WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinensis var mairei

  1. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  2. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  3. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-03-01

    Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii , whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei . The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei , respectively. The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations.

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  6. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Taxus chinensis var. mairei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in 1995 and is one of the first-grade state protection plants. (The State Council of ... marker system in population genetics analysis (Walter and. Epperson 2001) .... heterozygote deficiency may be due to the presence of null alleles at the three ...

  7. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  8. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  9. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  10. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  11. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. De novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of Iris lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunsun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhiquan; Liu, Liangqin; Zhang, Yongxia; Deng, Yanming; Huang, Suzhen

    2018-04-01

    As a halophyte, Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is widely distributed and has good drought and heavy metal resistance. Moreover, it is an excellent ornamental plant. I. lactea var. chinensis has extensive application prospects owing to the global impacts of salinization. To better understand its molecular mechanism involved in salt resistance, the de novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of I. lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt-stress conditions was performed. On average, 74.17% of the clean reads were mapped to unigenes. A total of 121,093 unigenes were constructed and 56,398 (46.57%) were annotated. Among these, 13,522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-treated and control samples Compared to the transcriptional level of control, 7037 DEGs were up-regulated and 6539 down-regulated. In addition, 129 up-regulated and 1609 down-regulated genes were simultaneously detected in all three pairwise comparisons between control and salt-stressed libraries. At least 247 and 250 DEGs encoding transcription factors and transporter proteins were identified. Meanwhile, 130 DEGs regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system were also summarized. Based on real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we verified the changes in the expression patterns of 10 unigenes. Our study identified potential salt-responsive candidate genes and increased the understanding of halophyte responses to salinity stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  14. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Yan, Hui-Jun; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Li, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2018-02-12

    Rosa chinensis var. spontanea , an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. s pontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses . This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa , and it might also facilitate the

  15. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ying Jian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. spontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses. This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa, and it might also

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory attributes of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit Var. Rose scented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay; Singh, C.P.; Surendra Kumar; Rajput, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. Rose Scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl soln., 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated + irradiated samples (1kGy), proved to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4°C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. (author)

  17. A manually annotated Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (kiwifruit) genome highlights the challenges associated with draft genomes and gene prediction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Crowhurst, Ross; Hilario, Elena; Nardozza, Simona; Fraser, Lena; Peng, Yongyan; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Simpson, Robert; Tahir, Jibran; Deroles, Simon C; Templeton, Kerry; Luo, Zhiwei; Davy, Marcus; Cheng, Canhong; McNeilage, Mark; Scaglione, Davide; Liu, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Datson, Paul; De Silva, Nihal; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather; Chagné, David; McCallum, John; Dzierzon, Helge; Deng, Cecilia; Wang, Yen-Yi; Barron, Lorna; Manako, Kelvina; Bowen, Judith; Foster, Toshi M; Erridge, Zoe A; Tiffin, Heather; Waite, Chethi N; Davies, Kevin M; Grierson, Ella P; Laing, William A; Kirk, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuyin; Wood, Marion; Montefiori, Mirco; Brummell, David A; Schwinn, Kathy E; Catanach, Andrew; Fullerton, Christina; Li, Dawei; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Read, Nicola; Prakash, Roneel; Hunter, Don; Zhang, Huaibi; McKenzie, Marian; Knäbel, Mareike; Harris, Alastair; Allan, Andrew C; Gleave, Andrew; Chen, Angela; Janssen, Bart J; Plunkett, Blue; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Voogd, Charlotte; Leif, Davin; Lafferty, Declan; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gambi, Francesco; Hanley, Jenny; Yao, Jia-Long; Cheung, Joey; David, Karine M; Warren, Ben; Marsh, Ken; Snowden, Kimberley C; Lin-Wang, Kui; Brian, Lara; Martinez-Sanchez, Marcela; Wang, Mindy; Ileperuma, Nadeesha; Macnee, Nikolai; Campin, Robert; McAtee, Peter; Drummond, Revel S M; Espley, Richard V; Ireland, Hilary S; Wu, Rongmei; Atkinson, Ross G; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Bulley, Sean; Chunkath, Shayhan; Hanley, Zac; Storey, Roy; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Thomson, Susan; David, Charles; Testolin, Raffaele; Huang, Hongwen; Hellens, Roger P; Schaffer, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) 'Hongyang' draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models. A second genome of an A. chinensis (genotype Red5) was fully sequenced. This new sequence resulted in a 554.0 Mb assembly with all but 6 Mb assigned to pseudo-chromosomes. Pseudo-chromosomal comparisons showed a considerable number of translocation events have occurred following a whole genome duplication (WGD) event some consistent with centromeric Robertsonian-like translocations. RNA sequencing data from 12 tissues and ab initio analysis informed a genome-wide manual annotation, using the WebApollo tool. In total, 33,044 gene loci represented by 33,123 isoforms were identified, named and tagged for quality of evidential support. Of these 3114 (9.4%) were identical to a protein within 'Hongyang' The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR v2). Some proportion of the differences will be varietal polymorphisms. However, as most computationally predicted Red5 models required manual re-annotation this proportion is expected to be small. The quality of the new gene models was tested by fully sequencing 550 cloned 'Hort16A' cDNAs and comparing with the predicted protein models for Red5 and both the original 'Hongyang' assembly and the revised annotation from KIR v2. Only 48.9% and 63.5% of the cDNAs had a match with 90% identity or better to the original and revised 'Hongyang' annotation, respectively, compared with 90.9% to the Red5 models. Our study highlights the need to take a cautious approach to draft genomes and computationally predicted genes. Our use of the manual annotation tool WebApollo facilitated manual checking and

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  19. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujun; Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-09-08

    Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis ) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus "Jinzhanyintai" to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3'5'H gene; the decreased expression of C4H , CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS , MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1 / CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  20. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (couve-da-malásia Seed germination and seedling growth of brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (flowering white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Resende Ferreira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis, introduzida no Brasil em 1992, apresenta alto teor de vitamina A e ciclo curto. As sementes foram submetidas a 24 tratamentos em laboratório e 12 em campo, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de germinação e o crescimento das plântulas. Em laboratório, as sementes foram indiferentes à luz e mostraram baixa sensibilidade à ação escarificante do hipoclorito de sódio. Ácido giberélico, KNO3, escarificação e estratificação não modificaram sua germinabilidade (96-100% nem o tempo médio de germinação (1-1,28 dias em relação ao controle. Em condições de campo os maiores valores de emergência (89,2-96,4% e os maiores índices de velocidade de emergência (14,2-17,4 ocorreram em solo com adubação mineral, entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade. Os menores tempos médios de emergência foram registrados entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade (2,90-3,97 dias, com os três adubos testados (mineral, esterco de gado e de galinha. As plântulas se mostraram sensíveis ao hipoclorito de sódio, com redução significativa do hipocótilo e da raiz primária. A estratificação das sementes por 24 horas estimulou o crescimento da raiz primária, o que beneficia o estabelecimento da plântula no solo.Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis was introduced in Brazil in 1992. This variety presents a high content of vitamin A and a short life cycle. Seeds were submitted to 24 treatments in laboratory conditions and 12 treatments in field conditions with the objective of evaluating the germination pattern and seedling growth. In laboratory conditions, seed germination was light independent and the germinability was reduced in 12% by the action of sodium hypochlorite scarification. Gibberellic acid, KNO3, mechanical scarification and stratification did not modify the germinability of the seeds (96-100% neither the average time of germination (1-1.28 days in relation to the control treatment. In field conditions the

  1. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  2. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Cyclopentapeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Huang, Maobo; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yuqing; Zeng, Guangzhi; He, Wenjun; Tan, Ninghua

    2015-07-01

    A new cyclopentapeptide dianthin I (1), together with two known ones pseudostellarin A (2) and heterophyllin J (3), was isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis. The structure of 1 was elucidated as cyclo-(Gly(1)-L-Phe(2)-L-Pro(3)-L-Ser(4)-L-Phe(5)) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.: jojoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The Simmondsiaceae (jojoba family), has only 1 genus, Simmondsia, which consists of only 1 species, jojoba - S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. Once considered an isolated member of the box family (Buxaceae), jojoba is now regarded as sufficiently distinct to be placed in its own family. Jojoba is found from coastal and cis-montane southern California east to central Arizona...

  5. New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-05-01

    One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  6. [Chemical constituents of Tamarix chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Peng, Xue-jing; Xia, Peng-fei; Duan, Wen-da

    2014-01-01

    To study the chemical consistuents of Tamarix chinensis. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as isotamarixen(1), matairesinol(2), tetepathine(3), kaempferol(4), 4'-methylkaempferol(5),4',7-dimethylkaempferol (6), hexacosyl-3-caffeate(7), ferulic acid(8) and 3-methoxyl methyl gallate(9). Compounds 1-3,7 and 8 are isolated from this plant for the first time, compounds 1-3,7 are isolated from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  7. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time.

  8. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time

  9. Simmondsia chinensis - a plant with a future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppe, C

    1975-10-01

    S. chinensis could become a new crop plant for the semi-arid tropics. Its seeds produce a liquid wax which is similar to sperm whale oil. S. chinensis is a permanent, evergreen, dioecious bush, growing up to 3 m in height and developing a deep taproot. The seed weight ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 g, they contain 43 to 56% of the wax. Places of origin are the deserts of Southwest USA and Northwest Mexico. Presently only seeds from wild populations are collected. The establishment of plantations is possible. Economic crops can be expected about 10 years after planting.

  10. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  11. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  12. Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1 and B (2, together with five other known compounds (3−7, were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC analysis. Among the known compounds, (−-hopeaphenol (3, (+-syringaresinol (4, and quercetin (5, were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, squalene epoxidase (SQLE, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, and sortilin (SORT1 genes in HepG2 cells.

  13. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts o...

  14. [Study of quality control on Cuscuta chinensis and C. australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.

  15. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  16. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  17. In vitro regeneration of 'Feizixiao' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    Different developmental stages of SEs were obtained from the callus on MS ... methods. Key words: litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), anther culture, callus, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis. ...... Induction and maintenance of the embryogenic.

  18. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro ... wastewater plays a significant role in food security as it improves crop ... Low quality irrigation water is generally contaminated with humans or animals.

  19. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  20. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  1. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  2. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... The pathogens were isolated by tissue segment method (Fang,. 1996) on potato ... Genomic DNA was extracted from a suspension culture of A. alter- nata by the cetyltrimethyl ... sample of orchid tissue. Biotechniques.

  3. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... On the basis of morphological and cultural features, the pathogen ... Alternaria isolate from Purple-Caitai showed 99% identity with other ITS sequences of .... Cho KH, Park SH, Kim KT, Kim S, Kim JS, Park BS, Woo JG, Lee HJ.

  4. Potassium nutrition on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburto-González, C.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn is a potential alternative crop for areas with subtropical climate. In Mexico, cv. ‘Brewster’ dominates 98 % in terms of established surface; however, it has many problems to maintain stable production through its production cycles. Worldwide, yield per hectare ranges from 1 to 15 t. In Mexico, yields also fluctuate in that range. Researches who have worked with it agree that much of the problem that leads to low yields is the lack of a proper nutrition program. All existing information regarding the fertilization of this crop has been generated in other countries, mainly India, USA and Australia. Its need for K+ is higher compared to N and P. Since K+ is a nutrient that has an impact on yield and fruit quality, this paper review focuses on studies that have been done on potassium nutrition on lychee and concludes that more research is needed to take correct decision about the amount and time for potassium application.

  5. Tamarix chinensis Lour.: saltcedar or five-stamen tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis (Lour.)) and smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora DC.) hybridize in the Southwest (Baum 1967; Horton and Campbell 1974) and are deciduous, pentamerous tamarisks that are both commonly referred to as saltcedar. Saltcedar is a native of Eurasia that has naturalized in the southwestern United States within the last century. It was introduced...

  6. Effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Schisandraceae seed extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary beneficial compounds in S. chinensis are the lignins ... important roles in the adaptive immune response. [8]. Lignins stimulate the production of cytokines, ... routinely used to evaluate drug actions, tumor .... on carcinogen metabolism systems in mouse liver. Food ... action and serum bile acid concentration in.

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  8. In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In vitro plantlet regeneration in the main commercial variety of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv Tai So) in Mauritius was achieved from callus cultures derived from young, tender leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent ...

  9. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  10. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Deng, Cao; Fan, Gang; Qin, Shishang

    2017-01-01

    The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya). The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species. PMID:28698879

  12. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya. The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species.

  13. Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Rooting of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de auxilias exógenas e ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas foram uniformizadas, com 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade. Cerca de 2,5 cm da base das mesmas foi mergulhado nos tratamentos: H2O; Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 5.000 ppm, IBA 2.000 ppm; IBA 5.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 2.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 3.000 ppm; NAA 1.500 ppm; NAA 3.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 1.500 ppm + Boro 150 µ/g/ml. A estaquia foi realizada no mês de setembro (Hemisfério sul, sendo que as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o IBA 5.000 ppm por 1 minuto foi o tratamento mais efetivo, proporcionando 83,33% de estacas enraizadas em 120 dias, enquanto o tratamento testemunha (H2O, apresentou somente 16,67% de estacas enraizadas.The effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. Cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. The bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: H2O; Boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 5,000 ppm; IBA 2,000 ppm; IBA 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 3,000 ppm; NAA 1,500 ppm; NAA 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml. Cutting was performed in September (southern hemisphere and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist It was concluded that 5,000 ppm IBA for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%, while the control (H2O showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.

  14. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  15. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  16. Coptis chinensis Polysaccharides Inhibit Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Li, Yun; Yin, Dengke; Chen, Song; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch (Huanglian) is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. In this study, the effects of the C. chinensis Franch polysaccharides (CCP) on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were investigated. CCP significantly inhibited all the three periods of nonenzymatic protein glycation in vitro, including Amadori product, dicarbonyl compound, and AGE formation (P < .01). In diabetic mice, the administration of CCP not only improved both bodyweight and serum insulin and decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated serum protein concentrations but also decreased the AGE accumulations and morphological abnormalities in pancreas and liver. The inhibitory effects of CCP on AGE formation afford a potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  17. [Determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yuan-yan; Tong, Yan; Li, Xian-duan; Feng, Xue-feng; Huang, Lu-qi; Zhou, Guo-ping

    2004-11-01

    To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis. The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 274 nm. The linearities of carvacrol and thymol were respectively in the range of 0.23-2.15 microg (r = 0.9999) and 0.39-2.36 microg (r = 0.9999); the average recoveries were 99.9% (RSD 1.4%) and 98.6% (RSD 1.3%); the RSD of repeatability were 1.1% and 1.6%. The method is reliable, and can be used for quality control of M. chinensis.

  18. Transcriptomic Response of Chinese Yew (Taxus chinensis to Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxus chinensis is a rare and endangered shrub, highly sensitive to temperature changes and widely known for its potential in cancer treatment. How gene expression of T. chinensis responds to low temperature is still unknown. To investigate cold response of the genus Taxus, we obtained the transcriptome profiles of T. chinensis grown under normal and low temperature (cold stress, 0°C conditions using Illumina Miseq sequencing. A transcriptome including 83,963 transcripts and 62,654 genes were assembled from 4.16 Gb of reads data. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 2,025 differently expressed (DE isoforms at p < 0.05, of which 1,437 were up-regulated by cold stress and 588 were down-regulated. Annotation of DE isoforms indicated that transcription factors (TFs in the MAPK signaling pathway and TF families of NAC, WRKY, bZIP, MYB, and ERF were transcriptionally activated. This might have been caused by the accumulation of secondary messengers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS and Ca2+. While accumulation of ROS will have caused damages to cells, our results indicated that to adapt to low temperatures T. chinensis employed a series of mechanisms to minimize these damages. The mechanisms included: (i cold-enhanced expression of ROS deoxidant systems, such as peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, to remove ROS. This was further confirmed by analyses showing increased activity of POD, SOD, and CAT under cold stress. (ii Activation of starch and sucrose metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and purine metabolism by cold-stress to produce metabolites which either protect cell organelles or lower the ROS content in cells. These processes are regulated by ROS signaling, as the “feedback” toward ROS accumulation.

  19. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  20. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  1. Identification of medicinal plant Schisandra chinensis using a potential DNA barcode ITS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-kuan Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region is an effective marker for using in authenticating of the Schisandra chinensis at the species and population levels, separately. And the results showed that the wild populations had higher percentage of individuals that had substitution of C→A at site 86-bp than the cultivated populations. At sites 10-bp, 37-bp, 42-bp and 235-bp, these bases of the Schisandra sphenanthera samples differed from that of S. chinensis. Two species showed higher levels of inter-specific divergence than intra-specific divergence within ITS2 sequences. However, 24 populations did not demonstrate much difference as inter-specific and intra-specific divergences were concerned. Both S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera showed monophyly at species level, yet the samples of different populations shown polyphyly at population level. ITS2 performed well when using BLAST1 method. ITS2 obtained 100% identification success rates at the species level for S. chinensis, with no ambiguous identification at the genus level for ITS2 alone. The ITS2 region could be used to identify S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera in the “Chinese Pharmacopoeia”. And it could also correctly distinguish 100% of species and 100% of genera from the 193 sequences of S. chinensis. Hence, the ITS2 is a powerful and efficient tool for species identification of S. chinensis.

  2. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  3. The invasion of leptochloa chinensis (L.) nees in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan Pane; Mashhor Mansor; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    In 1981, red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] was first observed at site 2 (Sungai Udang) in the southern part of the Muda area. In the first cropping season of 1984, the populations of L. chinensis expanded to three sampling sites. Consequently, the populations gradually spread to other parts of the Muda area. In 1986, the infestations were recorded at sampling site 6 (Kubang Pangas) which is about 50 km from the original infestation sites. In 1988, most of the southern parts of Muda area were colonized by this weed. In 1990, the populations reached the northern part of Muda area. The whole Muda area was finally covered with L. chinensis by 1992. From 1981 until 1994, the increase of area infested per unit time was estimated at about 4% of the area based on the previous year's record. The intensive survey conducted in 1994 from the 20 sampling sites showed that in addition to L. chinensis, twelve dominant weed species were also recorded. However, by far the single most dominant weed species was L. chinensis. Based on the spatial quantitative vegetative analysis, L. chinensis populations were predominantly recorded in 75% of the sampling sites. The L. chinensis populations were also observed to thrive well on slightly acidic rice fields with pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.8. (Author)

  4. First observation on the breeding behavior of endangered species, Chinese many-tooth snake, Sibynophis chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Soung Koo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of reproductive behavior of endangered snake, Sibynophis chinensis in South Korea. On September 24, 2014, one female and three males were observed during the group mating in Oedo-dong, Jeju. Our observation indicates that group mating and the breeding behavior of S. chinensis could be an important way to increase genetic diversity and survival rate. Moreover, autumnal mating affects the breeding success rate of species in isolated areas. Group and autumn mating strategies by S. chinensis are considered to be the most effective way to survive in isolated areas.

  5. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin [State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong, E-mail: stonedentist@yahoo.c [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  6. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin; Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  7. Antioxidant lipoxygenase inhibitors from the leaf extracts of Simmondsia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael Mostafa; Bayoumi, Soad Abdel Latief Hassan; Salama, Awwad Abdoh Radwan; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir Mohamed; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif Hussein; Sayed, Hanaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    To isolate and identify chemical constituents with antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) leaves. The alcoholic extract was subjected to successive solvent fractionation. The antioxidant active fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) were subjected to a combination of different chromatographic techniques guided by the antioxidant assay with DPPH. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The antioxidant activity was assessed quantitively using DPPH and β-carotene methods. The inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase was assessed on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. Ten flavonoids and four lignans were isolated. Flavonoid aglycones showed stronger antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects than their glycosides. Lignoid glycosides showed moderate to weak antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. A total of 14 compounds were isolated and identified from Simmondsia chinensis; 12 of them were isolated for the first time. This is the first report that highlights deeply on the phenolic content of jojoba and their potential biological activities and shows the importance of this plant as a good source of phenolics in particular the flavonoid content. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  9. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta chinensis seeds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chao, Wei-Kai; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscutae Semen, are commonly used as a medicinal material for treating the aching and weakness of the loins and knees, tonifying the defects of the liver and the kidney, and treating the diarrhea due to hypofunction of the kidney and the spleen. Since aching and inflammation are highly correlated with such diseases, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the seeds of C. chinensis. The antinociceptive effect of the seeds of C. chinensis was evaluated via the acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking methods. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated via the λ-carrageenan induced mouse paw edema method. The results found that 100 and 500 mg/kg of the methanol extract of the seeds of C. chinensis( CC MeOH ) significantly decreased (p Cuscutae Semen in inflammatory diseases.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-04-20

    Tu-Si-Zi, the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine that is commonly used to nourish and improve the liver and kidney conditions in China and other Asian countries. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C chinensis on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The C chinensis ethanolic extract at an oral dose of both 125 and 250mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (PCuscuta chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  11. Chemical composition of the leaf oil of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. chinensis was analyzed by capillary gas chromatog. and gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry. More than 40 components were identified, of which b-bisabolene (47.9%) was the major one

  12. In vitro viability and preservation of pollen grain of kiwi (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A. Chev. A. Chev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Steinmacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiwi is a dioecious plant species, requiring cross pollination for fruit production. The objective of this study was toevaluate the in vitro viability and shelf life of pollen grains of two kiwi varieties. Flowers of the cultivars Matua and Tomuri werecollected and the pollen germinated in vitro, in culture medium containing agar (1 %, sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 % and boric acid(0 and 50 mg L-1H3BO3. Pollen grains were stored in a BOD incubator (25.0 °C, refrigerator (4.0 °C, freezer (-18.0 °C and in liquid N2 (-196.0 °C, and evaluated after 0, 40, 120, 240 and 365 days. The culture medium enriched with 12 % sucrose and 50 mgL-1 H3BO3 was the most suitable. Pollen grains can be stored for a short period in the refrigerator or freezer, and cryopreserved for at least one year.

  13. Study of organic acids in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Hui; Li, Lin; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2017-10-01

    The ripened fruit of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has unique medical properties in Chinese medicine. It is commonly used after vinegar steaming. Vinegar steaming changes the color of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from red to black and enhances its acidic and astringent properties. Lignans are the well-investigated components in this herb. However, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is acidic in the theory of Chinese medicine, and whether vinegar processing changes its organic acid components remains largely unknown. In this study, the organic acids in this herb were derived by the method of methyl esterification, and further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 39 organic acid compounds were identified. Interestingly, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing showed a significant increase in the content of levulinic acid as compared to the unprocessed ones. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that levulinic acid inhibited the contractility of isolated intestine and had an inhibitory effect on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion. Moreover, the extracts of vinegar-processed Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus had a stronger inhibitory on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion than that of unprocessed ones. Taken together, this study offers novel insight into the effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cuscuta chinensis Ameliorates Immunosuppression and Urotoxic Effect of Cyclophosphamide by Regulating Cytokines - GM-CSF and TNF-Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nidhi; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Kannan, Narayanan; Vinod Prabhu, Venugopal; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is commonly used as anticancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acroline and phosphoramide mustard. In this study, Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) (family: Convolvulaceae) was assessed for ability to restore mice against CTX-induced toxicity. Coadministration of C. chinensis extract (10 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) for ten consecutive days reduced CTX-induced (25 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) toxicity. Treatment with C. chinensis extract significantly (p < 0.01) increased the relative organ weight and body weight. Moreover, administration of C. chinensis extract significantly increased bone marrow cellulatity and α-esterase activity in CTX-treated mice which suggested its protective role on the hematopoietic system. The GSH content was drastically reduced by CTX administration in urinary bladder which was enhanced by treatment with C. chinensis extract, indicating that preventing acroline-mediated tissue damage or cell toxicity and also the extract decreased the urinary bladder nitric oxide (NO) level which proves recovery over urinary tract injury associated with CTX treatment. The administration of C. chinensis extract decreased serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin levels when compared to CTX-alone-treated group. Histopathological analysis of the urinary bladder of CTX-alone-treated group showed necrotic damage whereas the C. chinensis-treated group showed normal bladder architecture. The above data clearly demonstrates chemoprotective role of C. chinensis against CTX-induced toxicities by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

  15. Two new lignan glycosides from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Meng, A-Hui; He, Wen-Ni; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2010-11-01

    Two new lignan glycosides, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside C, 1) and 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside D, 2), were isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., along with six known compounds, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside A, 4), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-caffeoyl quinic acid (6), 4-caffeoyl quinic acid (7), and cinnamic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and TOCSY.

  16. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  17. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  18. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  19. Anatomy of the aerial parts and chemical composition of the essential oil of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, V.N.; An, N.T.K.; Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aerial parts of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. (syn. Mosla chinensis Maxim.) are used for the treatment of some common diseases (dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epidermophytosis, etc.) and for the production of traditional alcohol yeast. The anatomic structure of the stem and leaves has been studied and is

  20. Study of Commercially Available Lobelia chinensis Products Using Bar-HRM Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yan, Song; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Xiang, Li; Deng, Bo; Ma, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for herbal medicine identification using a fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use method that does not require complex infrastructure and well-trained technicians. For instance, the detection of adulterants in Lobelia chinensis herbal product has been challenging, since current detection technologies are not effective due to their own limits. High Resolution Melting (HRM) has emerged as a powerful new technology for clinical diagnosis, research in the food industry and in plant molecular biology, and this method has already highlighted the complexity of species identification. In this study, we developed a method of species specific detection of L. chinensis using HRM analysis combined with internal transcribed spacer 2. We then applied this method to commercial products purporting to contain L . chinensis . Our results demonstrated that HRM can differentiate L. chinensis from six common adulterants. HRM was proven to be a fast and accurate technique for testing the authenticity of L. chinensis in herbal products. Based on these results, a HRM approach for herbal authentication is provided.

  1. [Effects of water stress and temperature on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Sinocalycanthus chinensis leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shi-sheng; Jin, Ze-xin

    2008-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis is an endangered species in Sinocalycanthus, and only distributed in Zhejiang Province of China. This paper studied the photosynthetic responses of 2-year-old pot-cultured S. chinensis to different levels of water stress and temperature. The results indicated that under mild and moderate water stress, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of S. chinensis leaves was decreased to 92.3% and 74.3% of the control, respectively, which was mainly attributed to stomatal limitation; and under severe water stress, the Pn was decreased to 44.4% of the control, which might be mainly linked to non-stomatal limitation. The appropriate temperature for S. chinensis photosynthesis was from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C. At 39 degrees C, the Pn, water use efficiency (WUE), and maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) were decreased significantly, while the dark respiration rate (Rd) and transpiration rate (Tr) were enhanced significantly. With increasing water stress and temperature, some photosynthetic parameters including light saturation point (LSP), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and maximal CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax) decreased to certain extents, while light compensation point (LCP) increased, suggesting that both severe water stress and higher temperature were the important environmental factors affecting the survival of S. chinensis.

  2. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  3. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  4. Propagule pressure and climate contribute to the displacement of Linepithema humile by Pachycondyla chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Spicer Rice

    Full Text Available Identifying mechanisms governing the establishment and spread of invasive species is a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. Because species invasions are frequently observed only after the species presents an environmental threat, research identifying the contributing agents to dispersal and subsequent spread are confined to retrograde observations. Here, we use a combination of seasonal surveys and experimental approaches to test the relative importance of behavioral and abiotic factors in determining the local co-occurrence of two invasive ant species, the established Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr and the newly invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery. We show that the broader climatic envelope of P. chinensis enables it to establish earlier in the year than L. humile. We also demonstrate that increased P. chinensis propagule pressure during periods of L. humile scarcity contributes to successful P. chinensis early season establishment. Furthermore, we show that, although L. humile is the numerically superior and behaviorally dominant species at baits, P. chinensis is currently displacing L. humile across the invaded landscape. By identifying the features promoting the displacement of one invasive ant by another we can better understand both early determinants in the invasion process and factors limiting colony expansion and survival.

  5. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  6. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  7. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  8. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Crossostephium chinensis provides insight into the molecular basis of salinity stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Yang

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is becoming a limitation to the utilization of ornamental plants worldwide. Crossostephium chinensis (Linnaeus Makino is often cultivated along the southeast coast of China for its desirable ornamental qualities and high salt tolerance. However, little is known about the genomic background of the salt tolerance mechanism in C. chinensis. In the present study, we used Illumina paired-end sequencing to systematically investigate leaf transcriptomes derived from C. chinensis seedlings grown under normal conditions and under salt stress. A total of 105,473,004 bp of reads were assembled into 163,046 unigenes, of which 65,839 (40.38% of the total and 54,342 (33.32% of the total were aligned in Swiss-Prot and Nr protein, respectively. A total of 11,331 (6.95% differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified among three comparisons, including 2,239 in 'ST3 vs ST0', 5,880 in 'ST9 vs ST3' and 9,718 in 'ST9 vs ST0', and they were generally classified into 26 Gene Ontology terms and 58 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway terms. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, MYB, and AP2/EREBP and proteins involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, amino acid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interactions and carbohydrate metabolism, among others, were substantially up-regulated under salt stress. These genes represent important candidates for studying the salt-response mechanism and molecular biology of C. chinensis and its relatives. Our findings provide a genomic sequence resource for functional genetic assignments in C. chinensis. These transcriptome datasets will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in C. chinensis and facilitate the breeding of new stress-tolerant cultivars for high-saline areas using this valuable genetic resource.

  10. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  11. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  12. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  13. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  14. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  15. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  17. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  18. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tahu untuk Peningkatan Hasil Tanaman Petsai (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YULIADI ASMORO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A tofu industry potentially produced solid or liquid waste products which are potentially causing pollution. A good treatment of the wastes, waste of solid-wet tofu can be use d to make tempeh gem bus, cattle food and fish food, and the rest is also used as fertilizer especially for pak choi or petsai or Chinese cabbage (Brasssica chinensis L.. The aims of this research were examine: (i The effect of tofu wastes for yield of petsai plant, and (ii the effect of concentration of tofu waste to the yield of petsai plant. There are two methods: independent variable and dependent variable. The method which used was experiment. 20 petsai plants were planted into 20 pots to be treated with solid and liquid tofu wastes with concentration 110%, 20%, and 30%, while as the control 20 pot each 1 plant was treated without wastes. The nutrient contents both for the solid and liquid wastes were analyzed. The data were analyzed by Anova and the difference between means tested using Duncan s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5%% level of significant. The result indicated that increasing of petsai yields u sing solid tofu waste for concentration 10% is 94.06%, for concentration 20% is 3325.76%, and for 30% is 176.11%. The additional of liquid waste for concentration 10% is 41.226%, for concentration 200% is 64.34%% and for concentration 30% is 1.75%%, compared t o the control. Nitrogen contents (N of solid tofu waste and its organic material is higher than liquid waste one, so it has good effect for the plant growth, than liquid waste solution.

  19. Composition of the root oil of Alpinia chinensis Rose. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the roots of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. Nineteen components, representing about 70% of the oil, have been identified. Most of them are sesquiterpenes such as b-caryophyllene (5.2%), a-humulene

  20. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  1. Transcriptome Profiling and In Silico Analysis of the Antimicrobial Peptides of the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seungil; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-11-28

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are present in all types of organisms, from microbes and plants to vertebrates and invertebrates such as insects. The grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa is an insect species that is widely consumed around the world for its broad medicinal value. However, the lack of available genetic information for this species is an obstacle to understanding the full potential of its AMPs. Analysis of the O. chinensis sinuosa transcriptome and expression profile is essential for extending the available genetic information resources. In this study, we determined the whole-body transcriptome of O. chinensis sinuosa and analyzed the potential AMPs induced by bacterial immunization. A high-throughput RNA-Seq approach generated 94,348 contigs and 66,555 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 36,032 (54.14%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database in a BLAST search. Functional analysis demonstrated that 38,219 unigenes were clustered into 5,499 gene ontology terms. In addition, 26 cDNAs encoding novel AMPs were identified by an in silico approach using public databases. Our transcriptome dataset and AMP profile greatly improve our understanding of O. chinensis sinuosa genetics and provide a huge number of gene sequences for further study, including genes of known importance and genes of unknown function.

  2. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  3. The role of chemical cues in host finding and acceptance by Callosobruchus chinensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignacimuthu, S.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the response of female Callosobruchus chinensis to chemical cues emitted by cowpea seeds at different stages of bruchid infestation (uninfested, egg carrying, L1-, and L4-infested). Olfactory attractiveness was determined in Y-tube olfactometer assays by testing individual seed categories

  4. Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Deng, Meng; Liu, Mingdong; Cheng, Lei; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Ten Cate, Jacob. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention. Methods: The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation. Results: All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE. Conclusions: Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries. PMID:28979574

  5. Effect of Galla chinensis on growth and metabolism of microcosm biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE) interferes with de- and remineralization of dental enamel and the growth and metabolism in planktonic bacteria. However, no information is available on GCE effects on biofilms formed with saliva as inoculum. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the

  6. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Li

    Full Text Available Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis. The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis.

  7. Rhizomes Help the Forage Grass Leymus chinensis to Adapt to the Salt and Alkali Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na2SO4 = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO3 : Na2CO3 = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na+ contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K+ content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na+ content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na+. However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na+ transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  8. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  9. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  10. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  11. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  12. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  13. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  14. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  15. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  16. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  17. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  18. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  19. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  20. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  1. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  2. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons.

  3. Biological observations for invasive and exotic insect species Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, invasive and exotic insect species have been frequently found in Turkey. Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 was first recorded in Şile (Istanbul province county, Turkey, in June 2014 and later in Zeytinburnu (the garden of the Abdi Ipekçi Sports Complex and the surrounding in July in the same year. This study was conducted in these two counties in particular between June 2014 and July 2016 with the aims of making remarks on an earlier misidentification of Anoplophora species and determining the life cycle and the host plants in Istanbul, Turkey. It was noted that the record of A. glabripennis in Istanbul was a misidentification of A. chinensis. It took 1 year to complete its generation. The primary host plant of this insect was found to be Acer negundo.

  4. [Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Guo, Jixun; Zhu, Li

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil catalase activity of three different plants communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China were in a parabolas shape. The seasonal variation of Chloris virgata community was greater than those of Leymus chinensis community and Puccinellia tenuiflora community, and "seed effect" might be the main reason. The correlation between the activity of soil catalase in different soil layers and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the activity of soil catalase was decreased gradually with depth of soil layer. The activity of soil catalase was closely correlated with rainfall and air temperature, and it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interactions. The correlation between the activity and aboveground vegetation was very significant, and the growing condition of plant communities could be reflected by the activity of soil catalase.

  5. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  6. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schindler

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schnider)  leaves and seeds werescreened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of ethanol andmethanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsiachinensis) were investigated for the first time using DPPH2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity.Total phenolic substance amounts were calculated according to Folin-Ciocalteumethod, substance concentrations in mg/GAE g, equivalent to gall...

  7. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  8. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  9. Nanoparticles formulation of Cuscuta chinensis prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Cham, Thau-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2008-05-01

    Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to nourish the liver and kidney. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as flavonoids and lignans, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The purpose of the present study was to use the nanosuspension method to prepare C. chinensis nanoparticles (CN), and to compare the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. chinensis ethanolic extract (CE) and CN on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An oral dose of CE at 125 and 250 mg/kg and CN at 25 and 50mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. In addition, the antioxidant activities of CE and CN both significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde (P<0.05). Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of 50 mg/kg CN was effectively better than 125 mg/kg CE (P<0.05), and an oral dose of CN that is five times as less as CE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other water poorly soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  10. Genetic isolation by distance in the endangered plant sinocalycanthus chinensis endemic to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junmin, L.; Jingjing, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis, narrowly endemic to China, is a tertiary relict species. We analyzed the genetic structure pattern of 6 populations of S. chinensis using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and the isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was tested in order to understand the relative influences of gene flow and genetic drift on population structure. The genetic diversity at species level was relatively high (P=51.00%, h =0.1397 and I=0.2191, respectively), while that at populations level was relatively low (P=18.00%, h=0.0733 and I=0.1108, respectively). High genetic differentiation was detected among populations (fi ST=0.6320). Neighbor-joining method of clustering results showed that six populations were clearly separated into eastern and western group. Mantel test showed that there was significant association between genetic distance and geographical distance (r/sup =0.8600, P=0.0470). Limited gene flow due to species traits and habitat fragmentation and the consequent genetic drift might be the 2 main causes for the genetic isolation by distance of S. chinensis populations. (author)

  11. Effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on gamma ray exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Wang Qingmin; Tang Ying; Li Yu; Shi Hai; Lei Chengxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on radiation injury. Methods: Forty male Chinese Kunming mice were randomly divided into non-radiation group, radiation group without drugs,radiation group with tea polyphenols, radiation group with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and radiation group with tannins from Galla chinensis. The radiation groups were irradiated with a single exposure of 8.0 Gy γ rays from 60 Co. The mice were intragastric ally administered 2 h before radiation and were done 18 h after radiation. The 30-day survival rate, the mean survival time and the protective coefficients were confirmed. Results: All the mice of radiation group without drugs died in 16 d after exposure,and their mean survival time was (12.0±2.45) d, while the radiation groups with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae, with tannins from Galla chinensis and with tea polyphenols were (26.25±7.13) d, (21.88±8.89) d and (23.25±9.33) d respectively. There was significant difference in comparison with radiation group without drugs (P 60 Co and could present a significant protection effect on radiation injuries. (authors)

  12. THE BIOLOGY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SPECIES SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (TURCZ. BAILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIORCHINĂ NINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the possibilities for the propagation of species Schisandra chinensis (Turz. Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Situated in the Lianarium of the Botanical Garden (Institute AŞM since 1975, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. grows, develops and fructifies abundantly every year. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Germination percentages of 80-90% were obtained. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division. The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. The explants consisting of apical meristems inoculated on MS medium + 0.5 mg/l BAP evolved the best.

  13. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  14. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  15. Differentiation of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and HPLC-UV quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianghui; Yang, Wenzhi; Ye, Min; Wang, Qing; Guo, Dean

    2011-11-01

    Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC‑DAD‑MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two Cuscuta species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 lignans. In addition, HPLC‑UV was applied to determine seven major compounds (6 flavonoids plus chlorogenic acid) in 27 batches of Tu-Si-Zi. The results revealed that the amounts of the three classes of compounds varied significantly between the species. C. australis contained more flavonoids but less quinic acid derivatives and lignans than C. chinensis. Particularly, the amounts of kaempferol and astragalin in C. australis were remarkably higher than in C. chinensis. This finding could be valuable for the quality control of Tu-Si-Zi. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Lead (Pb Accumulation in Water, Sediment and Mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Pasir Panjang Coast, Lekok-Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defri Yona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to evaluate Pb accumulation in the water, sediment and mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Lekok-Pasuruan. There were four sampling stations representing the study area: (1 urban areas, (2 water flow area from steam power plant (PLTU, (3 waste disposal area of PLTU, (4 fishing port. The average concentration of lead varied between stations in the water (0.279 ppm, sediment (0.423 ppm and mussels (0.427 ppm. Pearson`s correlation test shows strong relationship (p > 0.05 between Pb in the water, sediment and Hiatula chinensis. Mussels accumulation of lead from the sediment was assessed using bio-concentration factor (BCF and the result shows Hiatula chinensis is an accumulator of Pb (BCF > 1.

  17. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  18. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis . Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis , the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed.

  19. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  20. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  2. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  3. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages.

  4. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  5. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  7. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  8. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the fitness component of the pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, A.M.; Aboulnasr, A.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.; Haiba, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with the fines components of the F 1 generation of pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis, developed from adults irradiated (as newly emerged adults) with higher doses and fractionation of sterilizing doses. The results obtained show a gradual decrease in egg production and hatchability. The dosages caused complete sterility in females and males respectively, shortening the life span of developed adults. The dose 200,000 rad caused immediate death to the irradiated adults. Fractionation of the sterilizing dose had no effect on either longevity or the percent of egg hatchability

  10. Two new lignans from Saururus chinensis and their DGAT inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Tuo, Zhen-Dong; Qi, Shi-Zhou; Xing, Shan-Shan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chen, Jian-Guang; Cui, Long

    2015-03-01

    Two new lignans were isolated from Saururus chinensis, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against DGAT1 and DGAT2. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5 and 7 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on DGAT1 with IC50 values ranging from 44.3±1.5 to 87.5±1.3μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.I.A.

    2005-01-01

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  12. Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Efferth, Thomas; Schröder, Sven

    2014-08-08

    The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action. Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted. Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential

  13. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  14. Cuscuta chinensis seeds water extraction protecting murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-mei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Li-long; Ying, Xi-xiang; Dou, De-qiang; Li, Jian-chun; Li, Hai-bo

    2013-07-09

    Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) is a well-known traditional Chinese herb that has been used to treat heart disease, diabetes, liver injury, cancer, and aging. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with various concentrations of C. chinensis water extraction at different time intervals. The antioxidant effect of C. chinensis on MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays. The effect of C. chinensis on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the HPLC method. The cellular redox status was determined from the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) and the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, including glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The changes in relative mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) in the MC3T3-E1 cells were analyzed with rhodamine 123 staining. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the levels of cytochrome c (cyto c), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, Sirt3, and IDH2 expressions. The C. chinensis water extraction protects tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated MC3T3-E1 cells from death in a dose-dependent manner. C. chinensis treatment significantly inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GR, GST, and G6PD. The release of cyto c from mitochondria was reduced by C. chinensis, which increased the expression of antiapoptotic IDH2, Sirt3, and Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, cyto c, and caspase 3. C. chinensis modulated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, probably due to its antioxidant activity and functioning via mitochondria-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.co, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  16. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  17. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  18. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Guo, Peiguo; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51%) under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  19. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  20. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  1. Application of capillary electrochromatography using macroporous polyacrylamide columns for the analysis of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasničková, L.; Glatz, O.; Štěrbová, H.; Kahle, Vladislav; Slanina, J.; Musil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 916, 1-2 (2001), s. 265-271 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/D062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : electrochromatography * Schisandra chinensis * plant materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  2. Morpho-anatomical features of Schisandra chinensis leaf under conditions of introduction in forest-steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Skrypchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the morpho-anatomical study of the leaves of Schisandra chinensis under conditions of foreststeppe of Ukraine are given. Since the specific features were found, in particular the presence of intercellular spaces with essential oils in leaf blade and petioles.

  3. Cuscuta chinensis extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of To-Sa-Za (TSZ-AE), the seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is a traditional medicinal herb commonly used in Korea and other oriental countries, could induce osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. TSZ-AE treatment mildly promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells at doses of 500 and 1,000 microg/mL in the 24-hour culture period. Dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen synthesis were shown at 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 but not osteocalcin in the MG-63 cells was induced by TSZ-AE at 72 hours (100-1,000 microg/mL). In addition, TSZ-AE markedly increased mRNA expression of ALP, collagen, and BMP-2 in the MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization in the culture of MG-63 cells was significantly induced at 500 and 1,000 microg/mL TSZ-AE treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that TSZ-AE enhanced ALP activity, collagen synthesis, BMP-2 expression, and mineralization in MG-63 cells. These results strongly suggest that C. chinensis can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  4. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Cuscuta chinensis Whole Extract on Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zeraati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major paths for drug development isthe study of bioactivities of natural products. Therefore, theaim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects ofaqueous extract of whole Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is atraditional medicinal herb commonly used in Iran and otheroriental countries, on the human caucasian acute lymphoblasticleukemia (CCRF-CEM and another human lymphocyte,Jurkat (JM cell lines.Methods: In vitro cytotoxic screening with various concentrations(0, 0.1, 1, 10, 25 and 50 μg/ml of the extract wasperformed using microscope and methyl tetrazolium bromidetest (MTT.Results: The minimum effective concentration of the plantextract was 1 μg/ml, and increasing the dose to 10 μg/mlinduced increasingly stronger effects. The inhibitory concentration50% (IC50 of the extract against CCRF wasabout 3 μg/ml in 24 hours and 2.5 μg/ml in 48 hrs. In contrast,the extract did not have cytotoxic effect for the JMcells at these doses.Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that C.chinensis is toxic against CCRF-CEM and JM tumor cells.Whether or not such effects can be employed for the treatmentof such tumors must await future studies.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 310-314.

  5. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  6. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  7. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  9. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H., E-mail: amandaramos@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R., E-mail: iferreira@ipb.pt [Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO) - ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (Portugal)

    2017-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  10. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  11. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  12. Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10–200 mg/kg manner. SFES (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg, intragstrically showed a strong hypnotic effect in synergy with pentobarbital in mouse sleep, and reversal of insomnia induced by caffeine, p-chlorophenylalanine and flumazenil by decreasing sleep latency, sleep recovery, and increasing sleeping time. In addition, it produced a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. The behavioral pharmacological results suggest that SFES has significant sedative and hypnotic activities, and the mechanisms might be relevant to the serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic system.

  13. Improved antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Qi-Ling; Yang, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.

  14. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  16. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  17. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  18. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  19. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  20. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  3. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  4. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  5. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  6. 1H-NMR-Based Metabonomics of the Protective Effect of Coptis chinensis and Berberine on Cinnabar-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis. The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study. After the treatment with Coptis chinensis and berberine, compared with the cinnabar group, Coptis chinensis and berberine can regulate the concentration of the endogenous metabolites. PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that the urine and serum metabolic profiles in rats of the Coptis chinensis and berberine groups were similar those of the control group, yet remarkably apart from the cinnabar group. The mechanism may be related to the endogenous metabolites including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of intestinal flora in rats. Meanwhile, liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis verified the experimental results of metabonomics.

  7. Machine learning for the prediction of L. chinensis carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and understanding of mechanisms underlying grassland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefen; Liang, Shuo; Zhao, Yiying; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-05-01

    The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels. The growth of L. chinensis was shown to be limited by either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both during different stages of degradation. The soil chemistry changed noticeably as degradation aggravated, which represents a destabilization of L. chinensis community homeostasis. Soil salinization aggravates soil nutrient loss and decreases the bioavailability of soil nutrients. This, along with the destabilization of C/N, C/P and N/P ratios, weakens the photosynthetic ability and productivity of L. chinensis. This conclusion was supported by observations that L. chinensis is gradually being replaced by a Chloris virgata, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Suaeda acuminate mixed community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  9. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  10. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  12. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  13. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  14. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. War

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L. and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these

  15. The new record for Turkish invasive alien insect fauna Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hızal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade is increasing rapidly with developing transportation routes. As a result of this, it became easier for many animal species to move from their natural habitats with the break down of the natural barriers between countries and continents. Insects take an important place among these animals. Insect populations are controlled by several factors in their natural habitats, but they causes important problems as they move by living plants and wood materials to another area. They are so called invasive alien insect species in their new location. These species’ common characteristics are fast growth and reproduction, high dispersal ability, tolerance of wide range of enviromental conditions and ability to feed with various food types. The increase in importing of the plants and wood material in the recent years has been causing the prensence of these species in Turkey. In this research Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae is given as a new record to Turkish invasive alien insect species fauna.

  16. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  17. Induksi Ginogenesis melalui Kultur Multi Ovule Slice dan Kultur Ovary Slice Dianthus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskandari Kartikaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction was studied in five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis using 2.4 D and NAA. Calluses can be obtainedfrom unfertilized ovule culture and ovary culture. The aim of the research was to study gynogenic potential and responseof Dianthus chinensis through ovule slice and ovary slice culture for obtaining haploid plants. Five genotypes of Dianthuschinensis and five media were used in ovule slice culture and two genotypes and three medium were used in ovary culture.Flower buds in the 7th stage were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for one day. Ovules and ovaries wereisolated and cultured in induction medium. Cultures were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for seven days, followed by 25 oC light incubation. The result showed that 2.4D was better than NAA in inducing callus. Percentage of regenerated calluses were produced in V11, V13 and V15 genotypes in M7 medium (MS + 2 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 30 g L-1 sucrose and M10 medium (MS + 1 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 20 g L-1 sucrose. All calluses originated from ovule and ovary cultures flowered prematurely. Double haploid (V11-34 were obtained from ovule slice culture based on PER (peroksidase and EST (esterase isoenzym marker.Keywords: ovule slice culture, ovary slice culture, callus, Dianthus sp., haploid

  18. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  19. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbao Xia

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL, soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC and absolute soil solution concentration (CS decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m and shallow water levels (0.6 m respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m.The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  20. Reduction of Allergenicity of Litchi chinensis Flowers Pollen Protein Conjugated with Polysaccharide by Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranajit Kumar Shaha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy to pollen from gymnosperms is well documented in the west. The objective was to define the allergologic protein from Litchi chinensis (Litchi pollen and conjugate the protein with polysaccharides by Maillard reaction to reduce the allergic effect of that protein. Methods: Total soluble proteins were extracted from the pollen of Litchi flower pollen and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80% saturation. Pollen antigen from Litchi chinensis (Litchi was prepared by gel cutting method and characterized by biochemical and designated by LFPP. The homogeneity of this protein was demonstrated by a single band on SDS-PAGE. The protein then conjugated with galactomannan through Maillard Reaction. The resulting purified pollen protein and conjugated protein were administered to the Swiss albino mice as amount of 5.8mg/kg body weight. Results: The total protein was then separated on a 12% SDS-Polyacrylamide gel which revealed 5 bands between molecular weight range of 29kDa and 69kDa. Each band was recovered from the gel by electroelution and sent for skin tests. 28kDa proteins was the only allergenic protein while others were not shown reactivity in patients. Intraperitoneal injection of the purified protein (LFPP caused a significant rise in the levels of neutrophils (38-81% and eosinophils (3-14% compared to control (P < 0.001 whereas conjugated protein caused only a 2% increase of both neutrophils and eosinophils level. On the other hand treatment with LFPP-galactomannan conjugate causes no such change in physical appearance with eosinophils and neutrophils level. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the protein extracted and purified from Litchi flowers pollen has been recognized as a new allergen from Bangladesh for the first time and the allergic effects can be reduced by conjugation with polysaccharides.

  1. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  2. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  3. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  4. Entomofauna visitante de Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC (Iridaceae durante o período de floração Flowering entomofauna Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae during flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Vitali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the reproductive biology of B. chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae was realized comprising floral biology and breeding systems. The floral biology studies included analyses of nectar production, occurence of osmophores, corolla pigments, ultraviolet reflexion and absortion patterns, viability of pollen, pollinators and flower visitors. The breeding systems were studied taking into account the results of manual pollinators tests. B. chinensis is self-compatible bul cross-pollination is more frequent. The effective pollinators are Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1906 (45,7%, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (27,3%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (9,3%. Others insects visitors are considered nectar and pollen thieves. The flowering begins generally in January and February. The complete reproductive cicle, as here considered, begining with floral bud production ending with development of mature fruits, lasts January to June. Seed dispersion is ornitocoric.

  5. [Cultural regionalization for Coptis chinensis based on 3S technology platform Ⅰ. Study on growth suitability for Coptis chinensis based on ecological factors analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Yan-Fang; Song, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wu, He-Zhen

    2016-09-01

    At the urgent request of Coptis chinensis planting,growth suitability as assessment indicators for C. chinensis cultivation was proposed and analyzed in this paper , based on chemical quality determination and ecological fators analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model. Its potential distribution areas at differernt suitability grade and regionalization map were formulated based on statistical theory and growth suitability theory. The results showed that the most suitable habitats is some parts of Chongqing and Hubei province, such as Shizhu, Lichuan, Wulong, Wuxi, Enshi. There are seven ecological factor is the main ecological factors affect the growth of Coptidis Rhizoma, including altitude, precipitation in February and September and the rise of precipitation and altitude is conducive to the accumulation of total alkaloid content in C. chinensis. Therefore, The results of the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Coptidis Rhizoma, also helpful to further research and practice of cultivation regionalization, wild resource monitoring and large-scale cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Absorbability, Mechanism and Structure-Property Relationship of Three Phenolic Acids from the Flowers of Trollius chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absorption properties, mechanism of action, and structure-property relationship of three phenolic acids isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge, namely, proglobeflowery acid (PA, globeflowery acid (GA and trolloside (TS, were investigated using the human Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results showed that these three phenolic acids were transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a time and concentration dependent manner at the Papp level of 10−5 cm/s, and their extent of absorption correlated with their polarity and molecular weight. In conclusion, all three of these compounds were easily absorbed through passive diffusion, which implied their high bioavailability and significant contribution to the effectiveness of T. chinensis.

  7. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Prevalence of Epidermal Conditions in Critically Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the Waters of Western Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.

  9. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis: an alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    Simmondsia chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  10. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis. An alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    S. chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  11. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  12. Leaf proteome analysis of clematis chinensis: a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) by two-dimensional electrophoresis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussaini, T.; Azami, S.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf proteome of Clematis chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The samples were extracted by phenol-SDS method (PSM) with high protein quantity i.e. 2.35, 0.345 mg/g (yield/dw). Proteins were visualized by staining of gels by silver stain and CBB. The gel images of each species were compared by Image Master 2D Platinum software for analytical purpose. The 2-DE profile depicted distribution of 1085 spots and out of these only 255 protein spots (23.5%) were common to all analyzed taxa. The visualized protein spots showed pI range from 3.0 to 10.0 (pH) and Mr of 7 kDa to 70 kDa. Twelve proteins were exclusively specific to C. chinensis when compared with its allies, C. finetiana and C. armandii, which may be used as biomarkers. Thirteen proteins were up-regulated in C. finetiana (0.75-0.95 fold) and twelve proteins in C. armandii (1.05-1.66 fold) whilst seven proteins down-regulated (0.66-0.94 fold) in former and three proteins (1.07-1.20 fold) in later one in comparison with C. chinensis. Twenty five differential and similar protein spots were picked and analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Identified proteins are related to energy metabolism (ATP synthesis), photosynthesis. environmental stimuli, regulating RNA metabolism, growth hormone regulators, evolutionary trends and gene expression. The efficiency and applicability of proteomic approach as biomarker for identification of C. chinensis is discussed in its quality control (QC) perspectives. Leaf proteins of Clematis plants are explored for the first time by 2-DE technique and debated for their metabolic role. (author)

  13. Actinidia chinensis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The NB-ARC domain sequences of 96 NBS-encoding genes were aligned by using MUSCLE program in MEGA 5.0. (Tamura et al. 2011). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the neighbour-joining (NJ) method with the default options and 1000 bootstraps by ...

  14. Simmondsia chinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... lived evergreen perennial shrub with extensive deep tap root system which helps to withstand drought ... propagate jojoba in vitro on various culture media (Elhag et al., 1998; Agrawal et al., 1999; Agrawal et al. .... covered with polyethylene bags to minimize the loss of moisture and kept in a greenhouse for ...

  15. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renying Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF, cow manure (COM and chicken manure (CHM, on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05. By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level.

  16. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  17. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  18. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  19. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCHES IN VITRO ON THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL COMPOSITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL AID FOR OINTMENT PRODUCTION BASED ON СО2 EXTRACT OF SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is valuable species of herbal medicines raw materials (fruits, seeds, caruncles, leaves, stem cortex, and roots with root systems which are used for medicines and biologically active supplements production in food and cosmetic industry. However nowadays medicines from Schisandra chinensis are only represented by tincture for internal use on domestic pharmaceutical market. There are data about positive implementation of medicines based on raw materials of Schisandra chinensis as external medicine forms in folk medicine and in literature. The purpose of this work is the development of soft external medicine form – ointment based on СО2 extract of Schisandra chinensis seeds. Biopharmaceutical researches in vitro on the choice of optimal ointment composition by the method of dialysis through semi permeable membrane were conducted for this purpose. Release rate was calculated in relation to base biologically active substances of Schisandra chinensis – lignans (schizandrin and γ-schizandrin which determine its basic pharmacological value. Based on the results of the research conducted it is possible to conclude that the best ointment bases are hydrophilous “classic” poly ethylene oxide and oleogel based on paraffinic oil and aerosil.

  20. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  2. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  4. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  5. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  6. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  7. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  8. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  9. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  10. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  11. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  12. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  13. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  14. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  15. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  16. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  17. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  18. Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Quality evaluation and antioxidant activity research of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Fu; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Li, Na; Fan, Xing; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To determine the contents of lignans, crude polysaccharides (CP) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats in Liaoning province and evaluate their quality and free radical scavenging (FRS) activity. Contents of schisandrol, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were determined by RP-HPLC. Contents of TPC, CP and FRS activity were determined by Folin-Cicalteu's, phenol-sulfuric acid and DPPH x method, respectively. Sample from Liaoyang city had the highest contents of lignans (21.75 mg/g); Sample from Shenbei New district of Shenyang city had the highest contents of CP (88.72 mg/g); Sample from Guanmenshan district of Benxi city had the highest contents of TPC and FRS activity (26.06 mg/g and 86.3%, respectively). Linear regression analysis results showed that contents of TPC had higher correlation coefficient with FRS activity than that of lignans. Their linear regression equations were Y = 1.3677X + 46.97, R2 = 0.6869 and Y = 2.5916X + 57.927, R2 = 0.1747 for TPC and lignans with FRS activity, respectively. The contents of lignans, CP and TPC are significantly different from samples collected from various habitats in Liaoning province. The main antioxidative substances are TPC, and lignans have no significant correlation with FRS activity.

  20. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  1. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  2. Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. AI Lawati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of eight plants local to Oman, namely Qarat (Acacia nilotica, Mustafal (Annona squamosa, Shereesh (Azadirachta indica, Luban (Boswellia sacra, Kheshkhash (Crotolaria juncea, Zebrot (Jatropha dhofarica Yas, (Myrtus communis and Suwwad (Suaeda aegyptiaca were prepared by steeping shaded dried leaf/ seed powder of each plant in water and solvent (methanol or ethanol. The extracts were tested for their insecticidal and repellent properties against the pulse beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. The extracts from the seeds of A. squamosa recorded l00% mortality of beetles within twenty and four hours of their exposure to methanol and ethanol extracts, respectively. The other extracts that caused high mortality were from A. nilotica, C. juncea, M. communis and S. aegzptiaca in methanol and B. sacra, J. dhofarica, S. aegptiaca and commercial neem in ethanol. Extracts of M. communis in methanol were highly repellent to the beetles compared to other extracts. Legume seeds treated with extracts of A. squamosa were not repellent, rather the beetles were attracted to them.

  3. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Phylogeography of the Chinese Beard Eel, Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup, Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA: A Range Expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese beard eel (Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup is an intertidal fish and a model organism for the study of impacts caused by topological fluctuations during the Pleistocene and current intricate hydrological conditions on fauna living in the coastal areas of China. In this study, we examined the phylogeographical pattern, population genetic profile and demographical history of C. chinensis using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b (cyt b and control region (CR from 266 individuals sampled in seven localities across the coastal area of southeastern China. The combined data indicated high levels of haplotype diversity and low levels of nucleotide diversity. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA and FST statistics suggested the absence of a significant population structure across the Chinese coast. Neutrality tests, mismatch distributions and Bayesian skyline plots uniformly indicated a recent population expansion. The phylogeographic structure of C. chinensis may be attributed to past population expansion and long-distance pelagic larval dispersal facilitated by present-day ocean currents.

  6. Effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on intracerebral acetylcholinesterase and monoamine neurotransmitters in a D-galactose-induced aging brain mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Jianlian Gao; Guangwei Zhang; Xiao Ma; Ying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most prominent characteristic of brain aging is decreased learning and memory ability. The functions of learning and memory are closely related to intracerebral acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and monoamine neurotransmitter activity. Previous studies have shown that Schisandra chinensis potysaccharide has an anti-aging effect. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on AChE activity and monoamine neurotransmitter content, as well as learning and memory ability in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain model compared with the positive control drug Kangnaoling. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Completely randomized, controlled experiment based on neurobiochemistry was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September to December 2003.MATERIALS: Schisandra chinensis was purchased from Henan Provincial Medicinal Company. Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Kangnaoling pellets were provided by Liaoning Tianlong Pharmaceutical (batch No. 20030804;state drug permit No. H21023095). A total of 50 six-week-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank control, model, Kangnaoling, high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups, with 10 mice per group. METHODS: Mice in the blank control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL/20 g normal saline into the nape of the neck each day, while the remaining mice were subcutaneously injected with 5% D-galactose saline solution (0.5 mL/20 g) in the nape for 40 days to induce a brain aging model. On day 11, mice in the high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups were intragastrically infused with 20 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide solution (0.2 mL/10 g), respectively. Mice from the Kangnaoling group were intragastrically infused with 35 mg/mL Kangnaoling suspension (0.2 mL/10 g), and the mice in the

  7. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  9. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  10. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  11. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  12. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  13. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  14. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  15. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  16. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  17. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  18. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  19. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  20. Pendimethalin aplicado à casca de arroz e serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis Lam. Pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Seixas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas residuais à coberturas mortas pode aumentar a eficiência desses materiais no manejo da comunidade infestante. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a possibilidade de aplicação do pendimethalin à casca de arroz e à serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos aplicando-se o pendimethalin às coberturas mortas através de embebição e pulverização do herbicida, variando-se também a quantidade de cobertura utilizada. As espécies de plantas daninhas que ocorreram com maior frequência foram Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus e Commelina benghalensis. Há possibilidade de aplicação do herbicida pendimethalin à palha de arroz ou à serragem para controle de plantas daninhas em I. chinensis, principalmente quando ocorrem chuvas regulares e bem distribuídas. Há evidências de que a embebição da cobertura morta no herbicida seja um pouco mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas que a sua pulverização sobre a cobertura. Possivelmente, a quantidade de cobertura morta utilizada influencia na eficiência de controle, apesar deste fato não ter ficado claro neste trabalho.Applying herbicides at mulches may increase the efficiency of these materials for weed management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis. In two field trials, pendimethalin was applied to the mulches through imbibition and spraying herbicide, also varying the amount of mulches. Higher frequent weeds were Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus and Commelina benghalensis. There are possibility of pendimethalin application on rice husks or sawdust for controlling weeds in I. chinensis mainly when regular and well-distributed rainfalls occur. There are evidences that the imbibition of these mulches to the herbicide

  1. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  2. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  6. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  7. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  8. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  9. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  10. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  11. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  12. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  13. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  14. Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Natural Populations of Leymus chinensis Induced by Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by

  15. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  16. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  17. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP- 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN- induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.

  18. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  19. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  20. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  1. Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ke; Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-01

    A novel isolate, designated strain KLBMP 1282(T) was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour., collected from Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia kongjuensis LM 157(T) (98.33 %), Pseudonocardia autotrophica IMSNU 20050(T) (97.77 %), Pseudonocardia endophytica YIM 56035(T) (97.63 %), Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans H9 (T) (97.62 %) and Pseudonocardia compacta IMSNU 20111(T) (97.56 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Pseudonocardia was <97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) to the genus Pseudonocardia. Strain KLBMP 1282(T) contained MK-8(H(4)) as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(16:0) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids detected in strain KLBMP 1282(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unknown phospholipid and four unknown glycolipids. The DNA G + C content of strain KLBMP 1282(T) was 73.1 mol %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and the phylogenetic analysis, together with the phenotypic and biochemical tests, allowed the differentiation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) from strains of other recognized Pseudonocardia species. Therefore, strain KLBMP 1282(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1282(T) (=KCTC 29053(T) = NBRC 108677(T)).

  2. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  3. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  4. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P populations ( P growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  5. [A comparative study on soil respiration between grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppe, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Yuhui

    2004-09-01

    With enclosed chamber Method, this paper studied the soil respiration in grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppes, Inner Mongolia, and its relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that the daily pattern of soil respiration could be expressed as a one-humped curve, and the highest values appeared at 13:00-15:00 in the fenced and grazing plots. The diurnal dynamics of soil respiration mainly depended on the surface temperature at the fenced plots and the soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the grazing plots. In June and July, the average soil respiration rate was 2.7 times greater at the fenced plots than that at the grazing plots, while the difference was not distinct in August and September, which was similar with the change of the belowground biomass. The reason was probably that the plant was influenced differently in different phenological phases by grazing and the change of environmental factors. It showed that human activity may not result in the increase of soil respiration rate. The seasonal dynamics of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil water content at the 0-10 cm depth at the fenced and grazing sites, and the maximum R2 was 0.853 and 0.741, respectively. The difference was that the correlation of soil respiration seasonal dynamics with soil water content was larger at the fenced plots than at the grazing plots. The correlations of soil respiration diurnal and seasonal dynamics with temperature and soil water content at lower profiles were larger than those at deeper profiles at the fenced and grazing sites.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30±1degC and 70±2 % R.H. with 12:12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day before adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100 % mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 Gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10 % at the ratios of 9 : 1 and 15 : 1. (author)

  7. Modeling responses of the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus chinensis to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yonghe

    2007-01-01

    Grassland is one of the most widespread vegetation types worldwide and plays a significant role in regional climate and global carbon cycling. Understanding the sensitivity of Chinese grassland ecosystems to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 and the effect of these changes on the grassland ecosystems is a key issue in global carbon cycling. China encompasses vast grassland areas of 354 million ha of 17 major grassland types, according to a national grassland survey. In this study, a process-based terrestrial model the CENTURY model was used to simulate potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) of the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe (LCMS) under different scenarios of climatic change and elevated atmospheric CO2. The LCMS sensitivities, its potential responses to climate change, and the change in capacity of carbon stock and sequestration in the future are evaluated. The results showed that the LCMS NPP and SOC are sensitive to climatic change and elevated CO2. In the next 100 years, with doubled CO2 concentration, if temperature increases from 2.7-3.9C and precipitation increases by 10% NPP and SOC will increase by 7-21% and 5-6% respectively. However, if temperature increases by 7.5-7.8C and precipitation increases by only 10% NPP and SOC would decrease by 24% and 8% respectively. Therefore, changes in the NPP and SOC of the meadow steppe are attributed mainly to the amount of temperature and precipitation change and the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, O.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30 .+-. 1.degree.C and 70 .+-. 2% R.H. with a 12: 12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100% mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10% at the ratios of 9:1 and 15:1

  9. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  10. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  11. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  12. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  13. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  14. 蒙药金莲花体外抗阴道毛滴虫效果观察%Effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge against Trichomonas vaginalis: an observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 闫艳; 于桂霞; 宋强

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察金莲花对体外阴道毛滴虫的杀灭效果.方法 采用不同浓度的金莲花水提物进行体外抗阴道毛滴虫试验,于药物作用后不同时间记录阴道毛滴虫的死亡率.结果 金莲花具有抑制和杀灭阴道毛滴虫的作用,最低有效浓度为20.00 mg/mL.结论 金莲花对阴道毛滴虫具有杀灭效果.%Objective To study the effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge on Trichonwnas vaginalis. Method After treated with different concentration of Trollius chinensis Bunge, Trichomonas vaginalis was observed for the purpose of morphological changes and mortality rate at different time after agent interactions. Result The obvious killing effect on Trichomonas vaginalis conducted by Trollius chinensis Bunge was observed. The lowest killing concentration was 20.00 mg/ mL. Conclusion Trollius chinensis bunge exhibits a relatively potent effect on Trichomonas vaginalis.

  15. Chemical composition of Galla chinensis extract and the effect of its main component(s) on the prevention of enamel demineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.L.; Liu, M.D.; Li, J.Y.; Zhou, X.D.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the chemical composition of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) by several analysis techniques and to compare the efficacy of GCE and its main component(s) in inhibition of enamel demineralization, for the development of future anticaries agents, main organic composition of GCE was

  16. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischlorpyrifos showed differences among the six selected vegetable plants, ranging from 16.5±0.9 mg kg−1 (brassica chinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  17. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells. PMID:22645629

  19. Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Larix chinensis across the alpine treeline ecotone of Taibai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qisheng; Huang, Jian; Long, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips. The richness of ECM species increased with elevation. The soil C/N ratio was the most important factor explaining ECM species richness. The treeline zone harbored some unique ECM fungi whereas no unique genera were observed in the timberline and pure forest zone. Elevation and topography were equally important factors influencing ECM communities in the alpine region. We suggest that a higher diversity of the ECM fungal community associated with L. chinensis in the treeline zone could result from niche differentiation.

  20. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  1. Determination of carbohydrates in Folium Lysium Chinensis using capillary electrophoresis combined with far-infrared light irradiation-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuejiao; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2011-11-01

    In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far-infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of mannitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose in Folium Lysium Chinensis, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The water-soluble constituents in the herbal drug were extracted with double distilled water with the assistance of far-infrared radiations. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection electrode was a 300-μm-diameter copper disk electrode at a detection potential of +0.65 V. The four carbohydrates could be well separated within 18 min in a 50-cm length fused-silica capillary at a separation voltage of 9 kV in a 50-mM NaOH aqueous solution. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 0.66 to 1.15 μM for all analytes. The results indicated that far infrared significantly enhanced the extraction efficiency of the carbohydrates in Folium Lysium Chinensis. The extraction time was significantly reduced to 7 min compared with several hours for conventional hot solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Fang, Chen; Yang, Jiao; Li, Minjing; Liu, Hengming; Yang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca (SCK) is a variant of S. chinensis L. The essential oil from its leaves exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro and the IC 50 value was 187.08 ± 0.56 μg/mL. Nineteen compounds were identified from this essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds identified were bornyl acetate (42.6%), elemol (20.5%), β-myrcene (13.7%) and β-linalool (4.0%). In order to study the reason of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of this essential oil, the identified compounds were docked with α-amylase by molecular docking individually. Among these compounds, γ-eudesmol exhibited the lowest binding energy (-6.73 kcal/mol), followed by α-copaen-11-ol (-6.66 kcal/mol), cubedol (-6.39 kcal/mol) and α-acorenol (-6.12 kcal/mol). The results indicated that these compounds were the active ingredients responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of essential oil from SCK.

  3. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G, building patch (B, mature patch (M and degenerate patch (D. To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1 Different species (or functional groups had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2 Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3 Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4 The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′ were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  5. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  6. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  7. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  8. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  10. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  11. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  12. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  13. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  14. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  15. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  16. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  19. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  20. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  1. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  2. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  3. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  4. Radiosensitivity of Various Stages of Callosobruchus Chinensis L; Radiosensibilite du Callosobruchus Chinensis L. aux divers stades de son developpement; Chuvstvitel'nost' k oblucheniyu u razlichnykh stadij Callosobruchus Chinensis L.; Radiosensibilidad de las diversas fases de la metamorfosis del Callosobruchus Chinensis L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayeed Quraishi, M.; Metin, M. [Cento Institute of Nuclear Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1963-09-15

    The effects of irradiation on the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of Callosobruchus chinensis L., a destructive pest of leguminous seeds, have been studied. Since the entire life-cycle except the egg and adult stages of this insect is passed in the seed itself, control by conventional means is very difficult. Insects were obtained from local grain shops and reared in .an incubator in the laboratory on moong (Phaseolus mungo L.) seeds at a temperature of 29{sup o}C {+-} 1{sup o}C and a humidity of 70-75%. Under these conditions the insect completed its life-cycle in 18-22 d. A 1-c iridium-192 source was used for initial experiments in irradiation. Later this was increased to 4 c. Exposures were made at very close range and the dose-rates were calculated on the basis of a measurement made at 50-cm distance with a Victoreen condenser r-meter. Eggs were irradiated at a distance of 0.5 cm from the source arid larvae, pupae and adults at 1.0 cm from the source, the respective dose-rates being 80 kr/h at 0.5 cm and 20 kr/h at 1 cm for a 4-c source. It was found that a dose of 15 krad gave 100% mortality in the case of eggs. Different doses below this level gave somewhat variable results and it is possible that there is a sensitive stage for a short period during the first 24 hours of development of the eggs. In the case of 8-day-old larvae 100% mortality was obtained with a dose of 20 000 rad. The pupae seem to be less radiosensitive than the eggs or larvae and doses of 47 000 rad were needed to give 100% mortality. Doses of 42 000 rad ''sterilized'' the males and females in the sense that, though mating took place after irradiation, the eggs produced when either of the parents had been irradiated with a dose of 42 000 rad did not hatch. Production of ''sterile'' eggs continued even when either or both parents had been exposed to doses of 67 000 rad - the highest dose tried. (author) [French] On a etudie les effets des rayonnements sur les oeufs, les larves, les pupes et

  5. Phytochemical and biotechnological studies on Schisandra chinensis cultivar Sadova No. 1-a high utility medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Marta; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Maślanka, Anna; Król, Agata; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2018-06-01

    In the presented work, raw materials (fruits and leaves) and in vitro biomass of a highly productive Schisandra chinensis Sadova No. 1 cultivar (SchS) were evaluated for the production of therapeutically useful schisandra lignans (SL). In vitro cultures of SchS were initiated, followed by extensive optimization studies focused on maximizing secondary metabolite production, with the aim of establishing a sustainable source of SL. Different cultivation systems (agar, agitated, bioreactor), experiment times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) and plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine-BA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA, from 0 to 3 mg/l) in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium were tested. Moreover, an elicitation procedure was applied to bioreactor-grown microshoots in order to increase SL production. Validated HPLC-DAD protocol enabled to detect fourteen SL in the extracts from in vitro and in vivo materials. The main compounds in the in vitro cultures were as follows: schisandrin (max. 176.3 mg/100 g DW), angeloylgomisin Q (max. 85.1 mg/100 g DW), gomisin A (max. 71.4 mg/100 g DW) and angeloylgomisin H (max. 67.0 mg/100 g DW). The highest total SL content (490.3 mg/100 g DW) was obtained in extracts from the biomass of agar cultures cultivated for 30 days on the MS medium variant containing 3 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA. This amount was 1.32 times lower than in fruit extracts (646.0 mg/100 g DW) and 2.04 times higher than in leaf extracts (240.7 mg/100 g DW). The study demonstrated that SchS is a rich source of SL, thus proving its value for medical, cosmetic and food industry.

  6. Metabolomics study of the therapeutic mechanism of Schisandra Chinensis lignans in diet-induced hyperlipidemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Hui; Liu, Xu; Cong, Li-Xin; Li, He; Zhang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Jian-Guang; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2017-08-01

    Schisandra, a globally distributed plant, has been widely applied for the treatment of diseases such as hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and obesity in China. In the present work, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics was conducted to investigate the intervention effect of Schisandra chinensis lignans (SCL) on hyperlipidemia mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia mice were orally administered with SCL (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemistry assay of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was conducted to confirm the treatment of SCL on lipid regulation. Metabolomics analysis on serum samples was carried out, and principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were carried out for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. The relative levels of critical regulatory factors of liver lipid metabolism, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and its related gene expressions were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for investigating the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of SCL significantly decreased the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-c and increased the serum level of HDL-c in the hyperlipidemia mice, and no effect of SCL on blood lipid levels was observed in control mice. Serum samples were scattered in the PCA scores plots in response to the control, HFD and SCL group. Totally, thirteen biomarkers were identified and nine of them were recovered to the normal levels after SCL treatment. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis, the anti-hyperlipidemia mechanisms of SCL may be involved in the following metabolic pathways: tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, synthesis of ketone body and cholesterol

  7. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  8. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  10. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  11. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  12. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  13. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  14. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  15. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities in immumosuppressed mice of polysaccharides isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Huang, Dan-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Polysaccharide MP was isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 5.364:12.260:3.448:12.260:32.567:30.651, with 11.00%±0.24% uronic acid and 9.046%±0.04% protein. Its antioxidant activity on the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice was investigated. The spleen and the thymus indices were investigated, and the biochemical parameters were evaluated in three organs (liver, heart and kidney). MP was able to overcome the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and can significantly raise the T-AOC, CAT, SOD and GSH-PX level. It also raised the spleen and thymus indices and decreased the MDA level in mice. MP could play an important role during the prevention process of oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  18. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Valerianaceous Species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Calarene (25.31%, aristolone (13.35%, α-selinene (7.32% and β-maaliene (6.70% were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%, α-pinene (14.81%, and β-humulene (8.19% were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC50 values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  19. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  20. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  1. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  2. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  3. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  4. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  5. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  6. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  7. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  8. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  9. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  10. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  11. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  12. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  13. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  14. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  15. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  16. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  17. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  18. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  19. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  20. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  1. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  2. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  3. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  4. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  5. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  6. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  7. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  9. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  10. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  11. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  13. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  14. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  15. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  16. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  17. Sterol content in the artificial diet of Mythimna separata affects the metabolomics of Arma chinensis (Fallou) as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Meng-Qing; Chen, Hong-Yin

    2017-12-01

    Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively. The content of most substances increased in A. chinensis (AC) groups feeding on MS2 and MS5. The content of eight substances (alanine, betaine, dimethylamine, fumarate, glutamine, glycine, methylamine, and sarcosine) differed significantly between the control (AC0) and treated (AC1, AC2, and AC5) groups. Metabolic profiling revealed that only AC5 was significantly distinct from AC0; the major substances contributing to this difference were maltose, glucose, tyrosine, proline, O-phosphocholine, glutamine, allantoin, lysine, valine, and glutamate. Furthermore, only two metabolic pathways, that is, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, differed significantly between AC1 and AC5 and the control, albeit with an impact value of zero. Thus, the sterol content in the artificial diet fed to M. separata only minimally affected the metabolites and metabolic pathways of its predator A. chinensis, suggesting that A. chinensis has good metabolic self-regulation with high resistance to sterol content changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  19. Pulsatilla saponin A, an active molecule from Pulsatilla chinensis, induces cancer cell death and inhibits tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Weichang; Jiao, Yang; Hou, Jianquan; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yanli; Qi, Xiaofei

    2014-05-15

    Many natural compounds possess antitumor growth activities. Pulsatilla chinensis is an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases. More recently, extracts from P chinensis have been shown to contain antitumor activities. In this study, we isolated Pulsatilla saponin A as an active compound from P chinensis extracts and tested its anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Pulsatilla saponin A significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMCC-7721 cells and pancreatic BXPC3 and SW1990 cancer cells. Similar inhibitory activities were observed when the compound was tested in mouse xenograft tumor models using human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 and pancreatic cancer SW1990 cells. In Comet assay and flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution and annexin V expression, DNA damage, G2 arrest, and apoptosis were identified in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells. Based on the results of Western blotting, p53 and cyclin B protein levels were higher, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were lower in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells than in vehicle-treated cells. Pulsatilla saponin A may exert its antitumor effect by inducing DNA damage and causing G2 arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Pulsatilla saponin A and its derivatives may be developed as a new class of anticancer agents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  3. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  4. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  5. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  6. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  7. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  8. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  9. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  10. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  11. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  13. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  14. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  16. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  18. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  19. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  20. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  1. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  2. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  3. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  4. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  5. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  6. Assessment of Cuscuta chinensis seeds׳ effect on melanogenesis: comparison of water and ethanol fractions in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Jing; An, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Qiu-Di; Yang, Liu

    2014-05-28

    Cuscuta chinensis seeds have traditionally been used to treat freckles and melasma in Asia, although recent reports have revealed that Semen cuscutae is a promoter of melanogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of this opposite effect of Semen cuscutae on melanogenesis. In accordance with traditional usage, the water fraction and the ethanol fraction from Semen cuscutae (WFSC/EFSC) were extracted to determine the herbal effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis for tyrosinase in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The melanocyte phenotypes of zebrafish larvae were observed while the in vivo melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were determined. The activity of mushroom tyrosinase assay shown that WFSC was an uncompetitive inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase, while EFSC indicated dose-dependent activation of the mushroom tyrosinase activity. The WFSC markedly inhibited 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in vitro. Howeveran accelerant role in melanin synthesis and tyosinase activity. Neither fraction had any effect on the IBMX-induced expression of tyrosinase protein or mRNA. The WFSC strongly inhibited melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity in vivo. Furthermore, with the function of WFSC at a higher concentration, a punctate melanocyte pattern appeared that was similar to the pattern induced by arbutin or Mequinol (MQ). The EFSC had no effect on the melanocytes of zebrafish larvae. It was discovered that WFSC did not show a stable inhibitory effect until it was extracted 1 month later. These results suggest that the opposite effects of Cuscuta chinensis seeds were caused by the extraction methods and that time has an important role on the effect of WFSC. Both WFSC and EFSC significantly influence melanogenesis by

  7. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  8. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  9. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  10. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  11. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  12. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  13. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  14. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  15. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar content of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum, mustard (Brassica juncea, and litchi (Litchi chinensis honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  16. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from wuweizi (fructus schisandrae chinensis) on renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Daning; Zhang, Mianzhi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate inhibition effect and mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) and Muli (Cocha Ostreae) (FRC) on glomerular and tubular interstitial fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (ND) model mice. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: nondibetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic that were treated with 5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) of FRC by oral gavage (D(FRC)), with 9 in each group. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAL-1) in renal tissues were investigated by Western blotting. The expressions of fibronectin (FN) and alpha-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical method. The morphological changes of renal tissues were observed under a microscope. Renal tissues in the D(FRC) group showed a lessened degree of fibrosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of FN, alpha-SMA and PAI-1 were significantly lower in the D(FRC) group than those in the D group (all P < 0.05). FRC can ameliorate the DN in the C57BL/6 mice, and its mechanism may relate to inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation, endothelial-myofibroblast transition and PAL-1 expression.

  18. Schizandrin, an Antioxidant Lignan from Schisandra chinensis, Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effect of schisandrin (SCH of Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta1–42- (Aβ1–42- induced memory impairment in mice and elucidated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injected with the aggregated Aβ1–42 and then treated with SCH (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight or donepezil (DPZ, a reference drug (0.65 mg/kg by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Noncognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by locomotor activity test, Y-maze test, and water maze test. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that SCH significantly improved Aβ1–42-induced short-term and spatial reference memory impairments in Y-maze test and water maze test. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, SOD and GSH-px activities, GSH level, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and levels of MDA and GSSG were decreased by the treatment of SCH. These results suggest that SCH is a potential cognitive enhancer against Alzheimer’s disease through antioxidative action.

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  1. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  2. Salinicola tamaricis sp. nov., a heavy-metal-tolerant, endophytic bacterium isolated from the halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhao, Li-Ya; Xia, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Jin-Lei; Liu, Di; Liu, Chun-Yue; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Dai, Mei-Xue

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, strain F01T, was isolated from leaves of Tamarix chinensis Lour. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 5.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and showed a high tolerance to manganese, lead, nickel, ferrous ions and copper ions. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, and the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9. Polar lipids were dominated by diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminoglycolipids and phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 65.8 %. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, strain F01T belonged to the genus Salinicola, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Salinicola peritrichatus CGMCC 1.12381T (97.7 %). The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain F01T and closely related Salinicola strains was well below 70 %. According to the phenotypic, genetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain F01T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Salinicola, for which the name Salinicola tamaricis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F01T (=CCTCC AB 2015304T=KCTC 42855T).

  3. Process Optimization of Pontianak Aloe vera Powder (Aloe chinensis Beakker as Raw Material for Hand body lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Supriyatna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Process optimization of Pontianak aloe vera powder (Aloe chinensis Beaker  as raw material for hand body lotion have been conducted on laboratory scale with the aim of obtaining the optimum conditions of processing technologies through the addition of maltodextrin and Carboxy Methyl Cellulase. The optimum results achieved at the ratio of maltodextrin to the CMC by 90%: 10%. Characteristics of aloe vera powder produced showing yellowish white color, water content of 8:56%, 5:50 pH, total solid Aloe 25.5%, weight flour ratio and fresh aloe vera leaves 1.5: 100, aloin content of 164.40 ppm, 257.08 ppm malic acid content, 10.32 ppm vitamin E and 1.4 x 105 colonies/g total bacteria. Making hand body lotion of aloe vera powder optimization results show the characteristic white color with a fragrant aroma, acidity (pH 7:07, 10.34 ppm of malic acid, 1.1 x 104 colony/g total bacteria, and quite stable while storage.

  4. Reflections on oil crops as sources of energy. I - jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a lubricant of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.

    1983-06-01

    It is only in the last few years that public interest has been awakened in a modest oil-yielding shrub of the desert regions of California, Arizona (USA) and Mexico: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). This interest would seem to be justified in view of the qualities of the oil, which is altogether similar to sperm whale oil, and the possibilities it offers, notably as a lubricant. Naturally, as it is a rare product and its domestication has barely started, it has a fabulous market value (it reaches US $200/gal in 1981), but this will drop rapidly once development programmes get under way (already in 1983 the oil was to be found at US $ 50/55 gal). One-track research would be unprofitable. This drought-resistant shrub does not offer efficiency against desertification nor as an ally in the reclamation of climatically underprivileged, depopulated regions. This article makes an approach to a strategy and gives a broad outline for a programme. (Refs. 19).

  5. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  6. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen C Y; Karczmarski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231) were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111), corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.

  7. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Y Chan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014 photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231 were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111, corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.

  9. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  10. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  11. Inhibitory effects and related molecular mechanisms of total flavonoids in Mosla chinensis Maxim against H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Qiao-Feng; Yan, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Feng-Ling

    2018-02-01

    The Shixiangru (Mosla chinensis Maxim) total flavonoids (STF) mainly contain luteolin and apigenin. The study aims to examine the inhibitory effects of STF on anti-H1N1 influenza virus and its related molecular mechanisms in pneumonia mice. The viral pneumonia mice were treated with Ribavirin or various doses of STF. We observed histological changes of lung by immunohistochemistry and measured lung index to value anti-influenza virus effects of STF. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant factors were detected by ELISA. RT-PCR and western blot assays were used to determine the expression level of TLR pathway's key genes and proteins in lung tissues. We found that the pathological changes of lung in the viral pneumonia mice obviously alleviated by STF treatments and the STF (288 or 576 mg/kg) could significantly decrease lung indices. Moreover, the up-regulation (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NO) and down-regulation (IL-2, SOD and GSH) of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant factors were associated with higher clearance of virus and reduction of inflammatory lung tissue damage. Meanwhile, the expression levels of TLR3, TLR7, MyD88, TRAF3 and NF-κB p65 of the TLR pathway were reduced by STF treatment. This study suggested that STF may be a promising candidate for treating H1N1 influenza and subsequent viral pneumonia.

  12. Two rare species of tylenchids, Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. and Labrys chinensis Qing Bert, 2018 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konani, Ehsan; Panahandeh, Yousef; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid

    2018-04-23

    Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation reduces the drought-resistance advantage of endophyte-infected versus endophyte-free Leymus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Man; Wu, Rihan; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Yubao; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-11-01

    Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation. In the mycorrhizal-non-inoculated (MF) treatment, EI plants accumulated significantly more biomass, had greater proline and total phenolic concentration, and lower malondialdehyde concentration than EF plants. In the mycorrhizal-inoculation (MI) treatment, however, no significant difference occurred in either growth or physiological characters measured between EI and EF plants. AM fungus inoculation enhanced drought resistance of EF plants but had no significant effect on drought resistance of EI plants, thus AM fungus inoculation reduced the difference between EI and EF plants. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions among multiple microorganisms for plant performance under drought stress.

  14. Assessment of Lupin Induced Mutants for Quality Traits and Susceptibility to Callosbruchus chinensis and Heliothis armigera insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Boshra, S.A.; Mehany, A.L.; Darwish, A.A.; Kharrab, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess 23 induced mutants and two parental varieties Giza1 and Giza2 in the three generations (M3, M4, and M5) for seed quality traits, and susceptibility to two insects i.e C. chinnensis and H.armigera. The obtained results exhibited highly significant decrease for alkaloid content of mutants 20 and 23 as compared with the two local varieties. Most of mutants and Giza 2 showed marked increase for protein content as compared with Giza1, however, the increase did not reach the level of significance for the most mutants as compared with Giza2 in the three generations. Except of M4 generation. marked resistance for infestations with C.chinensis and H.armigera was obtained for mutants 1, 5 and 11 in the three generations. However, for total infestation with the two insects, resistance was obtained in mutants 4 and 10. Except of mutant lines 1, 5 and 11, all mutants showed higher loss percentage than that of the local varieties

  15. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate transaminase, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, L-DLC (low density lipoprotein in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05 in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  16. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD, vitellogenin (Vg and lysozyme C (Lmz-S. APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  17. Transcriptome analyses provide insights into the difference of alkaloids biosynthesis in the Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch. from different biotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanting Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread (‘Weilian’ in Chinese, one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes. More than 98.39% and 95.97% of core eukaryotic genes were found in the transcripts and unigenes respectively, indicating that this unigene set capture the majority of the coding genes. A total of 520,462, 493,718, and 507,247 heterozygous SNPs were identified in the three accessions from Zhenping, Zunyi, and Shizhu respectively, indicating high polymorphism in coding regions of the Chinese goldthread (∼1%. Chemical analyses of the rhizome identified six major components, including berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, columbamine, and jatrorrhizine. Berberine has the highest concentrations, followed by coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine sequentially for all the three accessions. The drug quality of the accession from Shizhu may be the highest among these accessions. Differential analyses of the transcriptome identified four pivotal candidate enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferaseprotein, polyphenol oxidase, primary-amine oxidase, and tyrosine decarboxylase, were significantly differentially expressed and may be responsible for the difference of alkaloids contents in the accessions from different biotopes.

  18. Transcriptome analyses provide insights into the difference of alkaloids biosynthesis in the Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch.) from different biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanting; Deng, Cao; Nie, Hu; Fan, Gang; He, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread ('Weilian' in Chinese), one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes. More than 98.39% and 95.97% of core eukaryotic genes were found in the transcripts and unigenes respectively, indicating that this unigene set capture the majority of the coding genes. A total of 520,462, 493,718, and 507,247 heterozygous SNPs were identified in the three accessions from Zhenping, Zunyi, and Shizhu respectively, indicating high polymorphism in coding regions of the Chinese goldthread (∼1%). Chemical analyses of the rhizome identified six major components, including berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, columbamine, and jatrorrhizine. Berberine has the highest concentrations, followed by coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine sequentially for all the three accessions. The drug quality of the accession from Shizhu may be the highest among these accessions. Differential analyses of the transcriptome identified four pivotal candidate enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferaseprotein, polyphenol oxidase, primary-amine oxidase, and tyrosine decarboxylase, were significantly differentially expressed and may be responsible for the difference of alkaloids contents in the accessions from different biotopes.

  19. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  20. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  1. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  2. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  4. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  5. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  6. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  7. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  8. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  10. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  11. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shekarchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam.ObjectiveIn the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25 % : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200-900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ.ResultsThe method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intraand inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3 %, 97.4 %, 98.7 % and 90.0 %, respectively.ConclusionThe simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

  12. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimehdipoor Homa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

  13. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  14. Efeitos da aplicação de reguladores vegetais e do ácido bórico, em estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Effects of growth regulators and boric acid on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as interações entre os ácidos indol-butírico, alfa-naftaleno-acético e bórico no desenvolvimento de calos e na sobrevivência das estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas apresentavam 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade, sendo retiradas em duas épocas diferentes (janeiro e abril e colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e em condições de câmara de nebulização. Foi feita imersão de 2,5 cm da base das estacas, em soluções aquosas por l minuto. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a 5.000 e 2.000 ppm de IBA; 3.000 e 1.500 ppra de NAA; 150 microgramas/ml de H3BO3; IBA 5.000 e 2.000 ppm + H3BO(3150 microgramas/ml; NAA 3.000 e 1.500 ppm + H3BO3 150 microgramas/ml e H2O. Avaliou-se a formação de calos e a sobrevivência das estacas após 120 dias do plantio. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que dos tratamentos utilizados, nenhum foi efetivo na formação de raízes, havendo somente a formação de calos. A melhor época para a retirada de estacas correspondeu ao mês de abril.Interactions between indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on "callus" development and survival in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. The cuttings were twenty five cm long with four leaves cut in half and taken in two different periods (January and April Styrofoam trays, with vermiculite as substratum kept under intermittent mist were used as rooting media. Cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in water solutions, for one minute. The treatments were: 5,000 and 2,000 ppm of IBA; 3,000 and 1,500 ppm of NAA; 150 micrograms/ml H3BO3; IBA 5,000 and 2,000 ppm plus H3BO3 150 micrograms/ml; NAA 3,000 and 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 micrograms/ml and II2O. "Callus" formation and cutting survival were evaluated 120 days after planting. It was concluded that no treatments were effective on root formation, however, "callus

  15. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  16. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  17. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  18. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  19. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  20. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  1. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  2. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  3. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  4. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  5. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  6. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  7. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  8. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  10. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He JL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Lian He,1 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2,3 Juan-Juan Yin,2 Chang-Qiang He,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2,3 Yang Yu1 1College of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs and drug transporters are regulated via epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational and posttranslational modifications. Phase I and II DMEs and drug transporters play an important role in the disposition and detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 is a critical regulator of a variety of important cytoprotective genes that are involved in disposition and detoxification of xenobiotics. Schisandra chinensis (SC is a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been primarily used to protect the liver because of its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. SC can modulate some DMEs and drug transporters, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in the regulatory effect of SC extract (SCE on selected DMEs and drug transporters in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. The results showed that SCE, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B significantly increased the expression of NAD(PH: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-oxidase or:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase, and glutathione S-transferase A4 at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SCE resulted in a significant

  13. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  14. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Ying; Nie, Lin; Jin, Xiaofei; Liao, Weifang; Zhao, Shengying; Fu, Chunhua; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-03-26

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues, phytohormone signaling, and regulation of plant secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the roles, functions, and mechanisms of WRKY in taxane biosynthesis in Taxus spp. In this study, 61 transcripts were identified from Taxus chinensis transcriptome datasets by using hidden Markov model search. All of these transcripts encoded proteins containing WRKY domains, which were designated as TcWRKY1-61. After phylogenetic analysis of the WRKY domains of TcWRKYs and AtWRKYs, 16, 8, 10, 14, 5, 7, and 1 TcWRKYs were cladded into Group I, IIa-IIe, and III, respectively. Then, six representative TcWRKYs were selected to classify their effects on taxol biosynthesis. After MeJA (methyl jasmonate acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments, all of the six TcWRKYs were upregulated by MeJA treatment. TcWRKY44 (IId) and TcWRKY47 (IIa) were upregulated, whereas TcWRKY8 (IIc), TcWRKY20 (III), TcWRKY26 (I), TcWRKY41 (IIe), and TcWRKY52 (IIb) were downregulated by SA treatment. Overexpression experiments showed that the six selected TcWRKYs exerted different effects on taxol biosynthesis. In specific, TcWRKY8 and TcWRKY47 significantly improved the expression levels of taxol-biosynthesis-related genes. Transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY factors in Taxus not only enhances our understanding of plant WRKY factors but also identifies candidate regulators of taxol biosynthesis.

  15. Effect of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Yong; Jung, Hyo Won; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Seong Wook; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Cuscutae Semen; CS) on the production of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. BV-2 cells were treated with CS extract for 30 min, and then stimulated with LPS or without for 24 h. The levels of NO, PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Griess assay and ELISA. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 were investigated by Western blot analysis. CS extract significantly decreased the production of NO and PGE2 by suppressing the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in activated microglia. CS extract decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by down-regulating their transcription levels. In addition, CS extract suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in activated microglia. These results indicate that CS extract is capable of suppressing the inflammatory response by microglia activation, suggesting that CS extract has potential in the treatment of brain inflammation. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  17. Deoxyschizandrin isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis ameliorates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Changxia; Han, Na; Miao, Lijing; Wang, Dong; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Hua; Yin, Jun

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of deoxyschisandrin (DS) from Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta₁₋₄₂ (Aβ₁₋₄₂)-induced memory impairment in mice and investigated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were given an intracerebroventricular (i. c. v.) injection with the aggregated Aβ₁₋₄₂ and then treated with DS (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (DPZ), a positive control drug (0.65 mg/kg), by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Non-cognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by the locomotor activity, Y-maze, and water maze tests. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to investigate the mechanism. Our results showed that DS significantly improved Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced short-term and spatial memory impairments in the Y-maze and water maze tests. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, the reduced activities of SOD and GSH-px, the GSH level, and the GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and increased levels of MDA and GSSG were reduced following treatment with DS, although the improvement of GSH and the reduction of GSSG levels were not marked. These results suggest that DS is a potential cognitive enhancer in Alzheimer's disease through its antioxidative action. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Chemical composition of essential oil in Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. Jiangxiangru and its inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. Jiangxiangru is known for its antibacterial ability. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Jiangxiangru essential oil and its inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS was used to determine the chemical composition of Jiangxiangru essential oil. Subsequently, the eight major chemical components were quantitatively analyzed using GC– MS, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. aureus were tested. Biofilm formation was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative method and silver staining. Of the 59 peaks detected, 29 were identified by GC–MS. Of these peaks, thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol acetate, α-caryophyllene, 3-carene, and carvacryl acetate were present at a relatively higher concentration. The results of the quantitative test showed that thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene were the major components of the essential oil. Among the eight reference substances, only thymol, carvacrol, and thymol acetate had lower MICs compared with the essential oil. Essential oil, carvacrol, carvacryl acetate, α-caryophyllene, and 3-carene showed the better inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation. When one fourth of the MIC concentrations were used for these substances (0.0625 mg/mL for essential oil, 0.0305 mg/mL for carvacrol, 1.458 mg/mL for carvacryl acetate, 0.1268 mg/mL for α-caryophyllene, and 2.5975 mg/mL for 3-carene, the inhibition rates were over 80%. However, thymol, γ-terpinene, thymol acetate, and p-cymene showed a relatively poor inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation. When 1× MIC concentrations of these substances were used, the inhibition rates were less than 50%. In conclusion, Jiangxiangru essential oil and its major components, carvacrol, carvacryl acetate, α-caryophyllene, and 3-carene, strongly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus.

  19. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance. In the present study, we examined the effect of AC-mix on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced colitis in mice, which induced NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and disturbed Th17/Treg balance. Long-term feeding of HFD in mice caused colitis, including increased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Oral administration of AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) suppressed HFD-induced myeloperoxidase activity by 68% ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, treatment with the AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) inhibited HFD-induced activation of NF-[Formula: see text]B and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase, interleukin (IL)-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but increased HFD- suppressed expression of IL-10. AC-mix suppressed HFD-induced differentiation into Th17 cells by 46% ([Formula: see text]) and increased HFD-induced differentiation into regulatory T cells 2.2-fold ([Formula: see text]). AC-mix also suppressed the HFD-induced Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes ratio on the gut microbiota by 48% ([Formula: see text]). These findings suggest that AC-mix can ameliorate HFD-induced colitis by regulating innate and adaptive immunities and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota.

  1. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  2. Grupos de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. em Jaboticabal, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar grupos de insetos visitantes de flores da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn., determinar horários de maior visitação, analisar a influência da altura das inflorescências na ocorrência desses visitantes florais e verificar se a incidência de sol beneficia sua presença. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista FCAV/UNESP. As observações ocorreram em agosto e setembro de 2008, totalizando cinco em todo o período. Foram estabelecidos dois períodos diários de observação das 10:00 às 12:00 h e 16:00 às 18:00 h, sendo observado quatro pontos na área. Os dados dos visitantes florais observados para as diferentes horas, alturas e radiação solar foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey 5%. Foram observadas seis ordens de insetos: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Neuroptera. O horário das 10:00 às 12:00 horas apresentou- se como mais propício para observação de insetos visitantes. Houve diferença nas observações das alturas de 0 a 0.5 e 1.6 m e 2.0 e também uma diferença nas observações de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira quando estas se encontravam em face sombra ou face sol na árvore.

  3. Screening and characterizing of xylanolytic and xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Samir Ali

    Full Text Available The effective fermentation of xylose remains an intractable challenge in bioethanol industry. The relevant xylanase enzyme is also in a high demand from industry for several biotechnological applications that inevitably in recent times led to many efforts for screening some novel microorganisms for better xylanase production and fermentation performance. Recently, it seems that wood-feeding termites can truly be considered as highly efficient natural bioreactors. The highly specialized gut systems of such insects are not yet fully realized, particularly, in xylose fermentation and xylanase production to advance industrial bioethanol technology as well as industrial applications of xylanases. A total of 92 strains from 18 yeast species were successfully isolated and identified from the gut of wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis. Of these yeasts and strains, seven were identified for new species: Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Hamamotoa lignophila, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Sugiyamaella sp.1, Sugiyamaella sp. 2, and Sugiyamaella sp.3. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, the type strain of C. pseudorhagii sp. nov., which was originally designated strain SSA-1542T, was the most frequently occurred yeast from termite gut samples, showed the highly xylanolytic activity as well as D-xylose fermentation. The highest xylanase activity was recorded as 1.73 and 0.98 U/mL with xylan or D-xylose substrate, respectively, from SSA-1542T. Among xylanase-producing yeasts, four novel species were identified as D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, where the yeast, C. pseudorhagii SSA-1542T, showed the highest ethanol yield (0.31 g/g, ethanol productivity (0.31 g/L·h, and its fermentation efficiency (60.7% in 48 h. Clearly, the symbiotic yeasts isolated from termite guts have demonstrated a competitive capability to produce xylanase and ferment xylose, suggesting that the wood-feeding termite gut is a promising reservoir for novel

  4. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  5. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  6. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  7. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  8. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  9. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  10. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  11. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  12. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  13. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  14. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  15. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  16. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  17. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reversion of hyperhydricity in pink (Dianthus chinensis L.) plantlets by AgNO3 and its associated mechanism during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyang; Xia, Xiuying; An, Lijia; Xin, Xin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity occurs frequently in plant tissue culture and can severely affect commercial micropropagation and genetic improvement of the cultured plantlets. Hyperhydric shoots are charaterzized by high water content, but how this occurs is still a subject of investigation. Silver ion (Ag + ) can reduce the extent of hyperhydricity in plants, but its effect on the reversion of hyperhydric plantlets and the underlying mechanism of reversion has not been clarified. In this study, about 67% of the hyperhydric Dianthus chinensis L. plantlets were found to revert to normal condition when the plantlets were cultured in medium supplemented with 29.4μmolL -1 AgNO 3 . Water content and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content in the guard cells of these plantlets were reduced, while stomatal aperture and water loss rate were increased. AgNO 3 also reduced the content of endogenous ethylene and expression of ethylene synthesis and ethylene signal transduction-associated genes. Reduced accumulation of ethylene consequently led to an increase in stomatal aperture mediated by decreased H 2 O 2 content in the guard cells. These results adequately verified the role of AgNO 3 in the reversion of hyperhydricity in D. chinensis L. and also provided clues for exploring the cause of excessive water accumulation in hyperhydric plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".