber tyre components;(c) heat shrinkable materials;(d) roofing materials. (U.K.)

  13. Market potential for the radiation curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution and the growth of radiation curing technology are told in detail. The 1985 consumption of radiation curing systems in United States and Europe are listed in various application fields. Those application fields are: printing inks; adhesives; electronic media; wood; paper/board and plastic coatings and others. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are also discussed. (A.J.)

  14. Europe takes the lead in radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of the radiation curing industry in Europe. The technique is particularly applicable for curing coatings, inks and adhesives and for wood coatings and graphics. Other uses include coatings for plastics, fibre optics and compact discs. The development of new applications and new markets is discussed. (author)

  15. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated

  16. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengmei E-mail: brc@bnu.edu.cn; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated.

  17. EB/UV curing market in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing of printing ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films

  18. Biodegradable Epoxy Networks Cured with Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeo; Kramer, Edward J.

    2006-03-01

    Epoxy resins are used widely for adhesives as well as coatings. However, once cured they are usually highly cross-linked and are not biodegradable. To obtain potentially biodegradable polypeptides that can cure with epoxy resins and achieve as good properties as the conventional phenol novolac hardeners, poly(succinimide-co-tyrosine) was synthesized by thermal polycondensation of L-aspartic acid and L-tyrosine with phosphoric acid under reduced pressure. The tyrosine/succinimide ratio in the polypeptide was always lower than the tyrosine/(aspartic acid) feed ratio and was influenced by the synthesis conditions. Poly(succinimide-tyrosine- phenylalanine) was also synthesized from L-aspartic acid, L- tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. The thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resins cured with these polypeptides are comparable to those of similar resins cured with conventional hardeners. In addition, enzymatic degradability tests showed that Chymotrypsin or Subtilisin A could cleave cured films in an alkaline borate buffer.

  19. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  20. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis with migrated lesions cured by multiple therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Qian, Jun; Yang, Dongliang; Zheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by Trematodes of the genus Paragonimus that is endemic in Asia, Africa, and South America. Most patients with paragonimiasis are cured by standard praziquantel treatment. However, several cases have been reported to have unsatisfactory responses to the standard praziquantel treatment. To probe the clinical characteristics, possible cause, and management of the paragonimiasis individuals improved by multiple therapies, we present a 12-year-old Chinese boy, who was infected with Paragonimus accompanied by arachnoid cyst involvement, as not having typical clinical symptoms, but repeatedly presenting with migrated lesions between the lung and pleura. He responded to treatment with 3 cycles of praziquantel and 1 cycle of albendazole. PMID:26960636

  1. [Little histories of magnetic cures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Men were very early fascinated by magnetism because of its manifest and particular working at distance, which looked different of gravity. It was tryed to be explained by mecanism, for exemple Descartes and Boyle. Paracelse valued the therapeutics with magnets and conceived medicines as working by a magnetic virtue. Gilbert limited the medicinal properties of magnet but helded it to be animated. Many authors praised remedies that work at distance of the evil as Bacon, Van Helmont, Croll, Porta, Goclenius, Digby. Such a belief related to magic ideas of this time. In the Bacon's way Boyle collected facts of magnetic cures, and his actual testing of the divisibility of bodies led him to conceive imponderable corpuscles. Newton supposed a subtil and universel fluid going through every solid body. Mesmer misappropriated this idea by founding the animal magnetism of which physical working was only proceeding from the inside of the patient by an effect of suggestion (psychosomatic). Homeopathy took again the notion of remedies having an infinite or a magnetic virtue, which partly issued from Paracelse's and Mesmer's doctrines, which were extolled in Germany at the time of Hahnemann. The latter decided in favour of a spiritualist and not corpuscular interpretation of the working of his homeopathic medicines. PMID:19579649

  2. Curing of natural rubber and epoxy adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low molecular weight epoxy resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was synthesized and mixed at constant percentages with natural rubber. The rubber epoxy system was cured with various types of curing agents such as ethylene diamine, maleic anhydride as well as the prepared resole phenol formaldehyde. A study of the photo-induced crosslinking of the prepared elastic adhesives and film samples was carried out by exposure to ultraviolet lamp (300 w) for 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Samples containing ethylene diamine were cured at 25 + - 1 deg. C. for 24 h while samples containing maleic anhydride or resole phenol formaldehyde resins were thermally cured at 150-170 deg. C. for 10 min. Cured adhesive compositions were tested mechanically and physically and evaluated as wood adhesives. While hardness, chemical resistance as well as heat stability of the prepared cured film sample were investigated. The obtained data indicate that the highest epoxy resin content and the presence of resole phenol formaldehyde resin in composition improve the tensile strength and adhesion properties on wood. While their cured film sample have the best hardness properties, chemical resistance and heat stability. (author)

  3. Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon

    1980-01-01

    Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.

  4. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  5. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  6. Is There a Cure for Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications Is there a cure for Cushing’s syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Untreated Cushing’s syndrome can be life-threatening—fortunately, most people with ...

  7. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  8. Financing cures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    True cures in health care are rare but likely not for long. The high price tag that accompanies a cure along with its rapid uptake create challenges in the financing of cures by public and private payers. In the US, the disaggregated nature of health insurance system adds to this challenge as patients frequently churn across multiple health plans. This creates a 'free-rider' problem, where no one health plan has the incentive to invest in cure since the returns will be scattered over many health plans. Here, a new health currency is proposed as a generalized version of a social impact bond that has the potential to solve this free-rider problem, as it can be traded not only between public and private payers but also within the private sector. An ensuing debate as to whether and how to develop such a currency can serve the US health care system well. PMID:25482146

  9. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  10. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  11. Animal Models for HIV Cure Research

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin B Policicchio; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide, and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will require multiple tools, and appropriate animal ...

  12. novel geopolymeric material cured at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2013-01-01

    Alkali activated binders are a new class of binding material with comparable or enhanced performance to Portland cement. These binding materials are obtained by a chemical reaction between an aluminosilicate material and a highly alkaline solution. In most cases, the setting hardening process of this binder is performed at high curing temperatures. In this paper, alkali activated mortars based on vitreous calcium aluminosilicate (VCAS) cured at room temperature are evaluated. Mechanical stren...

  13. Gamma and electron beam curing of polymers and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation polymerization has helped us understand polymer chemistry, and is also playing an increasing role in the field of practical applications. Radiation curing has a present market share of about 5% of the total market for curing of polymers and composites and the annual growth rate of the radiation curing market is ≥20% per year. Advantages of radiation curing over thermal or chemical curing methods include: improved control of the curing rate, reduced curing times, curing at ambient temperatures, curing without the need for chemical initiators, and complete (100%) curing with minimal toxic chemical emissions. Radiation treatment may also be used to effect crosslinking and grafting of polymer and composite materials. The major advantage in these cases is the ability to process products in their final shape. Cable insulation, automotive and aircraft components, and improved construction materials are some of the current and near-future industrial applications of radiation curing and crosslinking. 19 refs

  14. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  15. Materials for single-etch double patterning process: surface curing agent and thermal cure resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young C.; Liu, Yi; Cardolaccia, Thomas; McDermott, John C.; Trefonas, Peter; Spizuoco, Ken; Reilly, Michael; Pikon, Amandine; Joesten, Lori; Zhang, Gary G.; Barclay, George G.; Simon, Julia; Gaurigan, Stéphanie

    2009-03-01

    Two different pattern curing techniques were developed to stabilize first lithographic images for the single-etch double patterning process. The first method uses a surface curing agent (SCA) that is coated on top of the patterned surface to form a protective coating layer during the curing bake process. It was found that the surface curing process with SCA offers minimum CD changes before and after the double patterning process. Virtually no CD change was observed with the first lithographic images at various curing bake temperatures ranging from 120 ~160°C indicating the curing reaction is limited on the patterned surface. The second method uses a thermal cure resist (TCR) that is a special 193nm photoresist with a crosslinkable functional group to form an insoluble network upon heating at higher temperature. A single-step curing process of the first lithographic images was achieved using TCR by baking the patterned images at 180°C for 60sec. A cross-line contact hole double patterning method was used to evaluate these two different curing techniques and both SCA and TCR successfully demonstrated their capability to print 45nm contact holes with excellent CD uniformity in immersion lithography (1.35NA) with a 45nm half pitch mask. It was also confirmed that both SCA and TCR can be extended to the top-coat free immersion double patterning process using an embedded barrier layer technique.

  16. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  17. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  18. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  19. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  20. HEAT-RESISTANT COMPOSITES CURED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Bao; Yang Li; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) curing of composites has many advantages. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute polyimide composites used in aeronautical engines. In this paper, the effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the composites cured by EB could meet the specifications of aeronautical engines at 250°C.

  1. A new latent cure rate marker model for survival data

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungduk; Xi, Yingmei; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2009-01-01

    To address an important risk classification issue that arises in clinical practice, we propose a new mixture model via latent cure rate markers for survival data with a cure fraction. In the proposed model, the latent cure rate markers are modeled via a multinomial logistic regression and patients who share the same cure rate are classified into the same risk group. Compared to available cure rate models, the proposed model fits better to data from a prostate cancer clinical trial. In additio...

  2. A penalized likelihood approach for mixture cure models.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbière, Fabien; Commenges, Daniel; Taylor, Jeremy; Joly, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Cure models have been developed to analyze failure time data with a cured fraction. For such data, standard survival models are usually not appropriate because they do not account for the possibility of cure. Mixture cure models assume that the studied population is a mixture of susceptible individuals, who may experience the event of interest, and non-susceptible individuals that will never experience it. Important issues in mixture cure models are estimation of the baseline survival functio...

  3. Characterization of electron beam cured epoxy acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy resin has wide application in various industrial fields because of their good mechanical strength, superiority adhesion and low shrinkage etc. And the typical curing method for epoxy resins is thermal and press compaction. However, a curing method was used electron beam process in this study. Epoxy acrylate was fabricated from mixture of epoxy, acrylic acid, tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ) with mole ratios. Then electron beam irradiation effect on the curing of the epoxy acrylate resin was investigated various absorption dose in nitrogen atmospheres at room temperature. The dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the irradiated epoxy acrylate resins were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). And the tensile and flexural strength were measured by an universal tensile machine (UTM)

  4. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  5. FTIR Monitoring Of Curing Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Stevenson, William A.; Young, Philip R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared-sensing optical fiber system developed to monitor principal infrared absorption bands resulting from vibrations of atoms and molecules as chemical bonds form when resin cured. System monitors resin chemistry more directly. Used to obtain Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum from graphite fiber/polyimide matrix resin prepreg. Embedded fiber optic FTIR sensor used to indicate state of cure of thermosetting composite material. Developed primarily to improve quality of advanced composites, many additional potential applications exist because principal of operation applicable to all organic materials and most inorganic gases. Includes monitoring integrities of composite materials in service, remote sensing of hazardous materials, and examination of processes in industrial reactors and furnaces.

  6. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  7. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  8. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  9. A new approach to cure and reinforce cold-cured acrylics

    OpenAIRE

    So, YC; Tsoi, JKH; Matinlinna, JP

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The low degree of polymerization of cold-cured acrylics has resulted in inferior mechanical properties and fracture vulnerability in orthodontics removable appliances. Methods: In this study, the effect of reinforcement by various concentrations of chopped E-glass fibers (0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% by weight of resin powder) and post-curing microwave irradiation (800 W for 3 min) on the flexural strength of cold-cured acrylics was evaluated at various storage conditions (at room temperatu...

  10. Creep measurements on curing epoxy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....

  11. Development of carbon composites cured by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -Developments of the new process in the manufacture of composites - Developments of a necessary technics for the manufacture of an export embargo components - Developments of the green process in the manufacture of composites - Developments and applications of the radiation curing technics in the manufacture of various composites - Developments of the manufacturing process for carbon/carbon(carbon/silicon carbide) composites

  12. Thermal and photochemical curing of filled resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.UV-radiation curing has experienced a steady growth for the past 20 years because of its distinct advantages, namely, solvent-free formulations cured within a fraction of a second upon illumination at ambient temperature. But as the UV light hardly penetrates into pigmented resins and does not reach shadow areas of items presenting a complex shape, conventional UV-curable colored coatings cannot be used as protective varnishes for 3D items. Dual-cure systems have therefore been developed: the light induced polymerization of acrylic double bonds is combined with a thermally induced poly addition reaction between isocyanates and hydroxyl groups. the resulting polyurethane network was shown to exhibit satisfactory mechanical properties for a few millimeter thick pigmented samples. The influence of the hydrogen donor, the reaction temperature, the ambient humidity, as well as the importance of the UV step on the poly addition kinetics has been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. the efficiency of this dual-cure processing has been demonstrated by ATR infrared spectroscopy investigations for composite materials containing carbon black. The mechanical properties of the resulting material have been evaluated by hardness and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements

  13. Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

  14. COMPARISON OF THE E44 EPOXY RESINS IN DIFFERENT CONTENTS OF CURING AGENT BY MICROWAVE AND THERMAL CURING METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental principle of microwave heating, and based on the advantages of microwave heating, use maleic anhydride as curing agent.The technology of microwave curing E44 epoxy resins is investigated,the mechanical properties of cured epoxy resin samples in different contents of curing agent by microwave and thermal curing methods are measured respectively, and then some experimental results for which are obtained.At last, this paper analyses why microwave curing can improve mechanical property of epoxy resin.

  15. Techno-economic benefits of radiation curing: a comparison studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparing radiation cure versus conventional heat cure systems, the factors are considered in this studies i.e. environmental laws - includes the future regulations concerning volatile organic emissions and waste disposal may weigh heavily in the decision

  16. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [ORNL; Howell, Dave [ORNL; Norris, Robert E. [ORNL

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  17. New type of measuring and intelligent instrument for curing tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chui-Jie; Huang, Xieqing; Chen, Tianning; Xia, Hong

    1993-09-01

    A new type of measuring intelligent instrument for cured tobacco is presented in this paper. Based on fuzzy linguistic control principles the instrument is used to controlling the temperature and humidity during cured tobacco taking 803 1 singlechip computer as a center controller. By using methods of fuzzy weighted factors the cross coupling in curing procedures is decoupled. Results that the instrument has producted indicate the fuzzy controller in the instrument has perfect performance for process of cured tobacco as shown in figure

  18. A SAS macro for parametric and semiparametric mixture cure models.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbière, Fabien; Joly, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Cure models have been developed to analyze failure time data with a cured fraction. For such data, standard survival models are usually not appropriate because they do not account for the possibility of cure. Mixture cure models assume that the studied population is a mixture of susceptible individuals, who may experience the event of interest, and non-susceptible individuals that will never experience it. The aim of this paper is to propose a SAS macro to estimate parametric and semiparametr...

  19. Modernization of Chinese herbal compound and the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-lan; SUN Zhi; DU Juan

    2008-01-01

    Chinese herbal compound is playing an important role on curing human diseases. And it has been a trend that Chinese herbal compound is being used all over the world in 21 century. However, our Chinese herbal compound is facing serious challenge for the lack of canonical system of quality criterion for Chinese herbal compound so it has been a urgent problem to set up the quality control standards and reveal therapeutic basis of Chinese herbal compound. In order to give full play to the advantages of Chinese herbal compound, modern scientific and technological is used to research of Chinese herbal compound, especially the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS), because it is high sensitive, rapid, and obtain more information. It is very necessary that HPLC-MS is uesed to elucidate the effective components of basic substances of Chinese Herbal Compound, and endow traditional Chinese medicine with modern scientific connotation.

  20. Radiation curing technology progress and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 30.13 - Air-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-cure. To cure tobacco under natural atmospheric conditions without the use of fire, except for the... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air-cure. 30.13 Section 30.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  3. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the i...

  4. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  5. Environmental and conservation considerations for electron curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the more important features of electron curing pertaining to environmental protection and conservation. The high electrical conversion efficiencies of these devices measured at output power levels to 200 kilowatts are reviewed with attention to energy transport to the product. The comparative energetics of free radical initiated addition chemistry with that of the more conventional condensation polymerized systems are presented. Some details of recent studies of the repulpability and de-inkability of electron cured products are presented with mill scale trials showing successful recycling with up to 75 % EB processed material in the waste. The ability of energetic electrons to effectively replace toxic chemicals such as H2O2 and ethylene oxide in product sterilization will be presented with a discussion of the regulatory aspects of this process for medical device applications. (author)

  6. Antibiotics Cure Anthrax in Animal Models▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Pass, Avi; Ophir, Yakir; Rothschild, Nili; Tal, Arnon; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline, ofloxacin, imipenem, and gentamicin conferred protection. However, upon termination of treatment, the animals died from respiratory anthrax. Combi...

  7. Elevated temperature concrete curing - using polypropylene fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alan; Coventry, Kathryn; Morgan, Miles

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines cement hydration when concrete cures at elevated temperatures with and without the addition of Type 1 polypropylene fibres and addresses some of the ambiguities that have arisen from previous research. Paired comparison tests were carried out to compare density, strength, pulse velocity, and absorption using plain and fibre concrete at ambient UK indoor temperatures, compared to concrete at elevated temperatures that would be found in The Middle East. The results ...

  8. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  9. Megaproject policy and planning: problems causes, cures

    OpenAIRE

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems in megaproject policy and planning and their causes and possible cures. After considerations of methodology, the paper first identifies as a main problem in megaproject development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation is cost overruns, benefit shortfalls, and waste. Second, the paper explores the causes of misinformation and finds that political- economic explanations best account ...

  10. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  11. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions...

  12. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm-1. The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network

  13. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm{sup -1}. The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network.

  14. Electron beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press trials conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (E.B.) curing for web intaglio printing . These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting E.B. ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires E.B. inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with E.B. inks is being investigated. (author)

  15. Electron Beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press trials conducted by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark in September 8-21, 1982, clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (EB) curing for web intaglio printing. These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting EB ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires EB inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with EB inks is being investigated

  16. Process for preparing cured polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel process for preparing cured unsaturated polyester resins is provided. The process comprises incorporating an unsaturated polyester resin with a vinyl monomer having an epoxy group, shaping the resulting mixture into a desired form (coatings, molded articles or impregnations), isolating it from the air by covering it with a polyester film (for example, a Mylar film) the surface of which has preliminarily been activated by suitable means such as corona discharge, flame treating plasma jet, gamma rays or chemical grafting agents, and then irradiating the unsaturated polyester with ionizing radiations. The process is advantageous in its simplicity of procedure and high weather and chemical resistance of the cured product. In one example, an unsaturated polyester resin was mixed with 0.1% by wt. of glycidyl methacrylate and coated a decorative laminate. Next, the coated surface was covered with a polyester film the surface of which had preliminarily been activated by means of corona discharge. The resin was irradiated with electron beams (500 keV, 10 Mrad) and then heated to 1000C for 30 min. Thus, a decorative board coated with a cured polyester layer in which the unsaturated polyester and the polyester film were unified was obtained. It was highly resistant to chloroform, acetone and alkali. (Kaichi, S.)

  17. Thermal and photochemical curing of filled resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.UV-radiation curing has experienced a steady growth for the past 20 years because of its distinct advantages, namely, solvent-free formulations cured within a fraction of a second upon illumination at ambient temperature. But as the UV light hardly penetrates into pigmented resins and does not reach shadow areas of items presenting a complex shape, conventional UV-curable colored coatings cannot be used as protective varnishes for 3D items. Dual-cure systems have therefore been developed: the light induced polymerization of acrylic double bonds is combined with a thermally induced poly addition reaction between isocyanates and hydroxyl groups. The resulting polyurethane network was shown to exhibit satisfactory mechanical properties for a few millimeter thick pigmented samples. The influence of the hydrogen donor, the reaction temperature, the ambient humidity, as well as the importance of the UV step on the poly addition kinetics has been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The efficiency of this dual-core processing has been demonstrated by ATR infrared spectroscopy investigations for composite materials containing carbon black. The mechanical properties of the resulting material have been evaluated by hardness and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements

  18. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  19. Technology and market of UV/EB curing in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-beam (EB) and ultra-violet (UV) radiation are the types of irradiation systems which are being used in Indonesia for curing application. Ultra-violet curing is widely used commercially particularly in surface coating of wood and paper, printing, adhesives and electronic industries. Up to now, electron-beam curing is still in a pilot-scale step due to the economic reason. Although the equipment and chemicals tend to be more expensive than conventional systems, but radiation curing technology has been believed as an efficient and environmentally friendly technology in industrial application. This paper describes the technology and market of radiation curing in Indonesia. (author)

  20. Cure Models as a Useful Statistical Tool for Analyzing Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Othus, Megan; Barlogie, Bart; LeBlanc, Michael L.; Crowley, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Cure models are a popular topic within statistical literature but are not as widely known in the clinical literature. Many patients with cancer can be long-term survivors of their disease, and cure models can be a useful tool to analyze and describe cancer survival data. The goal of this article is to review what a cure model is, explain when cure models can be used, and use cure models to describe multiple myeloma survival trends. Multiple myeloma is generally considered an incurable disease...

  1. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  2. Intelligent Tobacco Curing Control Based on Color Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the labor cost and the workload required in the tobacco curing process, an intelligent tobacco curing control technique adopting color identification of the tobacco leaves is proposed. The HSI color space is used in color segmentation and the color recognition with fuzzy decision is used in the curing process. The curing controller can identify the curing stage by the color features of the tobacco leaves and the environmental parameters of the barn. Then it adjusts the temperature, the humidity and the ventilation of the barn to prevent the leaves from bad colors. The controller can be used for various tobacco species and various mature states and harvesting weather. The intelligent control can reduce the workload and labor cost involved in the curing process and guarantee the quality and market value of the cured tobacco.

  3. UV/EB cured nanocomposites with scratch and abrasion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was compare the effect of ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) on the properties of cured nanocomposites. Surface hardness of the cured materials was increased with the increased number of exposure (radiation doses) until optimum dose was achieved. This was due to the crosslinking during free radical polymerization process. Pendulum hardness, gel content (by soxhlet extraction) and thumb twist results were used to monitor the curing process and to characterize all the coating materials. Optimum dose was derived from the experiment and then was used to cure the coating materials for scratch and abrasion resistance study. It was found that the UV cured products showed excellent abrasion property than EB cured products. For scratch resistance property, EB curing process could provide the solution. (Author)

  4. CURING KINETICS AND PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC RESIN CURED WITH AZIRIDINE CROSSLINKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xie; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    A kind of aziridine crosslinkers was synthesized and used to crosslink acrylate copolymers. The crosslinking properties and curing kinetics of the resin were studied. It was found that with the increase of the content of crosslinker in the emulsion, the mechanical properties and solvent resistance of the resin will be apparently improved, but its glass transition temperature (Tg) is very low. The lowest amount of crosslinker used in the acrylic resin emulsion is 0.25%. Curing kinetics studied by DSC show that this curing reaction occurs readily because the apparent activation energy of the reaction is low(65.1 KJ/mol). These results demonstrate that the aziridine crosslinker is indeed a low temperature crosslinking agent and can be used at room temperature.

  5. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  6. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wheeler, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saunders, C. [AECL Technologies, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1998-01-08

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world`s largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide.

  7. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world's largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide

  8. Pumice aggregates for internal water curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Bentz, Dale P.; Lange, David A.;

    2004-01-01

    water absorption, but they release a greater percentage of their absorbed water at the equilibrium relative humidity of practical interest in early-age concrete, above 90%. Additionally, early-age properties of mortars with different contents of saturated pumice were investigated: a reference mix......A novel concept in internal curing of High Performance Concrete is based on dispersing very small, saturated lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the concrete, containing sufficient water to counteract self-desiccation. With this approach, the amount of water in the LWA can be minimized, thus...... saturation of the particles, which can be achieved only by immersion in boiling water or by vacuum saturation....

  9. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized......, elastic modulus and compressive strength were measured. Early-age expansion of the mixtures was greater the higher the degree of the saturation of the lightweight aggregates and the finer their particle size. The elastic properties and the earlyage expansion of the lightweight aggregate concrete were...

  10. Radiation cured coating containing glitter particles and process therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curable coatings for use on a variety of substrates and curable by exposure to ionizing irradiation of ultraviolet light are well known. The use of urethane type coatings cured with ultraviolet light to provide protective wear layers for wall or floor tile is for instance described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,180,615. U.S. Pat. No. 3,918,393 describes a method for obtaining a non-glossy coating on various substrates by curing radiation sensitive material with ionizing irradiation or ultraviolet light in two stages. In this process the coating is partially cured in an oxygen-containing atmosphere and the curing is completed in an inert atmosphere. U.S. Pat. No. 4,122,225 discloses a method and apparatus for coating tile which involves the application of one coat of radiation curable material to an entire substrate followed by partial curing and the subsequent application and curing of a second coat or radiation curable material only on high areas of the substrate which are subject to greater than average wear. Use of pigment in radiation cured coatings on products such as floor covering which are subject to wear during use has presented substantial difficulties. Incorporation of pigment, especially enough pigment to make the coating opaque, makes the coating hard to cure and substantially reduces the thicknesses of coating which can be cured relative to a clear coating cured under the same conditions

  11. Manufacturing of wind turbine blade by electron beam curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These materials have been fabricated by thermal curing process. However, thermal curing process has several disadvantages such as long curing time, large residual stresses. In order to avoid weakness of thermal process, the radiation curing process using UV, microwave, x-ray, y-ray and electron-beam is widely used in recent years. In comparison with the thermal-curing, radiation curing process does not need to thermal and autoclave equipment and have several advantages : dramatically reduced curing time : enhancement of part quality and performance : reduced environmental and health concerns : easy material treatment : significantly reduced overall manufacturing costs. This study describes novel synthesis of epoxy acrylate resin that was cured by electron-beam without photo-initiators. The effect of catalyst and synthetic temperature was investigated by molecular weight and chemical structure through GPC and NMR. E-beam cured resin showed significantly higher flexural strength and tensile strength than other commercial resins. The wind turbine wind turbine was fabricated by E-beam curing, using novel epoxy acrylate resin with fiber reinforced plastics (FRP). E-beam curable novel synthesized resin can be a good candidate in the wind turbine and in various industrial fields where high performance was required

  12. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Havens, S.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1997-01-16

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding.

  13. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  14. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  16. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  17. Influence of curing protocol on selected properties of light-curing polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewaele, Magali; Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on degree of conversion (DC), volume contraction (C), elastic modulus (E), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with each other....

  18. UV-Curing of Nanoparticle Reinforced Acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer reinforcement by silica and alumina nanoparticles evidently yields improved surface hardness. Single mixing of nanoparticles into an acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification providing an interface between the two dissimilar materials. For example, vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) can react via hydrolysis/condensation reactions with hydroxyl groups present on the inorganic surface and should bond via the polymerisation-active vinyl group to an acrylate resin through crosslinking reactions. Grafting reactions of surface OH groups and different trialkoxysilanes were studied by thermogravimetry, infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The copolymeri-zation of modified nanoparticles with the acrylate matrix has been investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy. UV curing under nitrogen inertization revealed a lower reactivity of vinyl groups of VTMO-modified silica compared to grafted methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MEMO) which showed complete conversion of olefinic carbons (signals at 120 - 140 ppm). Under conditions of oxygen inhibition, the effect of the kind and the concentration of photoinitiator on the photopoly-merization reaction was studied. Compared to neat polyacrylate coatings the nanocomposite materials exhibit markedly improved properties, e.g., heat, scratch, and abrasion resistance. However, a much better abrasion resistance was obtained for coatings containing both silica nano-particles and corundum microparticles. In particular cases, radiation curing with 172 nm photons generated by Xe excimer was performed to obtain structured polymer surfaces, i.e., matting of the reinforced acrylate coatings

  19. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  1. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material. - Highligths: • Epoxy/carbon fibre composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation. • DMTA analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the material. • An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment allows a higher uniformity. • Mechanical tests were interpreted on the basis of the cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction

  3. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  4. A Study of Isothermal Curing of PMI Using DMA

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Rui Ye; Jun Zou; Jijun Tang; Hongliang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The isothermal curing of polymethacrylimide (PMI) is studied through the use of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Based on the growth rate of measured dynamic mechanical property, the relative conversion is defined to investigate the evolution of storage modulus E′ at different curing temperatures. Hsich’s nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory, Avrami equation, and isoconversional methods are used to analyze isothermal cure kinetics of PMI. The results show that there are different...

  5. Cure Rate Models with Nonparametric Form of Covariate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tianlei

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on development of spline-based hazard estimation models for cure rate data. Such data can be found in survival studies with long term survivors. Consequently, the population consists of the susceptible and non-susceptible sub-populations with the latter termed as "cured". The modeling of both the cure probability and the hazard function of the susceptible sub-population is of practical interest. Here we propose two smoothing-splines based models falling respectively into t...

  6. Analysis of Cure Rate Survival Data Under Proportional Odds Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yu; Sinha, Debajyoti; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2010-01-01

    Due to significant progress in cancer treatments and management in survival studies involving time to relapse (or death), we often need survival models with cured fraction to account for the subjects enjoying prolonged survival. Our article presents a new proportional odds survival models with a cured fraction using a special hierarchical structure of the latent factors activating cure. This new model has same important differences with classical proportional odds survival models and existing...

  7. Flexible Cure Rate Modeling Under Latent Activation Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Cooner, Freda; Banerjee, Sudipto; Bradley P. Carlin; Sinha, Debajyoti

    2007-01-01

    With rapid improvements in medical treatment and health care, many datasets dealing with time to relapse or death now reveal a substantial portion of patients who are cured (i.e., who never experience the event). Extended survival models called cure rate models account for the probability of a subject being cured and can be broadly classified into the classical mixture models of Berkson and Gage (BG type) or the stochastic tumor models pioneered by Yakovlev and extended to a hierarchical fram...

  8. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Maffezzoli; Francesca Lionetto

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA) for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and ...

  9. Self-cured polymers from non-drying oil

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Fahmina; Syed Marghoob Ashraf; Ahmad, Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Pongamia glabra seed oil (PGSO) – a nonedible, non-drying oil; a sustainable resource has found application as alkyds, epoxies and polyesteramides in paints and coatings. Generally, PGSO based polymeric coatings are obtained by curing at elevated temperature. Efforts have been made to cure PGSO at room temperature by simple route modification. Self-cured Pongamia glabra oil based polyesteramide (APGPEA) resin was synthesized by the reaction between Pongamia glabra oil modified fatty amide dio...

  10. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  11. Bending strength and depth of cure of light-cured composite resins irradiated using filters that simulate enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Kanie, T; Fujii, K; Shinohara, N

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the light-attenuating effects of enamel on the properties of light-cured restorative resins using simple experimental filters. Three filters were designed to replicate the light transmittance characteristics of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm thick human enamel. The bending strength, depth of cure, and levels of residual monomer for 12 shades of three commercial light-cured composite resins were examined. These resins were cured either using direct irradiation from a light source or irradiation through one of the filters. For all materials, the bending strength and depth of cure of specimens irradiated through a filter were lower and the levels of residual monomer were higher than those found in specimens irradiated directly. The results indicate that the light-attenuating effect of enamel reduces the polymerization efficiency, resulting in poorer mechanical properties of light-cured composite resins. PMID:15125601

  12. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, H.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsumoto, A

    2011-01-01

    Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reac...

  13. Brane polarization is no cure for tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Anti-M2 and anti-D3 branes placed in regions with charges dissolved in fluxes have a tachyon in their near-horizon region, which causes these branes to repel each other. If the branes are on the Coulomb branch this tachyon gives rise to a runaway behavior, but when the branes are polarized into five-branes this tachyon only appears to lower the energy of the polarized branes, without affecting its stability. We analyze brane polarization in the presence of a brane-brane-repelling tachyon and show that when the branes are polarized along the direction of the tachyon the polarized shell is unstable. This implies that tachyons cannot be cured by brane polarization and indicates that, at least in a certain regime of parameters, anti-D3 branes polarized into NS5 branes at the bottom of the Klebanov-Strassler solution have an instability.

  14. Patienthood in medieval Tuscany: beliefs and cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on intersections of holy and sick bodies in the Tuscan Middle Ages to examine how the faithful accessed miraculous cures from contact with, or belief in, the relics of the saints. Rather than examine the relationship between the long dead martyrs (whose relics were abundant), however, it will look at the relationship between relatively recent saints and their devotees. The miracles discussed are traditional-that is, they are found in the lives of many saints and are not exceptional. It is hoped, however, that by concentrating on Tuscany, some insights can be secured on the relationship between Tuscan individuals of the late middle ages and those of their community who were recognised, either officially or through vox populi, as saints. PMID:27174846

  15. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  16. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  17. Cure Kinetics of DGEBA with Hyperbranched Poly(3-hydroxyphenyl) Phosphate as Curing Agent Studied by Non-isothermal DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The cure kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA) with hyperbranched poly(3-hydroxyphenyl) phosphate(HHPP) as the curing agent was investigated by means of non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) at various heating rates. The results were compared with the corresponding results by using 1,3-dihydroxybenzene(DHB) as a model compound. The results show that HHPP can enhance the cure reaction of DGEBA, resulting in the decrease of the peak temperature of the curing curve as well as the decrease of the activation energy because of the flexible -P-O- groups in the backbone of HHPP. However, both the activation energy of the cured polymer and the peak temperature of the curing curve are increased with DHB as a curing agent. The cure kinetics of the DGEBA/HHPP system was calculated by using the isoconversional method given by Málek. It was found that the two-parameter autocatalytic model(esták-Berggren equation) is the most adequate one to describe the cure kinetics of the studied system at various heating rates. The obtained non-isothermal DSC curves from the experimental data show the results being accordant with those theoretically calculated.

  18. Thermal and Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Molding Compounds Cured with Thermal Latency Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Chean-Cheng Su; Chien-Huan Wei; Bo-Ching Li

    2013-01-01

    The cure kinetics and mechanisms of a biphenyl type epoxy molding compounds (EMCs) with thermal latency organophosphine accelerators were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Although the use of triphenylphosphine-1,4-benzoquinone (TPP-BQ) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) catalysts in biphenyl type EMCs exhibited autocatalytic mechanisms, thermal latency was higher in the TPP-BQ catalyst in EMCs than in the TPP catalyst in EMCs. Analyses of thermal characteristics indicated that...

  19. Infinitistic and Non-infinitistic cures for nagging hangovers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Josh Parsons supplies a 'hair of the dog' cure for hangovers where diminishing bouts of drinking are supposed to mask the hangover and to stave it off permanently. The cure has the air of an infinitistic paradox but, disappointingly, it does not work

  20. Thermal Study of Anhydrides Cured Tetrafunctional Cardo Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional cardo epoxy resin (EBCF was cured by using 10 wt% maleic anhydride (MA, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, phthalic anhydride (PA, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA, and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride (TCPA as hardeners at 120°C for 40–105 min (gel time and then postcured 1 h at 130°C. Gel time is found to depend on the structure of the anhydrides used. Cured samples were found insoluble in common solvents. Cured and uncured EBCF were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and TGA techniques. Cured and uncured resins followed multistep degradation reactions. Kinetic parameters, namely, order of degradation, energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy change, were determined according to the Anderson-Freeman method and interpreted in light of the nature of hardeners used for curing purpose. The resins followed integral or fractional order degradation kinetics. Complex degradation reactions are due to different types of linkages in cured resins. Both nature and structure of resin and hardeners affected the curing behavior and the resultant thermal properties of the cured resins.

  1. Preparation of temperature responsive fragrance release membranes by UV curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism

  2. Preparation of temperature responsive fragrance release membranes by UV curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi E-mail: nakayama@ned.kindai.ac.jp; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Okuda, Jyunya; Kitami, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2003-06-01

    The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism.

  3. Oxetanes: curing properties in photo-cationic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel mono- and di-functional oxetane monomers are evaluated for photo-cationic curing system in the formulation with cycloaliphatic diepoxide monomer. The viscosity of the formulations were reduced effectively keeping high surface cure rate as epoxide alone. Difunctional oxetanes exhibited improved solvent resistance

  4. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  5. Fifty-Four Infantile Intractable Diarrhea Patients Treated with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Infantile intractable diarrhea (IID) was usually complicated with malnutrition, growth retardation and pulmonary infection, etc. It is difficult to cure, and mortality is rather high. The authors used integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy to treat it, and satisfactory result has been obtained and reported as follows.

  6. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  7. Numerical natural rubber curing simulation, obtaining a controlled gradient of the state of cure in a thick-section part

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Labban, A.; Mousseau, P.; Bailleul, J. L.; Deterre, R.

    2007-04-01

    Although numerical simulation has proved to be a useful tool to predict the rubber vulcanization process, few applications in the process control have been reported. Because the end-use rubber properties depend on the state of cure distribution in the parts thickness, the prediction of the optimal distribution remains a challenge for the rubber industry. The analysis of the vulcanization process requires the determination of the thermal behavior of the material and the cure kinetics. A nonisothermal vulcanization model with nonisothermal induction time is used in this numerical study. Numerical results are obtained for natural rubber (NR) thick-section part curing. A controlled gradient of the state of cure in the part thickness is obtained by a curing process that consists not only in mold heating phase, but also a forced convection mold cooling phase in order to stop the vulcanization process and to control the vulcanization distribution. The mold design that allows this control is described. In the heating phase, the state of cure is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics (the induction time), but in the cooling phase, it is the heat diffusion that controls the state of cure distribution. A comparison among different cooling conditions is shown and a good state of cure gradient control is obtained.

  8. Light resin curing devices - a hazard evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation has been made of optical hazards to the eye from 18 specified lamps designed for curing dental composite plastic fillings. Radiation source in all of the investigated units were incandescent lamps of the tungsten metal halide type. Ultraviolet and visible radiation was measured with a calibrated EGandG 585 spectroradiometer system. Tables and diagrams of spectral radiance (Wm-2nm-1sr-1) are given. Hazard evaluation based on the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values of ultraviolet and visible radiation gave the following results: 1. Ultraviolet radiation is of no concern (-2 UVA at 10 cm). 2. Reflexes from teeth are harmless. 3. Retinal thermal injury hazard (permanent burn damage) is diminnutive and non-existent if the equipment is handled with sense (irradiation of an unprotected eye at a distance less than 10 cm should be avoided). 4. Retinal photochemical (blue-light) injury may appear after direct viewing of the end of the fiber-optics cable. A table with safe exposure time for each apparatus is given. Proper protective goggles can eliminate the blue-light hazard. (Author)

  9. Towards a cure for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripak, Justin M; Sampson, Hugh A

    2008-12-01

    Over the past two decades, food allergies have become both more prevalent and long lasting. This burgeoning problem has not been met with any therapeutic options to date, and patients must attempt to avoid known allergenic foods and treat any allergic reactions with 'as-needed' medications. There are a number of promising emerging therapeutic modalities for food allergy, including allergen-specific and allergen non-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. Although the allergen-specific approaches have some distinct differences, they all attempt to induce tolerance by exposing the patient to an allergen via the mucosal route (oral tolerance induction). Allergen non-specific approaches include biologics to suppress free total IgE levels (e.g. anti-IgE antibody) or to induce more general immune suppression (Chinese herbal medication). PMID:18848884

  10. Development of Geopolymer Concrete with Different Curing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Nuruddin Nuruddin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues resulted from cement production have become a major concern today. To develop a sustainable future it is encouraged to limit the use of this construction material that can affect the environment. Cement replacement material was proposed to partially replace cement portion in concrete. Geopolymer is a part of inorganic polymer material that has similar bonding function like cement in concrete. It consists of alkaline solutions and geological source material. Alkaline liquids used in this research are 8 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 solutions, while source materials are fly ash and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA. Three different curing regimes, namely hot gunny curing, ambient curing, and external exposure curing, were applied to obtain suitable method that was suitable with cast in situ application. Geopolymer concrete samples were tested on their compressive strength and microstructure properties. It was found that external exposure curing had the highest compressive strength compared to other two curing methods. Scanning electron microscopy analysis also showed better improvement in interfacial transition zone for concrete sample with external exposure curing.

  11. Composite depth of cure using four polymerization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Janolio de Camargo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The light-curing technique is relevant to reduce the degree of polymerization shrinkage, improving clinical and esthetic success of composite resin restorations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro the effect of four light-curing techniques on depth of cure of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten specimens of a composite resin were made in cylindrical cavities prepared in PVC plates (3.0 X 7.0 mm for each light-curing technique. Four photoactivation methods were investigated: stepped, ramped, pulse-delay and traditional. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and polished for microhardness measurements (kg/mm², which were made at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mm from the irradiated surface. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The effect of factors studied (curing method and distance from the surface and the interaction of these factors was statistically significant (p<0.05. The traditional method of cure provided higher microhardness values (69.6 ± 2.5 than the stepped (63.5 ± 3.1 and pulsed (63.9 ± 3.2 methods at all depths evaluated, but it did not differ from the ramped method (66.7± 4.4 at 0.1 and 1.0 mm of depth. CONCLUSION: All techniques employed provided satisfactory cure of the composite resin up to the depth of 2.0 mm from the irradiated surface.

  12. Cure kinetics and chemorheology of EPDM/graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahbakhsh, Ahmad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh, E-mail: s.mazinani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalaee, Mohammad Reza [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Farhad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene oxide content and dispersion as effective parameters on cure kinetics. • Graphene oxide as an effective controlling factor of crosslink density. • Interaction of graphene oxide with curing system (ZnO) during curing process. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of graphene oxide on cure behavior of ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) nanocomposite is studied. In this regard, the cure kinetics of nanocomposite is studied employing different empirical methods. The required activation energy of nth-order cure process shows about 160 kJ/mol increments upon 5 phr graphene oxide loading compared to 1 phr graphene oxide loading. However, the required activation energy is significantly reduced followed by incorporation of graphene oxide in nanocomposites compared to neat EPDM sample. Furthermore, the effect of graphene oxide on structural properties of nanocomposites during the cure process is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry techniques. As the results show, graphene oxide interestingly affects the structure of zinc oxide during the vulcanization process. This behavior could be probably related to high tendency of zinc oxide to react with oxidized surface of graphene oxide.

  13. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  14. Changes on degree of conversion of dual-cure luting light-cured with blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandéca, M. C.; El-Mowafy, O.; Saade, E. G.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    The indirect adhesive procedures constitute recently a substantial portion of contemporary esthetic restorative treatments. The resin cements have been used to bond tooth substrate and restorative materials. Due to recently introduction of the self-bonding resin luting cement based on a new monomer, filler and initiation technology has become important to study the degree of conversion of these new materials. In the present work the polymerization reaction and the filler content of dual-cured dental resin cements were studied by means of infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (8 mm diameter × 1 mm thick) from each of 2 cements, Panavia® F2.0 (Kuraray) and RelyX™ Unicem Applicap (3M/ESPE). Each specimen was cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm2 for 30 s. Immediately after curing, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days DC was determined. For each time interval 5 specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The TG measurements were performed in Netzsch TG 209 under oxygen atmosphere and heating rate of 10°C/min from 25 to 700°C. A two-way ANOVA showed DC (%) mean values statistically significance differences between two cements ( p cements ( p > 0.05). The Relx-Y™ Unicem mean values were significantly higher than Panavia® F 2.0. The degree of conversion means values increasing with the storage time and the filler content showed similar for both resin cements.

  15. Comprehensive study of dynamic curing effect on tablet coating structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; da Silva, Julio César; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The dissolution method is still widely used to determine curing end-points to ensure long-term stability of film coatings. Nevertheless, the process of curing has not yet been fully investigated. For the first time, joint techniques were used to elucidate the mechanisms of dynamic curing over time from ethylcellulose (Aquacoat)-based coated tablets. X-ray micro-computed tomography (XμCT), Near Infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopies as well as X-ray microdiffraction were employed as non-destructive techniques to perform direct measurements on tablets. All techniques indicated that after a dynamic curing period of 4h, reproducible drug release can be achieved and no changes in the microstructure of the coating were any longer detected. XμCT analysis highlighted the reduced internal porosity, while both NIR and Raman measurements showed that spectral information remained unaltered after further curing. X-ray microdiffraction revealed densification of the coating layer with a decrease in the overall coating thickness of about 10 μm as a result of curing. In addition, coating heterogeneity attributed to cetyl alcohol was observed from microscopic images and Raman analysis. This observation was confirmed by X-ray microdiffraction that showed that crystalline cetyl alcohol melted and spread over the coating surface with curing. Prior to curing, X-ray microdiffraction also revealed the existence of two coating zones differing in crystalline cetyl alcohol and sodium lauryl sulfate concentrations which could be explained by migration of these constituents within the coating layer. Therefore, the use of non-destructive techniques allowed new insights into tablet coating structures and provided precise determination of the curing end-point compared to traditional dissolution testing. This thorough study may open up new possibilities for process and formulation control. PMID:22561957

  16. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  17. Evanescent light photopolymerization and measurement of cure depth in nanostereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostereolithography using evanescent light has been proposed as a means to realize submicrometer resolution. In this study, cured polymers of submicrometer thickness have been obtained using an evanescent light exposure apparatus. Examination of the controllability of the cure depth proves that the cure depth can be controlled at a standard deviation of at most 12 nm by configuring the polarization, the exposure energy, and the incident angle. The evanescent light photopolymerization process can be differentiated into two modes in terms of exposure energy per second. These results indicate that nanostereolithography can fabricate three-dimensional structures with submicrometer resolution

  18. Quality of cured fishery products from Malabar and Kanara coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, K.G.; Muraleedharan, V.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic quality studies of cured fishery products of commerce collected from six major fish curing centres on the west coast of India are presented. 77.12% of the samples had moisture above 35%, 97.18% showed salt content below 25% and all samples had acid insoluble ash above 1.5%. 42.32% gave standard plate counts above 10,000 and 45.77% were contaminated with 'Red' halophiles. The major defects in curing were imperfect cleaning, inadequate salti...

  19. Experimental Study on the Influence of Curing Conditions on Capillary Absorption of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Li-cheng WANG; Bao, Jiu-Wen; Cheng, Bao-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Both the hardening process and formation of microstructure of concrete are significantly influenced by the curing condition. The capillary absorption of concrete is closely related to the structure and distribution of the pores within the material. This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of four curing conditions, i.e., standard curing, natural curing, water curing, and sealed curing, on the capillary absorption of normal concrete. Compressive strength tests on the cylinder...

  20. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PALPEBRAL RETRACTION WITH ACUPOINT—INJECTION AND CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新民; LiPeifang

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper,the therapeutic effect of combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was observed in 59cases of primary palpebral retraction patients.These 59patients were divided into treatment group(n=38,treated with acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs)and control group(n=21,treated with Chinese medicinal herbs alone).After3 courses of treatment.of the 38cases in treatment group,25(65.8%)were cured,8(21.1%)had marked improement and5(13.2%)had improement;of the 21cases in control group,8(38.1%)were cured,9(42.9%)had marked improement,2(9.5%)had improement6 and2(9.5%)were ineffective.Statistical analysis showed a si9gnificant difference between the two groups in the therapeu-tic effect.The cure rate of experimental group was apparently higher than athat of the control group,i.e.the therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was superior to that of Chinese medicinal herbs alone.

  1. Optimising processing conditions for irradiated cured fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cured fish products were investigated with the view to developing and/or improving shelf-stability and safety of ready-to-eat varieties through irradiation processing. The products were ready-to-eat smoked sardines (Sardinella spp.) and a marinated fish (Diplodus puntazzo) product. The moisture content of the smoked sardines ranged between 11.3-24.9%, salt content 0.85-1.3% d.b., fat content 4.6-24.9%, and water activity 0.62-0.92. The total viable count was log10 6.74-8.96 CFU/g fish. Microbes associated with the smoked sardines included Staphylococcus spp. (but not S. aureus), Enterobacter sakazaki, Klebsiella pneumonae ozaenae and Bacillus spp. Fungi identified were Penicillium spp., Absidia spp., Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus achraeceous, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus wentii, Aspergillus penicilloides, mucor and yeasts. Radiation sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumonae ozaenae (D10 (peptone) = 0.33 kGy) was determined. Although irradiation (7-11 kGy) controlled microbial activity in some of the smoked sardines during a 12 week storage period, others had unacceptable colour, flavour and texture. The ready-to-eat marinated fish had a moisture content of 41.9-58.6%, salt content of 2.1-5.3% d.b., fat content of 6.2-26.9% d.b., free fatty acids content of 7.0- 20.2%, peroxide value of 24.3-77.1 mEq/kg fat, acidity 77.9-121.5% and water activity of 0.913-0.944. The total viable count was log10 2.6-7.2 CFU/g. Irradiation at levels of 8-10 kGy substantially reduced the coliform count and extended the shelf-life and overall acceptability of the product by 3 days. (author)

  2. Impact of the light-curing source and curing time on the degree of conversion and hardness of a composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Catelan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate physical properties of the resinous materials are related to clinical longevity of adhesive restorations. The aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of light-curing source and curing time on the degree of conversion (DC and Knoop hardness number (KHN of a composite resin. Circular specimens (5 x 2 mm were carried out (n = 7 of the Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE composite. The specimens were light-cured by quartz-halogen-tungsten (QTH XL 3000 (3M ESPE, 450 mW/cm2 or light-emitting diode (LED Bluephase 16i (Vivadent, 1390 mW/cm2 for 20, 40, or 60 s. After 24 h, absorption spectra of composite were obtained using Spectrum 100 Optica (Perkin Elmer FT-IR spectrometer in order to calculate the DC and, KHN was performed in the HMV-2T (Shimadzu microhardness tester under 50-g load for 15 s dwell time. DC and KHN data were subjected to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. The LED showed highest DC and KHN values than QTH (p < 0.05. The increase of curing time improved the DC and KHN, all curing times with statistical difference (p < 0.05. The use of light-curing units with high irradiance and/or the time of cure increased may improve the physical properties of resin-based materials.

  3. Mining Compatibility Rules from Irregular Chinese Traditional Medicine Database by Apriori Agorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to mine the knowledge and rules on compatibility of drugs from the prescriptions for curing arrhythmia in the Chinese traditional medicine database by Apriori algorithm. For data preparation, 1 113 prescriptions for arrhythmia, including 535herbs (totally 10884 counts of herbs) were collected into the database. The prescription data were preprocessed through redundancy reduction, normalized storage, and knowledge induction according to the pretreatment demands of data mining. Then the Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the data and form the related technical rules and treatment procedures. The experimental result of compatibility of drugs for curing arrhythmia from the Chinese traditional medicine database shows that the prescription compatibility obtained by Apriori algorithm generally accords with the basic law of traditional Chinese medicine for arrhythmia. Some special compatibilities unreported were also discovered in the experiment, which may be used as the basis for developing new prescriptions for arrhythmia.

  4. Curing of Epoxy Resin Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yubin; ZHANG Zuoguang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of curing of epoxy resin induced by femtosecond laser beam was explored through choosing different initiators . Absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to analyze the structure of epoxy resin systems after irradiation with a femtosecond laser beam. The experimental results show that the epoxy resin systems containing diaryliodonium salts can be cured by irradiation of Jemtosecond laser pulse, while the systems containing benzoin can not be cured. It is found that diaryliodonium salts decompose under the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse through multi ( two ) -photon absorption, initiating the ring-opening polymerization of epoxy resin. And the appearance of cured area has a sheet structure consisting of many tiny lamellar structures.

  5. 7 CFR 29.3002 - Air-cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... control excess humidity during the curing period to prevent house-burn and barn-burn in damp weather....

  6. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. PMID:23816516

  7. Radiation curing: Small coating segment thrives on innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curing of specialty coatings, inks, and adhesives is becoming an attractive and profitable business, with growth spurred by environmental regulations, cost savings, and unique applications. The technology also known as ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curing-is recognized as an efficient way to transform reactive liquid materials to complete cure. Its use in 1993 grew 11% in the US to an estimated $330 million in sales, and 8.9% in Europe, to $280 million. open-quotes Thousands of companies are involved in radiation curing. The technology has been growing since the mid-1980s and has not felt the recessionclose quotes, says Alice Pincus, president of consultants Pincus Associates (Andover, MA)

  8. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  9. Chemistry and technology of Cured and Smoked Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Mathur

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the chemistry and technology of cured and smoked meat products are reviewed. Various factors physical, chemical and microbiological affecting water holding capacity of cured meats and cured colour formation and its stability during storage are discussed. Methods of preparation of various types of cured and smoked meat products have been briefly described. Developments in the use of synthetic casings and skinless sausages have been mentioned. Smoke constituents, their role and physico-chemical aspects of mechanism and functions of smoking are discussed. Advancements in the methods of smoke generation, conventional smoking and some kilns, electrostatic smoking and smoking by use of liquid smokes have been described. Some of the methods of preparation of liquid smokes are also given.

  10. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  11. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼750 kilograms would weigh only ∼155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a

  12. The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Rose YP; Chien, Wai Tong

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when comp...

  13. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dongping Chen; Yiyi Ma; Xueqi Wang; Shengqiang Yu; Lin Li; Bing Dai; Zhiguo Mao; Lijun Sun; Chenggang Xu; Shu Rong; Mengjun Tang; Hongbo Zhao; Hongchao Liu; Serra, Andreas L.; Nicole Graf

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73 m...

  14. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongping; Ma, Yiyi; Wang, Xueqi; Yu, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Bing; Mao, Zhiguo; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Chenggang; Rong, Shu; Tang, Mengjun; Zhao, Hongbo; Liu, Hongchao; Andreas L Serra; Graf, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.7...

  15. Study of Electron Beam Curing Process Using Epoxy Resin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competition among industries in the current globalization system has required a systematic cost reduction without affecting the quality of the final product. This fact has encouraged the use of new technologies application on productive process, especially on polymeric composites, to assure the competitiveness. The possibility of producing a new type of carbon fiber reinforced composite by radiation process with excellent thermal and mechanical properties, has been researched since 90's and it can be a potential application in aerospace, marine and automobile industries. The polymeric composites cured by thermal process (furnace or autoclave) are an example of long curing cycles, which requires time and energy consumption. Electron beam curing technology allows the process at room temperature and reduces curing time; consequently, it becomes the main difference of this technology over thermal curing process. The aim of this work was to study electron beam curable epoxy formulation for filament winding process, as well as to investigate the electron beam curing process parameters using a DC 1500/25 - Job 188 Dynamitron model linear accelerator as radiation source, with 0.5 to 1.5 MeV, 0.1 to 25 mA and 60 to 120 cm scanning electron beam. The resin system consists of commercial epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A - DGEBA) and cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoantimonate) and the polymerization carried out at room temperature with controlled dose rate. Thermal post cure took part of the process to improve the degree of cure and glass transition temperature (Tg) similar to thermal curable resin properties

  16. Some electroanalytical investigations into the cure chemistry of industrial sealants

    OpenAIRE

    Raftery, Declan Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This thesis represents a study of the cure chemistry of three contrasting adhesive technologies, applying a range of analytical approaches to gain further insight into the complex chemistry of adhesives. An introduction is given in chapter one into the general chemistry of adhesives and their analysis, with particular emphasis on anaerobic adhesives and the crucial role played by transition metals in the cure chemistry. In order to elucidate the role played by tertiary amines and saccahri...

  17. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  18. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine′s other big challenge. Advances in vaccine...

  19. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  20. Electron beam curing of bisphenol A epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of initiator type, concentration of initiator and molecular weight of oligomer were studied in the EB curing of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether type epoxy oligomer containing an onium initiator. Cured products of above 95 % of gel contents were obtained from liquid oligomers with an onium initiator content of 0.05 mol/kg. For solid oligomers the final levelling-off gel content decreased with increasing molecular weight of the original oligomer. However, unreacted epoxide bonds still remained in the cured system, although the gel content had almost reached its maximum. The post effect of curing was observed the present system. After irradiation, the decay of epoxide bonds continues following first order reaction kinetics and the apparent rate constant is directly proportional to the preirradiation dose. Dynamic mechanical studies show that heat-treatment after room temperature irradiation gives the cured product of higher glass transition temperature and crosslinking density than those of the product cured with tertiary amine at elevated temperature. (author)

  1. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  3. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  4. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (Tg) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under Tg

  5. Oxamniquine cures Schistosoma mansoni infection in a focus in which cure rates with praziquantel are unusually low

    OpenAIRE

    Stelma, F.F.; Sall, S.; Daff, B.; Sow, S; Niang, M; Gryseels, B.

    1997-01-01

    An outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal was observed in 1988, and chemotherapy with praziquantel in this recently established focus resulted in very low parasitologic cure rates. Among other explanations, the emergence of a praziquantel-tolerant parasite strain was feared. To study this hypothesis further, 138 persons with endemic S. mansoni infection were randomly allocated to treatment with either 20 mg/kg oxamniquine or 40 mg/kg praziquantel. Parasitologic cure rates at 6 we...

  6. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼ 750 kilos would weigh only ∼ 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ∼ 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile

  7. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. “Light-emitting diode” light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm2 and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm2. The “quartz-tungsten-halogen” LCU (400 mW/cm2) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Results: Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Conclusion: Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity. PMID:27095897

  8. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  9. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  10. UV-cured methacrylic-silica hybrids: Effect of oxygen inhibition on photo-curing kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The kinetic behavior of novel photopolymerizable organic–inorganic hybrid system was studied as a function of the composition and of the atmosphere for reactions. • The UV-curing reaction of the hybrid mixture was found fast and complete. • The combined presence of thiol monomer and nanostructured silica allows to reduce the effect of inhibition of oxygen towards the radical photopolymerization. - Abstract: The kinetic behavior of innovative photopolymerizable UV-cured methacrylic–silica hybrid formulations, previously developed, was studied and compared to that of a reference control system. The organic–inorganic (O–I) hybrids proposed in this study are obtained from organic precursors with a high siloxane content mixed with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in such a way to produce co-continuous silica nano-domains dispersed within a cross-linked organic phase, as a result of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The kinetics of the radical photopolymerization mechanism induced by UV-radiations, in presence of a suitable photoinitiator, was studied by calorimetric, FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses, by varying the composition of the mixtures and the atmosphere for reactions. The well known effect of oxygen on the kinetic mechanism of the free radical photopolymerization of the methacrylic–siloxane based monomers was found to be strongly reduced in the hybrid system, especially when a proper thiol was used. The experimental calorimetric data were fitted using a simple kinetic model for radical photopolymerization reactions, obtaining a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model. From the comparison of the kinetic constants calculated for control and hybrid systems, it was possible to assess the effect of the composition, as well as of the atmosphere used during the photo-polymerization process, on the kinetic of photopolymerization reaction

  11. UV-cured methacrylic-silica hybrids: Effect of oxygen inhibition on photo-curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Striani, R.; Frigione, M., E-mail: mariaenrica.frigione@unisalento.it

    2014-01-20

    Highlights: • The kinetic behavior of novel photopolymerizable organic–inorganic hybrid system was studied as a function of the composition and of the atmosphere for reactions. • The UV-curing reaction of the hybrid mixture was found fast and complete. • The combined presence of thiol monomer and nanostructured silica allows to reduce the effect of inhibition of oxygen towards the radical photopolymerization. - Abstract: The kinetic behavior of innovative photopolymerizable UV-cured methacrylic–silica hybrid formulations, previously developed, was studied and compared to that of a reference control system. The organic–inorganic (O–I) hybrids proposed in this study are obtained from organic precursors with a high siloxane content mixed with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in such a way to produce co-continuous silica nano-domains dispersed within a cross-linked organic phase, as a result of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The kinetics of the radical photopolymerization mechanism induced by UV-radiations, in presence of a suitable photoinitiator, was studied by calorimetric, FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses, by varying the composition of the mixtures and the atmosphere for reactions. The well known effect of oxygen on the kinetic mechanism of the free radical photopolymerization of the methacrylic–siloxane based monomers was found to be strongly reduced in the hybrid system, especially when a proper thiol was used. The experimental calorimetric data were fitted using a simple kinetic model for radical photopolymerization reactions, obtaining a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model. From the comparison of the kinetic constants calculated for control and hybrid systems, it was possible to assess the effect of the composition, as well as of the atmosphere used during the photo-polymerization process, on the kinetic of photopolymerization reaction.

  12. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  13. Fiber-Matrix Interface Studies on Electron Beam Cured Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazel, L.T.; Janke, C.J.; Yarborough, K.D.

    1999-05-23

    The recently completed Department of Energy (DOE) and industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) entitled, ''Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites,'' determined that the interlaminar shear strength properties of the best electron beam cured IM7/epoxy composites were 19-28% lower than autoclave cured IM7/epoxy composites (i.e. IM7/977-2 and IM7/977-3). Low interlaminar shear strength is widely acknowledged as the key barrier to the successful acceptance and implementation of electron beam cured composites in the aircraft/aerospace industry. The objective of this work was to improve the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites by formulating and evaluating several different fiber sizings or coating materials. The researchers have recently achieved some promising results by having discovered that the application of epoxy-based, electron beam compatible sizings or coatings onto surface-treated, unsized IM7 carbon fibers improved the composite interlaminar shear strength properties by as much as 55% versus composites fabricated from surface-treated, unsized IM7 fibers. In addition, by applying these same epoxy-based sizings or coatings onto surface-treated, unsized IM7 fibers it was possible to achieve an 11% increase in the composite interlaminar shear strength compared to composites made from surface-treated, GP-sized IM7 fibers. Work is continuing in this area of research to further improve these properties.

  14. Nature cure treatment in the context of India's epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Joseph Stewart; Sharma, Chandrashekar

    2016-07-01

    Scholars have argued that theoretical insights of critical medical anthropology should be applied to the analysis of complementary and alternative medicine in order to develop more critically engaged integrative medicine. In this essay we focus on nature cure in the context of India's contemporary epidemiological transition as an example of why engaged integrative medicine is important for public health, and how the institutionalization of nature cure treatment in India provides a critical framework for the development of programs focused on holistic treatment and prevention. After providing an overview of the epidemiological transition in contemporary India, we develop this argument through an examination of illustrative cases in a clinic that operates within the structure of India's Central Council for Research on Yoga and Naturopathy. Based on a review of recent history and contemporary practice we describe how a system of medicine that makes use exclusively of air, earth, sunlight, water and food has been institutionalized and professionalized in India. Whereas biomedical treatment for chronic non-communicable diseases is focused on the problem of curing individual diseases, nature cure establishes a regimen of personalized public healthcare for the integrated management of symptoms. We argue that nature cure is based on an ecological understanding of health, thus providing treatment that reflects a broad appreciation for the risk factors that characterize India's current crises of public health. PMID:27417171

  15. Thermal stability and curing kinetics of polycarbosilane fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Thermal stability and curing kinetics of polycarbosilane (PCS) fibers were studied by thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). Curing is an essential step in the preparation of SiC fibers and the properties of SiC fibers are affected greatly by curing conditions. TG measurement performed in air shows that mass gain starts at approximately 200℃ and PCS fibers are sensitive to oxygen. Curing with oxygen, which results in crosslinking on the surface, enabled PCS fibers to retain its shape during high-temperature pyrolysis. The curing of PCS fibers is oxidation of Si-H and Si-CH3, then Si-O-Si and Si-O-C bonds are formed. This is a first order reaction, with activation energy of 79.27 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor is calculated as 3.07 × 106.The kinetics model was obtained and the experimental data of PCS fibers show good agreement with the kinetics model.

  16. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing

  17. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M A [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico); Medina-Esquivel, R [Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230, Queretaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J J [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico)

    2007-10-07

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  18. Caring and curing: paediatric cancer services since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper traces the history of the specialist meanings of 'cure' in paediatric oncology in the UK, how they have changed with increasing organization of the discipline, ever-rising survival rates for all childhood cancers, and with feedback from patients and families. It examines the differing ways in which those involved in researching, treating, and raising funds for work on childhood cancers have understood and used the language of cure, and speculates as to why talking about the 'cure' of survivors of childhood cancers is so problematic. The paper discusses the particular importance of holistic care in the development of paediatric oncology. Psychosocial support is delivered alongside surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The focus for support is the patient's whole family, building a tenet of palliative care into curative treatment. The concept of the 'truly cured child' is argued to have been crucial in the discipline's decision in the 1970s and 1980s to make the psychosocial needs of patients and their families central in the programme of curing children with cancer. PMID:16098123

  19. Simulation-Based Optimization of Cure Cycle of Large Area Compression Molding for LED Silicone Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Jae Song; Kwon-Hee Kim; Seok-Kwan Hong; Jeong-Won Lee; Jeong-Yeon Park; Gil-Sang Yoon; Heung-Kyu Kim

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional heat transfer-curing simulation was performed for the curing process by introducing a large area compression molding for simultaneous forming and mass production for the lens and encapsulants in the LED molding process. A dynamic cure kinetics model for the silicone resin was adopted and cure model and analysis result were validated and compared through a temperature measurement experiment for cylinder geometry with cure model. The temperature deviation between each lens cav...

  20. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunint Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by

  1. A study on the influence of curing on the strength of a standard grade concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Curing is essential if concrete is to perform the intended function over the design life of the structure while excessive curing time may lead to the escalation of the construction cost of the project and unnecessary delays. Where there is a scarcity of water and on sloping surfaces where curing with water is difficult and in cases where large areas like pavements have to be cured, the use of curing compound may be resorted to. The parameters of the study include the curing period [1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 day], curing method [conventional wet curing, membrane forming compound curing and accelerated curing] and the type of cement [Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC 43 grade, Portland Pozzolana Cement(PPC 43 grade and Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC 43 grade +10% Silica Fume(SF replacement for cement]. In all a total of 99 cube specimens were cast and cured under different conditions before testing. Test results indicate a drop in strength at all ages for concretes with PPC and the one in which 10% OPC is replaced by silica Fume(SF in comparison with the concrete with OPC. Curing by membrane forming curing compound yielded nearly the same results as that of conventional wet curing for concrete with OPC and there was a marginal decrement in concrete with PPC. Predicted 28-day strength of concrete from the accelerated curing test was found to be on a conservative side compared to control concrete.

  2. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: A population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. Methods A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Results Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15–2.64. Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37–0.83 and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34–0.89 was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Conclusion Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  3. Practical aspects of irradiance and energy in UV curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of UV-cured materials are substantially affected by the lamp systems used to cure them. The development of the intended properties, whether a varnish, an ink, or an adhesive, can depend on how well these lamp factors are designed and managed. The four key factors of UV exposure are: UV irradiance (or intensity), spectral distribution (wavelengths) of UV, effective energy (time-integrated UV irradiance), and infrared radiation. Inks and varnishes will exhibit very different response to peak irradiance or energy, as well as to different UV spectra. The ability to identify the various lamp characteristics and match them to the optical properties of the curable materials, widens the range in which UV curing is a faster, more efficient production process. This paper explores the reasons for clearly identifying these factors for process optimization

  4. Cost analysis of low energy electron accelerator for film curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy electron accelerators are recognized as one of the advanced curing means of converting processes for films and papers. In the last three years the price of the accelerator equipment has been greatly reduced. The targeted application areas are mainly processes of curing inks, coatings, and adhesives to make packaging materials. The operating cost analyses were made for electron beam (EB) processes over the conventional ones without EB. Then three new proposals for cost reduction of EB processes are introduced. Also being developed are new EB chemistries such as coatings, laminating adhesives and inks. EB processes give instantaneous cure and EB chemistries are basically non solvent causing less VOC emission to the environment. These developments of both equipment and chemistries might have a potential to change conventional packaging film industries. (author)

  5. A study of large-cardamom curing chambers in Sikkim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mande, S.; Kumar, A.; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    1999-06-01

    India is the largest producer of large cardamom in the world with an annual production of 4000 tons, followed by Nepal (2500 tons/year) and Bhutan (1000 tons/year). More than 85% of the production within India is from Sikkim. Firewood is extensively used for curing cardamom in small traditional curing chambers called {sup b}hattis{sup .} The traditional curing process is not only inefficient, resulting in an estimated fuelwood wastage of 20 000 tons/year, but also yields a poor quality product. An attempt is made in the present work to analyze the thermal performance of the traditional bhattis through field survey and operational data collection. Based on the experimental observations and analysis, options for improvement such as use of a gasifier are suggested. (author)

  6. Influence of light curing units on failure of directcomposite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Jadhav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Light polymerizable tooth colored restorative materials are most widely preferred for advantages such as esthetics, improved physical properties and operator′s control over the working time. Since the introduction of these light polymerizable restorative materials, there has been a concern about the depth of appropriate cure throughout the restoration. Photopolymerization of the composite is of fundamental importance because adequate polymerization is a crucial factor for optimization of the physical and mechanical properties and clinical results of the composite material. Inadequate polymerization results in greater deterioration at the margins of the restoration, decreased bond strength between the tooth and the restoration, greater cytotoxicity, and reduced hardness. Therefore, the dentist must use a light curing unit that delivers adequate and sufficient energy to optimize composite polymerization. Varying light intensity affects the degree of conversion of monomer to polymer and depth of cure.

  7. Comparative study of EB and UV cured polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of formulations were developed with urethane diacrylate oligomers in combination with several reactive diluent monomers of different functionalities in the presence of certain co-diluent co-monomers. Thin polymer films were prepared with these formulated solutions using either electron beam (EB) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the radiation cured films were studied and correlated with the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the homopolymer of diluents and co-diluents. Tensile properties (strength and elongation) were almost double with the UV-cured films than those of the EB-cured films of the similar formulation. Thermal behavior was also found to be different in these two systems. The co-monomers played significant role to produce more shape recovery films than the oligomer/diluent system. The co-diluents also induced shape recovery character in the film whose Tg values are lower than 0 degree C. This is unique

  8. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luscino Alves de Castro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8×2 mm were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI. Three temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 60°C and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1; B: 7 days after storage (M2; C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3. The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%. Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p0.05. The 60°C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10°C temperature (p0.05. Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05, but was higher at 10°C than at 60°C for all curing times (p0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and curing times.

  9. Color coating on tin plate by electron beam curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of thin films of color paints cured by electron beam radiation were examined for the purpose of appling electron beams to the color printing of can exteriors. The mixtures of various kinds of acrylic oligomers, monomers, and pigments were used as color paints. The color paints were coated on tin plate and the plates were irradiated in an atmosphere of nitrogen with low energy electron beams of 200 kV. The pencil hardness, adhesion, cracking, and hue of cured coating were measured. From the results of these tests, several color paints seem to be appropriate for the processing of can exterious. (author)

  10. The chemistry of UV and BE radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of photopolymerisation (UV) and electron beams (EB) technologies in radiation rapid cure (PRC) processing is discussed. The chemistry associated with such reactions and the mechanisms of the processes are treated. The occurrence of concurrent grafting to substrate with radiation curing of films is shown to be an advantage in enhancing the properties of certain finished products. The parameters influencing the optimum grafting yield in such PRC processes are discussed. In many applications, the chemistry of such processes combined with the machine, specially for EB is shown. (author)

  11. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...... is monitored by stress measurements. From the stress measurements we conclude that the epoxy cures in 8 hours at room temperature. We find the difference in in-plane normal stresses to be sigmaxx-sigmayy=6.7 MPa and (sigmaxx+sigmayy-0.4sigmazz)=232 MPa....

  12. Trends in the wide web converting markets for UV curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we prepare to enter a new decade, the use of ultraviolet (UV) energy to initiate the polymerization of coatings in the wide web segment of the Converting industry continues to increase. As is typical in the Converting industry, while many of the significant advances in technology have been developed around the world, they have been driven initially by the Western European markets. This was true with regards to the introduction of water-borne Pressure Sensitive Adhesives and thermal curing 100% solids silicone release coatings during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but this trend has changed with regards to the current state-of-the-art in UV curing

  13. Dynamic dielectric analysis for nondestructive cure monitoring and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Delos, S. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Whitham, M. E.; Weller, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic dielectric analysis (DDA) is an effective in situ NDE method that can monitor the reaction status in thermosets and the phase changes in thermoplastics, including slow reactions occuring late in the cure cycle and recrystallization during annealing. The effects of moisture and resin history on reaction rate can also be determined, as can ionic and dipolar contributions. The ionic mobility parameter is noted to be an excellent monitor of viscosity above the glass transition temperature. The ability of DDA to monitor cure rate variations in a thick section during autoclaving has been demonstrated.

  14. The chemistry of UV and EB radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of photopolymerisation (UV) and electron beam (EB) technologies in radiation rapid cure (RRC) processing is discussed. The chemistry associated with such reactions and the mechanisms of the processes are treated. The occurrence of concurrent grafting to substrate with radiation curing of film is shown to be an advantage in enhancing the properties of certain finished products. The parameters influencing the optimum grafting yield in such RRC processes are discussed. In many applications, the chemistry of the process combined with the machine, expecially for EB, is shown a so-called ''turn-key'' operation. (author)

  15. Synthesis and curing of alkyd enamels based on ricinoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of an alkyd resin with a melamine-formaldehyde resin gives a cured enamel film with the flexibility of the alkyd constituent and the high chemical resistance and hardness of the melamine resin at the same time. The melamine resin is a minor constituent and plays the role of a crosslinking agent. In this paper, alkyd resins of high hydroxyl numbers based on trimethylolpropane, ricinoleic acid and phthalic anhydride were synthesized. Two alkyds having 30 and 40 wt% of ricinoleic acid were formulated by calculation on alkyd constant. Alkyds were characterized by FTIR and by the determination of acid and hydroxyl numbers. Then synthesized alkyds were made into baking enamels by mixing with melamine-formaldehyde resins (weight ratio of 70:30 based on dried mass. Two types of commercial melamine resins were used: threeisobutoxymethyl melamine-formaldehyde resin (TIMMF and hexamethoxymethyl melamine resin (HMMMF. Prepared alkyd/melamine resin mixtures were cured in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC under non-isothermal mode. Apparent degree of curing as a function of temperature was calculated from the curing enthalpies. Kinetic parameters of curing were calculated using Freeman-Carroll method. TIMMF resin is more reactive with synthesized alkyds than HMMMF resin what was expected. Alkyd resin with 30 wt% of ricinoleic acid is slightly more reactive than alkyd with 40 wt% of ricinoleic acid, probably because it has the high contents of free hydroxyl and acid groups. The gel content, Tg, thermal stability, hardness, elasticity and impact resistance of coated films cured at 150°C for 60 min were measured. Cured films show good thermal stability since the onset of films thermal degradation determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA is observed at the temperatures from 281 to 329°C. Films based on alkyd 30 are more thermal stable than those from alkyd 40, with the same melamine resin. The type of alkyd resin has no significant

  16. Magnetoactive elastomeric composites: Cure, tensile, electrical and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sasikumar; G Suresh; K A Thomas; Reji John; V Natarajan; T Mukundan; R M R Vishnubhatla

    2006-11-01

    Magnetically active elastomer materials were prepared by incorporating nickel powder in synthetic elastomeric matrices, polychloroprene and nitrile rubber. Cure characteristics, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were experimentally determined for different volume fractions of magnetoactive filler. The cure time decreases sharply for initial filler loading and the decrease is marginal for additional loading of filler. The tensile strength and modulus at 100% strain was found to increase with increase in the volume fraction of nickel due to reinforcement action. The magnetic impedance and a.c. conductivity are found to increase with increase in volume fraction of nickel as well as frequency.

  17. Optimization of infrared radiation cure process parameters for glass fiber reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Conventional thermal post curing process of polymer composites has the disadvantages of longer cure schedule, presence of thermal gradient between the core and outer layers and uncured resin patches within the composite laminate. Infrared radiation (IR) which is a part of electromagnetic spectrum, like other radiation curing methods, it is utilized for processing of food products, heating metals and other applications. The same technology is extended for curing of polymer composite laminates in this work. IR curing results in volumetric heating, hence it is faster and better compared to thermal curing. Considerable amount of time is saved as understood from the graph. Research highlights: → IR curing utilizes only 25% of total time as compared to conventional thermal curing method. → The optimized process parameters have been developed for Infrared radiation curing process. → Infrared radiation curing can be effectively employed for curing of polymer composite laminates. -- Abstract: Elevated temperature post curing is one of the most critical step in the processing of polymer composites. It ensures that the complete cross-linking takes place to produce the targeted properties of composites. In this work infrared radiation (IR) post curing process for glass fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates is studied as an alternative to conventional thermal cure. Distance from the IR source, curing schedule and volume of the composite were selected as the IR cure parameters for optimization. Design of experiments (DOE) approach was adopted for conducting the experiments. Tensile strength and flexural strength of the composite laminate were the responses measured to select the final cure parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), surface plots and contour plots clearly demonstrate that the distance from the IR source and volume of the composite contribute nearly 70% to the response functions. This establishes that polymer composites cured using

  18. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  19. Argon Ion Laser Polymerized Acrylic Resin: A Comparative Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Laser Cured, Light Cured and Heat Cured Denture Base Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, S. Srinivasa; Murthy, Gargi S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dentistry in general and prosthodontics in particular is evolving at greater pace, but the denture base resins poly methyl methacrylate. There has been vast development in modifying chemically and the polymerization techniques for better manipulation and enhancement of mechanical properties. One such invention was introduction of visible light cure (VLC) denture base resin. Argon ion lasers have been used extensively in dentistry, studies has shown that it can polymerize restorati...

  20. Early-Age Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete in Various Curing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sup Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC can be sensitively affected by the curing method used. However, in contrast to the precast plant production of UHPC where a standard high-temperature steam curing is available, an optimum curing condition is rarely realized with cast-in-place UHPC. Therefore, the trend of the compressive strength development of UHPC was experimentally investigated in this study, with a focus on early-age strength by assuming the various curing conditions anticipated on site. Concrete specimens were cured under different conditions with variables including curing temperature, delay time before the initiation of curing, duration of curing, and moisture condition. Several conditions for curing are proposed that are required when the cast-in-place UHPC should gain a specified strength at an early age. It is expected that the practical use of UHPC on construction sites can be expedited through this study.

  1. Radiation cure technology used in inks and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation cure technology in inks and coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) and electron beam (EB) was introduced. The technology is the only one which meets the 3-E rules. An advantage of this technology is that a wide range of substrates can be printed such as paper, card, metal and even heat sensitive plastics

  2. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  3. Self-Organized Criticality: A Prophetic Path to Curing Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    While the concepts involved in Self-Organized Criticality have stimulated thousands of theoretical models, only recently have these models addressed problems of biological and clinical importance. Here we outline how SOC can be used to engineer hybrid viral proteins whose properties, extrapolated from those of known strains, may be sufficiently effective to cure cancer.

  4. Raman spectroscopic studies of the cure of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, S. E.; Brown, E. C.; Corrigan, N.; Coates, P. D.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    2005-10-01

    The cure of polydicyclopentadiene conducted by ring-opening metathesis polymerisation in the presence of a Grubbs catalyst was studied using non-invasive Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the monomer precursor and polymerised product were fully characterised and all stages of polymerisation monitored. Because of the monomer's high reactivity, the cure process is adaptable to reaction injection moulding and reactive rotational moulding. The viscosity of the dicyclopentadiene undergoes a rapid change at the beginning of the polymerisation process and it is critical that the induction time of the viscosity increase is determined and controlled for successful manufacturing. The results from this work show non-invasive Raman spectroscopic monitoring to be an effective method for monitoring the degree of cure, paving the way for possible implementation of the technique as a method of real-time analysis for control and optimisation during reactive processing. Agreement is shown between Raman measurements and ultrasonic time of flight data acquired during the initial induction period of the curing process.

  5. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Sam V.

    Radiation curing activities in the USA continue to focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at "room temperature" continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with "deep" curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tires and roofing products.

  6. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curing activities in the USA focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at ''room temperature'' continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with ''deep'' curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tyres and roofing products. (author)

  7. Can advanced-stage ovarian cancer be cured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narod, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 20% of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer survive beyond 12 years after treatment and are effectively cured. Initial therapy for ovarian cancer comprises surgery and chemotherapy, and is given with the goal of eradicating as many cancer cells as possible. Indeed, the three phases of therapy are as follows: debulking surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible, preferably to a state of no visible residual disease; chemotherapy to eradicate any microscopic disease that remains present after surgery; and second-line or maintenance therapy, which is given to delay disease progression among patients with tumour recurrence. If no cancer cells remain after initial therapy is completed, a cure is expected. By contrast, if residual cancer cells are present after initial treatment, then disease recurrence is likely. Thus, the probability of cure is contingent on the combination of surgery and chemotherapy effectively eliminating all cancer cells. In this Perspectives article, I present the case that the probability of achieving a cancer-free state is maximized through a combination of maximal debulking surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. I discuss the evidence indicating that by taking this approach, cures could be achieved in up to 50% of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. PMID:26787282

  8. Radiation curing of intelligent coating on biofunctional membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent membranes for the controlled permeation and release of drugs were prepared by coating and curing process of mixture consisting of electrolyte monomer and UV curable monomer on a porous polymeric film or a drug-containing film. pH- and substrate responsive drug permeation and controlled releases could be attained effectively using those intelligent membranes. (author)

  9. Industrial potential for application of radiation curing in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications of radiation curing of coating are in the field of wood and wood products, drying of printing inks, ceramics (roof and floor tiles) and textiles. Pakistan a 'timber deficit' country needs to improve her wood, plywood, hardboard and particle board to make for shortage of quality wood. Imports of wood and wood products are in excess of 3000 million rupees. Radiation curing can be applied and itexcels over heat treatment. Whereas costs of high energy units (500 KeV) with scanning type are rather high, low energy (100-175 KeV) flat beam self-shielded units costing 200,000 US$ are available. For developing countries ultraviolet (UV) curing is ideally suited because of its low price, flexibility and simplicity in handling. Alternately, multipurpose bunker type facility such as 500 KeV current mA can be utilized in carrying out heat-shrinkables production, irradiation of cable and wire and curing of coatings on wood and wood products. (author)

  10. Pilot process waste assessment: Polyurethane foam mixing and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a comprehensive assessment of the process waste streams for a polyurethane foam mixing and curing process in a rigid foam molding facility. The assessment includes profiles of waste streams, mass balances, pollution prevention options, benefit analysis of the options, and recommendations

  11. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  12. Estimation of Cure Fraction for Lognormal Right Censored Data with Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweab, Fauzia Ali; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aljawadi, Bader Ahmad I.

    In clinical studies, a proportion of patients might be unsusceptible to the event of interest and can be considered as cured. The survival models that incorporate the cured proportion are known as cure rate models where the most widely used model is the mixture cure model. However, in cancer clinical trials, mixture model is not the appropriate model and the viable alternative is the Bounded Cumulative Hazard (BCH) model. In this paper we consider the BCH model to estimate the cure fraction based on the lognormal distribution. The parametric estimation of the cure fraction for survival data with right censoring with covariates is obtained by using EM algorithm.

  13. Curing Reaction Kinetics of Epoxy Resin Using Dicyandiamide Modified by Aromatic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lianxi; TIAN Hua; LIU Quanwen; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    The curing reaction and reaction mechanism of epoxy resin E-44, for which aromatic amine modified dicyandiamide was used as a curing reagent, were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the modified dicyandiamide had better curing characteristic than ummodified dicyandiamide for epoxy resin E-44, and the curing reaction could be carried out at moderate temperature. Apparent activation energy of the curing reaction was decreased appreciably from 123.829 kJ/mol to 61.550-64.405 kJ/mol, and reaction order was decreased from 0.941 to 0.896-0.900. Curing reaction mechanism also was discussed.

  14. Economic evaluation of five curing processes for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the economic feasibility of five methods for curing coatings over sheet wood products. Each year, Mexico is producing more than 40 millions of square meters of wood panels, but the demand is of the range of 58 millions of square meters of this product. Two millions are expended after they are coated, and 38 millions without coating, they are coated artisanilly when they are used to make pieces of furniture. The technical characteristics and the costs involved in each one of five methods of curing, are described. Investments involved with each method are processed to establish: fixed costs, variable costs, equilibrium point, and others. Initial investment, coasts and revenues are processed to determine the income statement pro-form, the projected statement of change in financial position, the projected working capital, the projected balance sheet, the cash-flow, and some economical and financial indicators for each one of the five curing methods. With this information, the internal rate of return (IRR) is determined, and used to compare the economic worth of each of the five methods. The five methods are profitable, because all they have a IRR greater than the opportunity cost of capital (15%) of projects with similar characteristics. Despite, with each one of the five methods, the capital invested is recoverable, and profits can be obtained; curing by ultraviolet light or by electron beam, let recover the investment in less than two years, require fewer dollars for investment, and have a IRR of 135% and 111% respectively. Besides ultraviolet light or electron beam curing processes, pollute less with volatile solvents, use the energy efficiently, have greater production rate, and the coating obtained have better quality than with the other three methods. (Author)

  15. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  16. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  17. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  18. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  19. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  20. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  1. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  2. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  3. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  4. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  5. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, K. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y. [MIcroSystems Engineering Centre (MISEC), Institute of Signals, Sensors and Systems, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Arrighi, V., E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T{sub g}.

  6. Study of cure kinetics of polyacrylamide hydrogels by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized by partial cross-lining of Polyacrylamide using ρ-formaldehyde as curing agent. The cross-linking reaction was studied using differential scanning calorimeter and cure kinetics was determined. The dynamic differential scanning calorimeter scans of freshly mixed reaction mixture that showed an endothermic peak corresponding to cure at 75±1 deg C , indicate multiple reactions. The FTIR studies of curing reactions indicated that alkaline hydrolysis of Polyacrylamide was also occurring during curing as evident by generation of carboxylic group in the cured Polyacrylamide or hydrogels. In the initial phase of cross-linking reaction and at lower temperature rapid hydrolysis occurred which was endothermic in nature, but at higher temperature curing reaction was favoured. Isothermal cure kinetics revealed that curing reaction was nth order type and followed third order kinetics. The study also indicates that with the degree of conversion 0.25-0.26, both curing and hydrolysis occurs simultaneously but at higher conversions curing reaction proceeds alone. The swelling studies also indicates that the swelling index of Polyacrylamide hydrogels increases with decreasing curing agent concentration; but increases with increasing swelling duration and curing time, and molecular weight of polymer

  7. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  8. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  9. A thermosensitive gel formulation of an empirical traditional Chinese prescription for treating cervical erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Shuqing Zhou; Xiaoling Zheng; Caihong Zheng; Fan Qu; Xuefen Cai; Juanhua Xu

    2012-01-01

    Cervical erosion, a pathological change associated with chronic cervicitis, is a common condition that is difficult to cure. Many patients particularly those with mild or medium infection and those preparing for pregnancy require a simple but effective medication. In this study, extracts of an empirical herbal prescription composed of six Chinese traditional drugs viz Cortex Phellodendri, Rhizoma Coptidis, Olibanum, Myrrha, borneol and catechu were formulated to facilitate intravaginal admini...

  10. 50 Cases of Pointed Condyloma Treated by Surgery Combined with External Washing with Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小毛; 曾佳; 龙亚军

    2001-01-01

    @@ Pointed condyloma in the anus is caused by a virus of human papilloma, marked by the presence of rapidly growing cutaneous verrucae with itching, mild pain and offensive secretion. Diagnosis can be made based on biopsy. The disease is of high recurrence and very difficult to be cured radically. The author combined surgery with external washing with Chinese herbal medicine and achieved quite good results. The following is report of the treatment.

  11. Extraction of uranium from coarse ore and acid-curing and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of analysis of the problems in the technology of the traditional uranium hydrometallurgy and the limitations of thin layer leaching process (TLL), a new leaching system-acid-curing and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching (AFL) process (NGJ in Chinese) has developed for extraction of uranium from the coarse ore. The ferric sulphate solution was used for trickling the acid-cured uranium ore and the residual leaching reaction incomplete in TLL process can be improved in this process. And the AFL process has a wide applicability to China's uranium ores, being in competition with the traditional agitation leaching process for treating coarse ores. The uranium ore processing technology based on the AFL process will become one of the new basic technologies of uranium hydrometallurgy. A series of difficulties will be basically overcome associated with fine grinding because of its elimination in the presented process. Moreover, the situation of the present uranium hydrometallurgy can be also changed owing to without technological effluent discharge

  12. Effect of Source Bandwidth, Focusing and Fluence on the Depth Of Cure in Polymer Dental Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ranjit; Melikechi, Noureddine; Eichmiller, Frederick

    2000-03-01

    Photo-curable polymer dental composites are widely used in restorative dental applications. These composites are typically cured using a conventional curing lamp with broad band visible irradiation between 400-500 nm. Argon ion laser-based sources are now available in dentistry for curing applications. This work reports on the dependence of depth of cure on the wavelength bandwidth, the focusing geometry and the irradiation fluence of the curing light source. The depth of cure resulting from a narrow band irradiation source such as the 488 line of the Argon ion laser is observed to be higher than that resulting from broadband irradiation sources such as the curing lamp or the multiline Argon ion laser with lines between 450-500 nm. For the same total irradiation energy deposited into the polymer a focused beam yields higher depth of cure than a non-focused beam.

  13. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  14. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus, the...... irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... exposed to the pulse-delay curing mode were softer than resin composites exposed to continuous cure (P<0.0001). Tetric Ceram was the softest material followed by Esthet-X and Filtek Z250 (P<0.001). Only the restorative material had a significant effect on degree of conversion (P<0.001): Esthet-X had the...

  15. Cellular effects of halogen blue light from dental curing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Halogen curing lights are the most frequently used polymerization source in dental offices. Light-cured bonding systems have become increasingly popular among clinicians because they offer a number of advantages over self-cured adhesives. The effort to increase polymerization quality releases the commercially available high power light density dental curing units. Emitted visible blue light belongs to the range of nonionizing radiation. Common concern in both, patients and dentist grows with regard to the unfavorable effects on the pulp tissue. The aim of study was to evaluate the time and dose dependence effect of halogen light curing unit (Elipar TriLight, ESPE Dental AG, Germany) at the disposed condition modes in vitro. A quartz-tungsten-halogen light source emits radiation of the wavelengths between 400 and 515 nm. This halogen blue light source operates in the three illumination modes, medium (M), exponential (E) and standard (S), and five illumination times. The total irradiance or the light intensity was measured by the light intensity control area on the control panel of device and mean light intensity given by manufacturer was 800 m W/cm2. Continuous culture of V79 cells was illuminated in triplicate. The influence of medium mode (M), exponential (E) and standard (S) illumination during 20, 40 and 80 sec on the cell viability, colony forming ability and proliferation of V79 cell culture was investigated. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability, both, in the treated and control cell samples. Colony forming ability was assessed for each exposure time and mode by colony count on post-exposure day 7. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each time and mode of exposure during five post-exposure days. Statistical difference were determined at p<0.05 (Statistica 7.0, StatSoft Inc., USA). Viability of cells was not affected by blue light in view of exposure time and modes. Regardless to exposure or illumination

  16. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  17. Early-Age Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete in Various Curing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Sup Park; Young Jin Kim; Jeong-Rae Cho; Se-Jin Jeon

    2015-01-01

    The strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) can be sensitively affected by the curing method used. However, in contrast to the precast plant production of UHPC where a standard high-temperature steam curing is available, an optimum curing condition is rarely realized with cast-in-place UHPC. Therefore, the trend of the compressive strength development of UHPC was experimentally investigated in this study, with a focus on early-age strength by assuming the various curing conditions ...

  18. Cure reaction and phase behavior of liquid crystalline epoxides-anhydride systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan Liang; Shao Ping Ren; Yi Quan Zheng; Man Geng Lu

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel liquid crystalline epoxides with lateral substituents were cured with anhydrides and the cure kinetics was investigated by non-isothermal DSC technique. The results showed that the lengths of lateral substituents have great effect on the value of Ea. The curing reaction became less active, when the liquid crystalline epoxides have long lateral substituents and were controlled by diffusion at the late stage of cure. A nematic structure was observed by POM and XRD.

  19. Study of catalytic effect of ammonium molybdate on the bisphthalonitrile resins curing reaction with aromatic amine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ting Li; Fang Zuo; Kun Jia; Xiao Bo Liu

    2009-01-01

    A kind of catalyst, ammonium molybdate was developed in this paper to promote the curing reaction of bisphthalonitrile resins with aromatic amine as curing agent, and the catalytic effect was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometric measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the catalyst could improve the curing rate and increase the curing degree, which could be regulated by the content of the catalyst used in the reaction.

  20. Implications of prioritizing HIV cure: new momentum to overcome old challenges in HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, JD; Gilbertson, A; Lo, YR; Vitória, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Curing HIV is a new strategic priority for several major AIDS organizations. In step with this new priority, HIV cure research and related programs are advancing in low, middle, and high-income country settings. This HIV cure momentum may influence existing HIV programs and research priorities. Discussion Despite the early stage of ongoing HIV cure efforts, these changes have directly influenced HIV research funding priorities, pilot programs, and HIV messaging. The building moment...

  1. Experimental investigation of interface curing stresses between PMMA and composite using digital speckle correlation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the interface curing stresses between polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and composite by means of digital speckle correlation method (DSCM).A new method by combining DSCM with the marker points is developed to measure the interface curing stresses,and the measurement principle is introduced.The interface curing stresses between PMMA and composite with different curing bonding conditions are measured and analyzed,this indicates that the residual stress for furnace heating and furnace cooling ...

  2. Ionizing radiation post-curing of objects produced by stereolithography and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David H.; Eberle, Claude C.; Janke, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    An object comprised of a curable material and formed by stereolithography or another three-dimensional prototyping method, in which the object has undergone initial curing, is subjected to post-curing by ionizing radiation, such as an electron beam having a predetermined beam output energy, which is applied in a predetermined dosage and at a predetermined dose rate. The post-cured object exhibits a property profile which is superior to that which existed prior to the ionizing radiation post-curing.

  3. 9 CFR 327.23 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance procedure for cured pork... procedure for cured pork products offered for entry. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) A Product is that cured pork article which is contained within one Group as defined in paragraph...

  4. Thermal stabilities of various rubber vulcanization cured by sulfur, peroxide and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur and peroxide-cured rubber vulcanizates of NR and EPDM were obtained by blending the elastomers with fillers, antioxidants and appropriate accelerators, followed by vulcanization at 150 - 160 degree C. Blends of the same elastomers with appropriate co-agents and additives were also cured by gamma radiation at 150 and 200 kGy. A comparison of the thermal stabilities of these vulcanizates prepared by different curing techniques has been made by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), assessed on the basis of comparison of DTG peak maxima, temperature for loss of 50% mass and actual thermal curves. The comparison reveals that the sulfur-cured vulcanizates are less thermally stable than their peroxide-cured counterparts. This may be attributed to the presence of a stronger C-C bond in case of peroxide-cured vulcanizates compared to weaker C-S sub x-C bond in case of sulfur-cured vulcanizates. However, compared to peroxide-cured vulcanizates, radiation-cured formulations demonstrated much improved thermal stability. This may originate from the existence of more uniformly distributed crosslinks and the enhanced rate of crosslink formation in the radiation process as compared to peroxide curing. In all the formulations whether sulfur, peroxide or radiation-cured, the natural rubber vulcanizates were found to be thermally much inferior to the synthetic contender, EPDM. Influence of variation of the amount of co-agent and other additives on the thermal stabilities of formulations of radiation cured NR and EPDM vulcanizates was also investigated

  5. Characterization of Moisture Diffusion in Cured Concrete Slabs at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the characterization of moisture diffusion inside early-age concrete slabs subjected to curing. Time-dependent relative humidity (RH distributions of three mixture proportions subjected to three different curing methods (i.e., air curing, water curing, and membrane-forming compounds curing and sealed condition were measured for 28 days. A one-dimensional nonlinear moisture diffusion partial differential equation (PDE based on Fick’s second law, which incorporates the effect of curing in the Dirichlet boundary condition using a concept of curing factor, is developed to simulate the diffusion process. Model parameters are calibrated by a genetic algorithm (GA. Experimental results show that the RH reducing rate inside concrete under air curing is greater than the rates under membrane-forming compound curing and water curing. It is shown that the effect of water-to-cement (w/c ratio on self-desiccation is significant. Lower w/c ratio tends to result in larger RH reduction. RH reduction considering both effect of diffusion and self-desiccation in early-age concrete is not sensitive to w/c ratio, but to curing method. Comparison between model simulation and experimental results indicates that the improved model is able to reflect the effect of curing on moisture diffusion in early-age concrete slabs.

  6. Influence of curing rate of resin composite on the bond strength to dentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

    2007-01-01

    @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode. In...

  7. Curing Behavior and Viscoelasticity of Dual-Curable Adhesives Based on High-Reactivity Azo Initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Shim, Gyu-Seong; Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Moon, Sang-Eun; Kim, Young-Kwan; No, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Han, Kwan-Young

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the curing behavior of dual-curable acrylic resin to solve problems associated with curing of adhesives in shaded areas during display manufacture. A low-temperature curing-type thermal initiator, 2,2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), with a 30°C half-life decomposition temperature was used in the investigation. Dual-curable adhesives were prepared according to the thermal initiator content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation dose. The effects of thermal initiator and UV irradiation on the curing behavior and viscoelasticity were investigated. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-fraction analysis, an evaluation was carried out to determine the degree of curing after dual UV/thermal curing. In addition, the real-time curing behavior was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a UV/advanced rheometric expansion system. A lift-off test was carried out to verify the effects of dual curing on adhesion performance. Application of UV irradiation before thermal curing suppressed the thermal curing efficiency. Also, the network structure formed after dual curing with low UV dose showed higher crosslinking density. Therefore, the thermal initiator radical effectively influenced uncured areas with low curing temperature and initiator content without causing problems in UV-curable zones.

  8. Curing Behavior and Viscoelasticity of Dual-Curable Adhesives Based on High-Reactivity Azo Initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Shim, Gyu-Seong; Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Moon, Sang-Eun; Kim, Young-Kwan; No, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Han, Kwan-Young

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the curing behavior of dual-curable acrylic resin to solve problems associated with curing of adhesives in shaded areas during display manufacture. A low-temperature curing-type thermal initiator, 2,2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), with a 30°C half-life decomposition temperature was used in the investigation. Dual-curable adhesives were prepared according to the thermal initiator content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation dose. The effects of thermal initiator and UV irradiation on the curing behavior and viscoelasticity were investigated. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-fraction analysis, an evaluation was carried out to determine the degree of curing after dual UV/thermal curing. In addition, the real-time curing behavior was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a UV/advanced rheometric expansion system. A lift-off test was carried out to verify the effects of dual curing on adhesion performance. Application of UV irradiation before thermal curing suppressed the thermal curing efficiency. Also, the network structure formed after dual curing with low UV dose showed higher crosslinking density. Therefore, the thermal initiator radical effectively influenced uncured areas with low curing temperature and initiator content without causing problems in UV-curable zones.

  9. Might dolutegravir be part of a functional cure for HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Mark A; Han, Ying-Shan; Mesplède, Thibault

    2016-05-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly decreased HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, HIV can establish viral reservoirs that evade both the immune system and ART. Dolutegravir (DTG) is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) related to the first-generation INSTIs raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG). DTG shows a higher genetic barrier to the development of HIV-1 resistance than RAL and EVG. More interestingly, clinical resistance mutations to DTG in treatment-naïve patients have not been observed to date. This review summarizes recent studies on strategies toward a cure for HIV, explores resistance profiles of DTG, and discusses how DTG might help in finding a functional cure for HIV. PMID:27031127

  10. Conductor microstructures by laser curing of printed gold nanoparticle ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser-based curing of printed nanoparticle ink to create microlines (resistors) of electrical resistivity approaching that of bulk gold was investigated. The present work relies on laser absorption in both the nanoparticle ink and the sintered gold layer, as well as the transport of thermal energy in the substrate and the resulting solvent vaporization and nanoparticle deposition and sintering. The morphology and electrical properties of the gold line can be controlled by modulating the spatial distribution of the laser beam intensity. Based on the understanding of the underlying physics, a process that circumvents a serious drawback on the functionality of cured gold microlines is produced. Microconductors with resistivity approaching that of bulk gold are produced, while loss of gold nanoparticles and cross sectional nonuniformities are avoided

  11. Ultraviolet curing for surface modification of textile fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica

    2011-10-01

    In this study, cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics were treated by radical or cationic ultraviolet curing of different commercial products conferring water and oil repellency. Moreover, radical ultraviolet curing of chitosan was applied to confer antimicrobial properties. The advantages of this technology are well known making it very interesting for industrial applications: energy savings, low environmental impact, simple, cheap and small equipment, high treatment speed. The polymerization was controlled through weight gain and gel content measurements, while the properties of hydro and oil repellency were determined in terms of contact angle, moisture adsorption and water vapor permeability. The polymer distribution on fabric surfaces was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. However the fabrics treated with chitosan were subjected to the standard test for determining the antimicrobial activity. Finally the finished cotton samples were subjected to washing fastness tests. PMID:22400240

  12. Properties of Cement Mortar with Phosphogpysum under Steam Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungju Mun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to utilize waste PG as an admixture for concrete products cured by steam. For the study, waste PG was classified into 4 forms (dehydrate, β-hemihydrate, III-anhydrite, and II-anhydrite, which were calcined at various temperatures. Also, various admixtures were prepared with PG, fly-ash (FA, and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS. The basic properties of cement mortars containing these admixtures were analyzed and examined through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, compressive strength, and acid corrosion resistance. According to the results, cement mortars made with III-anhydrite of waste PG and BFS exhibited strength similar to that of cement mortars made with II-anhydrite. Therefore, III-anhydrite PG calcined at lower temperature can be used as a steam curing admixture for concrete second production.

  13. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra

  14. Cancer cure with organ preservation using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the American Cancer Society has anticipated that 965 000 new cases of invasive cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. About 40% of those patients can be treated for cure with organ preservation using radiation therapy. The basic biologic background for such an approach to the problem has become well established. The clinical data to substantiate the validity of the concept date from 1902 until the present. Organ preservation has become a major and important concept in the management of the patient with invasive cancer. New and innovative techniques for treatment are enabling the organ to be preserved, the cancer to be cured, and appropriate cosmesis and function to be preserved. Many tumor sites are appropriate for this treatment technique, including breast, eye, larynx, prostate, soft tissue sarcomas, etc. (orig.)

  15. Electron beam curing of coatings, and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors explain why accelerated electrons have the effects desired, and compare the electron beam curing method with other methods applicable for the same purposes. The structure and reactions of materials which can be treated by radiation in order to achieve hardening or other surface finishing effects are explained, as well as other applications of electron beams, e.g. in offset printing, or for ornamental or protective coating. The practical conditions are discussed in detail (substrates, application methods, safety, costs). The book is intended for professionals and process engineers in the wood and paper manufacturing industry, in the processing and packaging industry, and the automobile and supporting industry, presenting reliable information on advantages and drawbacks of the electron beam curing methods. Newcomers in this field will find a concise and complete survey, and experienced engineers and chemists will appreciate the book as a source of information for comparison and new approaches to production problems. (orig./HP)

  16. Success factors of Chinese restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Aakala, Liwen Heli

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...

  17. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  18. Emerging Concepts for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery: What is Cure?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Una; Raz, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss emerging concepts in pelvic organ prolapse, in particular, “What is cure?” In a post-trial data analysis of the CARE (Colpopexy and Urinary Reduction Efforts) trial, treatment success varied tremendously depending on the definition used (19.2%–97.2%). Definitions that included the absence of vaginal bulge symptoms had the strongest relationships with the patients’ assessment of overall improvement and treatment success. As demonstrated by this study,...

  19. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Inception to Cure: Are We There?

    OpenAIRE

    Lad, Deepesh P.; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash

    2012-01-01

    There have been remarkable advances in our understanding of the biology and therapeutics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. B cell receptor signaling and micro-environment in CLL biology have been the most modern areas of research. In CLL therapeutics, we have come a long way from alkylating agents to chemo-immunotherapy. Despite this there remain significant lacunae in the disease biology that has hindered our quest to achieve the ultimate in CLL: Cure. This review aims to summarize the past, ...

  20. Wormholes as a cure for black hole singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Olmo, Gonzalo J; Sanchez-Puente, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Using exactly solvable models, it is shown that black hole singularities in different electrically charged configurations can be cured. Our solutions describe black hole space-times with a wormhole giving structure to the otherwise point-like singularity. We show that geodesic completeness is satisfied despite the existence of curvature divergences at the wormhole throat. In some cases, physical observers can go through the wormhole and in other cases the throat lies at an infinite affine distance.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING SELF CURING AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Srihari, B.Karthick

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is most widely used construction material due to its good compressive strength and durability. Depending upon the nature of work, the constituent materials; cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water are mixed in specific proportions to produce concrete. Concrete needs congenial atmosphere by providing moisture for a minimum period of 28 days for good hydration and to attain desired strength. Any laxity in curing will badly affect the strength and durability of concrete. Self...

  2. Policy and Planning for Large Infrastructure Projects: Problems, Causes, Cures

    OpenAIRE

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and their causes and cures in policy and planning for large infrastructure projects. First, it identifies as the main problem in major infrastructure development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation is massive cost overruns, benefit shortfalls, and waste. Second, the paper explores the causes of misinformation and finds that political-economic explanations best account for the available evidence:...

  3. Cervical screening programme: HPV triage and test of cure protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2013-01-01

    Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) as triage and test of cure was introduced into the Northern Ireland Cervical Screening Programme on Monday 28 January 2013. This policy change will significantly alter the screening pathway for women with a mild dyskaryosis or borderline smear result. The link between HR-HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer has now been clearly established, with almost 100% of cervical cancers containing HPV DNA. Women with no evidence of HR-...

  4. Acute Leukemia: Diagnosis, Management, and Potential for Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Keith; Keating, Armand

    1988-01-01

    Acute leukemia is an uncommon malignant disorder resulting from the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic precursors of the myeloid or lymphoid lineages. Of the two major subgroups, acute lymphoblastic leukemia is more common in children, while acute myelogenous leukemia predominates in adults. With modern chemotherapy 60%-70% of all children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be long-term survivors and are potentially cured. Although the prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia is less fav...

  5. Delayed Microbial Cure of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis with Doxycycline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    De, Vries; Smelov, V.; Middelburg, J.G.; Pleijster, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.; Morré, S A

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days. In non-LGV chlamydia proctitis, DNA was undetectable after 7 days. These findings support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's treatment recommendation of a 21-day doxycycline regimen for LGV proctitis and a 7-day regimen for non-LGV chlamydia proct...

  6. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis with migrated lesions cured by multiple therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Hu; Jun Qian; Dongliang Yang; Xin Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by Trematodes of the genus Paragonimus that is endemic in Asia, Africa, and South America. Most patients with paragonimiasis are cured by standard praziquantel treatment. However, several cases have been reported to have unsatisfactory responses to the standard praziquantel treatment. To probe the clinical characteristics, possible cause, and management of the paragonimiasis individuals improved by multiple therapies, we present a 12-year-old Chi...

  7. Bayesian Inference for Smoking Cessation with a Latent Cure State

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Sheng; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Thomas A Louis; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to modeling dynamic smoking addiction behavior processes when cure is not directly observed due to censoring. Subject-specific probabilities model the stochastic transitions among three behavioral states: smoking, transient quitting, and permanent quitting (absorbent state). A multivariate normal distribution for random effects is used to account for the potential correlation among the subject-specific transition probabilities. Inference is conducted using a Bay...

  8. Dangerous medicines: Unproven AIDS cures and counterfeit antiretroviral drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Amon Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a critical goal endorsed by the United Nations and all of its member states. At the same time, anecdotal accounts suggest that the promotion of unproven AIDS 'cures' and remedies are widespread, and in the case of The Gambia, Iran and South Africa, have been promoted by governments directly. Although a range of legislative and regulatory measures have been adopted by some governments, and technical assistance has been pr...

  9. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, B. P.; H. S. Patel; Patel, S R

    2004-01-01

    A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO) was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO) samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial...

  10. Development of Internally Cured Concrete for Increased Service Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schlitter, John; Henkensiefken, Ryan; de Castro, Javier; Raoufi, Kambiz; Weiss, Jason; Nantung, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Higher strength, lower water to cement ratio (w/c) concrete has been advocated over the last two decades due to its increased strength and reduced permeability. The lower w/c of these concretes makes them susceptible to autogenous shrinkage. This autogenous shrinkage can be significant and can be a contributing factor to early age cracking. Internal curing was investigated as a potential method to improve the durability of concrete pavements and bridge decks. Prewetted lightweight aggregate w...

  11. Increasing Underrepresented Scientists in Cancer Research: The UCSD CURE Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred, Lawrence; Beerman, Paula R.; Tahir, Zunera; LaHousse, Sheila F.; Russell, Percy; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-01-01

    The Moores UCSD Cancer Center’s Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences program aims to increase the number of underrepresented students pursuing careers in cancer research, cancer care, and health disparities research. Participants receive 8 weeks of laboratory and classroom training during the summer followed by participation in research mentors’ laboratories. Of the 82 CURE students accrued (2002 and 2008), 91% persisted in science after 1 year. Of the 63 students eligible to graduate ...

  12. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule. (paper)

  13. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  14. Child labour in the presence of agricultural dualism: possible cures

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2010-01-01

    The paper using a three-sector general equilibrium model with agricultural dualism and child labour shows that any fiscal measures designed to benefit backward agriculture cannot cure the problem of child labour in a developing economy although they raise the non-child labour income of the poor households. A policy of capital led growth through inflows of foreign capital, on the contrary, will be able to alleviate the problem by encouraging advanced agriculture and lowering the demand for c...

  15. Synthesis and curing of alkyd enamels based on ricinoleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.; Simendić Vesna B.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of an alkyd resin with a melamine-formaldehyde resin gives a cured enamel film with the flexibility of the alkyd constituent and the high chemical resistance and hardness of the melamine resin at the same time. The melamine resin is a minor constituent and plays the role of a crosslinking agent. In this paper, alkyd resins of high hydroxyl numbers based on trimethylolpropane, ricinoleic acid and phthalic anhydride were synthesized. Two alkyds having 30 and 40 wt% of ricino...

  16. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  17. Time course of isocyanate emission from curing polyurethane adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirts, M.; Grunwald, D.; Schulze, D.; Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.

    The time course of isocyanate emission from curing polyurethane (PUR) resins and adhesives was studied in two different emission test chambers. The measured emissions were strongly dependent on the type of experiment. The adhesives under investigation contained different types of diisocyanates and are used for different applications, e.g. for fixing of textile floor coverings. The influence of the curing mechanism on emission was studied by comparing the emission curves of one-component adhesives (OCA) and two-component adhesives (TCA). For TCA, the decrease in isocyanate emission was found to follow a two-step process during curing. In the first step, the emission is dominated by surface evaporation, and the decay of emission is mainly caused by the decrease in monomer content due to reaction. In the second step, the release is limited by internal diffusion. The influence of monomer reactivity on the emission profile could be demonstrated for 2,4'- and 4,4'-MDI. The less-reactive 2,4'-MDI caused prolonged emission. A strong dependence of emission rates on temperature and adhesive viscosity was also obvious. The evaluation of emission rates of different commercially available PUR adhesives showed the highest emission from systems that are applied at high temperatures. The high reactivity of diisocyanates requires special techniques for sampling and analysis. Therefore, an analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS was developed that enables limits of quantitation of <5 ng/m 3 with a sampling volume of 100 l.

  18. Nutidig mental sundhedsfremme i et historisk Mind-Cure perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2014-01-01

    approaches within therapy, health promotion and education - but this is nothing new. By the early twentieth century, the Mind-Cure movement had been emphasizing the healing power of positive emotions and beliefs. William James (1842-1910)) defended the Mind-Cure through the debate around the scope of......Mental sundhedsfremme og dertil knyttede metoder er i stærk vækst i velfærdssamfundet. Mental sundhed er dog ikke et nyt fænomen. Ved begyndelsen af det tyvende århundrede fremhævede Mind-Cure-bevægelsen i USA den helbredende kraft af positive følelser og overbevisninger. William James (1842....... Konklusionen er, mental sundhedspædagogik må konfrontere både positive og negative realiteter med tilgange, der kan hjælpe mennesker til at opretholde deres vilje til at være – selv under svære, uforanderlige eller begrænsede livsbetingelser. Summary (English) These days we face a whirl of mental health...

  19. CURING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE RUBBER BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425. Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces

  20. UV curing of teak veneers for decorative panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation curing of surface coating of teak veneers for decorative panels has been conducted by using ultra violet (UV) as radiation source. In this experiment teak wood veneer was use as a substrate. Epoxy acrylate (import product,) and unsaturated polyester (locally product) were used as coating materials after being added with difunctional monomer TPGDA, and photo-initiator darocur 1173 or irgacure 184. Irradiation was conducted using 80 watt/cm LTV source at conveyor speed of 3,0 m/min. Parameters observed were viscosity of coating materials, hardness, adhesion, appearance, abrasion and chemical resistance of cured films. In general the results showed that viscosity of the formulations based on epoxy acrylate and unsaturated polyester resin were effected by the storage. Film cured by LTV made of epoxy acrylate and unsaturated polyester on the teak veneer wood have the same adhesion and abrasion resistant properties but the hardness and chemical resistant of epoxy acrylate are better than unsaturated polyester. From the experiment result it can be concluded the unsaturated polyester (locally product) can be used as radiation curable material for coating teak veneer panels

  1. Cure electrocoagulation demonstration at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration of an innovative technology for remediating radionuclide contamination in water took place at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado, during the summer of 1995. The demonstration was part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program and was conducted by EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and General Environmental Corporation (GEC). The SITE program encourages the development and demonstration of innovative treatment and monitoring technologies. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of GEC's innovative CURE technology to remove uranium, plutonium, and americium from water taken from the A and B solar evaporation ponds at RFETS. The CURE electrocoagulation process uses an anode and cathode in a patented geometry to remove contaminants, including radionuclides, from wastewater in a continuous flow process. Electrocoagulation has been recognized as a method of removing a variety of contaminants from wastewaters. With the CURE process, GEC has refined the technology and adapted it to hazardous waste cleanup. Bench scale treatability testing conducted in April 1995 indicated 99 percent removal efficiencies were possible for uranium, plutonium-239/240, and americium-241. During the field scale demonstration in August and September 1995, samples were collected from four demonstration runs at RFETS. A removal efficiency of approximately 50 percent was achieved for uranium and nearly 99 percent for plutonium and americium

  2. The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame's arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame

  3. How far is cancer cured by radiation sensitization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some types of cancer are not cured by radiation alone in view of histology, location, and size. In facing so-called radioresistant cancer, antineoplastic agents, hypoxic cell sensitizers, biological response modifiers, or hyperthermia are used in combination with radiation, with the aim of cancer cure. First of all, this chapter discusses the subject of 'what is tumor cure by radiation therapy'. Current conditions of the aforementioned combined modalities and the future perspectives are presented. The following subjects are covered: (1) tumor control - significance of the number of stem cells; (2) biological evaluation of chemo-radiotherapy with cisplatin; (3) clinical results and experience with combination of radiotherapy and radiosensitizers; (4) radiosensitization with hypoxic cell radiosensitizers - present status (5) hypoxic cell radiosensitizers - present status and problems from the viewpoint of clinical radiotherapy; (6) thermal radiosensitization in vitro and its implications for radiotherapy; (7) clinical assessment of thermoradiotherapy for breast cancer and cancer of the urinary bladder; (8) interactions of radiation and biological response modifiers in the treatment of malignant tumor; (9) improvement in the effects of radiation therapy with biological response modifiers. (N.K.)

  4. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  5. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  6. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  7. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  8. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  9. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  10. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  11. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  13. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  14. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-01-01

    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  15. Country Review: Chinese Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...

  16. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  17. Tobacco, Microbes, and Carcinogens: Correlation Between Tobacco Cure Conditions, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content, and Cured Leaf Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Audrey D; Fisher, Colin; Jack, Anne; Moe, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are carcinogenic N-nitrosamine compounds present at very low levels in freshly harvested tobacco leaves that accumulate during leaf curing. Formation of N-nitrosamine compounds is associated with high nitrate levels in the leaf at harvest, and nitrate is presumed to be the source from which the N-nitrosation species originates. More specifically, nitrite is considered to be a direct precursor, and nitrite is linked with N-nitrosation in many environmental matrices where it occurs via microbial nitrate reduction. Here, we initiate work exploring the role of leaf microbial communities in formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Leaves from burley tobacco line TN90H were air cured under various temperature and relative humidity levels, and 22 cured tobacco samples were analyzed for their microbial communities and leaf chemistry. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and total tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels revealed a strong positive correlation between the three variables, as well as a strong positive correlation with increasing relative humidity during cure conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess microbial communities in each of the samples. In most samples, Proteobacteria predominated at the phylum level, accounting for >90 % of the OTUs. However, a distinct shift was noted among members of the high tobacco-specific nitrosamine group, with increases in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were identified that correlate strongly (positive and negative) with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Copy number of bacterial nitrate reductase genes, obtained using quantitative PCR, did not correlate strongly with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Incomplete denitrification is potentially implicated in tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels. PMID:27023797

  18. Estimating and modeling the proportion cured of disease in population-based cancer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Paul C

    2006-01-01

    In population-based cancer studies, cure is said to occur when the mortality (hazard) rate in the diseased group of individuals returns to the same level as that expected in the general population. The cure fraction (the proportion of patients cured of disease) is of interest to patients and a useful measure to monitor trends in survival of curable disease. I will describe two types of cure model, namely, the mixture and nonmixture cure model (Sposto 2002); explain how they can be extended to...

  19. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Internal curing can be adopted under such scenario since this method is simple and less quality intensive. Usually, naturally occurring porous light weight aggregates (LWA are used as internal curing agent. However, naturally occurring LWA are not available in many countries like Bangladesh. Under these circumstances, Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP can be utilized as an alternative internal curing agent. In this study, sodium polyacrylate (SP as SAP has been used to produce internally cured concrete. Desorption isotherm of SP has been developed to investigate its effectiveness as internal curing agent. Test results showed that internally cured concrete with SP performed better in terms of both strength and durability as compared to control samples when subjected to adverse curing conditions where supply of additional water for external curing was absent.

  20. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  1. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  2. Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.

    2016-09-01

    Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by

  3. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed. PMID:20143738

  4. Concrete Carbonation and Chloride Resistance Under Initial Hot Water Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guo; Li, Xiaoling L.; Wei, Rongrong R.; Du, Jianmin M.; Wu, Xiaosuo S.

    2014-01-01

    Three concrete mix proportions were designed and prepared, respectively, such as fly ash concrete (abbreviated as “FAC”) with 30% fly ash replacement ratio of cement, fly ash, and slag concrete (abbreviated as “FSC”) with each of 20% fly ash and slag replacement ratio and ordinary Portland cement concrete (abbreviated as “OPC”) for the research of carbonation and chloride resistance of concrete under different initial hot water curing. Specimens with precuring were put into 20°C water tank fo...

  5. The dental curing light: A potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard B T; Labrie, Daniel; Bruzell, Ellen M; Sliney, David H; Strassler, Howard E

    2016-08-01

    Powerful blue-light emitting dental curing lights are used in dental offices to photocure resins in the mouth. In addition, many dental personnel use magnification loupes. This study measured the effect of magnification loupes on the "blue light hazard" when the light from a dental curing light was reflected off a human tooth. Loupes with 3.5x magnification (Design for Vision, Carl Zeiss, and Quality Aspirator) and 2.5x magnification (Design for Vision and Quality Aspirator) were placed at the entrance of an integrating sphere connected to a spectrometer (USB 4000, Ocean Optics). A model with human teeth was placed 40 cm away and in line with this sphere. The light guide tip of a broad-spectrum Sapphire Plus (Den-Mat) curing light was positioned at a 45° angle from the facial surface of the central incisor. The spectral radiant power reflected from the teeth was recorded five times with the loupes over the entrance into the sphere. The maximum permissible cumulative exposure times in an 8-hr day were calculated using guidelines set by the ACGIH. It was concluded that at a 40 cm distance, the maximum permissible cumulative daily exposure time to light reflected from the tooth was approximately 11 min without loupes. The weighted blue irradiance values were significantly different for each brand of loupe (Fisher's PLSD p < 0.05) and were up to eight times greater at the pupil than when loupes were not used. However, since the linear dimensions of the resulting images would be 2.5 to 3.5x larger on the retina, the image area was increased by the square of the magnification and the effective blue light hazard was reduced compared to without the loupes. Thus, although using magnification loupes increased the irradiance received at the pupil, the maximum cumulative daily exposure time to reflected light was increased up to 28 min. Further studies are required to determine the ocular hazards of a focused stare when using magnification loupes and the effects of other

  6. Treating of cement curing with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main curing reactions of a portland cement are the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH)2, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. In nature, the cement extracts CO2 from air and convert the calcium hydroxide and CSH to calcium carbonate(CaCO3), calcite. By this process, chemically stable and mechanically enhanced cement is formed. By exposing an OPC to supercritical CO2 (SCCO2), the carbonate reaction was greatly accelerated. XRD analysis of experimental sample showed the acceleration of carbonate reaction and the test of compressive strength showed the mechanical enhancement

  7. Spontaneous recovery of bone mass after cure of endogenous hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Maria Elena; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Vanzulli, Angelo; Loli, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) develop osteopenia-osteoporosis. The present study evaluates the recovery of bone mass within 2 years after remission of hypercortisolism and in long term follow up, an issue rarely addressed. Twenty patients (6M, 14F, 3 post-menopausal, 15-64 years old), 15 with Cushing's disease, 2 with ectopic ACTH syndrome, 3 with ACTH-independent CS were studied. BMD, T and Z scores at lumbar spine and proximal femur were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and 7-33 months after treatment of hypercortisolism. Five patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Four patients had hypogonadism and 4 GH-deficiency. At baseline all patients showed osteopenia/osteoporosis and the spine appeared more damaged than the femur; femur BMD was positively related with body mass index (BMI). No correlations were observed between spine and femur bone parameters and duration of disease or severity of hypercortisolism. Bone parameters did not differ in patients with or without GH or other pituitary deficiencies. After cure of hypercortisolism a significant improvement in spine BMD, Z and T scores and in femur Z and T scores was observed with normalization in 3 patients; there was no significant difference in percent improvement between femur and spine. The increase in bone parameters at spine and femur was independent from values at baseline. The percent increase in spine T and Z scores was positively related with time elapsed since cure. Bisphosphonates did not influence the recovery of bone mineralization. In long term follow up, after a median period of 7 years a further improvement in bone density was observed in 100% of patients at spine and in 9/11 at femur, although 8/11 patients still had femoral and/or vertebral T score in the range of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Spontaneous improvement of osteoporosis after cure of hypercortisolism occurs both at spine and femur, is independent from basal conditions and not affected by bisphosphonates

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu; Javier Carballo; Petru Alexe

    2011-01-01

    Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A), one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B) and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C). Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing), and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid b...

  9. Chosen quality parameters of pork sausage produced without curing mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kostecki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the infl uence of the dried celeriac juice addition, as a nitrogenous compounds sources, on the quality of the experimental pork sausage. Material and methods. In the sausages with vegetable preparation addition and in traditionally cured sausages amount of the sodium nitrate (III and sodium nitrate (V was determined (in the batter and 24 h after production. Moreover the total number of aerobic bacteria, number of coli forms, anaerobic survived bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes and occurrence of Salmonella in 25 g (according to Polish Standards was determined during sausages storing (after 2, 14 and 21 days. Also sensory evaluation was carried out (after 2 and 14 days. After 2, 7, 14 and 21 days the amount of drip loss in the package was determined. Result. In the experimental sausage produced with the addition of vegetable preparation (E0, the content was 2.2 times higher of sodium nitrate (V while sodium nitrate (III three times lower, compared to traditionally cured sausages (K. In the E0 sausages faster aerobic microorganisms proliferation was observed. However, in these products, in comparison to the control group (K, no higher contamination with coliform bacteria, anaerobic sporulating bacteria, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella was found. The sensory evaluation (colour in cross-section, fl avour, taste, consistency showed no statistically significant difference between the experimental sausages. Conclusions. In the sausages produced with dried celeriac juice addition there was above twice more sodium nitrate (V and threefold less sodium nitrate (III in comparison to traditionally cured sausages and faster growth of aerobic bacteria was demonstrated. Sensory quality of ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ sausages without curing salt was worse, but the score number was never lower than 4,1, so the sausages were accepted. In the

  10. Properties of modified anhydride hardener and its cured resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Chen; Bingjun, Gao; Jinglin, Chen; Tongzhao, Xu

    2000-01-01

    Methyl-nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (MNA), nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (NA), anhydride hardener was modified by solid diol molecule to improve the impregnation resin fracture toughness in cryogenic temperature. The lap-shear strength, transverse tension as well as the thermal shock test showed that the resin cured by the modified anhydride hardener had higher bond strength and more toughness at 77 K. After the experiment of vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) processing, it was found that this resin had a longer usable life, better impregnating properties, but higher initial viscosity than the resin hybrid HY925 as hardener.

  11. Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Marion; Dave O' Neill; Kevin Taugher; Shin Kang; Mark Johnson; Gerald Pargac; Jane Luedecke; Randy Gardiner; Mike Silvertooth; Jim Hicks; Carl Edberg; Ray Cournoyer; Stanley Bohdanowicz; Ken Peterson; Kurt Johnson; Steve Benson; Richard Schulz; Don McCollor; Mike Wuitshick

    2008-06-01

    Alstom Power Inc. has completed a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. De-FC26-07NT42776) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. The Mer-Cure{trademark}system utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. The Mer-Cure{trademark} system is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. The full-scale demonstration program originally included test campaigns at two host sites: LCRA's 480-MW{sub e} Fayette Unit No.3 and Reliant Energy's 190-MW{sub e} Shawville Unit No.3. The only demonstration tests actually done were the short-term tests at LCRA due to budget constraints. This report gives a summary of the demonstration testing at Fayette Unit No.3. The goals for this Mercury Round 3 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 90% at a cost significantly less than 50% of the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90% based on uncontrolled stack emissions. The estimated costs for 90% mercury control, at a sorbent cost of $0.75 to $2.00/lb respectively, were $13,400 to $18,700/lb Hg removed. In summary, the results from demonstration testing show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were met during this test program. The goal of 90% mercury reduction was achieved. Estimated mercury removal costs were 69-78% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed, significantly less than 50% of the baseline removal cost.

  12. Quantification of salt concentrations in cured pork by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Eight pork loin samples were mounted in Plexiglas cylinders and cured for five days. Samples were scanned by computed tomography (CT) once every 24 h. At the end of the experiment, the cylinders were cut in 1 cm sections and analyzed for chloride. From image analysis of the CT images, concentration...... profiles were extracted and fitted to a diffusion model which included a term to account for a non-negligible mass transfer coefficient. It was found that CT provides accurate estimates of salt gradients in meat and it was suggested that this analytical method could be valuable in scientific research and...

  13. Effect of curing temperatura on hydration process of different cement

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhadiri, I.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2009-01-01

    [EN]Hydration was studied in two cements (CEM I 42.5R and CEM II/A-V 42.5R) cured at temperatures ranging from 4 to 85°C. Hydration was monitored with a number of instrumental techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Backscattered Electron (BSE) imaging in conjunction with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR). The mechanical strength of the pastes was likewise determined at different ages, while mercury int...

  14. Process for curing ionizing radiation-highly sensitive resin composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for curing a radiation curable composition consisting essentially of (a) an amide represented by the formula R,CONR2R3 and (b) an unsaturated polyester resin by irradiating the composition with an ionizing radiation. R1 is H, an alkyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms or an alkenyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are each -H, -CH3, or -CH2OH. R1 and R2 taken together represent alkylene having 2 to 5 carbon atoms

  15. Low toxicity aromatic diamine curing agents for adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, G.F.

    1993-08-24

    Increasing severity of regulations for handling of hazardous materials has led to formulation of adhesives with considerably lowered toxicities for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Fundamental was the development of Asilamine aromatic diamines, a family of liquid aromatic diamines useful as substitutes for methylenedianiline (MDA), a widely used adhesives curing agent. The use of Asilamine has allowed us to continue operations without dealing with expensive measures for regulation of MDA as a carcinogen promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  16. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  17. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  18. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  19. The Mechanism of Carotenoid Degradation in Flue-Cured Tobacco and Changes in the Related Enzyme Activities at the Leaf-Drying Stage During the Bulk Curing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-peng; LI Tong-shuai; ZHANG Yong-gang; CAO Hui-jing; GONG Chang-rong; ZHANG Wei-jian

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of carotenoid degradation and the changes in the activities of related enzymes in flue-cured tobacco at the leaf-drying stage during the bulk-curing process were studied in order to provide theoretical basis for optimization of curing technology.The effect of different rising speeds of temperature on the carotenoid degradation and the related enzymes activities at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process was studied by using the electric-heated fluecuring barn designed by Henan Agricultural University,China,based on curing technology with yellowing at low temperature and moderate humidity and leaf drying at moderate humidity.The results showed that the carotenoid degradation components(β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin)decreased gradually at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process.The carotenoid degradation components viz.,β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin at the slow heating curing(T1)were relatively higher than the rapid heating curing(T2)accounting for 10,2,32 and 32%respectively,but there were no differences among treatments(P>0.05).The effect of different conditions of curing on the activities of enzymes related to carotenoids degradation were significant.The lipoxygenase,phenylalanine ammonialyase,peroxidase,and polyphenol oxidase enzymes had a bidirectional effect on the quality of tobacco leaves and it was beneficial to form more premise matter of aroma based on the higher enzyme activities at the early leaf-drying stage.The slow heating could regulate the change in various enzymes' activities reasonably,making cell redox reaction to reach the dynamic balance and make the degradation of carotenoids adequately.Meanwhile,it could avoid the occurrence of browning reaction and provide foundation for improving the quality of tobacco and optimization of technology for bulk curing and further enhancing aroma.

  20. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  1. Effect of In-Situ Curing on Compressive Strength of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Ika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A development of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC currently is the use of quartz powder as a stabilizing agent with the content to cement ratio of 30% and steam curing method in an autoclave temperature of 250ºC which produced a high compressive strength of 180 MPa. That RPC can be generated due to one reason for using the technique of steam curing in an autoclave in the laboratory. This study proposes in-situ curing method in order the curing can be applied in the field and with a reasonable compressive strength results of RPC. As the benchmarks in this study are the curing methods in laboratory that are steam curing of 90°C for 8 hours (C1, and water curing for 28 days (C2. For the in-situ curing methods that are covering with tarpaulins and flowed steam of 3 hours per day for 7 days (C3, covering with wet sacks for 28 days (C4, and covering with wet sacks for 28 days for specimen with unwashed sand as fine aggregate (C5. The comparison of compressive strength of the specimens in this study showed compressive strength of RPC with in-situ steam curing (101.64 MPa close to the compressive strength of RPC with steam curing in the laboratory with 8.2% of different. While in-situ wet curing compared with the water curing in laboratory has the different of 3.4%. These results indicated that the proposed in-situ curing methods are reasonable good in term of the compressive strength that can be achieved.

  2. Studies on Treating Eczema by Chinese Herbal Medicine with Anti-Type Ⅳ Allergic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.

  3. Study on optimization of forced sprouting of Chinese yam. Development of a Chinese yam forced sprouting device; Nagaimo saiga saitekika kenkyu. Nagaimo saiga sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M.; Konno, T.; Kogayashi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    In Chinese yam cultivation in Hokkaido, curing and forced sprouting treatments are indispensable, by which the cut faces of seed yams are dried completely into cork, and the treatments are the important factors to govern the yield. In practice, the work is being done using vinyl greenhouses, but it tends to be dependent of climate, its control is complex, and much labor is consumed for an extended period of time. Status of sprouting also tends to become non-uniform. In order to perform simply and stably the curing and the forced sprouting treatment, an electric heat utilizing device was developed, that can identify suitable environmental conditions and realize the conditions. It was verified that both of the curing (using air permeable sheets) and the forced sprouting treatment (using temperature keeping sheets) can raise and maintain the temperature to the optimum value. Humidity stayed in an adequate humidity band for the curing and the forced sprouting treatment at about 70% when the air permeable sheets are used, and 80% to saturation when the temperature keeping sheets are used, respectively. Some humidifying water addition may suffice the cultivation during the period of the forced sprouting, and the temperature control has reduced largely manpower consumption when compared to the greenhouse side window opening and closing practice. No re-stacking is required to make the sprouting condition uniform, thus production stability can be enhanced. (NEDO)

  4. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  5. Preparation, curing kinetic and properties of a novel amine with flexible polyoxypropylene side chain curing agent for epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel amines with different length of flexible polyoxypropylene side chain (AFPE) were synthesized. • The non-isothermal curing kinetics of DGEBA/AFPEs were studied in detail. • Structure, morphology and physical properties of AFPEs modified diethylenetriamine/DGEBA systems were studied, and results showed that AFPE was a novel and effective toughening agent for epoxy resins. - Abstract: A novel amine with flexible polyoxypropylene side chain (AFPE) was synthesized and characterized with FT-IR and NMR. Then, AFPEs with different molecular weight were used as a curing agent for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and non-isothermal reaction was detected with DSC. The kinetic parameters of the curing process were determined by Málek method. A two-parameter (m, n) autocatalytic model (Šesták–Berggren equation) was found to be adequate to describe the reaction-controlled kinetics of the studied epoxy resins, yet was insufficient in depicting the diffusion-controlled kinetics of the epoxy resins. The values of Ea depended on the molecular weight of AFPEs, and increased with longer polyoxypropylene chain length in the AFPE. Dynamic mechanical analysis of AFPEs modified DGEBA/diethylenetriamine systems found that with the increasing molecular weight of AFPEs, α relaxation temperature, β relaxation temperature and crosslinking density decreased, while impact strength and elongation at break improved. From scanning electron microscope, tensile surfaces were rougher and sizes of cavities in the surface became larger with the increasing molecular weight of AFPEs. Our study showed that AFPE was a novel and effective toughening agent for epoxy resins

  6. Preparation, curing kinetic and properties of a novel amine with flexible polyoxypropylene side chain curing agent for epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guiyou, E-mail: guiyouwang@ecust.edu.cn; Jiang, Guanlan; Zhang, Jie

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Novel amines with different length of flexible polyoxypropylene side chain (AFPE) were synthesized. • The non-isothermal curing kinetics of DGEBA/AFPEs were studied in detail. • Structure, morphology and physical properties of AFPEs modified diethylenetriamine/DGEBA systems were studied, and results showed that AFPE was a novel and effective toughening agent for epoxy resins. - Abstract: A novel amine with flexible polyoxypropylene side chain (AFPE) was synthesized and characterized with FT-IR and NMR. Then, AFPEs with different molecular weight were used as a curing agent for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and non-isothermal reaction was detected with DSC. The kinetic parameters of the curing process were determined by Málek method. A two-parameter (m, n) autocatalytic model (Šesták–Berggren equation) was found to be adequate to describe the reaction-controlled kinetics of the studied epoxy resins, yet was insufficient in depicting the diffusion-controlled kinetics of the epoxy resins. The values of E{sub a} depended on the molecular weight of AFPEs, and increased with longer polyoxypropylene chain length in the AFPE. Dynamic mechanical analysis of AFPEs modified DGEBA/diethylenetriamine systems found that with the increasing molecular weight of AFPEs, α relaxation temperature, β relaxation temperature and crosslinking density decreased, while impact strength and elongation at break improved. From scanning electron microscope, tensile surfaces were rougher and sizes of cavities in the surface became larger with the increasing molecular weight of AFPEs. Our study showed that AFPE was a novel and effective toughening agent for epoxy resins.

  7. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  8. Clinical Characteristics and Disease Predictors of a Large Chinese Cohort of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongping; Ma, Yiyi; Wang, Xueqi; Yu, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Bing; Mao, Zhiguo; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Chenggang; Rong, Shu; Tang, Mengjun; Zhao, Hongbo; Liu, Hongchao; Andreas L Serra; Graf, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. Methods To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2. ...

  9. Thirty-two Cases of Acne Treated with Blood-letting Puncture,Cupping and Chinese-Drug Facemask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect on acne treated with blood-letting puncture, cupping and Chinese-drug facemask. Thirty-two patients with acne were treated with above-mentioned therapeutic method. Cure,improvement and ineffectiveness were respectively found in 24, 7 and 1 case, with a curative rate of 75.0% and a total effective rate of 96.8%. The combination of blood-letting puncture, cupping and external application of Chinese-drug facemask is effective in treating acne.

  10. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  11. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  12. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  13. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  14. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  15. EB-curing of coatings on wood composite boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial radiation processing using low energy electron beam (EB) accelerators lower than 300 keV offers high speed, safe technologies for the chemical conversion of thin layer coatings. Because of the nonselective mode of initiating chain reaction polymerization involving free radicals in synthetic coating layers and suitable substrates, the EB curing of the coatings on woods and papers has particular advantage. Hungary decided to start an up-to-date EB line to process cement-bound (CB) wood chipboards with pigmented acrylic coatings. The CB wood chipboards contain more than 60 % of portland cement and up to 40 % of wood particles. They are produced as large boads of 6 - 16 mm thickness. In their fireproof character and other aspects, they are similar to asbestos-cement boards without containing carcinagenic asbestos, and are stable against moisture and atmospheric influences. EB-cured acrylate coating improved further those properties, and makes them valuable structural material. Oligomers and monomers as the main components of EB curable coatings, the irradiation with a Van de Graaff type electron accelerator of 2 MeV and the results are reported. The oligomers play the most important role in the formation of radiation curable coatings. (K.I.)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on sulfur-cured chlorobutyl rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Ono, Lilian S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) is similarly manufactured to butyl rubber (IIR). The insertion of chlorine atom in isoprene group represents an improvement in its properties, such as: high vulcanizing speed, low permanent stress and compatibility with other types of rubber. The presence of reactive chlorine in butyl chlorate allows a variety of vulcanizing techniques, being the cure via sulfur, the most conventional. In these compounds carbon-halogen bonds are weaker than carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds, and the main effect of radiation is to break the carbon-halogen bond to give an organic free radical. Irradiations of certain alkyl chlorides can bring about isomerism in which the location of the halogen atom is changed, the carbon skeleton of molecule remaining unaltered. Irradiation of n-butyl chlorides gives high yields of tertiary carbon. The major effect of high energy photon, such as gamma rays, in organic polymers is the generation of free radicals, along changes in mechanical properties. This work aims to the study of irradiation effect on mechanical properties of a sulfur cured chlorobutyl rubber compound, gamma irradiated within 25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kGy doses range. The techniques used in their characterization were: strength - stress analysis and elasticity modulus. Results obtained were investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  17. Curing characteristics of chlorosulphonated polyethylene and natural rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARINOVIC-CINCOVIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the Mooney scorch time and cure index on the blend ratio of chlorosulphonated polyethylene/natural rubber (CSM/SMR 20 CV and chlorosulphonated polyethylene/chlorinated natural rubber (CSM/Pergut S 40 blends were determined in the temperature range from 120 oC to 160 oC using a Monsanto Mooney viscometer. Semi-efficient vulcanization systems were used for the study. The morphology of the fracture surface of the crosslinked systems was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the scorch time decreased with increasing SMR 20 CV and Pergut S 40 contents. This observation is attributed to the increasing solubility of sulfur, as the content of SMR 20 CV and Pergut S 40 in the composition increased. For temperatures greater than 140 oC, the dependence of the scorch time on blend ratios diminishes, as enough thermal energy is available to overcome the activation energy of vulcanization. The differing curing characteristics of the two blends is explained by the compatibility factor of the respective blend. Morphological analysis of the blends shows a very satisfactory agreement.

  18. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a 'pass or fail' evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project 'CUREND'. This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  19. Antimicrobial finish of textiles by chitosan UV-curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research work was to develop a textile finish based on the radical UV-curing of chitosan on textiles to confer antimicrobial properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer with unique properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, antimicrobial activity. In this work cotton or silk fabrics and synthetic filter fabrics were impregnated with an acid solution of chitosan added of the photoinitiator in the proper amount and cured at room temperature by exposure to UV lamp. Process conditions such as percentage add-on, dilution, chitosan-fabric contact time, irradiation time and power, were optimized. The antimicrobial activity of finished fabrics was tested according to ASTM E 2149-01 standard test performed with Escherichia Coli ATCC 8739. Moreover dyeing test with Turquoise Telon dye were carried out to evaluate the treatment homogeneity while the amino group content was determined by ninhydrin assay. Moreover on cotton and silk fabrics the treatment fastness to domestic laundering was tested, according to UNI EN ISO105-C01. Obtained results showed a strong antimicrobial activity conferred by the treatment, homogeneous on fabric surface. It is evident already at low add-on, without affecting the hand properties of natural fabrics and the filtration characteristics of the synthetic filter fabrics. Finally, washing fastness was better for samples prepared with a better penetration of chitosan inside the fibers. PMID:22905533

  20. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides with different sequences and lengths, some of them with interesting sequences for bioactivity. This manuscript is presenting the proteomic identification of small peptides resulting from the hydrolysis of four target proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-enolase, myozenin-1 and troponin T) and discusses the enzymatic routes for their generation during the dry-curing process. The results indicate that the hydrolysis of peptides follows similar exo-peptidase mechanisms. In the case of dry-fermented sausages, most of the observed hydrolysis is the result of the combined action of muscle and microbial exo-peptidases except for the hydrolysis of di- and tri-peptides, mostly due to microbial di- and tri-peptidases, and the release of amino acids at the C-terminal that appears to be mostly due to muscle carboxypeptidases. PMID:25944374

  1. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine's other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely.

  2. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine's other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely. PMID:21327168

  3. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  4. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us that......Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...

  5. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  6. Swelling of radiation-cured polymer precursor powder for silicon carbide by pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Takeyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic yield, density, volume change and pore size distribution were measured for radiation- and thermally cured PCS powder when they were pyrolyzed in the temperature range of 673–973 K. Higher ceramic yield was obtained for radiation-cured powder due to smaller amount of evolved gas. Temperature dependence of volume change and the total pore volume show that the formation and disappearance of pores in the powders were determined by the volume shrinkage and evolution of decomposed gases. Volume shrinkage narrowed the pore size distribution for radiation-cured powder. For thermally cured powder, the narrowing of size distribution was disturbed by aggregated pores. Smaller amount of evolved gas from radiation-cured powder relative to thermally cured powder prevented the aggregation of pores and provided the narrow size distribution.

  7. UV curing of a liquid based bismaleimide-containing polymer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new liquid formulation of commercial bismaleimide and n-acryloylmorpholine was prepared that could be UV cured as an alternative to traditional thermal cure methods presently used for BMI in the industry. UV curing was shown to be an efficient method which promoted the reaction rate significantly and was able to achieve this at low temperatures (30–50°C. A free radical polymerization approach has been used to explain the cure mechanism and cure kinetics, using data elucidated from the DPC and FTIR. The cured thin film was shown to achieve very high thermal stability (~400°C, with the BMI shown to retard the thermal degradation temperature and rate.

  8. Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Palin, Will M.; Shortall, Adrian C.

    2008-02-01

    Dental amalgam is being increasingly replaced by Light-activated resin-based dental composites. However, these materials are limited by inefficient setting reactions as a function of depth, constraining the maximum extent of cure and reducing biocompatibility. In this paper we demonstrate a novel metrological tool for dynamic monitoring of refractive index and thickness change through curing resins using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. We present real-time measurements from pre- to post-cure of a series of un-filled bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (bisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resins with different inhibitor concentrations. Our results demonstrate that refractive index measurements are sensitive to the extent of cure of such resins and that the inhibitor concentration strongly affects the cure dynamics and final extent of cure.

  9. Effect of curing conditions and ionic additives on properties of fly ash–lime compacts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saikat Maitra; Farooq Ahmad; Ananta K Das; Santanu Das; Binay K Dutta

    2010-04-01

    In the present work the reaction between fly ash and lime in fly ash–lime compacts under water curing and steam curing conditions was studied thoroughly in relation to the processing conditions. Fly ash from different sources were collected, characterized, mixed with lime in different ratios and compacted. The compacts were cured with water and steam separately. The reduction in the free CaO content in these compacts was measured as a function of curing time and curing process. Role of two ionic additives, FeCl3 and MgCl2, on the reaction between fly ash and lime was also investigated by measuring the free CaO content. Kinetics of these reactions was studied by determining the reaction order and rate constants with respect to the free CaO content and it was observed that the curing conditions and additives affected the reaction kinetics significantly.

  10. Influence of Curing Condition on the Adhesive Strength of EVA Modified Mortar to Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reducing water effectiveness of EVA latex and powder was observed. Adhesive strength of EVA modified mortar to tile under different curing condition was studied. And the adhesive strengths of mortars modified by EVA latex and by EVA powder were compared. The results show that the reducing water effectiveness is improved by 36.12% and 21.55%, respectively, when the content of EVA latex and powder are 8% and 4%. EVA latex and powder can improve the adhesive strength of modified mortar to tile under the standard curing, high temperature curing, and freeze-thaw circle curing.EVA latex can improve the water resistance obviously, besides improve the adhesive strengths of standard curing and high temperature curing, comparing with EVA powder.

  11. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of fluoride releasing sealant cured by visible light, argon laers, and light emitting diode curing units: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Pediatric Dentistry, the use of pit and fissure sealant is one of the essential forms of prevention. Pit and fissure caries may be substantially decreased by obliteration of these developmental defects in occlusal, buccal and lingual surfaces with resin based dental sealants. Visible light-curing units, or LCUs, are an integral part of modern adhesive dentistry" They are used to cure resin based composite restoration materials, resin modified glass-ionomer and pit and fissure sealants, as well as to bond orthodontic teeth. Most recently, the argon laser has been approved for initiating the setting reaction with visible light cured-resins. Argon curing of resin materials has been show to enhance the physical properties and degree of polymerization of the resin, while reducing the polymerization time by 75 percent. The study is undertaken considering the inadequate research reports of regarding the comparison of curing ability using argon laser. LEDs and visible light as well as the resistant towards caries activity of the preventive fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealant cured by above mentioned curing units.

  12. Thermal analysis of bulk filled composite resin polymerization using various light curing modes according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymerization temperature of a bulk filled composite resin light-activated with various light curing modes using infrared thermography according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Composite resin (AeliteFlo, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA was inserted into a Class II cavity prepared in the Teflon blocks and was cured with a LED light curing unit (Dr's Light, GoodDoctors Co., Seoul, Korea using various light curing modes for 20 s. Polymerization temperature was measured with an infrared thermographic camera (Thermovision 900 SW/TE, Agema Infra-red Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden for 40 s at measurement spots adjacent to the cavity wall and in the middle of the cavity from the surface to a 4 mm depth. Data were analyzed according to the light curing modes with one-way ANOVA, and according to curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The peak polymerization temperature of the composite resin was not affected by the light curing modes. According to the curing depth, the peak polymerization temperature at the depth of 1 mm to 3 mm was significantly higher than that at the depth of 4 mm, and on the surface. The peak polymerization temperature of the spots in the middle of the cavity was higher than that measured in spots adjacent to the cavity wall. CONCLUSION: In the photopolymerization of the composite resin, the temperature was higher in the middle of the cavity compared to the outer surface or at the internal walls of the prepared cavity.

  13. Cancer Lung: Cure/Long Term Control Following Polyherbal Interventions- A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, P.; B. R. Pandey; M. Bhalla; P. Raghuvanshi

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is no specific treatment aimed at cure of human lung cancer, a kind of most lethal cancers. Modern allopathy provides only temporary relief of symptoms or severity when used in the form of medicines, radiotherapy or chemotherapy at the cost of moderate to severe side-effects while long term survival or complete cures are anecdotal. It is also well known that surgical interventions, chemo and radiotherapies have failed consistently to cure many varieties of cancers. This hope...

  14. Quantitative genetics of taura syndrome resistance in pacific white shrimp (penaeus vannamei): a cure model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meuwissen Theo HE; Madsen Per; Gitterle Thomas; Ødegård Jørgen; Yazdi M Hossein; Gjerde Bjarne; Pulgarin Carlos; Rye Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In aquaculture breeding, resistance against infectious diseases is commonly assessed as time until death under exposure to a pathogen. For some diseases, a fraction of the individuals may appear as "cured" (non-susceptible), and the resulting survival time may thus be a result of two confounded underlying traits, i.e., endurance (individual hazard) and susceptibility (whether at risk or not), which may be accounted for by fitting a cure survival model. We applied a cure mo...

  15. A Class of Semiparametric Mixture Cure Survival Models with Dependent Censoring

    OpenAIRE

    Othus, Megan; Li, Yi; Tiwari, Ram C.

    2009-01-01

    Modern cancer treatments have substantially improved cure rates and have generated a great interest in and need for proper statistical tools to analyze survival data with non-negligible cure fractions. Data with cure fractions are often complicated by dependent censoring, and the analysis of this type of data typically involves untestable parametric assumptions on the dependence of the censoring mechanism and the true survival times. Motivated by the analysis of prostate cancer survival trend...

  16. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Manzur; Shohana Iffat; Munaz Ahmed Noor

    2015-01-01

    The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Interna...

  17. CURE OF A MICROGEL-EPOXY RESIN TWO-PHASE POLYMER WITH ETHYLENE DIAMINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Aiteng; HUANG Wei; YU Yunzhao

    1992-01-01

    The curing of a microgel-epoxy resin two phase polymer prepared by in situ copolymerization of unsaturated polyester with acrylic monomer was studied. The unsaturated unit reacted with N- H during the cure of the resin with ethylene diamine. The Michael type reaction was ten times more rapid than the addition of N -H to epoxide .This was accounted for the lower apparent activation energy of the curing of the two phase resin.

  18. 番茄红素有效成分的提取工艺及其解酒机理的研究%Extraction of Lycopene Active Ingredients and Study on Its Hangover-Cure Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫佳; 陈家树

    2016-01-01

    探讨番茄提取物解酒作用机理,为中药解酒保肝药物的开发提供依据.观察比较番茄提取物与解酒护肝胶囊对小鼠肝脏匀浆中ADH、SOD的酶活力的影响.结果表明,番茄提取物能够明显提高ADH、SOD活力.番茄红素提取物通过提高ADH、SOD活力以达到其解酒的作用,并能减缓酒精进入血液中的速度,进而对抗酒精性肝损伤.%The hangover-cure mechanism of tomato extracts was explored to provide reference for the development of traditional Chinese medi-cine with hangover-cure and hepato-protective functions. In the experiments, the effects of tomato extracts and hangover-cure&hepato-protec-tive capsule on the activities of ADH and SOD in liver homogenates were compared. The results suggested that, tomato extracts could signifi-cantly improve ADH and SOD vitality and further achieve satisfactory hangover-cure effects, and slow down the speed of alcohol into the bloodstream and further prevent alcohol-induced liver damage.

  19. Food safety of salt-cured cod products : effects of salt-curing, rehydration and thermal treatmenton survival, growth and invasiveness of Listeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzen, Grete

    2010-01-01

    Salt-cured and dried salt-cured (klipfish) cod (Gadus morhua L.) are highly appreciated. Salt fish and klipfish are mainly prepared by rehydration to lower the level of salt. The rehydrated cod can be used in several dishes and consumption of these products has been considered safe due to the high level of salt. The overall aim of the thesis was to study the food safety of salt-cured fish products using Listeria spp. as an indicator. Initially, we studied the survival of Listeria spp. in m...

  20. Cure Kinetics of DGEBA/MDA System with Various Contents of NPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.K. [Woosuk Univerisity, Wanju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.L.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, S.W. [The University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    The isothermal cure behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA)/4,4`- methylene dianiline(MDA) system with various contents of neopentyl glycol(NPG) has been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). To increase the cure rate of DGEBA/MDA system, NPG was introduced as an accelerator. Regardless of the NPG content, the shape of the conversion curves showed sigmoid indicating that DGEBA/MDA/NPG system followed autocatalytic cure reaction. The cure reaction of DGEBA/MDA system increased with the increment of NPG content and it was due to the catalytic role of hydroxyl groups of NPG. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Study on Curing Kinetics of Heat-resistant Flexible Polyamide Modified Epoxy Resin Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of numerous variables affecting the reaction rate of heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive, the curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied. The heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive cured at room-temperature was prepared with epoxy resin, polysulfide rubber and organosilicone as adhesive component, polyamide as main curing agent and addition of different modified filler and the curing agent containing benzene ring structure. The curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC at different heating speeds and the characteristic temperatures of the curing process were analyzed and confirmed. the kinetics parameters of activation energy was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and Kissinger equation, respectively, then the kinetic model of curing reaction was built as d&alpha/dt = 4.38×107 exp (-57740/RT (1-&alpha0.93, the results show that the two-parameter model is adequate to represent the curing reaction process, the model can well describe the curing reaction process of the studied resin. The DSC curves obtained using the experimental data show a good agreement with that theoretically calculated. The research results will provide theoretical basis for the choice of manufacturing process and the optimization of processing window.

  2. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high performance concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabhat Ranjan Prem; B H Bharatkumar; Nagesh R Iyer

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the reaction kinetics, the effectiveness of the binder is enhanced which leads to improvements in mechanical as well as durability properties. The curing cycle employed are ambient air curing, water curing and hot air curing. The specimens were exposed to thermal regime at (90°C/150°C/200°C) for duration of 24, 48 or 72 hours at the age of 3rd and 7th day followed with air curing or water curing till 28 days. The results showed a marked difference in compressive strength ranging from 217 to 142 MPa with change in curing regimes. The samples when thermally cured at the age of 3rd and 7th day produced an average ultimate strength of 217–152 MPa and 196–150 MPa, respectively.

  3. Experimental Control of Curing & Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Patch Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalkanis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unquestionably structural integrity of composite materials is of great importance and spans from production to service. The presented experimental investigation, supported initially by numerical analysis, addresses the capability of sensing during the curing cycle of Composite Patch Repair (CPR guaranteeing achievement of optimal cure levels. Results have exhibited identification and completion of cure leading to probable reduction of repair and downtime costs. The sensors were further used post curing for structural integrity where results proved that the optical fibres can render a general state of the strain field inside the patches and possible crack propagation (real time.

  4. The effects of cure temperature history on the stability of polyimide films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wenguo; Li Heng; Zhu Chunsheng; Luo Le; Chen Dong; Duan Zhenzhen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cure temperature history on the stability of hinged structure poly (4,4-oxydiphenylene pyromellitimide) (PMDA-ODA) polyimide were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis.The polyimide films were cured under different curing conditions and peeled off by substrate etching.It was found that a proper cure time and temperature ramp rate improves the stability in terms of higher glass transition temperature.Ninety minutes at 375 ℃ or 200 ℃ is a beneficial high glass transition temperature.The temperature ramp rate should be between 2 ℃/min and 10 ℃/min,which is neither too high nor too low.

  5. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  6. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  9. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  10. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  11. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  13. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  14. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  16. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects. PMID:23722399

  17. Dangerous medicines: Unproven AIDS cures and counterfeit antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Joseph J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART is a critical goal endorsed by the United Nations and all of its member states. At the same time, anecdotal accounts suggest that the promotion of unproven AIDS 'cures' and remedies are widespread, and in the case of The Gambia, Iran and South Africa, have been promoted by governments directly. Although a range of legislative and regulatory measures have been adopted by some governments, and technical assistance has been provided by international agencies to address counterfeit medicines generally, the threat of counterfeit antiretroviral drugs is not being addressed. Discussion Countries, charged with fulfilling the right to health and committed to expanding access to ART must explicitly recognize their obligation to combat unproven AIDS treatments and ensure the availability of a safe and efficacious drugs supply. International donors must help support and coordinate these efforts.

  18. Mechanistic aspects of polymer chemistry for radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of polymer production has been reviewed for the purpose of identifying suitable uses for high-energy electron accelerators in the plastics industry. High-energy radiation produces free radicals, electrons and ions in irradiated materials. These species initiate polymerization and cross-linking reactions in a manner analogous to that of chemical agents. The chemical mechanisms of radiation-induced polymerization, co-polymerization and cross-linking are compared with those of chemical and thermal initiation. Radiation polymerization can be a very fast process, but the polymerization reactions are quite exothermic, and temperature increases of up to 400 degrees Celcius may result if insufficient cooling is provided. Several approaches to reducing the temperature increase during radiation curing are presented. Chemical kinetic simulations of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of styrene have shown that the effect of water inhibition on the rate of polymerization may be eliminated at the high dose rates available from high power accelerators. 25 refs

  19. Monolithic growth of partly cured polydimethylsiloxane thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    , as well as thermal stabilities of the bilayer elastomer films are observed to change with the curing time of the monolayers before lamination. The objective of this work is to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films, and hence enable...... to enable interlayer crosslinking reactions either by application of an adhesion promoter or by ensuring that there are reactive, complementary sites available on the two surfaces. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used polymer for DEAPs. In this work, two-layered PDMS films are adhered......, for example, adhesion of two microstructured films which is currently a crucial step in the large-scale production of DEAPs. © 2014 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved....

  20. Curing critical links in oscillator networks as power grid models

    CERN Document Server

    Rohden, Martin; Timme, Marc; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Modern societies crucially depend on the robust supply with electric energy. Blackouts of power grids can thus have far reaching consequences. During a blackout, often the failure of a single infrastructure, such as a critical transmission line, results in several subsequent failures that spread across large parts of the network. Preventing such large-scale outages is thus key for assuring a reliable power supply. Here we present a non-local curing strategy for oscillatory power grid networks based on the global collective redistribution of loads. We first identify critical links and compute residual capacities on alternative paths on the remaining network from the original flows. For each critical link, we upgrade lines that constitute bottlenecks on such paths. We demonstrate the viability of this strategy for random ensembles of network topologies as well as topologies derived from real transmission grids and compare the nonlocal strategy against local back-ups of critical links. These strategies are indep...

  1. Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petz LD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence D Petz,1 John C Burnett,2 Haitang Li,3 Shirley Li,3 Richard Tonai,1 Milena Bakalinskaya,4 Elizabeth J Shpall,5 Sue Armitage,6 Joanne Kurtzberg,7 Donna M Regan,8 Pamela Clark,9 Sergio Querol,10 Jonathan A Gutman,11 Stephen R Spellman,12 Loren Gragert,13 John J Rossi2 1StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; 4CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 Research Department, StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 5Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 8St Louis Cord Blood Bank, SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA; 9Enhance Quality Consulting Inc., Oviedo, FL, USA; 10Cell Therapy Service and Cord Blood Bank, Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona, Spain; 11BMT/Hematologic Malignancies, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 12Immunobiology and Observational Research, CIBMTR, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 13National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV

  2. State of art an Overview on the Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength of Concrete in different Curing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Allen Paul Edson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concrete is made of different ingredients such as cement, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate but it is a homogeneous material when it is in a harden concrete. The strength of concrete decides the life span of any concrete structure. The factors which affect the strength of concrete are the type of material used, size of aggregate, water cement ratio, improper compaction and improper curing. Curing is one of the major factors in the failure of concrete. Curing is defined as the process of promoting the hydration of cement. The grade used in the manufacture of concrete may be M20, M30 grade. This paper deals with the overview on the tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete when the concrete is exposed to various curing methods such as Water curing (Ponding and Immersion, Air Curing (Dry air curing, and plastic film curing at 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 56 days. It is studied that the tensile and flexural strength of concrete during immersion method is high when compared with Air curing and plastic film curing. It is found that the water curing is the most effective method of curing with the maximum of 10% increase in tensile strength and 15% increase in flexural strength of concrete when compared with other curing methods. On comparison with self compacting concrete (SCC and Normal cement concrete (NCC under different curing methods the tensile strength and flexural strength of SCC is high than NCC.

  3. Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English- Chinese,Chinese-English

    OpenAIRE

    Nathania, Lenny

    2011-01-01

    Homograph characters exist in every language as well as in Chinese. The Chinese homograph characters are phenomena that often make misunderstood by learners in pronunciation and meaning interpretation. In this thesis with a title “Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English – Chinese, Chinese – English” (“Analysis Chinese Homophones characters in Oxford Concise English - Chinese, Chinese - English Dictionary”), focus on Chinese homograph characters from i...

  4. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  5. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  6. Highway Blues: Nothing a Little Accessibility Can't Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Susan

    1994-01-01

    I recently moved from Berkeley to Austin, the "Berkeley of Texas." Although there are similarities, and Austin is certainly as close to Berkeley as Texas gets, there are plenty of things I miss about Berkeley. I miss the hills and the bay. I miss good Chinese food and Thai food, Super Burritos, and cheap, expertly made caffe lattes. Most of all, I miss having my favorite restaurants, a copy shop, a bike shop, a pet store, a bookstore, and a supermarket, all within a short and pleasant walk fr...

  7. Food allergy therapy: is a cure within reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella

    2011-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for an effective food allergy therapy; thus, development of therapeutic interventions for food allergy is a top research priority. The food allergen-nonspecific therapies for food-induced anaphylaxis include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies and Chinese herbs. The food allergen-specific therapies include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation. Oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. PMID:21453816

  8. CURING KINETICS AND THERMAL STABILITY OF EPOXY BLENDS CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS-OXIRANE WITH AROMATIC AMIDE-AMINE AS CURING AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geeta Durga; A.K.Narula

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the synthesis of a series of aromatic amide-amines and their potential use as epoxy hardeners.These amines were synthesized by the reaction of L-phenylalanine (PA) with diamines of different structures i.e.1,4-phenylene diamine (PD),1,5-diamino naphthalene (N),4,4′-(9-fluorenyllidene)-dianiline (F),4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulphide (DS) and 3,4′-oxydianiline (O) in a stoichiometric ratio (1∶1).Structural characterization of synthesized amide-amines was done with the help of elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques viz.FT-IR,1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.An epoxy blend was prepared by mixing tris(glycidyloxy) phosphine oxide (TGPO) with conventional epoxy i.e.diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) in an equivalent ratio of 2∶3 to incorporate phosphorous into the main chain.The curing kinetics of the epoxy blend with synthesized aromatic amide-amines was investigated by non-isothermal DSC technique using multiple heating rate method (5,10,15 and 20 K/min.).The activation energies were determined by fitting the experimental data into Kissinger and Ozawa kinetic models.The activation energies obtained through Ozawa method were slightly higher than those of Kissinger method but were comparable.However,both the energies were found to be dependent on the structure of amines.The thermal stability and weight loss behavior of isothermally cured thermosets were also investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen atmosphere.All the samples showed improved thermal stability in terms of char yield than using only amines as hardeners.

  9. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Clements

    Full Text Available There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead (O. mykiss with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  10. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  11. Cationic concentration effects on electron beam cured of carbon-epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (e-beam) curing is a technology that offers advantages over the thermal curing process, that usually requires high temperature and are time-consuming. E-beam curing is faster and occurs at low temperatures that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in a thermoset composite. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate) ranged from 1 to 3 wt% in DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) epoxy resin when cured by a 1.5 MeV electron beam. The specimens were cured to a total dose of 200.4 kGy for 40 min. Analyses by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that the e-beam irradiated samples with 2 wt% cationic initiator were 96% cured obtained a glass transition temperature (tan δ) of 167 deg. C. The same epoxy resin, thermally cured for 16 h with an anhydride hardener, reached a Tg (tan δ) of 136 deg. C. So, the irradiated sample had its Tg increased approximately 20% and the curing process was much less time consuming.

  12. The curing behaviors of the epoxy/dicyanamide system modified with epoxidized natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) on the curing behaviors and adhesive strengths of an epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) and dicyandiamide/2-methyl imidazole system are studied with differential thermal calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Instron tensile testing instrument. From DSC analyses of specimens prepared with unsealed aluminum pans, it is obtained that the reaction exotherm, the time to maximal curing rate, the glass transition temperature, the rate constant, and the reaction order of the epoxy system change with respect to the content of ENR added because of the reaction of ENR with the epoxy system. The results obtained from SEM micrographs indicate that the particle size of the rubber phase increases with increasing the curing temperature and the ENR content. The volume fraction of the separated rubber phase also follows the similar trend except at the high curing temperature which implying that the dissolution of epoxy resin in the ENR phase also depends on the curing temperature and the amount of ENR present. The lap shear strengths of specimens prepared with etched aluminum substrates increase with increasing the curing temperature because of a better cure at a higher temperature, but decrease with increasing the ENR content resulting from an adverse effect of ENR on the mechanical properties of the cured resins

  13. Cationic concentration effects on electron beam cured of carbon-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitsuji, D.A., E-mail: delmo_amari@yahoo.com.b [Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marinucci, G. [Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Evora, M.C. [Institute of Advanced Studies/CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Silva, L.G.A. [Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Electron beam (e-beam) curing is a technology that offers advantages over the thermal curing process, that usually requires high temperature and are time-consuming. E-beam curing is faster and occurs at low temperatures that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in a thermoset composite. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate) ranged from 1 to 3 wt% in DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) epoxy resin when cured by a 1.5 MeV electron beam. The specimens were cured to a total dose of 200.4 kGy for 40 min. Analyses by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that the e-beam irradiated samples with 2 wt% cationic initiator were 96% cured obtained a glass transition temperature (tan delta) of 167 deg. C. The same epoxy resin, thermally cured for 16 h with an anhydride hardener, reached a T{sub g} (tan delta) of 136 deg. C. So, the irradiated sample had its T{sub g} increased approximately 20% and the curing process was much less time consuming.

  14. The curing behaviors of the epoxy/dicyanamide system modified with epoxidized natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.-G.; Chan, C.-K

    2004-07-09

    The effects of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) on the curing behaviors and adhesive strengths of an epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) and dicyandiamide/2-methyl imidazole system are studied with differential thermal calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Instron tensile testing instrument. From DSC analyses of specimens prepared with unsealed aluminum pans, it is obtained that the reaction exotherm, the time to maximal curing rate, the glass transition temperature, the rate constant, and the reaction order of the epoxy system change with respect to the content of ENR added because of the reaction of ENR with the epoxy system. The results obtained from SEM micrographs indicate that the particle size of the rubber phase increases with increasing the curing temperature and the ENR content. The volume fraction of the separated rubber phase also follows the similar trend except at the high curing temperature which implying that the dissolution of epoxy resin in the ENR phase also depends on the curing temperature and the amount of ENR present. The lap shear strengths of specimens prepared with etched aluminum substrates increase with increasing the curing temperature because of a better cure at a higher temperature, but decrease with increasing the ENR content resulting from an adverse effect of ENR on the mechanical properties of the cured resins.

  15. 9 CFR 318.19 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each analytical result shall be recorded and evaluated to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance procedure for cured pork... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.19 Compliance procedure for cured pork products. (a) Definitions....

  16. Study of catalyst cured LaRC-160/Celion 6000 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, R.

    1980-01-01

    LaRC 160 polyimide was modified with a high temperature peroxide catalyst, USP-138, in an attempt to reduce the final cure temperature to below 316 C. This effort was directed at obtaining a material for 177 C use that would cure at similar temperatures to a high performance epoxy while still maintaining the good moisture resistance of a polymide material. Attempts to prepare a laminate made from Celion 6000 fiber and 5% catalyzed LaRC 160 resin gave a material with minimal properties after curing at 193 C. Acceptable properties were not obtained until a final cure temperature of 260 C was used. A control laminate containing no catalyst and cured under the same conditions had only half the level of shear strength. The catalyzed LaRC 160 prepreg was also used to examine the possibility of shortening the conventional LaRC 160 cure at 316 C. Maximum properties were obtained using a 2.5% catalyzed product with a final cure temperature of 316 C held for fifteen minutes. Differences in properties between catalyzed and uncatalyzed product disappeared, however, when the cure time at 316 C was extended to 45 minutes.

  17. Medical and social concerns of leprosy cured after integration in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M S; Rao, P S S

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand nature of the medical and society related problems of leprosy cured individuals from various socio-cultural groups and develop proper system to address the current needs of leprosy cured, data have been collected from leprosy cured, employing qualitative methods such as FGDs, open ended interviews and participant observation and a quantitative survey method. The findings show that there has been not much change in the socio-cultural and economic situation of the leprosy cured especially the disabled ones, except a recognition in the health system that their anti-leprosy treatment is completed. In the present integrated health care system, disabled leprosy patients are also expected to seek their own health care by themselves along with general public, which is not happening because the leprosy cured are not yet perceived to be cured of leprosy by community as well as by themselves. Though some of the problems of leprosy cured seem to be poverty related, qualitative analysis shows, a vast gap between poverty problem of leprosy afflicted and non leprosy afflicted. Any special programme to bridge the gap between PHC and leprosy community is required and the new functionaries like ASHA in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and similar developments could be of vital use to make them cured in totality. PMID:22443077

  18. Electron beam (EB) curing of wood surface finishing - lamination of PVC film on wood substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the films formulated by using various acrylated polyesters and urethane oligomers, mono-, di- and trifunctional monomers cured by using EB machine were investigated. The processability of these formulations on wood substrates were examined and later to apply those few selected formulations as adhesives in the EB curing of lamination of PVC films on wood substrates. (author)

  19. Kinetic Analysis and Characterization of Epoxy Resins Conventionally and Microwave Cured

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Investigation about the advantages of the microwave curing process of epoxy resins. The reaction kinetic and the thermo-mechanical and spectroscopic properties of the epoxy systems microwave polymerized have been compared with those of samples conventionally cured. The specific microwave effect has also been studied. Finally the possible microwave heatability of non polar polymers, through incorporation of suitable sensitizers, has also been investigated.

  20. Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with halogen and plasma arc light curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein IndianJPsychiatry

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Using the plasma arc system is superior to other methods due to reduced curing time. Also, since in using the halogen light system, an increase in curing periods from different angles resulted in a significant increase in shear bond strength; it is advisable to apply the halogen light from different angles.

  1. Electron-beam curing of paints and varnishes on wood panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is presented of the relative costs of curing polyester coated wood panels using (a) the conventional peroxide cure, (b) treatment with UV light, or (c) electron beams. Electron treatment is shown to compare very favourably with either of the other treatments. (U.K.)

  2. Effect of Curing Conditions on the Durability of Ultra-high Performance Concrete under Flexural Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chunping; SUN Wei; GUO Liping; WANG Qiannan

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of curing conditions on the durability of UHPC under flexural load. Moreover, the mechanisms of the effect of curing conditions were revealed from the microstructural point of view with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray computerized tomography (X-ray CT). The experimental results show that the flexural load has negative inlfuence on the durability of UHPC, but UHPC still exhibits excellent durability under lfexural load. Besides, the curing conditions do show inlfuences on the durability of UHPC. Compared with standard and steam curing, oven curing led to a lower chloride resistance and freeze-thaw performance of UHPC. The microstructure of UHPC paste was detected with ESEM. It is revealed that, compared with standard and steam cured UHPC, the lower reaction degree and internal microcracks are the causes for the lower chloride resistance of oven cured UHPC. The defects distribution in UHPC before and after freeze-thaw action was investigated with X-ray CT. The number of defects in oven cured UHPC increases the fastest during the freeze-thaw action due to its more defective microstructure.

  3. Dsc cure kinetics of an unsaturated polyester resin using empirical kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the kinetics of curing of unsaturated polyester resin initiated with benzoyl peroxide was studied. In case of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, isothermal test alone could not predict correctly the curing time of UP resin. Therefore, isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconventional adjustment was used to correctly predict the curing time and temperature of UP resin. Isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconversional adjustment indicated that 97% of UP resin cures in 33 min at 120 degree C. Curing of UP resin through microwaves was also studied and found that 67% of UP resin cures in 1 min at 120 degree C. The crosslinking reaction of UP resin is so fast at 120 degree C that it becomes impossible to predict correctly the curing time of UP resin using isothermal test and the burial of C=C bonds in microgels makes it impossible to be fully cured by microwaves at 120 degree C. The rheological behaviour of unsaturated polyester resin was also studied to observe the change in viscosity with respect to time and temperature. (author)

  4. Simulation-Based Optimization of Cure Cycle of Large Area Compression Molding for LED Silicone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional heat transfer-curing simulation was performed for the curing process by introducing a large area compression molding for simultaneous forming and mass production for the lens and encapsulants in the LED molding process. A dynamic cure kinetics model for the silicone resin was adopted and cure model and analysis result were validated and compared through a temperature measurement experiment for cylinder geometry with cure model. The temperature deviation between each lens cavity could be reduced by implementing a simulation model on the large area compression mold and by optimizing the location of heat source. A two-step cure cycle was constructed to reduce excessive reaction peak at the initial stage and cycle time. An optimum cure cycle that could reduce cycle time by more than 29% compared to a one-step cure cycle by adjusting dwell temperature, heating rate, and dwell time was proposed. It was thus confirmed that an optimization of large area LED lens molding process was possible by using the present experiment and the finite element method.

  5. Experimental research of integrative Chinese medicine in multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ying Zhu; Zheng Kang; Yan Chen; Gen-Cheng Wu; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    多发性硬化症是一种严重的神经退行性疾病,会给患者及其家属带来难以估量的痛苦及负担,且目前没有可以根治的办法。因此,有必要从不同的医学体系中寻找能够治疗多发性硬化的治疗方法。中医是最为主要的一类传统与替代医学疗法,且在世界范围内长期被广泛用于治疗包括多发性硬化在内的神经系统疾病。本文主要总结了不同中医疗法在多发性硬化动物模型——实验性变态反应性脑脊髓炎模型中的研究现状,包括中药复方,中药提取物如石杉碱甲、毛萼乙素、姜黄素等,以及针灸。这些研究为多发性硬化证的治疗提供了新的思路,同时也有利于进一步阐明中医中医治疗多发性硬化症的疗效机制。%Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease which brings overwhelming sufferings to patients and their families with no radical cure heretofore. Thus, studies of different medicine field and diverse treating methods aiming at the cure for MS should be promoted. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as one of the most important complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has long been applied to treat MS in China and other nervous system diseases worldwide. Our review aims to summarize the findings of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the prevention and treatment on animal model of MS, mainly based on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. In this review, experimental research advances of Traditional Chinese medicine in the studies of MS are involved, including Chinese herb decoctions, herb extracts like huperzine A, Eriocalyxin B, Curcumin and also, acupuncture. All of this researches hew out new thoughts towards the treatment of MS and concomitantly, the understanding of the effective mechanism of TCM on MS.

  6. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  7. Photovoltaic for the Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)

  8. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  9. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  10. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  11. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  12. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  13. Actually existing Chinese matriarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The essays in this volume present contemporary anthropological perspectives on Chinese kinship, its historical complexity and its modern metamorphoses. The collection draws particular attention to the reverberations of larger socio-cultural and politico-economic processes in the formation of sociality, intimate relations, family histories, reproductive strategies and gender relations – and vice-versa. Drawing on a wealth of ethnographic material from the late imperial period and from cont...

  14. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  15. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  16. Cure of experimental botulism and antibotulismic effect of toosendanin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-liang SHI; Zhong-feng WANG

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), a group of bacterial proteins that comprise a light chain disulfide linked aheavy chain, are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind. By inhibiting neurotransmitter release, BoNTs causesevere neuroparalytic disease, botulism. A series of important findings in the past 10 years which displayed themolecular targets of BoNTs and hence proposed a four-step action mechanism to explain BoNT intoxication greatlyadvanced the study of antibotulismic drug. In this article, we reviewed these progresses and anti-botulismiccompounds found in recent years. These compounds function due to their facilitation on neurotransmitter releaseor to their interference on the binding, internalization, translocation, and endopeptidase activity of the toxins.Toosendanin is a triterpenoid derivative extracted from a digestive tract-parasiticide in Chinese traditional medicine.Chinese scientists have found that the compound is a selective prejunctional blocker. In spite of sharing somesimilar action with BoNT, toosendanin can protect botulism animals that have been administrated with lethal dosesof BoNT/A or BoNT/B for several hours from death and make them restore normal activity. The neuromuscularjunction preparations isolated from the rats that have been injected with toosendanin tolerate BoNT/A challenge.Toosendanin seems to have no effect on endopeptidase activity of BoNT, but blocks the toxin approach to itsenzymatic substrate.

  17. Cure Behaviors and Water Up-take Evaluation of a New Waterborne Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Tao; ZANG Tianshun; ZHANG Rui; SUN Xianchang

    2012-01-01

    Cure behaviors and water up-take evaluation of a low cost,ecofriendly and water soluble epoxy resin prepared by reaction between epichlorohydrin and PEG400,PEG600 and PEG1000,respectively,were investigated using non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gravimetrical method,respectively.Factors affecting the cure behaviors as well as water up-take of waterborne epoxy resins,such as amount of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and triethylene diamine (TEDA),PEG molecular weight,curing temperature,were systematically investigated.The prepared water soluble epoxy resins can be cured under room temperature with the shape of the curing curves similar to that expected for an autocatalytic reaction.

  18. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of magnetorheological elastomers based on iron–natural rubber nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P Vasudevan; P M Sudeep; I A Al-Omari; Philip Kurian; P M Ajayan; T N Narayanan; M R Anantharaman

    2015-06-01

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods and filler material were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometry. Microactuation studies were carried ou t by employing a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is seen that microactuation of field cured samples have been enhanced by two times when compared with that of zero field cured samples. The effect of alignment of magnetic particles during field-assisted curing was also studied by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. A plausible model is put forwarded to explain the observed enhancement of actuation for field cured samples.

  19. The influence of curing time on the shear strength of fluidized fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruchot Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of compaction and air and water curing on angle of internal friction and cohesion of fluidized fly ash from “Połaniec” Power Plant. It was stated that the increase in compaction resulted in an insignificant increase of the angle of internal friction and a quite significant increase of cohesion. While the type and time of curing had a great influence on the angle of internal friction and cohesion. The highest values of angle of internal friction were obtained in the air curing, and the lowest in the water curing whereas in case of cohesion there was an inverse relation. The rise of curing time resulted in largely increased cohesion and small changes of angle of internal friction.

  20. Cures for the Expansion Shock and the Shock Instability of the Roe Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xue-song; Gu, Chun-wei

    2016-01-01

    A common defect of the Roe scheme is the production of non-physical expansion shock and shock instability. An improved method with several advantages was presented to suppress the shock instability. However, this method cannot prevent expansion shock and is incompatible with the traditional curing method for expansion shock. Therefore, the traditional curing mechanism is analyzed. The discussion explains the effectiveness of the traditional curing method and identifies several defects, one of which leads to incompatibility between curing the shock instability and expansion shock. Consequently, a new improved Roe scheme is proposed in this study. This scheme is concise, easy to implement, low computational cost, and robust. More importantly, the scheme can simultaneously cure the shock instability and expansion shock without additional costs.

  1. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  2. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  3. Vickers Hardness of Composite Resins Cured with LED and QTH Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaghemand H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the factors affecting the degree of polymerization of light-cured composites is the type of light-curing unit used. In addition, physicomechanical properties of the composite resins depend on the degree of conversion and polymerization. Objectives: Since the type of initiator in new composite resins is not explained by manufacturers, this study is an attempt to compare the depth of hardening, with two LED and QTH light-curing units. Materials and Methods: Fifteen samples prepared from Gradia Direct and Filtek Z250, both of which being universal, were cured with QTH (Astralis 7 and LED (Bluephase C8 light-curing units. All the samples were molded in polyester resin and cut from the middle by a disk. The hardness of the cut area was evaluated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4-mm depth intervals and also at the same interval as the width of the sample, with Vickers hardness machine, while the samples were placed in a darkroom. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, t-test and post Hoc Tukey’s tests in SPSS, version 16. Results: Filtek Z250 was harder than Gradia Direct at all the depth with both light-curing units. The hardness of Filtek Z250 sample cured with Astralis 7 was higher than that cured with LED, but with Gradia Direct the LED unit resulted in higher hardness. Curing depth was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.109. Conclusions: Vickers hardness number for both composites used in this study is in an acceptable range for clinical implications. The composites’ composition is important to be considered for selection of light unit. Based on the findings of the present study, LED did not present more curing depth compared with QTH.

  4. New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic interaction between a charged particle beam and its surroundings causes collective instabilities, which must be controlled if the new light sources and colliders are to meet their design goals. Control requires a combination of passive damping and fast active feedback on an unprecedented technological scale. Efficient instability diagnosis techniques are also needed for machines with large numbers of bunches. This thesis describes new methods of measuring and analyzing coupled-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators, and demonstrates the existence of a new cure. A new technique is demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of growth rates, damping rates and coherent tune shifts of all unstable coupled-bunch eigenmodes from a single 10-25-ms transient snapshot of beam motion. The technique has been used to locate and quantify beam impedance resonances at PEP-II, ALS and SPEAR. This method is faster than existing spectral scan methods by at least an order of magnitude, and has the added advantage of revealing coupled-bunch dynamics in the linear small-signal regime. A method is also presented for estimating beam impedance from multi-bunch fill shape and synchronous phase measurements. Phase space tracking of multi-bunch instabilities is introduced as a ''complete instability diagnostic.'' Digitized multi-bunch data is analyzed offline, to estimate the phase space trajectories of bunches and modes. Availability of phase space trajectories is shown to open up a variety of possibilities, including measurement of reactive impedance, and diagnosis of the fast beam-ion instability. Knowledge gained from longitudinal measurements (all made using a digital longitudinal feedback system) has been used to optimize cavity temperatures, tuner positions and feedback parameters, and also to identify sources of beam noise at the three machines. A matrix-based method is presented for analyzing the beneficial effect of bunch-to-bunch tune variation on instability

  5. UV-cured adhesives for carbon fiber composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chun

    Carbon fiber composite materials are increasingly used in automobile, marine, and aerospace industries due to their unique properties, including high strength, high stiffness and low weight. However, due to their brittle characteristic, these structures are prone to physical damage, such as a bird strike or impact damage. Once the structure is damaged, it is important to have fast and reliable temporary repair until the permanent repair or replacement can take place. In this dissertation, UV-based adhesives were used to provide a bonding strength for temporary repair. Adhesively bonded patch repair is an efficient and effective method for temporary repair. In this study, precured patches (hard patches) and dry fabric patches with laminating resins (soft patches) were performed. UV-based epoxy adhesives were applied to both patch repair systems. For precured patch repair, the bonding strengths were investigated under different surface treatments for bonding area and different adhesives thicknesses. The shear stresses of different UV exposure times and curing times were tested. Besides, the large patch repair was investigated as well. For soft patch repair, the hand wet lay-up was applied due to high viscosity of UV resins. A modified single lap shear testing (ASTM D5868) was applied to determine the shear stress. The large patches used fiber glass instead of carbon fiber to prove the possibility of repair with UV epoxy resin by hand wet lay-up process. The hand lay-up procedure was applied and assisted by vacuum pressure to eliminate the air bubbles and consolidate the patches. To enhance the bonding strength and effective soft patch repair, vacuum assisted resin transferring molding (VaRTM) is the better option. However, only low viscosity resins can be operated by VaRTM. Hence, new UV-based adhesives were formulated. The new UV-based adhesives included photoinitiator (PI), epoxy and different solvents. Solvents were used to compound the photoinitiator into epoxy

  6. ISOPAR L RELEASE FROM SALTSTONE CURED AT 55 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontaminated salt solution waste stream from the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Salt Waste Processing Facility is anticipated to contain entrained extraction solvent. The decontaminated salt solution is scheduled to be processed through Tank 50 into the Saltstone Production Facility. This study, among others, has been undertaken because the solvent concentration in the decontaminated salt solution may cause flammability issues within the Saltstone Disposal Facility that may need to be addressed prior to operation. Previous work at the Savannah River National Laboratory determined the release of Isopar(regsign) L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar(regsign) L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 (micro)g/g in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar(regsign) L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar(regsign) L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar(regsign) L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In this study, saltstone was prepared using a simulated decontaminated salt solution containing Isopar(regsign) L concentrations of 50 (micro)L/L (30 (micro)g/g) and 100 (micro)L/L (61 (micro)g/g) and cured at 55 C. The headspace of each sample was purged and the Isopar(regsign) L was trapped on a coconut shell carbon tube. The amount of Isopar(regsign) L captured was determined using NIOSH Method 1501. The percentage of Isopar(regsign) L released after 20 days was 1.4 - 3.7% for saltstone containing 50 (micro)L/L concentration and 2.1 - 4.3% for saltstone containing 100 (micro)L/L concentration. Given the measurement uncertainties in this work there is no clearly

  7. Part of the Disease Or Part of the Cure? Chinese Investments in the Zambian Mining and Construction Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2009-01-01

    China's role in African development is much debated among academics as well as among private sector organisations, trade unions and politicians. Notwithstanding the recent upsurge of interest, the lion's share of the current studies on ‘China in Africa’ is still based on a combination of aggregat...

  8. Generalized Poisson-Lindely Distribution in Promotion Time Cure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Baghestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Long-term survival analysis has been improved in the last decade and most of the models concentrate on the promotion time cure model that proposed by Chen (1999. These models are based on the distribution of latent variable N, number of initiated node cells. In this paper we proposed a Generalized Poisson-Lindely distribution that is another option instead of Negative Binomial distribution when there is overdispersion. The results indicated a better fitness compared to others, because of its more flexibility. Parameter estimation has been done by Bayesian approach, in a real data set and a simulation study has shown the advantages of proposed model. Normal 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  9. Acreage response of flue cured virgina tobacco in khyber pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the acreage response of Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco to its own price and area under maize crop in three major FCV producing districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e., Swabi, Mardan, and Charsadda. Data used in the study cover time series data for 1971-2011. The newly developed Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for cointegration was used to estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities. The study found a long-run price elasticity of 0.33, thereby revealing that FCV acreage response to its own price is relatively inelastic. The short-run acreage response was also low (0.13) and therefore relatively inelastic. This implies that price policy could not be used as the sole instrument to affect area under FCV. The provision of some other non-price incentives may also play a significant role in increasing area under FCV in the study area. The results also show that area under maize crop negatively affect area under FCV, thereby indicating that maize crop could be considered as competing crop to FCV in the study area. The results of this study could help policy makers in identifying important determinants of acreage response of FCV tobacco crop in the study area. (author)

  10. Environmental and waste management issues, causes, characteristics, and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department of Energy (DOE) views as one of its most challenging problems the minimization, management, and cleanup of waste materials generated from Departmental operations. The challenges for the DOE have striking similarities to the environmental restoration and waste management challenges associated with energy production and the mining and mineral processing industries. Their challenges relate to uranium mining and the resulting mill tailings; decontamination and decommissioning of facilities; processing of nuclear materials and production of weapons components. Add to this the challenge of environmental restoration solutions for waste disposal practices of the past. The fundamental goal of the DOE is to ensure that risks to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the department's past, present, and future operations are either eliminated to reduced to prescribed levels by the year 2019. To achieve this goal they must be able to assess environmental and health impacts resulting from the low concentrations of contaminants. This paper presents an overview of the causes, characteristics, and cures for these environmental restoration and waste management issues

  11. Using the canine genome to cure cancer and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P N

    2007-08-01

    A high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms, has been reported. Such new tools offer scientists amazing opportunities to define genetic, nutritional, environmental, and other risk factors for various canine diseases. Because many of the diseases that affect man's best friend also affect us, understanding a dog's disease may lead to new preventions and therapies for diseases that affect both dogs and people. Since a dog's life span is shorter than that for a human, monitoring potential risk factors in a well-controlled population of dogs is possible. Such a population should be one where dogs live in close relationship with their owners. Although longitudinal studies have been previously conducted on animals housed in laboratory environments, the natural environment offers a chance to study dogs in environments shared by their owners. If dogs are carefully monitored, and select exposures defined, considerable information could be collected in a dog's lifetime--the next 10-20 years. Such information could hold the clues for important discoveries, including causes and cures for cancer. PMID:17498794

  12. On the radiation dose required to cure intracranial germinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibamoto, Yuta [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Frontier Medical Sciences

    1999-09-01

    Despite its high radiosensitivity, intracranial germinoma has most often been treated with a radiation dose of 50 Gy. Relatively old literature suggested that 50 Gy was appropriate, but several newer studies indicate that 40-45 Gy may be sufficient. Regarding this issue, we conducted a phase II study in which the total dose to the primary site was planned to be 40 Gy to tumors <2.5 cm in diameter, 45 Gy to 2.5-4 cm tumors, and 50 Gy to tumors >4 cm, using 1.6-1.8 Gy daily fractions. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. Within a median follow-up period of 116 months, no patients developed local recurrence, and only two developed CSF dissemination. Intracranial germinoma <4 cm in diameter can be cured with radiation doses of 40-45 Gy. Radiotherapy alone with these reduced doses should be compared with the ongoing protocols of chemotherapy plus further reduced dose (24-30 Gy) radiation in future studies. (author)

  13. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  14. Cure kinetics of epoxy matrix resin by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, M.; Gupta, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the cure kinetics of an epoxy neat-resin (Narmco 5208) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Two interrelated analytical methods were applied to dynamic DSC data for evaluating the kinetic parameters, such as activation energy, E, the order of reaction, n, and the total heat of polymerization (or crosslinking), delta H sub t. The first method was proposed by Ellerstein (1968), and uses a thorough differential-integral analysis of a single DSC curve to evaluate the kinetic parameters. The second method was proposed by Kissinger (1957), and uses multiple DSC curves obtained at various heating rates to evaluate E regardless of n. Kinetic analysis of Narmco 5208 epoxy resin showed that the reaction order, n, is substantially affected by the rate of heating; i.e., n is approximately 2 at slow scan rates but is reduced to 1.5 at higher scan rates. The activation energy, E, is not affected by the scan rate, and the average value of E is 25.6 + or - 1.8 kcal/mole.

  15. Malignant melanoma cure by selective thermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by the nonradioactive isotope 10B, resulting in the emission of alpha particles and lithium atoms, which release an energy of 2.33 MeV for up to a 14-μm-diam melanoma cell. Thus, if 10B can be selectively accumulated in melanoma, it can be destroyed without injury to the surrounding normal tissues by concentrating high linear energy transfer particles. The authors have synthesized seven melanoma-seeking 10B compounds, two of which, 10B12-chlorpromazine(10B12-CPZ) and 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine(10B1-BPA), are found to be highly effective. The enhanced melanoma-killing effect of the 10B compounds is found by in vitro radiobiological analysis. A chemical assay and alpha-track analysis 28 h after systemic administration to melanoma-bearing hamsters reveals a 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5 and a melanoma/liver ratio of 15. Establishment of a clinical therapeutic method for curing human melanoma without failure is underway by correlating biophysical, biochemical, biological, and therapeutic data analysis. Recently, the authors have also been working to develop neutron capture therapy using 10B-monoclonal antibodies for melanoma and were able to make some 10B conjugates with the specific m259-0 antibody

  16. Cure of cervical cancer using 252Cf neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    252Cf neutron brachytherapy was tested in a feasibility trial for efficacy for cervix cancer therapy vs. high stage radioresistant and subsequently for all stages of disease. Actuarial survival curves were analyzed for 218 patients treated between 1976 and 1983 and followed five to 14 years to the present time. A variety of doses, schedules and methods for brachytherapy was tested during this period, and a dose-response relationship for tumor eradication studied. All treatments were combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy to approximately 45 to 60 Gy. This combination was found effective, particularly if an early implant schedule was used for the Cf implant, followed by whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy. For bulk/barrel shaped low-stage disease in medically fit patients, 252Cf implants were combined with surgery, i.e., extrafascial hysterectomy and was readily usable for treatment without complications and with high cure rates (92% five-year survival). All survivals and outcomes to 13 years match the best results of conventional photon radiotherapy. For all stages better results were observed for bulky, barrel, and advanced-stage tumors, especially for local tumor control, if optimal schedules, doses and implant numbers were used. Knowledge about neutron dose, dose per implant, number of implants and combination with photon beam therapy evolved during the trials. 252Cf represents a new quickacting effective radioisotope for human cancer therapy especially for treatment of radioresistant, bulky and high stage cancers. (orig.)

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Nian, Jia-Yun; Guo, Jiao; Yin, Yi; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yu, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Guo-Wang; Yang, Lin; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly employed during therapy for breast cancer, but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. This systematic review examined randomized controlled trials to provide a critical evaluation of this treatment. The results demonstrated that the combined use of CHM with chemotherapy may improve the immediate tumor response and reduce chemotherapy-associated adverse events. Our findings highlight the poor quality of Chinese studies, and additional well-designed randomized controlled trials addressing the role of CHM are warranted. The lack of molecular-based evidence for CHM and Zheng has resulted in a limited understanding and acceptance of CHM and traditional Chinese medicine in Western countries. We believe that researchers should immediately explore a CHM-based cure, and CHM should be applied to routine care as soon as conclusive data are available.

  18. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  19. Influence of end groups in hyperbranched polyesters used as modifiers in the characteristics of epoxy thermosets cured by adipic dihydrazide

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, A; A. M. Tomuta; X. Ramis; S. De la Flor

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin and different ratios of aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyester (HBP) were cured by a latent curing agent, adipic dihydrazide (AH). The HBPs prepared have hydroxyl groups or 10-undecenoyl or allyl groups as chain ends. The curing mixtures were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the curing process and to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the different formulations. These studies suggest that HBPs decreas...

  20. ACF Curing Process Optimization for Chip-on-Glass (COG) Considering Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Bo; Ding, Han; Yin, Zhouping; Xiong, Youlun

    2009-01-01

    In the work, the ACF curing process is optimized from the viewpoint of curing degree to find out the desirable curing process parameters. First of all, the influence of various curing degrees on the contact resistance of ACF joints is studied, using a systematic joints reliability evaluation method through some typical high hygrothermal fatigue tests. Degradation analysis is achieved, instead of the traditional failure time analysis, and the dependence of ACF joints’ mean time to degradatio...

  1. Estimating and modelling cure in population-based cancer studies within the framework of flexible parametric survival models

    OpenAIRE

    Eloranta Sandra; Dickman Paul W; Andersson Therese ML; Lambert Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background When the mortality among a cancer patient group returns to the same level as in the general population, that is, the patients no longer experience excess mortality, the patients still alive are considered "statistically cured". Cure models can be used to estimate the cure proportion as well as the survival function of the "uncured". One limitation of parametric cure models is that the functional form of the survival of the "uncured" has to be specified. It can sometimes be...

  2. Setting Reaction of Dental Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restoratives as a Function of Curing Depth and Postirradiation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Young Kyung Kim; Kyo-Han Kim; Tae-Yub Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the setting reaction of dental resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restoratives as a function of curing depth and postirradiation time. Two light-cure and one tri-cure RMGI materials were selected and used according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were prepared by filling the mixed materials into custom-made molds and then light-irradiating using a dental curing light. The degree of conversion...

  3. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an unsaturated polyester resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghu Raja Pandiyan Kuppusamy; Swati Neogi

    2013-12-01

    A judicious choice of curing agents such as initiator and promoter and their ratio to the resin can avoid reduced gel-time and shortened exothermic reactions in applications such as liquid compositemoulding processes. In this study, effects of different ratio of initiator and promoter to the unsaturated polyester resin on curing of the resin were investigated by measuring gel-time and peak exotherm using ASTM D2471 standards. Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) was used as an initiator and a cobalt salt was employed as an accelerator for the free radical polymerization of curing resin at ambient temperatures. It was observed that the resin gelation starts closely with the initial rise in exotherm temperature and time of gelation decreases with the increase in initiator or accelerator volume proportions. It was also found that the exotherm-peak and rate of temperature rise indicating that the curing rate increases with the initiator or accelerator proportions also increased. A nonlinear regression analysis of all geltime and cure data were performed to quantify the dependence of curing parameters on the volume proportions of accelerator and initiator. Thus, for this polymerization initiation system, the gel-time and cure parameters can be predicted for any initiator and cobalt levels within the ranges studied.

  4. Electron beam curing of acrylated epoxy resins for anisotropic conductive film application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curable acrylated epoxy oligomer was found to be an effective resin system for application to electron beams (EB) on curing of anisotropic conducting film. To study curing degree as a function of EB dosage, we irradiated bisphenol-A type acrylate epoxy oligomer samples with doses of 5 to 600 kGy of EB. To investigate the effect of a metal barrier for potential industrial application, a 3 mm thick Al plate was placed in front of the samples, and the curing parameters were compared with the ones irradiated without an Al plate. As the dosage of the EB irradiation was increased, the glass transition temperature of the sample ranged from 46.8 to 62.2 °C for the epoxy composites without placing an Al plate, and from 46.4 to 64.1 °C for their counterparts with a 3 mm thick Al plate. These results confirm that enhancement of the curing degree with increasing EB irradiation is possible even in the presence of a metal plate. The scanning electron microscope images of the fracture surfaces are presented as evidence of the morphological changes of the EB cured epoxy samples. - Highlights: ► Acrylated epoxy oligomer was cured by irradiation of the electron beam. ► Curing degree was increased with increasing dosage of the electron beam. ► Electron beam can be used for the bonding of anisotropic conducting films

  5. Cure monitoring of an epoxy-anhydride system by means of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.K. [Kumoh National Univeristy of Technology, Kumi (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    In the present study the cure behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) using an anhydride-based hardener in the presence of N,N-dimethyl benzyl amine (BDMA) or 1-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole (2E4MZ-CN) as an accelerator has been monitored and interpreted from the viewpoint of photophysical properties by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. To do this, 1,3-bis-(1-pyrene)propane (BPP) was well incorporated in the epoxy resin system by mechanical blending. The BPP probe, which is very sensitive to conformational change of the molecule influenced by the surrounding medium, successfully formed intramolecular excimer fluorescence. It is susceptible to the micro-viscosity or local viscosity and molecular mobility according to the epoxy cure. The cure behavior was explained with monomer fluorescence intensity (I{sub M}), excimer fluorescence intensity (I{sub E}) and I{sub M}/I{sub E} ratio as a function of cure time, cure temperature and accelerator. The present work agreed with the previous report on the cure behavior of an epoxy-anhydride system studied using DSc or torsion pendulum method. This study also suggests that the use of fluorescence technique may provide information on cure behavior of a thermosetting resin in a low temperature region, which has not been well interpreted by other analytical methods. (author). 31 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Influence of Curing on the Strength Development of Calcium-Containing Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Jiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the curing effects on the mechanical properties of calcium-containing geopolymer mortar. Three precursors are used: Class C fly ash, Class F fly ash plus calcium hydroxide and Class F fly ash plus slag. Curing conditions included: (1 standard curing at 20 ± 3 °C and RH 95% (C; (2 steam curing at 60 °C for 24 h (S; (3 steam curing at 60 °C for 6 h (S6; and (4 oven curing at 60 °C for 24 h (O, then the latter three followed by the standard curing. Under the standard conditions, the flexural strength and compressive strength of Class C fly ash geopolymer mortars developed quickly until the age of 7 days, followed by a gradual increase. Specimens with Class F fly ash plus Ca(OH2 showed slow increase till the age of 28 days. Under these non-standard conditions (2–4, all specimens showed higher 3-day strength, while later strengths were either higher or lower than those in standard conditions, depending on the type of the precursor.

  7. Photoacoustic study of curing time by UV laser radiation of a photoresin with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The curing of a resin in the presence of a UV laser radiation was studied. • Open photoacoustic cell technique was used to characterize the curing of the resin. • The curing of the resin as a function of time was studied. • A parabolic behavior of the resin thickness, as a function of time was observed. • UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy were employed to characterize the resin. - Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the cure of a resin in the presence of a UV laser radiation used as the excitation source, operated at λ = 405 nm, with an output power of 20 mW. The open photoacoustic cell (OPC) technique was used to study the curing of the resins as a function of time. The curing characteristic time values were τ = 10.43, 20.99, 30.18, 45.84, 67.59 and 89.55 s for the resin thicknesses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 μm, respectively. A parabolic behavior of the resin thickness, as a function of the curing characteristic time, was obtained. UV–vis spectroscopy and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were employed to characterize the resin in order to study the optical absorption and the chemical bonds, respectively. Our work has applications in the manufacture of 3D printing parts for applications, among others, in medicine

  8. Shear bond strength of provisional restoration materials repaired with light-cured resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lai, Yu-lin; Chou, I-chiang; Hu, Chiung-Jen; Lee, Shyh-yuan

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strengths of light-cured resins to provisional restoration materials with different chemical compositions and polymerization techniques. Fifty discs (10 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick) were fabricated for each provisional resin base material, including a self-cured methacrylate (Alike), self-cured bis-acrylate (Protemp 3 Garant), light-cured bis-acrylate (Revotek LC) and a heat-cured methacrylate (Namilon). All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for seven days before undergoing repair with one of four light-cured resins, including AddOn, Revotek LC, Dyractflow and Unifast LC and a self-cured resin (Alike), according to the manufacturers' instructions, for a total of 200 specimens. After 24 hours of storage in 37 degrees C water, the shear bond strengths were measured with a universal testing machine and fracture surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope. Two-way ANOVA revealed that provisional resin-base material (p material (p materials repaired with bis-acryl resins, with their failure modes primarily being of the adhesive type. The highest bond strengths were recorded when the provisional resin-base materials and repairing resins had similar chemical components and the failure modes tended to be of the cohesive type. PMID:18833857

  9. Polymerization and curing kinetics of furan resins under conventional and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The furan resin structure was investigated using IR and RMN techniques. • The polymerization of furan resins was developed based on multistage kinetics. • Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate kinetic method. • Microwave curing of furan resins was much faster than thermal curing. - Abstract: The challenge of this work is the microwave curing study of low free-furfuryl alcohol content furan resins. The chemical characterization of the furan resins has been made by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the resin and its reactions with p-toluensulfonic acid are proposed, with the aim of understanding the mechanism responsible for the main reactions. The results show the presence of methyl and ether bridges between the furan rings, and the formation of ketone and conjugated structures. Furthermore, the curing kinetics of the furan resins has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Different methods have been applied in order to obtain and compare the activation energy of the process. Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate method. Finally, microwave and conventional curing processes has been compared. The analysis showed that microwave curing of furan resins was twice faster than thermal curing

  10. Photoacoustic study of curing time by UV laser radiation of a photoresin with different thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincel, P. Vieyra [UPIITA IPN, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional, No. 2580, Col. Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Jiménez-Pérez, J.L., E-mail: jimenezp@fis.cinvestav.mx [UPIITA IPN, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional, No. 2580, Col. Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, A. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 México, D.F. (Mexico); Correa-Pacheco, Z.N. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos (CEPROBI). Carr. Yautepec–Jojutla, km 6. San Isidro, C.P. 62730 Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Rosas, J. Hernández [UPIITA IPN, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional, No. 2580, Col. Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-04-20

    Highlights: • The curing of a resin in the presence of a UV laser radiation was studied. • Open photoacoustic cell technique was used to characterize the curing of the resin. • The curing of the resin as a function of time was studied. • A parabolic behavior of the resin thickness, as a function of time was observed. • UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy were employed to characterize the resin. - Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the cure of a resin in the presence of a UV laser radiation used as the excitation source, operated at λ = 405 nm, with an output power of 20 mW. The open photoacoustic cell (OPC) technique was used to study the curing of the resins as a function of time. The curing characteristic time values were τ = 10.43, 20.99, 30.18, 45.84, 67.59 and 89.55 s for the resin thicknesses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 μm, respectively. A parabolic behavior of the resin thickness, as a function of the curing characteristic time, was obtained. UV–vis spectroscopy and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were employed to characterize the resin in order to study the optical absorption and the chemical bonds, respectively. Our work has applications in the manufacture of 3D printing parts for applications, among others, in medicine.

  11. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes. PMID:19893960

  12. Chinese Stratgagem And Chinese Business Negotiating Behaviour: An Introduction to Ji

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...

  13. Achievement of Chinese Dream and Chinese Spirit of the Age Going out

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Kunming YAO

    2014-01-01

    Chinese dream is a spiritual power to achieve the Great Renaissance of the Chinese nation. In the process of Great Renaissance, we create the great spirit of Chinese nation. With the development of economy prosperity, China has become the second largest economic power in the world. The Chinese nation is undergoing the course of Great Renaissance of Chinese dream. The process of the evolution of Chinese dream is the cultivating process of Chinese spirit of the age. That is the evolution of Chi...

  14. Efficient composite fabrication using electron-beam rapidly cured polymers engineered for several manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low cost, efficiently processed ultra high specific strength and stiffness graphite fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are of great interest to commercial transportation, construction and aerospace industries for use in various components with enhanced degrees of weight reduction, corrosion/erosion resistance and fatigue resistance. 10 MeV Electron Beam cure processing has been found to increase the cure rate by an order of magnitude over thermally cured systems yet provide less molded in stresses and high Tgs. However, a limited range of resins are available which are easily processed with low shrinkage and with performance properties equal or exceeding those of state of the art toughened epoxies and BMI's. The technology, introduced by an academia-industry partnership sparked by Langley Research Center utilizes a cost effective, rapid curing polymeric composite processing technique which effectively reduces the need for expensive tooling and energy inefficient autoclave processing and can cure the laminate in seconds (compared to hours for thermal curing) in ambient or sub-ambient conditions. The process is based on electron beam (E-Beam) curing of a new series of (65 to 1,000,000 cPs.) specially formulated resins that have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical and physical properties once cured. Fabrication processes utilizing these specially formulated and newly commercialized resins, (e.g. including Vacuum Assist Resin Transfer molding (VARTM), vacuum bag prepreg layup, pultrusion and filament winding grades) are engineered to cure with low shrinkage, provide excellent mechanical properties, be processed solventless (environmentally friendly) and are inherently non toxic

  15. Effect of post-curing on thermal and mechanical behavior of GFRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. S.; Shukla, M. J.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2015-02-01

    Curing cycle has a strong impact on the thermal and mechanical behavior of thermosetting polymers. The extent of cross-linking which is a strong function of curing temperature and time is directly linked to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the thermosetting polymer. This transition temperature speaks about the transformation of the polymer from glassy state to rubbery state, hence decides the applicability of the material at certain temperature with certain degree of safety and reliability. Hence assessment of Tg and its possible improvement is quite essential from material point of view. The present study is emphasized on the impact of post curing parameters on thermal as well as mechanical behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite. Post curing was carried out at 3 different temperatures (80°C, 110°C and 140°C) for different time periods (2h, 4h, 6h, 8h and 12h). Short beam Shear (SBS) test was performed on each of the post cured samples to determine the apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) and the corresponding Tg was also evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results revealed that the ILSS and Tg are significantly affected with post curing parameters. No significant change in ILSS was obtained at 80°C over the entire curing time. In case of 110°C a smooth increment in ILSS was observed with time (even till 12 hrs). For samples post cured at 140°C a rapid improvement in ILSS takes place with time followed by saturation. With all the possible combinations of curing temperature and time, optimum values are noticed at 140°C for 6 hrs.

  16. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Heidari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a com- mon clinical occurrence, which often occurs in the midline of denture base.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold cure and heat cure acrylic resins, rein- forced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair.Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were included in the control group, and 80 were allocated to 8 experi- mental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was di- vided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were then subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated.Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement.Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fi- bers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  17. Effects of curing techniques and silane treatment on mechanical and morphological properties of fly ash/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombatsompop, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of curing techniques and silane treatment on mechanical and morphological properties of fly ash (20 and 80 phr filled epoxy composites were studied. The addition of N-2(amino-ethyl-3 aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (KBM603 coupling agent was varied 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %wt of the fly ash, for surface treatment of fly ash particles. The optimum curing conditions of conventional thermal and microwavecuring system were determined using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The conventional hermal curing was performed at 70OC for 80 min while microwave curing was carried out at 240 wattfor 18 minutes in order to achieve the optimum curing conditions of the composites. The silane concentration of 0.5 wt% was recommended for the optimum mechanical properties of the fly ash, epoxy composites.Beyond these recommended contents, the mechanical properties greatly reduced, except for the flexural moduli. By comparing microwave cured composites with conventional thermal cured composites, it was foundthat microwave cured composites consumed shorter cure time and had higher ultimate strengths and elongation at break than those by the conventional thermal cure. The composites with higher tensile and flexuralmoduli could be obtained by the conventional thermal cure. The comparative results of composites cured using different microwave powers showed that the ultimate strengths and elongation at break decreased withincreasing microwave power while the effect was opposite for the tensile and flexural moduli.

  18. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  19. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  20. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...