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Sample records for chinas re-vegetation program

  1. [Effects of different re-vegetation patterns on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the wind-water erosion crisscross region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-tong; Wei, Yan-chun; Yang, Xian-long; Hao, Ming-de; Wei, Xiao-rong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) to three typical re-vegetation patterns, i.e., grassland, alfalfa land and peashrub land on the Loess Plateau of China, and also to assess the dynamics of SOC and TN with re-vegetation age. The results showed that all the three re-vegetation practices increased the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer, but their effects differed with re-vegetation age. Compared with adjacent croplands, the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer in grassland did not change within 10 years of succession, but increased after 20 years of succession. In alfalfa land, the concentrations of SOC and TN increased by 51.6%-82.9% and 43.4%-67.0% in the 0-10 cm soil layer, with the increasing rates of stocks of SOC and TN being 0.17-0.46 and 0.015-0.043 t · hm⁻² · a⁻¹, respectively. However, SOC and TN were not affected by re-vegetation age in alfalfa land. The increases of concentrations of SOC and TN remained high in the first 20 years after conversion of cropland to peashrub land, but decreased after 40 years of conversion. In conclusion, the conversion of croplands to peashrub or alfalfa land could be better in contributing to high stocks of SOC and TN than natural succession of grassland. However, their positive effects on the enrichment of SOC and TN may not be sustainable due to the scarcity of soil moisture and high water consumption of these two re-vegetation plants. PMID:27228597

  2. [Water use of re-vegetation pioneer tree species Schima superba and Acacia mangium in hilly land of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Ping; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Pei-Qiang; Niu, Jun-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The xylem sap flows of two pioneer tree species, i.e., Acacia mangium and Schima superba, in degraded hill lands of South China, were continually monitored with Granier' s thermal dissipation probes during 2004-2007 and 2008-2012, respectively, and their seasonal transpiration changes at different tree age levels were compared. The results showed that the annual transpiration of both species increased with tree ages, and S. superba demonstrated a higher value than A. mangium. The average annual whole-tree transpiration of S. superba (7014.76 kg) was higher than that of A. mangium (3704.97 kg). A. mangium (511.46-1802.17 kg) had greater seasonal variation than S. superba (1346.48-2349.35 kg). The standard regression coefficients (beta) of transpiration (Eh), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for both species increased with soil moisture, suggesting the increase of soil moisture generated a greater sensitivity of plants to environmental factors. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil moisture played an important role in the seasonal variation of transpiration of both species. The optimum soil moistures of S. superba and A. mangium were 0.22-0.40 and 0.29-0.30 (V/V), respectively, indicating the native pioneer species S. superba better adapted to water deficit compared with exotic pioneer species A. mangium. PMID:25011282

  3. Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are Soil Water Index (SWI, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and precipitation, were used to investigate the response of soil moisture in the one-meter layer of top soil to the re-vegetation during the GGP. SWI was estimated based on the backscatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2 and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp, while NDVI was derived from SPOT imageries. Two separate periods, which are 1998–2000 and 2008–2010, were selected to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998–2000 was close to that of 2008–2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm. From 1998–2000 to 2008–2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. The average NDVI over the Loess Plateau increased rapidly by 17.76% after the 10-year GGP project. However, the average SWI decreased by 4.37% for two-thirds of the area. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI, 23.34% of the area had an increased NDVI and SWI. NDVI and SWI decreased simultaneously for 14.99% of the area, and the decreased NDVI and increased SWI occurred at the same time for 4.02% of the area. These results indicate that re-vegetation, human activities, and climate change have

  4. [Characteristics of canopy stomatal conuctance in plantations of three re-vegetation tree species and its sensitivity to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-ting; Zhao, Ping; Niu, Jun-feng; Sun, Zhen-wei; Zhu, Li-wei

    2015-09-01

    In plantations of three different re-vegetation tree species (Schima superba, Acacia auriculaeformis and Eucalyptus citriodora) in southern China, the stem sap flow of individuals at different DBH classes were monitored using Granier's thermal dissipation probes. With synchronously-measured meteorological data, the canopy stomatal conductance (g(c)) was determined and the responses of g(c) to environmental variables were analyzed. We found that daytime mean g(c) in S. superba forest on average was significantly higher than those of A. auriculaeformis and E. citriodora plantations during a year (except in March). In the three plantations, g(c) was positively logarithmically correlated with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (P citriodora forests than in A. auriculaeformis plantation, while the descend degree in S. superba and E. citriodora forests were equal. Overall, our results demonstrated that the native species S. superba is more suitable for re-vegetation in southern China than the exotic species A. auriculaeformis and E. citriodora. PMID:26785542

  5. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  6. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  7. Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Jiao; Rui Li; Fei Wang; Xingmin Mu; Pengfei Li; Chunchun An

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP) has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this st...

  8. Hydropower Development Programming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the speech delivered by Mr.Zhou Dabing,Deputy Manager General of China National Electric Power Corporation,on its hosted “Hydropower Developing Seminar”, during the national “10th Fivc-ynar Plan” and the “Farsight Program to 2015”, the installed capacity of hydropower shall be up to 75GW by 2000,

  9. Effects of Re-vegetation on Herbaceous Species Composition and Biological Soil Crusts Development in a Coal Mine Dumping Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yigang; Huang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Despite the critical roles of plant species' diversity and biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, the restoration of the diversity of herbaceous species and BSCs are rarely discussed during the process of vegetation restoration of anthropogenically damaged areas in these regions. In this study, the herbaceous plant species composition, along with the BSCs coverage and thicknesses, was investigated at six different re-vegetation type sites, and the natural vegetation site of the Heidaigou open pit coal mine in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was used as a reference. The highest total species richness (16), as well as the species richness (4.4), occurred in the Tree and Herbaceous vegetation type site. The species composition similarities between the restored sites and the reference site were shown to be very low, and ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. Also, among the restored sites, the similarities of the species were fairly high and similar, and ranged from 0.45 to 0.93. The density and height of the re-vegetated woody plants were significantly correlated with the indexes of the diversity of the species. The Shrub vegetation type site showed the greatest total coverage (80 %) of BSCs and algae crust coverage (48 %). The Shrub and Herbaceous type had the greatest thicknesses of BSCs, with as much as 3.06 mm observed, which was followed by 2.64 mm for the Shrub type. There was a significant correlation observed between the coverage of the total BSCs, and the total vegetation and herbaceous vegetation coverage, as well as between the algae crust coverage and the herbaceous vegetation coverage. It has been suggested that the re-vegetated dwarf woody plant species (such as shrubs and semi-shrubs) should be chosen for the optimal methods of the restoration of herbaceous species diversity at dumping sites, and these should be planted with low density. Furthermore, the effects of vegetation coverage on the colonization and development the BSCs

  10. Trajectories of water table recovery following the re-vegetation of bare peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Evans, Martin; Allott, Tim; Maskill, Rachael; Pilkington, Michael; Walker, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological status of blanket peat influences a wide range of peatland functions, such as runoff generation, water quality, vegetation distribution, and rates of carbon sequestration. The UK supports 15% of the world's blanket peat cover, but much of this vital resource is significantly degraded, impacted by industrial pollution, overgrazing, wildfire, and climatic shifts. These pressures have produced a unique landscape characterised by severe gully erosion and extensive areas of bare peat. This in turn has led water tables to become substantially drawn down, impacting peatland function and limiting the resilience of these landscapes to future changes in climate. The restoration of eroding UK peatlands is a major conservation concern, and landscape-scale interventions through the re-vegetation of bare peat is becoming increasingly extensive in areas of upland Britain. Water table is the primary physical parameter considered in the monitoring of many peatland restoration projects, and there is a wealth of data on individual monitoring programmes which indicates that re-vegetation significantly raises water tables. This paper draws on data from multiple restoration projects carried out by the Moors for the Future Partnership in the Southern Pennines, UK, covering a range of stages in the erosion-restoration continuum, to assess the trajectories of water table recovery following re-vegetation. This will allow us to generate projections of future water table recovery, which will be of benefit to land managers and conservation organisations to inform future restoration initiatives.

  11. CAFIU Program Rekindled My Love for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, I visited China with 9 Korean delegates. The theme of the program, 'Green Growth in China', was timely because at the time, Korea's Lee Administration was promoting the green industry through various government support in order to make it a new engine for economic growth.

  12. Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David R; Caporn, Simon J M; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R Henrik; Sen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat

  13. Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Elliott

    Full Text Available The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6 and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals. Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in

  14. Current progress of China's free ART program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Jie; ZHANG; Jennifer; PAN; Lan; YU; Yi; WEN; Yan; ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    China's Free ART Program was initiated in 2002 as an emergency response to save and improve the lives of AIDS patients living mainly in impoverished rural regions of central China. With little experience in HIV/AIDS treatment and care and resource limitations, China's efforts to provide widespread access to free antiretroviral therapy has been a process fraught with difficulty. However, the Free ART Program is progressing from an emergency response to a standardized treatment and care system. The development of national guidelines, training programs, a laboratory support network, a national patient database, programs for special populations such as children and patients living with coinfections, and operational research has improved the scope and quality of the free treatment program. As of June 30,2005, a total of 19,456 patients in 28 provinces, autonomous regions, and special municipalities had received free ART.Challenges stemming from the nature of China's health system and patient population persist, but with strong government support and a diverse set of resources, China has the capacity to overcome these challenges and to provide nationwide access to high quality treatment and care.

  15. Expansion of China's free antiretroviral treatment program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-cai; ZHANG Fu-jie; WEN Yi; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Yao; WU Ya-song; LIU Xia; Elizabeth Au; LIU Zhong-fu

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003,China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program (NFATP) was initiated as a pilot,which covered only 100 HIV/AIDS patients.By 2011,the pilot had evolved into a nationwide program and had provided free treatment for over 150 000 patients.The objective of this study was to report and evaluate the progress of China's free antiretroviral treatment program.Methods The NFATP Database was systematically reviewed and a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study.Program progress indicators including the number of treated HIV/AIDS patients,follow-up visit rate,CD4 test rate,and viral load test rate were summarized and examined over a calendar year to evaluate the progress of NFATP quantitatively and qualitatively.Results By the end of 2011,a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients had been treated through the NFATP and 122 613 of them were still on treatment.Of all patients,about 72% were enrolled during the past four years.The dominant transmission route was blood related in the early phase of the NFATP,but gradually changed to sexual contact.Besides quantitative improvements,progress indicators also demonstrated significant qualitative improvements that the program had made during the past 9 years.Conclusions Great achievement has been made by China's NFATP.China's experience indicates the importance of a comprehensive response to the success of its treatment program.However,to ensure the quality and sustainability of treatment in the long term,more attention and resources should be paid towards program management.Chin Med J 2012; 125(19):3514-3521

  16. Forest (re)vegetation impact on uranium cycling in mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern radioecology, a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of radionuclides is necessary to improve the determination of risk of radionuclides dispersion into the biosphere, and to identify the effective sinks and reservoirs and the source and extent of biota and human exposure. In re-vegetated contaminated area such as former U-mining sites, the long-term vegetation impact on the radioactivity dissemination is still few documented. In this study, the processes controlling the dynamics of U recycling by 35-years Scots pine developed on an afforested U-mining heap were identified and further quantified in terms of annual fluxes. With pine development, emergence of an acid humus and further weathering of the alkaline mining debris little affected the U mobility in the soil profile. Increased U mobility mainly involved a translocation of U to metal-humus chelates in surface layers. The root compartment accounted for 99.3 % of the U budget in tree, thus serving as a sink. The current root uptake and transfer of U to upper parts of the tree amounted to about 3 g ha-1 y-1, i.e. less than 0.03 % of the current NH4-exchangeable U pool in the soil (0-30 cm). Allocation and translocation pattern made it clear that a dominant fraction of the translocated U moves passively with the ascent xylem sap, most likely as a soluble complex, and steadily accumulates in the needles. Consequently, 97 % of the U annual uptake is returned to the soil through litterfall. (author)

  17. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  18. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1999 (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of curriculum projects is the result of the authors' participation in a Fulbright summer seminar program in China. The following 16 curriculum projects are in the collection: (1) "Banpo Village: A Prehistoric Dig" (Sandra Bailey); (2) "China: Moving into the New Millennium: A Study of China's Past, Present and Future" (Shirley…

  19. Current Situation of Preschool Immersion Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林蔚

    2014-01-01

    English Immersion programs in China have become a popular choice among parents for their children since the intro-duction of the Canadian model to the Chinese school system in 1997. English Immersion programs in China differ from tradition-al English instruction because in such programs content-based language programs are designed to immerse Chinese students in English and promote their communicative skills. From the perspective of Education and Applied Linguistics, this essay tries to study the idea and practice of English Immersion programs in China on preschool children in the perspective of the conception, theoretical foundation, foreseeable problems, etc., in order to make a thorough inquiry of their feasibility.

  20. Attitudes toward Dual Language Immersion Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qing

    2014-01-01

    With the development of economy and the English learning reform in China, the role of English has increased than ev⁃er before. Dual language immersion (DLI) programs, as a new way to offer both languages and content instructions, will gradually take place of traditional English learning and become a new tendency in China. The attitudes of related groups toward the DLI programs are very important to its further development. This paper will first give a brief introduction to the current situation in China, and then analyze the attitude toward DLI programs, includingones of students, teachers and administrators, to find out problems existing in current DLI programs.

  1. The China Studies Programs of U.B.C.'s Center for Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsworth, K. C.

    1970-01-01

    Program will cover Contemporary Chinese History, Society, and Politics; Chinese Language; Doing Business with China; A China Educational Travel Program. The program combines professional and general public areas. (NL)

  2. Animation Program History in Fine ART Schools of China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Cao

    2014-01-01

    The animation industry of China has developed windingly almost 50 years in 20 century, finally obtained the eruption -like growth in the beginning 21st century. Talent cultivation is one of the important elements of Chinese Animation industry, thus animation education also obtained the stimulation. More and more fine art schools began to have animation program after 2000. This paper studies a brief history of animation professionals in Fine Art Schools of China, and the relationship between f...

  3. Energy development and nuclear program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the current situation of energy consumption in China is provided. Coal-burn as a dominant sector of energy consumption causes heavy burden on transportation and serious environmental pollution. The roles of nuclear energy in the future energy supply are discussed. The situation of nuclear development, especially heating reactor is introduced. (author)

  4. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... amount of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ― The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the...... effects of the implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification, which is thought to be the solution to poverty and environmental dilemmas. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition...

  5. Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance at a re-vegetated coal mine in the Middelburg district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, I.T.; Little, R.M.; Jansen, R.; Crowe, T.M. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-04-01

    Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance were investigated at six re-vegetated sites within the Middelburg Coal Mine (Mpumalanga, South Africa) and compared with those for a site thought to be representative of un-mined biotope within the nearby Witbank Nature Reserve. Age of site since initiation of re-vegetation had little or no apparent effect on richness or abundance. Adjacency to currently active mining and variation in current land management practices appeared to have much more profound effects. Sites surrounded by active mining had lower richness and abundance. Those with 40% or more land left as fallow and strips of un-mowed grass as well as artificial ponds had higher bird richness and abundance.

  6. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  7. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our...

  8. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land...... conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  9. An Empirical Estimation of Effects of Priority Forestry Programs on Farmers’ Incomes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has launched six Priority Forestry Programs (PFPs) since 1998, i.e. the Natural Forest Protection Program, the Cropland Conversion to Forest and Grassland Program, Sandification Control Program for the Vicinity of Beijing & Tianjin , Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program, Forest Industrial Base Development Program and Shelterbelt Development Programs for regions such as Three North and the Yangtze River Catchments. The Government of China has made different policies for these PF...

  10. China's first-phase Mars Exploration Program: Yinghuo-1 orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2013-09-01

    China's first Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1 associated with Russia's unmanned sample return spacecraft Phobos-Grunt will be jointly launched in October 2011. Yinghuo-1 orbiter will principally aim to detect Martian space magnetosphere, ionosphere, plasma distribution, ions escape mechanism, surface topography and sandstorms, and gravity field near equator by four pivotal payloads including fluxgate magnetometer, plasma package, occultation receiver and optical imager based on four key technologies including deep-space monitoring and communications, automation, thermal control and degaussing. Yinghuo-1 Mars Exploration Program is a new milestone that will take the country one big step further in the Chinese deep-space exploration perspective plan. China will hopefully become the fourth country to successfully develop Mars exploration mission after the U.S., Russia and Europe.

  11. Education Abroad in China: Literature Review of Study Abroad Program Types, Outcomes and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brett

    2013-01-01

    While there has been an increase in students studying abroad in China, this increase has not been seen in the respective number of articles published in scholarly journals on education abroad in China. This paper summarizes articles from journals on the types of education abroad programs in China, organized by topic, and by the outcomes and…

  12. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  13. The Main Vectors of Educational Programs in Improving the Quality of Human Resources in People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of government educational programs in China, determines the role of Chinese universities in the world rankings and the impact of education programs on human resource development in organizations in China.

  14. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Science & Technology for Sustainable Water in China A Perspective of the IAC Water Program and Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun

    2012-01-01

    Water is a big issue in the world. As we enter the 21st century, a global water crisis threatens the security, stability and environmental sustainability of all nations, particularly those in the developing world. The Inter-Academy Council (IAC) proposed to undertake a study of the current and emerging challenges and opportunities for sustainable water resources management at its 2009 Board meeting. This paper gives a perspective of the IAC Water Program, and the case studies conducted by China Working Group of the IAC Water Program on three key issues, namely climate change & water adaptive management, agricultural water & ecology, and urban water & environment. The purpose is to show the role of science & technology for sustainable water in China. These studies are the 1st phase of the IAC Water Program in China. Perspectives of new challenges and opportunities on this Program for the water future in the world and China are also given in the paper.

  16. Programs, Prices and Policies Towards Energy Conservation and Environmental Quality in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2014-01-01

    China has gradually recognized that the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment cannot be sustained. It has to be changed. This article focuses on China’s efforts towards energy conservation and environmental quality. The article discusses a variety of programs, prices, market-based instruments, and other economic and industrial policies and measures targeted for energy saving and pollution cutting, and the associated implementation and reliability i...

  17. Programs for Criminal Reform in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes efforts to reform offenders in People's Republic of China (PRC). Examines Confucian and Legalist views, particularly Confucian ideals of basic goodness of people, ability of moral teachings to reform, and responsibility of social groups for their members. Describes four general approaches to offender reform: local assistance and…

  18. Policy conflict and the feasibility of water pollution trading programs in the Tai Lake Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yongliang Zhang; Bing Zhang; Jun Bi

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution trading (WPT) is considered a cost-effective policy instrument for controlling water pollution. Since the late 1990s the Chinese government has piloted WPT programs at different levels in an attempt to reduce water pollution. However, the implementation of WPT programs has not achieved the results expected. Policy overlap, or conflict, is thought to be one of main factors blocking the deployment of effective WPT projects in China. This research takes the WPT pilot program in t...

  19. China's Sloping Land Conversion Program: Institutional innovation or business as usual?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, M.T.; Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is the largest land retirement program in the developing world, having the goal of converting 14.67 million hectares of cropland to forests by 2010 (4.4 million of which is on land with slopes greater than 25 degrees) and an additional "soft" goal of afforesting a roughly equal area of wasteland by 2010 (WWF, 2003; SFA, 2003). Pending successful completion it could represent a 10-20% increase in China's national forest area and a 10% decrease in ...

  20. The updated advancements of inertial confinement fusion program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X. T.; ICF Teams in China

    2016-03-01

    The recent achievements of ICF research in China are reviewed. The constructions of laser facilities of SG-III and SG-IIUP are completed in this year and the full energy output operation will be in 2014. The target physics studies involving numerical simulations of a new ignition scheme, which is proposed to enhance implosion velocity and suppress hydrodynamic instability and distortion at interface between hot spot and main fuel, and experimental results (a few selected examples) are presented.

  1. Advances in the national inertial fusion program of China

    OpenAIRE

    He X.T.; Zhang W.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The planned inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition in China in around 2020 is to be accomplished in three steps. The first is carrying out target physics experiments in the existing laser facilities SG-II, SG-IIIP and SG-IIU (operating in 2012) of output energy 3-24 kJ at 3ω. Results have been obtained for better understanding the implosion dynamics and radiation transport. Recent studies include efficiency of radiation generation, hydrodynamic instabilities, shock waves in cryogenic targ...

  2. The CDEX Dark Matter Program at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Qian; Li, Jianming; Wong, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    The China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) is a new facility for conducting low event-rate experiments. We present an overview of CJPL and the CDEX Dark Matter program based on germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities. The achieved results, status as well as the R&D and technology acquisition efforts towards a ton-scale experiment are reported.

  3. Efficient System Design and Sustainable Finance for China's Village Electrification Program: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S.; Yin, H.; Kline, D. M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a joint effort of the Institute for Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEE), and the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support China's rural electrification program. This project developed a design tool that provides guidelines both for off-grid renewable energy system designs and for cost-based tariff and finance schemes to support them. This tool was developed to capitalize on lessons learned from the Township Electrification Program that preceded the Village Electrification Program. We describe the methods used to develop the analysis, some indicative results, and the planned use of the tool in the Village Electrification Program.

  4. Sustainability Capacity Building Based on Educational Method: A Case Study on China and Sweden Joint Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Marie Nesser; Jonathon Wigley; Yu Guopei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development (EE&ESD) have been widely accepted as an effective educational method to contribute to capacity development and processes of change in developing countries. This paper takes SIDA supported EE&ESD in formal educationadvanced international training program, China as an example. By analyzing and reflecting its orientation, implementation, outcomes and evaluation, experiences and lessons learned are expected to help improve the sorts of international cooperation capacity building programs both from international and also Chinese perspectives.

  5. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  6. Stockpile strategy for China's emergency oil reserve: A dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is currently accelerating construction of its strategic petroleum reserves. How should China fill the SPR in a cost-effective manner in the short-run? How might this affect world oil prices? Using a dynamic programming model to answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to minimize the stockpiling costs, including consumer surplus as well as crude acquisition and holding costs. The crude oil acquisition price in the model is determined by global equilibrium between supply and demand. Demand, in turn, depends on world market conditions including China's stockpile filling rate. Our empirical study under different market conditions shows that China's optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month, and the optimal stockpiling drives up the world oil price by 3–7%. The endogenous price increase accounts for 52% of total stockpiling costs in the base case. When the market is tighter or the demand function is more inelastic, the stockpiling affects the market more significantly and pushes prices even higher. Alternatively, in a disruption, drawdown from the stockpile can effectively dampen soaring prices, though the shortage is likely to leave the price higher than before the disruption. - Highlights: • China's SPR policies are examined by dynamic programming. • The optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month. • The optimal stockpiling drives up world oil price by 3–7%

  7. People's Republic of China: problems and progress in the civilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the nuclear program in the People's Republic of China is presented with discussion of plans for design and construction of nuclear power plants, clashing regulation authorities, status and description of the Qishan reactor, and reactor component fabrication. Other observations of the American Nuclear Society members who visited China are noted in the report: the Chinese consideration of both PWR and BWR type reactors, international cooperation, and the lack of understanding on the part of the Chinese work force of the importance of cleanliness in nuclear fabrication

  8. Challenges and Opportunities: the Expanded Government-led HIV/AIDS Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has posed an increasingly serious issue in China. In recent years, Chinese government has taken further intensified efforts to combat HIV/AIDS with high-level political commitment, supportive policy development, increased financial allocation, large-scale of governmentled initiatives, expanded international cooperation and great involvement of non-governmental organizations. Meanwhile gaps and challenges coexist impacting the implementation and the results of national HIV/AIDS programs. Thus, further government efforts are needed to improve and tailor the actions to meet the requirement of HIV/AIDS control in China.

  9. Lessons from international experience for China's microgrid demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microgrids can provide an avenue for increasing the amount of distributed generation (DG) and delivery of electricity, where control is more dispersed and quality of service is locally tailored to end-use requirements, with applications from military bases to campuses to commercial office buildings. Many studies have been done to date on microgrid technology and operations, but fewer studies exist on demonstration programs and commercial microgrid development. As China prepares to launch the largest microgrid demonstration program in the world, we review progress made by demonstration programs across Europe, Asia, and the Americas as well as microgrid benefits and barriers. Through case studies, we highlight the difference in experience for microgrids developed under the auspices of a government-sponsored demonstration program versus those that were commercially developed. Lastly, we provide recommendations oriented towards creating a successful microgrid demonstration program. - Highlights: • We discuss major microgrid demonstration programs in the U.S., E.U., and Asia. • We identify barriers faced by microgrids to date and propose policy solutions. • Two detailed case studies of government sponsored microgrid demonstrations are provided. • We outline eight recommendations for microgrid demonstration programs, with a focus on China's upcoming program

  10. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  11. Advances in the national inertial fusion program of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X.T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The planned inertial confinement fusion (ICF ignition in China in around 2020 is to be accomplished in three steps. The first is carrying out target physics experiments in the existing laser facilities SG-II, SG-IIIP and SG-IIU (operating in 2012 of output energy 3-24 kJ at 3ω. Results have been obtained for better understanding the implosion dynamics and radiation transport. Recent studies include efficiency of radiation generation, hydrodynamic instabilities, shock waves in cryogenic targets, opacity measurements using kJ lasers, etc. Hydrodynamic codes (the LARED series have been developed and experimentally verified with over 5000 shots, and are applied to investigating target physics and ignition target design. For fast ignition, a large number of experiments and numerical simulations have led to improved understanding relevant to target design, hot electron transport, collimation by the spontaneous magnetic fields in overdense plasmas, etc. In addition to the SG-II, SG-IIU and SG-IIIP, the SG-III laser facility with energy of 200–400 kJ at 3ω shall operate in 2014 and be used for advanced target physics research. In the last step, the 1.5 MJ SG-IV laser facility still under design will be used to investigate ignition and burning.

  12. Yulu Shequ - a unique rehabilitation program for illicit drug users in Kaiyuan in southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gericke Christian A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In China, illicit drug use and addiction have been rapidly increasing over the last two decades. Traditional compulsory rehabilitation models in China are widely considered ineffective. Recently, a new model of drug user rehabilitation called the 'Yulu Shequ Program' has gained a national reputation for successful rehabilitation in the city of Kaiyuan in southwest China. The aim of this study was to describe this program to the international public and to assess the program's effectiveness in terms of relapse rates and costs to participants and public payers. Case description The Yulu Shequ program provides up to one hundred participants at any point in time with the opportunity to live and work in a purpose-built, drug-free community after completing compulsory rehabilitation. The length of stay is not limited. Community members receive medical and psychological treatment and have the option to participate in social activities and highly valued job skills training. The program has very strict policies to prevent illicit drugs entering the community. Evaluation The evaluation was carried out through 1 a review of literature, official documents and websites in Chinese language describing the program and 2 an on-site visit and conduct of semi-structured interviews with key staff members of the Yulu Shequ program. The relapse rate in 2007 was 60% compared to 96% in the compulsory program. Annual costs to public payers of CNY4800 (US$700 were largely offset by income earned through on-site labour by participants totalling CNY4600 (US$670. Conclusions The Yulu Shequ program is an interesting model for drug rehabilitation that could lead the way for a new Chinese national policy away from compulsory rehabilitation towards a more collaborative and effective approach. Caution is needed when interpreting relapse rates as Yulu Shequ participants need to have completed compulsory rehabilitation before entering the program. A more

  13. A Study on the Application of STP Marketing Strategy in the MBA Education Program of Universities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    The MBA education has begun in America and now it has become mature after nearly one hundred years' development. Although China's MBA merely has a history of 17 years, it has already gained great achievements. In 1991, 9 universities in China had MBA program and 86 students enrolled in. In 2007, the two numbers were 127 and 59,776 respectively.…

  14. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  15. Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Using Needle Exchange Programs in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Morgan M; Zhang FuJie

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth...

  16. The Elite Strategies in the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program(1986-2000)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Manpower is the key factor to the success of the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program. Many manpower strategies have been used in the CIMS Subject, which include elite strategies, training and practicing strategies, and culture strategies. This paper is mainly about the elite strategies such as to discover the talents, to cultivate the elites and to establish the mechanism for the expert groups to work in team, echelon and vigor.

  17. The Training and Culture Strategies in the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program(1986-2000)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Manpower is a key factor for the success of the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program. Many manpower strategies have been used in the CIMS Subject, which include elite strategies, training and practicing strategies, and culture strategies. This paper is mainly about the training and culture strategies such as to pay attention to the training and the practice of the technical team, and to form a fine CIMS culture.

  18. Smallholder participation in large forestry programs: The camellia program in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, B.; Dries, L.K.E.; Feng, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many forestry projects have been implemented in developing countries. In China, a variety of large-scale afforestation and reforestation programmes have been carried out with multiple objectives, such as livelihood improvement and carbon sequestration. As in many developing countrie

  19. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  20. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  1. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  2. Assessing the Design of Three Pilot Programs for Carbon Trading in China

    OpenAIRE

    Munnings, Clayton; Morgenstern, Richard; Wang, Zhongmin; Liu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    China started seven carbon cap-and-trade pilot programs in order to inform the development of a future national cap-and-trade market. This paper assesses the design of three of the longer-running cap-and-trade pilot programs in Guangdong, Shanghai and Shenzhen. Based on extensive stakeholder interviews and a detailed literature review we formulate a series of recommendations to improve the design of these three pilots, including: strengthening the legal foundations for the cap-and-trade pilot...

  3. Transfer Paths and Academic Performance: The Primary School Merger Program in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Di; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Medina, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, China's Ministry of Education embarked on an ambitious program of elementary school mergers by shutting down small village schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats. The goal of the program was to improve the teacher and building resources in an attempt to raise the human capital of students in poor rural areas, although it was recognized that students would lose the opportunity to learn in the settings of their own familiar...

  4. Reforestation Programs in Southwest China: Reported Success, Observed Failure, and the Reasons Why

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the disastrous floods of 1998,the Chinese government has used the Natural Forest Protection and Sloping Land Conversion Programs to promote afforestation and reforestation as means to reduce runoff, control erosion, and stabilize local livelihoods. These two ambitious programs have been reported as large-scale successes, contributing to an overall increase in China's forest cover and to the stated goals of environmental stabilization. A small-scale field study at the project level of the implementation of these two programs in Baiwu Township, Yanyuan County, Sichuan, casts doubt upon the accuracy and reliability of these claims of success; ground observations revealed utter failure in some sites and only marginal success in others. Reasons for this discrepancy are posited as involving ecological, economic, and bureaucratic factors.Further research is suggested to determine whether these discrepancies are merely local aberrations or represent larger-scale failures in reforestation programs.

  5. Impacts of Clinic-based Informed Choice Program on Quality of Individualized Counseling Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qing WU; Xi-kuan CHEN; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of clinic-based informed choice program on quality of individualized service in family planning clinics in ChinaMethods During the program, family planning service staff in intervention clinics were trained on counseling skills and key points of individualized counseling service. Questionnaire surveys were conducted pre- and post-informed choice program to evaluate the impacts of the program.Results Informed choice program had significantly improved the quality of individualized counseling service. The multivariate regression analysis showed that clients of the clinic were more likely to give the better evaluation of the service, the OR of evaluation score of individualized service is 1.712 (95% CI is 1.146 to 2.564) in Experiment Group of post-program in contrast with pre-program. The program also could satisfy individual needs of clients and increase the satisfaction degree of the service.Conclusions Informed choice program is helpful for the improvement of the quality of individualized counseling service. It is necessary and imperative to improve the skills of counseling service provided in family planning clinics.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  7. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of different land cover types in the Loess Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); B. J. Fu; Gao, G. Y.; X. L. Yao; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impacts of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration (ET) of five land cover types in the Loess Plateau in northern China. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon), subshrub (Artemisia scoparia), shrub (Spiraea pubescens), plantation forest (Robinia pseudoacacia), and crop (Zea mays) vegetation were continuously monitored during the growin...

  8. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  9. Comparison of environmental radiation monitoring programs in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It hopes that an awareness of the similarities and differences of China's and USA's programs will prove to be helpful to monitoring networks in their evolving and developing, and possibly to others as well. Methods: Based on the analyses of the sample collection, radionuclides analyses and data dissemination of NRCMS, ERAMS and EML's global network, the similarities and differences of the networks are characterized. Results: ERAMS and NRCMS have more similarities in responsibility, objectives and sampling components. The differences are mainly in the scope and size of each program. EML's global network represents the most extensive and comprehensive global network of its kind in the world for surface air radionuclides monitoring. Conclusions: As compared with EML's global network program, NRCMS and ERAMS has more similarities than differences. (authors)

  10. An Evaluation of Levels of Adaptation Used in the Teaching of Foreign University Degree Programs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Many universities now deliver courses and programs in overseas markets such as China. Often these programs are delivered by foreign academics who teach in these overseas locations. This style and format of educational delivery raises the issue of the degree to which subject material and teaching styles need to be adapted to meet the needs of…

  11. The Normalization of Co-authorship Networks in the Bibliometric Evaluation: The Government Stimulation Programs of China and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Han Woo; Yoon, Jungwon; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2016-01-01

    Using co-authored publications between China and Korea in Web of Science (WoS) during the one-year period of 2014, we evaluate the government stimulation program for collaboration between China and Korea. In particular, we apply dual approaches, full integer vs. fractional counting, to collaborative publications in order to better examine both the patterns and contents of Sino-Korean collaboration networks in terms of individual countries and institutions. We first conduct a semi-automatic ne...

  12. Progress of the National Pediatric Free Antiretroviral Therapy program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Xin; He, Yun; Tang, Zhirong; Peng, Guoping; Liu, Aiwen; Qiao, Xiaochun; Li, Huiqin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dou, Zhihui; Ma, Ye; Liu, Zhongfu; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-10-01

    In 2003, the Chinese Government initiated a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program focusing on adult AIDS patients. Pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations were yet unavailable. It was not until July 2005, with the initiation of a two-stage program implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Health, that pediatric formulations became accessible in China. Initially, the pediatric ART program was piloted in six provinces with the highest incidences of pediatric HIV/AIDS. The pilot stage allowed the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) to finalize entry criteria, treatment regimen, and patient monitoring and follow-up procedures. The second stage commenced at the end of 2006 when the program was scaled-up nationally. In order to guarantee treatment of pediatric patients, extensive training in the selection of appropriate ARV drug regimen and dosage was provided to doctors, often through on-site collaboration with domestic and international experts. The CCDC simultaneously established a pediatric ARV management system and a pediatric ART information system. CD4 count and other laboratory tests are being routinely performed on these pediatric patients. By the end of June 2009, 1529 pediatric patients had received ARV under the national program. However, challenges remain. Firstly, many children infected with HIV/AIDS live in rural areas where the treatment quality is hindered by the limited number of medical facilities and skilled medical workers. Secondly, much of the pediatric ARV drug supply depends on donation. An effort needs to be made by the Chinese Government to establish China's own drug procurement and supply system. PMID:20665285

  13. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  14. Overview of PbBi-Cooled Reactor Development and ADS Program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of China's electricity is produced from fossil fuels. Rapid growth in demand has given rise to power shortages, and the reliance on fossil fuels has led to much air pollution. Nuclear power has an important role for the China energy safety and environmental protection. According to the current layout of nuclear power development, by around 2040, pressurized water reactors are expected to level off at 200 GWe. However, the nuclear fuel shortage and the spent fuel accumulation will restrict the healthy development of nuclear energy in China. So the innovative nuclear system is expected to solve these problems. Accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) is an important approach to incinerate the long-lived high-level nuclear waste, which is focused by many countries. Liquid Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has many unique nuclear, thermophysical and chemical attributes that is potential candidate coolant for ADS subcritical reactors. In addition, lead and bismuth can produce copious spallation neutrons when bombarded with energetic protons. This makes LBE one of the top candidates for a high-power spallation target and coolant in an accelerator-driven subcritical system. In China, the fundamental research of ADS was carried out 10 years ago supported by Ministry of Science and Technology. From 2009, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) carried out a project of the ADS prophase research to develop the key technologies about superconducting accelerator, LBE loop, materials et al. In 2011, a large scaled ADS development program to transmute the nuclear waste has been launched by CAS named ''advanced nuclear fission energy''. In this program, CAS plan to develop the ADS system by 3 phases. In the first phase, form 2011-2017, an ADS verification facility named ADS-VF will be build. The ADS-VF consists of a LBE cooled reactor coupled with a proton accelerator and liquid metal spallation target. For the second phase in this program, an ADS experimental reactor named ADS

  15. Evaluating China's Slope Land Conversion Program as sustainable management in Tianquan and Wuqi Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Allison; King, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Increased soil erosion on sloped land has become a significant environmental concern in China that has been attributed to human activities such as deforestation, over-cultivation, and over-grazing of livestock. In order to reduce soil erosion on sloped lands, the Chinese government has responded by implementing large-scale, ecological rehabilitation programs, including the "Grain for Green" reforestation project. This program involves financial incentives to transition farmers into other economic activities with the goal of reducing ecological pressures and degradation. Because of the scope and potential impacts from these programs, detailed research is needed to understand their social and ecological effects. This paper reports on research conducted in Tianquan County, Sichuan Province, and Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province, that evaluates the effects of the program upon local economies and household livelihood systems. The paper argues that the successful conversion of farmland under "Grain for Green" depends upon local government involvement, local economic development, and funding for local projects. Without economic development within rural economies, we conclude that farmers will remain dependent upon continued subsidy assistance to meet the policy's ambitious environmental restrictions, thereby undermining the program's long-term sustainability. PMID:21481524

  16. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  17. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangang; Luo, Yunjian; Zhou, Yongfeng; Lu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    The Grain for Green Program (GGP) is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1) collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2) development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3) parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012), respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years. PMID:26959645

  18. Impact of a nationwide training program for neonatal resuscitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; MA Yi; William Keenan; Susan Niermeyer; WANG Hui-shan; YE Hong-mao; YU Ren-jie; HUANG Xing-hua; WANG Dan-hua; Wang Li-xin; FENG Qi; GONG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    Background Seventeen million births occur in China each year.Neonatal mortality is the leading cause of under 5-year-old child deaths,and intrapartum-related injury accounts for much of mental retardation in young children.The Chinese Ministry of Health sought to improve infant and child survival through a nationwide initiative to have at least one person trained in neonatal resuscitation at every birth.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of China Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) on policy and infrastructure changes and its effectiveness in decreasing the incidence of mortality among newborn infants.Methods The Chinese NRP incorporated policy change,professional education,and creation of a sustainable health system infrastructure for resuscitation.Multidisciplinary teams from all 31 provinces and municipal states disseminated NRP in a train-the-trainer cascade.The intervention targeted 20 provinces with high neonatal mortality and programs to reduce maternal mortality.Program evaluation data came from 322 representative hospitals in those provinces.Results Changes in policy permitted midwives to initiate resuscitation and required resuscitation training for licensure.From 2004 through 2009 more than 110659 professionals received NRP training in the 20 target provinces,with 94% of delivery facilities and 99% of counties reached.Intrapartum-related deaths in the delivery room decreased from 7.5 to 3.4per 10000 from 2003 to 2008,and the incidence of Apgar ≤7 at 1 minute decreased from 6.3% to 2.9%.Conclusions The Chinese NRP achieved policy changes promoting resuscitation,trained large numbers of professionals,and contributed to reduction in delivery room mortality.Improved adherence to the resuscitation algorithm,extension of training to the township level,and coverage of births now occurring outside health facilities can further increase the number of lives saved.

  19. Is the crop insurance program effective in China? Evidence from farmers analysis in ifve provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; ZHANG Qiao; Shingo Kimura; Suraya Akter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese crop insurance program in terms of farmers’ utility and welfare. A simulation model based on the power utility function was ifrst developed to evaluate the effectiveness of crop insurance. Then, the Monte Carlo approach was used to generate the datasets of area, price, yield, cost, and income based on the characteristics of representative farmers, which were clustered and calibrated using the farm-level data of 574 individual farmers from ifve Chinese provinces. Finaly, the effectiveness of Chinese crop insurance was evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of farmers’ utility/welfare under alternative crop insurance scenarios. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the crop insurance program. The government should subsidize more than 50%of the crop insurance premium to motivate more farmers to participate in the program. The ifndings also show that the current crop insurance program in China has increased the farmers’ welfare but stil need to be improved to achieve the Pareto improvement and to make ful use of the ifnancial fund of the government. This paper is believed to not only extend academic research but also has signiifcant implications for policymakers, especialy in the context of rapid development of Chinese crop insurance with much issues such as rate, subsidy and coverage level needed to be improved.

  20. Using Parent and Teacher Voices in the Creation of a Western-Based Early Childhood English-Language Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh

    2015-01-01

    The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…

  1. Using stochastic dynamic programming to support catchment-scale water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2013-01-01

    A hydro-economic modelling approach is used to optimize reservoir management at river basin level. We demonstrate the potential of this integrated approach on the Ziya River basin, a complex basin on the North China Plain south-east of Beijing. The area is subject to severe water scarcity due to...... low and extremely seasonal precipitation, and the intense agricultural production is highly dependent on irrigation. Large reservoirs provide water storage for dry months while groundwater and the external South-to-North Water Transfer Project are alternative sources of water. An optimization model...... based on stochastic dynamic programming has been developed. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of supplying water to the users, while satisfying minimum ecosystem flow constraints. Each user group (agriculture, domestic and industry) is characterized by fixed demands, fixed water...

  2. A Commentary on China's New Curriculum and the Programs to Design Subjects for the College Entrance Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houxiong

    2013-01-01

    Designing and reforming the subjects on the College Entrance Examination, based on the new curriculum, are the focal point and also the most difficult aspect of entrance exam reform. The entrance exam subject programs instituted in more than ten "subject reform" regions in China, including the provinces of Shandong, Ningxia, Guangdong, Hainan, and…

  3. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  4. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  5. Effect of Social Cognitive Theory-Based HIV Education Prevention Program among High School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate potential preventive effects of a cultural adaption of the Focus on Kids (FOK) program among Chinese adolescents through a quasi-experimental intervention trial in Nanjing, China. High school students were assigned to either experimental groups (n = 140) or control groups (n = 164) by schools (with three schools…

  6. Institutions of Higher Education as Public Diplomacy Tools: China-Based University Programs for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgar, Emily T.

    2016-01-01

    Two flagship Chinese universities are home to newly established English-language graduate programs intended to arm international cohorts of future leaders with the skills, knowledge, and insights necessary to thrive in a world in which China will play a leading role. Employing the literature of international education and public diplomacy, this…

  7. The evolution of China's National Energy RD and D Programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, when China launched its “opening up” reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. In this paper we have analyzed the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector we examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists. We found that the changes in strategic priorities set by China's high level political leaders were implemented and then transformed into outputs by using scientists as inputs or policy tools. The decreased role of scientists has been driven by two forces: (1) periodic changes in national strategy emphasizing technology commercialization; and (2) changes in the management structure involving low tolerance of risk. We suggest four ways that the government's efforts to turn China into an innovation oriented country. - Highlights: • New data was provided for the energy sector of China's three largest RD and D programs. • Transitions of goals, priorities, management, and impact over time of the programs were reviewed. • We found the role of scientists has been reduced in the decision making process. • Two forces are identified as the shaping factors

  8. Using stockpile delegation to improve China's strategic oil policy: A multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been much attention paid to oil security in China in recent years. Although China has begun to establish its own strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) to prevent potential losses caused by oil supply interruptions, the system aiming to ensure China's oil security is still incomplete. This paper describes and provides evidence for the benefits of an auxiliary strategic oil policy choice, which aims to strengthen China's oil supply security and offer a solution for strategic oil operations with different holding costs. In this paper, we develop a multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming model to analyze the oil stockpile delegation policy, which is an intermediate policy between public and private oil stockpiles and is appropriate for the Chinese immature private oil stockpile sector. The model examines the effects of the oil stockpile delegation policy in the context of several distinct situations, including normal world oil market conditions, slight oil supply interruption, and serious oil supply interruption. Operating strategies that respond to different oil supply situations for both the SPR and the delegated oil stockpile were obtained. Different time horizons, interruption times and holding costs of delegated oil stockpiles were examined. The construction process of China's SPR was also taken into account. - Highlights: • We provided an auxiliary strategic oil policy rooted in Chinese local conditions. • The policy strengthen China's capability for preventing oil supply interruption. • We model to obtain the managing strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve. • Both of the public and delegated oil stockpile were taken into consideration. • The three phase's construction process of China's SPR was taken into account

  9. Transition to hydrogen-based transportation in China: Lessons learned from alternative fuel vehicle programs in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the experience of existing alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) programs in the US and China to provide insights into appropriate strategies for developing hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure in China. Although an increasing number of AFVs have been deployed in recent years, various factors have limited this progress, such as large sunk investments in conventional technologies, limited networks of refueling stations, the typically higher cost of AFVs, and the relatively low price of oil. Given these barriers, and additional barriers specific to hydrogen, a transition to hydrogen will be a slow process, and must be supported by both near- and long-term policies that have clear and measurable goals that take hydrogen beyond fleet applications into broader vehicle markets. Because a transition to hydrogen vehicles will not occur quickly, it is necessary for the government to have consistent and integrated transportation policies combining short- and long-term goals. These policies should draw upon resources from both governments and multinational companies to provide incentives for vehicle purchases, promote investment in infrastructure, and disseminate information to raise public awareness. Multinationals may find China to be an ideal testing ground for innovative hydrogen vehicles with appropriate incentive policies and programs

  10. Spain to Launch China Program,Aiming at Developing Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ China has become the fifth supplier of Spain and has achieved great development in the Spanish market. But China's investment in Spain is not in a high level, which does not assort with her status of world's great economic country.

  11. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  12. Successfully managing a rapidly growing peritoneal dialysis program in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao; MAO Hai-ping; GUO Qun-ying; YU Xue-qing

    2011-01-01

    Background The maximal use of the limited resource to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) penetration and clinical outcomes is a challenge for all PD centers.In this study,we reported the experience and outcomes in successfully managing a rapidly growing PD center in Southern China.Methods A standard PD program with a team consisted of 6 nephrologists (3 doctors were in charge of catheter insertion and in-patients care,the other 3 doctors focused on PD patients' follow-up and education) and 11 nurses in a PD center at Sun Yat-sen University was established for PD patients follow-up in 2005.A prospective and observational study was conducted in all patients undergoing continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) at our center from January 1,2006 to December 31,2009.Results The yearly number of prevalent CAPD patients was 297,409,547 and 695 in 2006,2007,2008 and 2009,respectively.The PD catheter insertion was performed by the nephrologists with open surgical procedure and 94% of catheters were patent at one year.In 841 incident CAPD patients,the survival rates at the end of 1,2,3 and 4 years were 94%,87%,83% and 76%,respectively,while cumulative technique survival rates (death-censored) were 98%,95%,91% and 90%,respectively.Peritonitis rate was 1/68.5 patient months.Conclusions Better patient and technical survival rates as well as lower peritonitis episode have been achieved in our rapidly growing PD center.A standardized PD program,well-trained team members of PD doctors and nurses,and continuous quality improvement of PD are important elements in managing a successful PD program.

  13. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. PMID:23417908

  14. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  15. Progress of Glaciology and Geocryology Incubation Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Guodong; Zhang Yaonan; Wang Zhengwen

    2007-01-01

    The 10th 5-year Plan for National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for fostering competent research teams and highly qualified scholars in fundamental research in glaciology and geocryology was based on the strategy of incubating "competitive, problem-solving oriented and motivated fledgling scientists, who can effectively lead and greatly advance the aimed subjects and conduct the cutting edge research". This principle has been playing crucial roles in restructuring the team aiming at world-first-class research projects and at solving critical problems in national key projects. It was under the guidance of this strategy that the key research team for mitigating the challenging and differential frost and thaw hazards along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) had been formed, that a strong group focused on the cryosphere (snow, ice and permafrost ) research was re-established and enhanced. These accomplishments have facilitated the formation and growth of highly motivated competitive research teams on comprehensive and integrated fundamental research, which promoted, intensified, and expanded the research programs in glaciology and geocryology.

  16. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  17. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andr& #233

    2010-06-11

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  18. Patent statistics: a good indicator for innovation in China? Assessment of impacts of patent subsidy programs on patent quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether patent subsidy programs aimed at promoting regional innovations have aroused a large number of low-quality applications in China and created biased patent statistics as an indicator for innovations. We found that patent filing fee subsidies encouraged filing of low-quality patent, resulting in a decreased grant rate. Though reward conditioned on grants increased patent grant rate, it also brought patents with narrow claim breadth. Our empirical results confirme...

  19. Perspective on fusion research in China (2) fusion activities in China with special intonation on hybrid reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijian, Qiu

    2001-09-01

    Chinese fusion research was started from 1958, but with more clear problem definition it has been set up as the national program for development of the hybrid reactor in 1986. In this paper, it will be described how the organized program is going on.

  20. Some observations and suggestions about the Rural China Education Foundation library programs at two rural sites

    OpenAIRE

    Håklev, Stian

    2008-01-01

    This is a brief report on visits by the author to two Rural China Education Foundation sites in rural China, Shanxi and Shandong provinces, in 2008. I briefly describe the school libraries that the organization has established, and provide a number of advice for how their operation can be improved.

  1. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  2. E-learning for grass-roots emergency public health personnel: Preliminary lessons from a national program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangquan; Jiang, Qicheng; Qin, Xia; Fang, Guixia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-07-19

    In China, grass-roots emergency public health personnel have relatively limited emergency response capabilities and they are constantly required to update their professional knowledge and skills due to recurring and new public health emergencies. However, professional training, a principal solution to this problem, is inadequate because of limitations in manpower and financial resources at grass-roots public health agencies. In order to provide a cost-effective and easily expandable way for grass-roots personnel to acquire knowledge and skills, the National Health Planning Commission of China developed an emergency response information platform and provided trial access to this platform in Anhui and Heilongjiang provinces in China. E-learning was one of the modules of the platform and this paper has focused on an e-learning pilot program. Results indicated that e-learning had satisfactorily improved the knowledge and ability of grass-roots emergency public health personnel, and the program provided an opportunity to gain experience in e-course design and implementing e-learning. Issues such as the lack of personalized e-courses and the difficulty of evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning are topics for further study. PMID:27264545

  3. The development of Self-help program in China%自助疗法在中国的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智雄; 李冰; 盛利霞; 牛雅娟; 孙洪强

    2014-01-01

    “戒酒互助会”(Alcoholics Anonymous,AA),又称“嗜酒者互诫协会”、“戒酒匿名会”等,是国际戒酒自助组织,其自助疗法在酒依赖的康复中有着广泛的影响,我国虽然早在1996年就引入了自助疗法,在全国多个城市也建立了 AA,但是目前在中国的发展依然缓慢。本文就 AA 在中国应用的相关文献和资料,以及目前 AA 的现况进行综述,分析 AA 在中国发展的相关影响因素,进而就如何提高 AA 在中国的发展提出一些建议,以期促进各界共同推动 AA 在中国的发展,让更多的患者及其家庭受益。%Alcoholics Anonymous(AA)is an international mutual aid fellowship which is credited with helping many alcoholics achieve and maintain sobriety. The self-help program in AA has profoundly influenced on the rehabilitation of alcohol dependence,and it was introduced to China in 1996. Although AA established in many cities in China,it still developed slowly. This paper summarized some papers and documents on AA in China and analyzed the factors related to the development of AA in China. Meanwhile,some sug-gestions were given on promoting AA development in China which will make more patients and families benefiting from it.

  4. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  5. The evaluation of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization in rural western China: a difference in difference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoning

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal care is an important strategy for protection and promotion of maternal and children's health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. However, the status of maternal care is quite weak in the less developed rural areas in western China. It is found that the maternal mortality rates in some western areas of China were 5.8 times higher than those of their eastern costal counterparts. In order to reduce the maternal mortality rates and to improve maternal care in western rural areas of China, the Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF sponsored a program named "Safe Motherhood" in ten western provinces of China from 2001 through 2005. This study mainly aims to evaluate the effects of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization. Methods 32 counties were included in both surveys conducted in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Ten counties of which implemented comprehensive community-based intervention were used as intervention groups, while 22 counties were used as control groups. Stratified 3-stage probability-proportion-to-size sampling method was used to select participating women. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted with questionnaires about the prenatal care utilization in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Difference in difference estimation was used to assess the effect of intervention on the maternal care utilization while controlling for socio-economic characteristics of women. Results After the intervention, the proportion of pregnant women who had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester was increased from 38.9% to 76.1%. The proportion of prenatal visits increased from 82.6% to 98.3%. The proportion of women mobilized to deliver in hospitals increased from 62.7% to 94.5%. Hospital delivery was improved greatly from 31.1% to 87.3%. The maternal mortality rate was lowered by 34.9% from 91.76 to 59.74 per 100,000 live births. The

  6. Development of thermal-hydraulic steady-state analysis program for primary loop of China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the characteristics of structure and steady-state for primary loop of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), a thermal-hydraulic steady-state analysis program was developed by using Fortran language. This paper focused on the development of a set of subroutine of physical properties of sodium and the sodium flow and heat transfer correlations for different operation conditions. And the difference among these correlations was compared. The calculation program was developed based on the steady model. At last, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of steady-state of the primary loop of CEFR at full power were calculated. The calculation results are consistent with the design parameters and the correctness of the developed subroutines and steady- state calculation program was proved. (authors)

  7. Effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to promote mental health among employees in privately owned enterprises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees. PMID:23672231

  8. Golden sun certification. The national certification program for PV products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Haiyan

    2008-07-01

    Solar photovoltaic is used widely in China, especially in northwest. It provides clean and reliable distributed power for a variety of applications. By far, there are hundreds of PV components manufactories and system assemblers emerged, but most of them are very small or medium-sized in terms of production and annual sales. Moreover, as lack of available supervision mechanism, many manufactories sell/distribute bad quality PV products for benefits given to customers' unawareness of related knowledge about PV products. As a consequence, more and more customers lose confidence in PV products, which greatly hinders the sound development of China's PV market. On the other hand, international certification scheme is well developed. If China's PV module manufactories want to sell their products to foreign markets, such as Europe and America, relevant certificates are always needed, which cost much money and time for Chinese manufactories. Therefore, China General Certification Center, committed by Certification and Accreditation Administration of the People's Republic of China, established national certification scheme for PV products. We named it as Golden Sun certification. (orig.)

  9. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  10. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  11. Assessment of vehicle emission programs in China during 1998-2013: Achievement, challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-01

    China has been embracing rapid motorization since the 1990s, and vehicles have become one of the major sources of air pollution problems. Since the late 1990s, thanks to the international experience, China has adopted comprehensive control measures to mitigate vehicle emissions. This study employs a local emission model (EMBEV) to assess China's first fifteen-year (1998-2013) efforts in controlling vehicles emissions. Our results show that China's total annual vehicle emissions in 2013 were 4.16 million tons (Mt) of HC, 27.4 Mt of CO, 7.72 Mt of NOX, and 0.37 Mt of PM2.5, respectively. Although vehicle emissions are substantially reduced relative to the without control scenarios, we still observe significantly higher emission density in East China than in developed countries with longer histories of vehicle emission control. This study further informs China's policy-makers of the prominent challenges to control vehicle emissions in the future. First, unlike other major air pollutants, total NOX emissions have rapidly increased due to a surge of diesel trucks and the postponed China IV standard nationwide. Simultaneous implementation of fuel quality improvements and vehicle-engine emission standards will be of great importance to alleviate NOX emissions for diesel fleets. Second, the enforcement of increasingly stringent standards should include strict oversight of type-approval conformity, in-use complacence and durability, which would help reduce gross emitters of PM2.5 that are considerable among in-use diesel fleets at the present. Third, this study reveals higher HC emissions than previous results and indicates evaporative emissions may have been underestimated. Considering that China's overall vehicle ownership is far from saturation, persistent efforts are required through economic tools, traffic management and emissions regulations to lower vehicle-use intensity and limit both exhaust and evaporative emissions. Furthermore, in light of the complex

  12. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  13. The 11th Five-Year Program Vs. China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) opened its fifth plenary session on Oct.8 to draw a roadmap for the country's social and economic growth in the next five years.……

  14. Concessionary Financing Programs for the Water and Sanitation Sector in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    China's water and sanitation sector faces challenges from rapid urbanization and industrialization, urban diversification, large investment needs, water scarcity, water pollution, and ecological degradation. This policy note addresses 'concessionary finance.' It is intended to provide a briefing for Chinese government officials who formulate policies for the water and sanitation sector. Th...

  15. An international model for geriatrics program development in China: the Johns Hopkins-Peking Union Medical College experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Sean X; Tian, Xinping; Liu, Xiaohong; Lazarus, Gerald; Bellantoni, Michele; Greenough, William; Fried, Linda P; Shen, Ti; Durso, Samuel C

    2010-07-01

    China has the world's largest and most rapidly growing older adult population. Recent dramatic socioeconomic changes, including a large number of migrating workers leaving their elderly parents and grandparents behind and the 4:2:1 family structure caused by the one-child policy, have greatly compromised the traditional Chinese family support for older adults. These demographic and socioeconomic factors, the improved living standards, and the quest for higher quality of life are creating human economic pressures. The plight of senior citizens is leading to an unprecedented need for geriatrics expertise in China. To begin to address this need, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHU) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) have developed a joint international project aimed at establishing a leadership program at the PUMC Hospital that will promote quality geriatrics care, education, and aging research for China. Important components of this initiative include geriatrics competency training for PUMC physicians and nurses in the Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology at JHU, establishing a geriatrics demonstration ward at the PUMC Hospital, faculty exchange between JHU and PUMC, and on-site consultation by JHU geriatrics faculty. This article describes the context and history of this ongoing collaboration and important components, progress, challenges, and future prospects, focusing on the JHU experience. Specific and practical recommendations are made for those who plan such international joint ventures. With such unique experiences, it is hoped that this will serve as a useful model for international geriatrics program development for colleagues in the United States and abroad. PMID:20533962

  16. Predictors of retention in community-based methadone maintenance treatment program in Pearl River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fang; Lin, Peng; Li, Yan; He, Qun; Long, Qisui; Fu, Xiaobing; Luo, Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China. Methods Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independen...

  17. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 29, in which 17 from Japan, 10 from China, and 2 from Germany. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of such the processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties, which is desirable to be investigated by international collaboration groups. The present Japan-China Joint Seminar constitutes one of such the activities to realize the above stated aim. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. An inexact multi-objective programming model for water resources management in industrial parks of Binhai New Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Li, W; Wang, B; Liu, X W; Xie, Y L; Liu, L

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Binhai New Area of Tianjin has been suffering severe water shortage due to climate change and industrial activities. Integrated and effective water resources management approaches are urgent for the sustainable development of industrial parks in Binhai New Area. However, uncertainties exist in many aspects of the water resources system and are inevitably problematic for water resources planning and policy-making. To address these uncertainties, an interval multiple-objective programming model was developed here to support the long-term planning of industrial water resources management in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China. The model incorporated both multiple-objective programming and interval linear programming into a general programming framework. The developed model could handle the uncertainties and complexities of the water management system, and also allowed decision makers to adjust fuzzy objective control decision variables to satisfy multiple holistic and interactive objectives. The solutions are useful for planning adjustments of the existing water allocation patterns in Binhai New Area. PMID:26540551

  19. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  20. Soil C, N, P and Its Stratification Ratio Affected by Artificial Vegetation in Subsoil, Loess Plateau China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial vegetation restoration can induce variations in accumulation and distribution of soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, little is known about variations in soil C, N and P nutrient fraction stratification following artificial vegetation in Loess Plateau China. Based on the hypothesis that re-vegetated can improve soil quality and stratification ratios (SR) can be used as an indicator to evaluate soil quality. This study measured contents and storages of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and their SRs in topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-60 cm) in three 30-year re-vegetated lands that had been converted from arable land (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Caragana Korshinskii Kom. and abandoned cropland with low interferences and few management measures) and one slope cropland (SC) as a control for three soil profiles(0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm) from June 2009 to June 2013. The results showed that the contents and storages of SOC, TN and TP in re-vegetated land were significantly higher than those in the SC in both topsoil and subsoil. The storages of SOC, TN and TP in the topsoil (0-20 cm) of the re-vegetated lands increased by 16.2%-26.4%, 12.7%-28.4% and 16.5%-20.9%, respectively, and increased by smaller but significant amounts in subsoil from 2009 to 2013. The SRs for SOC, TN and TP in the re-vegetated lands were mostly >2 (either for 0-20:20-40 cm or 0-20:40-60 cm) and greater than that in the SC. The SRs showed an increasing trend with increasing restoration age. The results also showed that the land use type and soil depth were the most influential factors for the SRs and storages, and the SRs of SOC and TN had significantly positive correlations with their storages. The SRs were concluded to be a good indicator for evaluating the soil quality, which can be significantly enhanced through vegetation restoration. Moreover, vegetation restoration can significantly enhance SOC, TN and TP accumulation

  1. Marketing China Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China may grow into a global branding powerhouse, one master degree at a time Bringing the first international Master of Marketing program to Beijing, Professor Susan Ellis, Associate Dean of China Programs atMelbourne Business School, knows onething for

  2. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Soil Conservation Measures in Reducing Soil Erosion and Improving Soil Quality in China Using Fallout Radionuclide Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is one of the countries perhaps suffering from the most serious soil erosion in the world. Soil erosion and associated sediment production has become a major environmental problem. A wide variety of soil conservation measures, such as re-vegetation, terracing, and conservation agriculture practices, exist in China but they require an effective evaluation to establish specific regional recommendations of integrated soil and water management practices. Using fallout radionuclide techniques, IAEA-funded studies for the assessment of soil erosion and soil conservation have been undertaken in three sites from SW China through to NE China (Baiquan County of North East China, Fengning County of Northern China and Xichang city of South Western China). In the Baiquan County of North East China, the study showed that soil erosion, measured by the fallout 137Cs tracer, decreased by 16% due to terracing and 54% due to contour cultivation as compared to downslope cultivation practice. In the Fengning County of Northern China, the authors assessed the short term impact of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion and soil quality parameters. The data from 7Be measurements indicated that all sites with conservation practices contained higher 7Be inventories than the conventional tillage treatment site. Four years of no tillage with high amount of crop residues reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residue amounts reduced soil erosion rates by 33% as compared with conventional tillage practices in the Fengning site. In Xichang city of South Western China, the results showed that shrubs and grasses increased soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks more than trees as compared with bare land. Re-vegetation, especially by using shrubs and grasses increased SOC, available nitrogen (AN) and available phosphorus (AP) indicating a significant positive role of vegetation restoration in improving soil quality. Re-vegetation increased SOC stocks under trees, shrubs and

  4. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity and rapid economic growth have increased the pressure on water resources and environment in Northern China, causing decreased groundwater tables, ecosystem degradation, and direct economic losses due to insufficient water supply. The authors applied the water value method, a variant...... input for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water...... values, resulting in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at...

  5. Emerging Urban Poverty and Effects of the Dibao Program on Alleviating Poverty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the current urban poverty situation, examines the factors affecting the probability of a household being in poverty and investigates how the urban minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program helps poor people to get out of poverty.The targeting efficiency of the urban dibao program is discussed. The present study finds that the poverty rate of households with unemployed workers is much higher than that of households without unemployed workers. The urban dibao program is helpful in reducing poverty rates, but it does not reduce poverty rates too much. The government should place emphasis on helping laid-off and unemployed workers to become reemployed. The most urgent problem for the dibao program is improving the efficiency of targeting.

  6. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  7. A risk explicit interval linear programming model for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization in the Lake Fuxian watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Kai; Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of "low risk and high return efficiency" in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management. PMID:24191144

  8. Satellite evidence for significant biophysical consequences of the "Grain for Green" Program on the Loess Plateau in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    2014-12-01

    Afforestation has been implemented worldwide as regional and national policies to address environmental problems and to improve ecosystem services. China's central government launched the "Grain for Green" Program (GGP) in 1999 to increase forest cover and to control soil erosion by converting agricultural lands on steep slopes to forests and grasslands. Here a variety of satellite data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer were used to assess the biophysical consequences of the GGP for the Loess Plateau, the pilot region of the program. The average tree cover of the plateau substantially increased because of the GGP, with a relative increase of 41.0%. The GGP led to significant increases in enhanced vegetation index (EVI), leaf area index, and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by canopies. The increase in forest productivity as approximated by EVI was not driven by elevated air temperature, changing precipitation, or rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Moreover, the afforestation significantly reduced surface albedo, leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming effect on the climate. The GGP also led to a significant decline in daytime land surface temperature and exerted a cooling effect on the climate. The GGP therefore has significant biophysical consequences by altering carbon cycling, hydrologic processes, and surface energy exchange and has significant feedbacks to the regional climate. The net radiative forcing on the climate depends on the offsetting of the negative forcing from carbon sequestration and higher evapotranspiration and the positive forcing from lower albedo.

  9. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  10. An inexact two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management in Nansihu Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Li, W; Li, J B; Li, Y F

    2013-09-30

    In this study, an inexact two-stage water resources management model was developed for multi-regional water resources planning in the Nansihu lake Basin, China. Four planning districts, four water users, and five water sources were considered in the optimization model, with net system benefit, recourse cost, water supply cost, and wastewater treatment cost being analyzed. Methods of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and two-stage stochastic programming (TSP) were incorporated into the model to tackle uncertainties described by both interval values and probability distributions. A number of scenarios corresponding to different river inflow levels were examined, and the results indicated that different inflow levels could lead to different water allocation schemes with varied system benefit and system-failure risk. In general, the developed model can provide an effective linkage between economic benefits and the associated penalties attributed to the violation of predefined policies. The modeling results were valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing water allocation schemes within a complicated water resources system under uncertainty. PMID:23712035

  11. An inexact chance-constrained programming model for water quality management in Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y L; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Li, Y F; Chen, L R

    2011-04-15

    In this study, an inexact-chance-constrained water quality management (ICC-WQM) model is developed for planning regional environmental management under uncertainty. This method is based on an integration of interval linear programming (ILP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) techniques. ICC-WQM allows uncertainties presented as both probability distributions and interval values to be incorporated within a general optimization framework. Complexities in environmental management systems can be systematically reflected, thus applicability of the modeling process can be highly enhanced. The developed method is applied to planning chemical-industry development in Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violation have been obtained. They can be used for generating decision alternatives and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various system-reliability constraints of water environmental capacity of pollutant. Tradeoffs between system benefits and constraint-violation risks can also be tackled. They are helpful for supporting (a) decision of wastewater discharge and government investment, (b) formulation of local policies regarding water consumption, economic development and industry structure, and (c) analysis of interactions among economic benefits, system reliability and pollutant discharges. PMID:21353690

  12. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China – Myanmar border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China. PMID:26785944

  13. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP): First Step to Understand the Deepest Ocean in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Peng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The hadal zone (depths greater than 6000 m), comprising mostly deep trenches on Earth, represents the largest poorly understood and the most mysterious habitat on Earth. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP), the first Chinese deep-sea program focusing primarily on the hadal zones, was financially supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences in April, 2014. The objective of this program is to explore and understand of the deepest environments and their ecosystems on Earth, in combination with the development of hadal technology. The main research interests of this program are to determine (i) the community structure, ecological function, and evolution of the hadal communities, (ii) the environmental features and biogeochemical processes of hadal zones, (iii) the impact of deep-sea current and tectonic activity on hadal fauna, and (iv) the geological evolution of hadal zones. Meanwhile, a great effort will be made for technological developments to access the extreme depths. Several hadal equipments (e.g. free-fall imaging lander, glider, deep mooring, animal trap, sediment trap, chemical sensor, and seismometer) will be developed to improve the capability of hadal exploration. Renewed interest in the deep trenches combined with technological advances will create new opportunities to explore and understand the deepest environment on earth.

  14. Geographic inequity in a decentralized anti-poverty program : a case study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The central governments of many developing countries have chosen to decentralize their anti-poverty programs, in the expectation that local agents are better informed about local needs. The paper shows that this potential advantage of decentralized eligibility criteria can come at a large cost, to the extent that the induced geographic inequities undermine performance in reaching the incom...

  15. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (6) Evaluation of a Classroom-based Physical Activity Promotion Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI-LING LIU; XIAO-QI HU; GUAN-SHENG MA; ZHAO-HUI CUI; YONG-PING PAN; SU-YING CHANG; WEN-HUA ZHAO; CHUN-MING CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of Happy 10 program on the promotion of physical activity, physical growth and development of primary-school students, and on obesity control and prevention. Methods Two similar primary schools from one district of Beijing, China were selected, one as an intervention school and the other as a control school. Happy 10program was implemented at least once every school day in the intervention school for two semesters, whereas no intervention was adopted in the control school. The information on energy expenditure and duration of physical activity was collected by a validated 7-day physical activity questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained investigators following the standardized procedure. Energy expenditure and intensity of each Happy 10 session was measured by a physical activity monitor. Results The average energy expenditure and duration of total physical activity per day among students in the intervention school increased significantly from 15.0 to 18.2 kcal/kg, and 2.8 to 3.3 h respectively, whereas the figures significantly decreased in the control school. There was a significant difference in change of weight and BMI between girls in the intervention and control school (2.4 kg vs 4.6 kg, -0.47 kg/m2 vs 0.66 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the intervention school decreased by 0.4%-5.6%, as compared to the increase by 0.6%-4.5% in the control school. The average energy expenditure and intensity per 10-minute session ranged from 25.0-35.1 kcal, 4.8-6.2 kcal/kg/h respectively in grades 1-5.Conclusion Happy 10 program provides a useful strategy to promote physical activity among school children and also plays a positive role in building up physical growth and development of girls.

  16. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on October 26 - 31, 2009 in Xi'an, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 54, in which 18 from Japan, 35 from China, and 1 from USA. And this seminar is an extension of the last two seminars that were held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China, and on October 6 - 12, 2007 in Dunhuang, China. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of those processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties. Because of the diversity of the subject, it is desirable to investigate them by international collaboration groups. The present seminar may contribute to realize the above stated aim; especially it has given an opportunity for the collaborative workers to illustrate their achievements. This seminar summarizes the collaborative researches for the last decade and propose the issues for the future prospect. The 30 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on laser plasma and high energy density physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JSPS-CAS Core University program seminar on “Laser Plasma and High Energy Density Physics” was held in Xuhui Campus of Shanghai Jiao Tong University on October 14-16, 2010. 10 Japanese invited talks were presented while the total of 18 invited talks were given. This seminar was combined with 2nd China National Symposium on High Energy Density Physics, and another 27 oral talks and 26 posters were presented for this symposium. Totally over 90 participants including many young graduate students also attended the seminar. This workshop planned as a final in this ten years' collaboration between China and Japan. The workshop was originally planned to promote communications with young Chinese scientists and graduate students and Japanese scientists as well as Chinese scientists. Many cutting edge physics were presented from both countries and the collaboration through the JSPS-CAS Core University program was summarized by Prof. K. A. Tanaka and Prof. S. Zhu. (author)

  18. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%. PMID:10928356

  19. Land cover and landscape changes in Shaanxi Province during China's Grain for Green Program (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; López-Carr, David; Liang, Xiao-ying

    2015-10-01

    This study examines landscape changes in the context of China's national Grain for Green (GFG) policy, one of the world's largest "payment for environmental/ecosystem services" (PES) programs. We explored landscape structures and dynamics between 2000 and 2010 in Shaanxi Province, the Chinese province with the greatest amount of cropland conversion and reforestation in recent decades. We used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)-derived data and landscape metrics for six land cover classes to determine (1) the major land cover changes during enforcement of the policy, (2) the spatial and temporal variations in these changes, and (3) the effects of land cover changes on landscape structure and dynamics. The results suggested that provincial-level land cover changes modestly reflected the goals of the GFG. Over the 10-year study period, the forest and grassland coverages expanded from 95,737.9 to 97,017.4 km(2) and from 37,235.9 to 40,613.1 km(2), respectively, while the cropland coverage decreased from 59,222.8 to 54,007.6 km(2). The conversion direction differed regionally: the targeted croplands in Shanbei, namely, types III and IV, were mainly transformed into grassland while those in Shannan were mainly transformed into forestland. Reforestation was associated with increased inter-landscape aggregation and connection. Despite this large-scale reforestation trend, we found notable and significant differences in the land cover changes at the subprovincial level. PMID:26407858

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a national neonatal hearing screening program in China: conditions for the scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyan Gai Tobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Health recommended scale-up of routine neonatal hearing screening - previously performed primarily only in select urban hospitals - throughout the entire country. METHODS: A decision analytical model for a simulated population of all live births in china was developed to compare the costs and health effects of five mutually exclusive interventions: 1 universal screening using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE and Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR; 2 universal OAE; 3 targeted OAE and AABR; 4 targeted OAE; and 5 no screening. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs were calculated for health effects. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Based on the cost-effectiveness and potential health outcomes, the optimal path for scale-up would be to start with targeted OAE and then expand to universal OAE and universal OAE plus AABR. Accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services significantly affect decision of the options. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, to achieve cost-effectiveness and best health outcomes of the NHS program, the accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services should be expanded to reach a larger population. The results are thus expected to be of particular benefit in terms of the 'rolling out' of the national plan.

  1. An effective Australian-Chinese peer education program on HIV/AIDS/STDs for university students in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ IntroductionCurrently, there are at least 850,000 people living with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China. Among them 16-29 years old account for about 65%. According to the Chinese health authorities, if the preventive measures are not effective, the figure could reach as many as 10 million by the year 2010[1]. Since there are currently no cure or vaccines for HIV/AIDS, changing people's high-risk behaviors is the main approach that is taken to slow down the epidemic. This can be done through effective HIV/AIDS education, especially for young people. In 1997, a 4-year adolescent HIV/AIDS peer education program was introduced to in Beijing and Shanghai, which was based on a successful Australian model developed by Professor Roger Short, in which senior medical students were trained and used as peer educators to teach their junior peers about HIV/AIDS[2].

  2. University of Petroleum, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The University of Petroleum, China, sponsored and supervised by China National Petroleum Corporation,isone of the State key universities,The university provides mainly engineering programs,but also includes programs in science and management.Both soft and hard sciences are taught here.

  3. Are biomedical exchange programs inside The People's Republic of China feasible: report of a six-month study at Hubei Provincial Medical College.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, G. E.; Cohen, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Between November 1979 and April 1980 we lived at Hubei Provincial Medical College (HPMC) in Wuchang, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China, in order to organize an exchange program on behalf of the Infectious Disease Section at Yale University School of Medicine. HPMC consists of a medical college, two affiliated Western-style medical hospitals, and a dental hospital. This institution and the living and working conditions arranged on our behalf are described. Ultimately our work centered...

  4. Improving China's antiretroviral treatment program: assessing current and future performance using the principals of ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Fu-jie; Naomi Juniper; WU Zun-you

    2009-01-01

    @@ The global commitment to providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in low-income countries has raised hope that the increasing momentum in the fight against the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic will be sufficient to control it. However, improved availability of subsidized antiretroviral (ARV) treatments in low-income countries raises complex ethical issues.1,2 In many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment far exceeds the supply of ARV medication. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological,ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria,Healthcare systems and funding in low-income countries are limited, requiring a step-by-step aipproach to scalingup programs to reach their stated aims.

  5. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  6. JSPS-CAS core university program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on October 8 - 12, 2007 in Dunhuang, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 41, in which 12 from Japan, 25 from China, and 4 from EU. And this seminar is an extension of the last seminar that was held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of such processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties, which is desirable to be investigated by international collaboration groups. The present seminar constitutes one of such activities to realize the above stated aim; especially it has given an opportunity for the collaborative workers to illustrate their achievements. The 32 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Can Online MBA Programs Allow Professional Working Mothers to Balance Work, Family, and Career Progression? A Case Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kibelloh, Mboni; Bao, Yukun

    2014-01-01

    Career progression is a general concern of professional working mothers in China. The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study of Chinese professional working mothers that explored the perceptions of online Master's of Business Administration (MBA) programmes as a tool for career progression for working mothers balancing work and family in China. The objective was to examine existing work-family and career progression conflicts, the perceived usefulness of online MBA in balancin...

  8. I Am Broadcasting From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since January 25,every morning from7 to 8 a.m.,listeners to China Radio International(CRI),one of China's national radio stations,have been able to hear a new voice hosting a news program called The Beijing Hour,a program with lively news and current affairs in China as well as around the world.The host was the focus of great attention even before she showed up for the program because of her career background.

  9. The Effect of Payments for Ecosystem Services Programs on the Relationship of Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy among Rural Communities in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The security and quality of livelihoods for peasant households is the core issue for rural areas in China. A stable livelihood contributes to the harmonious development of related polices, poverty eradication and sustainable use of resources. In Qinghe County, located in the extremely arid zone of Northwest China, 238 validated surveys were conducted. The analysis focuses on the importance of livelihood capitals for the selection of on- or off-farm livelihood strategies among beneficiaries of different kinds of ecological compensation packages. The goal is to see if different groups of beneficiaries are better able to pursue off-farm livelihoods activity, which reduces pressure on the resource base, and whether specific capitals are especially effective in helping households pursue off-farm livelihoods, which benefits their well-being. The findings show that proportionally more herdsmen (who participated in a pastureland rehabilitation program were able to pursue off-farm livelihoods than farmers (who participated in the cultivated land reforestation program, and especially agro-pastoralists (who participated in both programs. Further, models of livelihood strategy show that human and financial capitals facilitate off-farm livelihoods, while productive capital tends to lead to on-farm livelihoods. These findings indicate that there is no single determinant of livelihood strategy, and future policies must consciously differentiate among beneficiaries to reach the desired result.

  10. Simulation of runoff and nutrient export from a typical small watershed in China using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofu; Liu, Hongyu; Luo, Chuan; Li, Yan; Li, Hengpeng; Pan, Jianjun; Jiang, Xiaosan; Zhou, Quansuo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-05-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), which is a hydrological and water-quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, was employed to simulate runoff and nutrient export from a typical small watershed in a hilly eastern monsoon region of China. First, a parameter sensitivity analysis was performed to assess how changes in the model parameters affect runoff and nutrient export. Next, the model was calibrated and validated using measured runoff and nutrient concentration data. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (E NS ) values of the yearly runoff were 0.87 and 0.69 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. For storms runoff events, the E NS values were 0.93 for the calibration period and 0.47 for the validation period. Antecedent precipitation and soil moisture conditions can affect the simulation accuracy of storm event flow. The E NS values for the total nitrogen (TN) export were 0.58 for the calibration period and 0.51 for the validation period. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the observed and simulated TN concentrations were 0.84 for the calibration period and 0.74 for the validation period. For phosphorus export, the E NS values were 0.89 for the calibration period and 0.88 for the validation period. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the observed and simulated orthophosphate concentrations were 0.96 and 0.94 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The nutrient simulation results are generally satisfactory even though the parameter-lumped HSPF model cannot represent the effects of the spatial pattern of land cover on nutrient export. The model parameters obtained in this study could serve as reference values for applying the model to similar regions. In addition, HSPF can properly describe the characteristics of water quantity and quality processes in this area. After adjustment, calibration, and validation of the parameters, the HSPF

  11. A Virtual Reconstruction Methodology for Archaeological Heritage in East Asia – Practical Experience from the Re-relic Program in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is as much abundance of archaeological heritage in East Asia as there is diversity in the methodology for its reconstruction and representation. The Re-relic program in China recognizes the uniqueness of archaeological heritage in East Asia and has developed a tailored virtual reconstruction methodology that is both scientifically robust and popular for public interpretation. The theoretical consideration and field experience over the years shall contribute to the global understanding of the value and technique in virtual reconstruction, while testifying to the very principles of Seville Charter.

  12. Protective immune barrier against hepatitis B is needed in individuals born before infant HBV vaccination program in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shigui Yang; Chengbo Yu; Ping Chen; Min Deng; Qing Cao; Yiping Li; Jingjing Ren; Kaijin Xu; Jun Yao; Tiansheng Xie; Chencheng Wang; Yuanxia Cui; Cheng Ding; Guo Tian; Bing Wang

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B prevalence rate in adults is still at a high to intermediate level in China. Our purpose was to explore the incidence rate and protective immune barrier against hepatitis B in adults in China. A sample of 317961 participants was multi-screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) in a large-scale cohort of the National Hepatitis B Demonstration Project. A total of 5401 persons were newly-infected, representing an incidence rate of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77–0.85) per 100 person-ye...

  13. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  14. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  15. HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among female sex workers before and after implementation of harm reduction programs in a high drug-using area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China. DESIGN: Before and after harm reduction program study. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs before and after harm reduction programs were launched in Xichang city, Sichuan province. The first and second cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Temporal changes in odds of HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression while controlling for socio-demographics. RESULTS: The 2004 and 2010 cross-sectional surveys recruited 343 and 404 FSWs, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, the odds of syphilis infection decreased by 35% and was of borderline statistical significance (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41-1.03, while odds of HIV infection rose, but not significantly (AOR: 4.12, 95% CI: 0.76-22.45. Although odds of unprotected sex with primary sex partners did not significantly change over time (AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61-1.50, odds of unprotected sex with clients declined significantly and remarkably (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09-0.21. Notably, the odds of reporting ≥10 new sex partners in the previous month increased by 37% (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.98-1.90. CONCLUSIONS: Harm reduction strategies may be an effective means of reducing unprotected sex with clients among FSWs. Future research is needed to better target both FSWs and IDUs and interrupt bridging networks for HIV transmission in high drug-using areas of China.

  16. A comparative analysis of information literacy curriculum standards in the educational programs of high schools in China and in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua; WU; Jing; GUO; Jing; SUN

    2011-01-01

    Our study aims to take a closer look at China’s current information literacy(IL)program standards at secondary schools and to analyze their level of success and/or failures in a comparative way with those of the United States in terms of fulfilling their each other’s mission-oriented mandates.Our research findings show that China’s current IL standards of high schools contain a disproportionate emphasis on information technology(IT).Moreover,the stipulations of these IL standards are narrowly construed and without being solidly grounded on a broad and comprehensive educational perspective.We also suggest that there are two underlying causes for this set of unsound IL standards in China.Firstly,there is a lack of collaboration between two major competing forces engaged in the curricular development and research of IL in China:Those professionals in educational IT discipline vis-à-vis those in Library and Information Science.Secondly,library professionals have a very limited influence on major socio-cultural policies,even at their own institutions.As a result,this paper recommends the following three possible measures,which may help remedy this situation strategically:1)Establishing a set of new IL curriculum standards based on an IL-centered educational perspective;2)establishing a teacher-librarian’s training program to promote school librarians’role in IL education;and 3)strengthening the research and development of an online IL education program and an accompanied evaluation mechanism.

  17. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  18. The Impact of Environmental Policy on Household Income and Activity Choice: Evidence from Sandstorm Source Control Program in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Can

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses household data to assess the near-term impact of the program on incomes and activity choices of rural households in areas where the sandstorm control program (Beijing and Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Program) was implemented. Central to our analysis is a unique panel survey conducted by the State Forestry Administration covering years from 1998 to 2003 in 17 counties in three Northern provinces Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia (autonomous region). The essential feature of...

  19. Protective immune barrier against hepatitis B is needed in individuals born before infant HBV vaccination program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shigui; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Deng, Min; Cao, Qing; Li, Yiping; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kaijin; Yao, Jun; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Tian, Guo; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B prevalence rate in adults is still at a high to intermediate level in China. Our purpose was to explore the incidence rate and protective immune barrier against hepatitis B in adults in China. A sample of 317961 participants was multi-screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) in a large-scale cohort of the National Hepatitis B Demonstration Project. A total of 5401 persons were newly-infected, representing an incidence rate of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) per 100 person-years after adjusted by gender and age. History of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, birth prior to 1992, coastal residence, family history of HBV, and migrant worker status were significantly associated with higher incidence, while HBV vaccination and greater exercise with lower incidence. The hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) positive rate was negatively correlated with the incidence rate of hepatitis B (r = -0.826). Linear fitting yielded an incidence rate of 1.23 plus 0.02 multiplied by HBsAb positive rate. The study firstly identified the HBsAg incidence rate, which was reduced to 0.1 per 100 person-years after vaccination coverage of about 64%. The protective immune barrier against hepatitis B needs to be established in individuals born prior to the advent of infant HBV vaccination. PMID:26655735

  20. Educational Equality or Social Mobility: The Value Conflict between Preservice Teachers and the Free Teacher Education Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Manman

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the Chinese government piloted the Free Teacher Education (FTE) program in the top normal universities with the aim to enlist high-quality young graduates to join the teaching profession and to improve education in underdeveloped rural regions. However, a conflict has arisen as FTE students enrolled in the program are reluctant to work in…

  1. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  2. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...

  3. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  4. New Five-Year Program and Progress of China's Human Rights Cause——A study of the guidelines set by the Fifth Plenary Session of the Seventeenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JUNRU

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Proposal for the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for China's Economic and Social Development (2011-2015)(hereinafter referred to as the "Proposed Plan" for short) provides a complete range of guidelines for China's immediate and long-term development.

  5. Genetic structure and diversity of parental cultivars involved in China mainland sugarcane breeding programs as inferred from DNA microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 1,400 Saccharum accessions of worldwide origin were available in the Chinese sugarcane breeding program, but the genetic diversity and population structure of these accessions has not been fully investigated. In this study, 96 proven important parental accessions of various geographical or...

  6. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  7. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges to the......“Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power and...

  8. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  9. 中国首个预防瑞复美®胎儿暴露的风险最小化项目%First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹骁靖; 李敏; 邹建军; BWIRERobert; LONDONCalvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the design, implementation, and the outcome from the first eighteen months of the Celgene product Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China project, RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China. Methods RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China was developed based on the global principles and requirements of Celgene RMP, and the unique medical practices in China. RevCare consists of 3 core elements. Meanwhile, i-access First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China, a IT system, has been developed to serve as the database for RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China , and also contributes to the compliance control of the program. Results Prescribers and pharmacists are key players in the program. The impact on their daily work brought by RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China is considered as reasonable. The compliance rate of RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China is high during the first eighteen months of implementation since the launch of Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China and there is no report of pregnancy related to the use of the drug. It suggests the effectiveness of the program in controlling the risk of Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China fetal exposure. Conclusion RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China, the first PPP requires significant interaction and collaboration between Celgene with prescribers and pharmacists. The first eighteen months of implementation, general acceptance by the healthcare

  10. Inter-hemispheric comparisons of geospace environment in the polar regionsA proposed cooperative research program between China and Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese Zhongshan Station in Antarctica and the stations in Svalbard (Auroral station at Longyearbyen and NP station at Ny-lesund) are closely magnetic conjugate. All of them are equipped similar measurement instruments dealing with upper atmospheric physics. Therefore, there is a good reason to conduct a cooperative research program between China and Norway to do the inter-hemispheric comparisons of geospace environment in the polar regions. It will make significant contribution to further understanding of the coupled magnetosphere-ionsphere system. The scientific aims of the cooperative project are: to experimentally verify the modeled complicated conjugate relationship between Zhongshan Station in the Antarctic and Svalbard in the Arctic. To derive knowledge from the conjugate characteristics of auroral formations, ionospheric features and space plasma waves in the polar regions, which in turn will lead to better understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. The proposed research contents, research methods and experimental techniques are discussed, and the manners of the cooperative research are suggested in the paper.

  11. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-03-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species (Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  12. Modeling daily reference ET in the karst area of northwest Guangxi (China) using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fu, Zhi-yong; Chen, Hong-song; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear complexity is a characteristic of hydrologic processes. Using fewer model parameters is recommended to reduce error. This study investigates, and compares, the ability of gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in modeling ET0 by using fewer meteorological parameters in the karst area of northwest Guangxi province, China. Over a 5-year period (2008-2012), meteorological data consisting of maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were collected from four weather stations: BaiSe, DuAn, HeChi, and RongAn. The ET0 calculated by the FAO-56 PM equation was used as a reference to evaluate results for GEP, ANN, and Hargreaves models. The coefficient of determination (R 2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used as statistical indicators. Evaluations revealed that GEP, and ANN, can be used to successfully model ET0. In most cases, when using the same input variables, ANN models were superior to GEP. We then established ET0 equations with fewer parameters under various conditions. GEP can produce simple explicit mathematical formulations which are easier to use than the ANN models.

  13. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  14. An Inexact Mix-Integer Two-Stage Linear Programming Model for Supporting the Management of a Low-Carbon Energy System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Cai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In view of the great contribution of coal-fired units to CO2 emissions, the coupled coal and power system with consideration of CO2 mitigation is a typical sub-system of the highly emitting Chinese energy system for low-carbon studies. In this study, an inexact mix-integer two-stage programming (IMITSP model for the management of low-carbon energy systems was developed based on the integration of multiple inexact programming techniques. Uncertainties and complexities related to the carbon mitigation issues in the coupled coal and power system can be effectively reflected and dealt with in this model. An optimal CO2 mitigation strategy associated with stochastic power-generation demand under specific CO2 mitigation targets could be obtained. Dynamic analysis of capacity expansion, facility improvement, coal selection, as well as coal blending within a multi-period and multi-option context could be facilitated. The developed IMITSP model was applied to a semi-hypothetical case of long-term coupled management of coal and power within a low-carbon energy system in north China. The generated decision alternatives could help decision makers identify desired strategies related to coal production and allocation, CO2 emission mitigation, as well as facility capacity upgrade and expansion under various social-economic, ecological, environmental and system-reliability constraints. It could also provide interval solutions with a minimized system cost, a maximized system reliability and a maximized power-generation demand security. Moreover, the developed model could provide an in-depth insight into various CO2 mitigation technologies and the associated environmental and economic implications under a given reduction target. Tradeoffs among system costs, energy security and CO2 emission reduction could be analyzed.

  15. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  16. Family planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, A B

    1976-10-01

    The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575

  17. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  18. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  19. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  20. China's satellite communications discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  1. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  2. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  3. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  4. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  5. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  6. South China Sea surface water evolution over the last 12 Myr: A south-north comparison from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1143 and 1146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Wang, Jiliang; Huang, Baoqi; Li, Qianyu; Jian, Zhimin; Zhao, Quanhong; Su, Xin; Wang, Pinxian

    2004-03-01

    Planktonic foraminifera (PF) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1143 and 1146 in the southern and northern South China Sea (SCS), respectively, were quantitatively analyzed in order to reconstruct the sea-surface environment over the last 12 Myr. The observed decrease in deep-dwelling PF species after ˜10 Ma at both sites is interpreted to reflect a depression of the upper water thermocline, corresponding to the closure of the Indonesian Seaway around 11-9 Ma. This upper water column structure implies the intensification of equatorial Pacific warm currents and the initial formation of the western Pacific "warm pool" (WPWP) during the early Late Miocene. The consistent pattern of south-north thermocline evolution and the synchronous disappearance of Globoquadrina dehiscens (9.8 Ma) at both Sites 1143 and 1146 together imply that the entire SCS was likely under the influence of the newly developed WPWP at ˜10 Ma. After ˜8 Ma, sea-surface temperatures and thermocline variations evolved differently between the southern and northern SCS. The total deep-dwelling PF fauna at Site 1143 decreased gradually in abundance from 6.6 to 2 Ma, indicating a deepening of the thermocline in the southern SCS. In contrast, deep-dwelling PF species increased in abundance from 3.1 to 2 Ma at Site 1146, reflecting a shoaling of the thermocline in the northern SCS. This south-north contrast reflects two major environmental regimes: (1) the southern SCS, which has mainly been under the influence of the WPWP since the late Late Miocene, and (2) the northern SCS, where effects of the east Asian winter monsoon have prevailed, especially since the Late Pliocene. Estimate of past sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) at Site 1143 suggests a relatively stable and warm environment in the southern SCS since about 2.5 Ma, with an increased influence of warm subsurface waters after the mid-Pleistocene transition (1.2-0.9 Ma). In the northern SCS, however, a gradual decrease in winter SST recorded

  7. Mediation of short and longer term effects of an intervention program to enhance resilience in immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Xiaonan eYu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few clinical trials report on the active intervention components that result in outcome changes, although this is relevant to further improving efficacy and adapting effective programs to other populations. This paper presents follow-up analyses of a randomized controlled trial to enhance adaptation by increasing knowledge and personal resilience in two separate brief interventions with immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong (Yu et al., 2014b. The present paper extends our previous one by reporting on the longer term effect of the interventions on personal resilience, and examining whether the Resilience intervention worked as designed to enhance personal resilience. The four-session intervention targeted at self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting. In this randomized controlled trial, 220 immigrants were randomly allocated to three arms: Resilience, Information (an active control arm, and Control arms. Participants completed measures of the four active components (self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Personal resilience was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three- and six-month follow-ups. The results showed that the Resilience arm had greater increases in the four active components post-intervention. Changes in each of the four active components at the post-intervention assessment mediated enhanced personal resilience at the three-month follow-up in the Resilience arm. Changes in self-efficacy and goal setting showed the largest effect size, and altruism showed the smallest. The arm effects of the Resilience intervention on enhanced personal resilience at the six-month follow-up were mediated by increases of personal resilience post-intervention (Resilience versus Control and at the three-month follow-up (Resilience versus Information. These findings showed that these four active components were all mediators in this Resilience

  8. Government funded renewable energy innovation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid development of the economy, China is facing pressures caused by traditional energy deficiency and environmental pollution in recent years, which has forced the Chinese government to start to pay attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy (RE). This article, based on data and statistics available up to 2008, studies features of China's RE technology innovation and problems thereof. It finds that national science and technology programs are the main aspect of China's RE technology innovation, and most of R and D funds for the RE technology come from China's three main national programs. Besides, the overall expenditures on RE technology innovation constitute only a small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding and seem not enough. This paper also finds that, compared with research and development stages of RE technology, the demonstration and diffusion of RE technology in China are given less attention and thus are relatively less sufficient. Furthermore, influenced by China's traditional scientific research system, there appears lack of sufficient incentives and opportunities for private sectors to fully participate in RE technology innovation because most national programs are undertaken by universities or research institutes. - Highlights: ► We study statistically China's renewable energy technology innovation (RETI). ► National science and technology (S and T) programs are the main aspect of China's RETI. ► Most of R and D funds come from China's three main national (S and T) programs. ► The overall expenditure on RETI is small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding. ► The demonstration and diffusion of RETI in China are relatively less sufficient.

  9. Program of Happiness: Changing Poor Mothers’ Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE Program of Happiness is a nationalaction plan aiming to help poormothers in poverty-stricken areas.Itwas jointly launched in February 1995 by theChina Population Welfare Foundation,ChinaFamily Planning Association and thenewspaper,China Population. In China,there are three groups whoneed the most help—women,children and thes

  10. The China Digital Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, G. W.; Q. D. Mu; Chen, Y T

    1994-01-01

    The China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN) program was initiated in May 1983. On October 1, 1986, the CDSN began to distribute the network-day tapes to the research community. On October 22, 1987, the CDSN began full operation. The CDSN are supported by the State Seismological Bureau, People's Republic of China and the United States Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance of the network are taken by the staffs at the 10th Division of the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological...

  11. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  12. Overview of antiretroviral treatment in China: advancement and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ling; LI Tai-sheng

    2011-01-01

    As the severity of the HIV epidemic in China grew, National Free Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Program was announced since 2003. Even though there still were many difficulties, China had obtained great achievements in fighting against HIV.Over 52 000 adult patients had received first-line HAART thus far and the mortality of AIDS in China decreased significantly. This paper presents an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China; the status of national free ART program,the difficulties suffered and the achievements made since the initiation of program and the challenges ahead for continued progress for China. This paper also provides suggestions to overcome these challenges.

  13. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    were avoided during construction activities. Twenty one of the 34 projects had sites within the distribution range of the threatened desert tortoise. NNSA/NSO must comply with the terms and conditions of a permit (called a Biological Opinion) from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) when conducting work in tortoise habitat. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas. No desert tortoises were accidentally injured or killed, nor were any captured or displaced from project sites. One desert tortoise was accidentally killed along a paved road. One site specific re-vegetation plan was submitted this year as required by the desert tortoise habitat re-vegetation plan approved in 2004. This year a total of 1.89 ha (4.69 ac) of tortoise habitat was disturbed. Re-vegetation of habitat at the Bren Tower burn was completed in the spring of 2006. In the summer of 2006, NSTec scientists prepared a Biological Assessment of the security activities that were being conducted at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). NNSA requested a Biological Opinion from FWS in late 2006. Ecosystem mapping and data management in 2006 focused primarily on two tasks: (a) converting hardcopies of about 17 reports (EMAC annual reports and selected topical reports from 1996 to 2003) into electronic versions (Portable Document Format [PDF] files) to facilitate electronic document exchange, rapid retrieval, duplication, and printing, and (b) conducting an annual vegetation survey to determine wildland fire hazards on the NTS. Copies of the PDF documents were sent to DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information website in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Public Reading Facility.

  14. Green Food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    "Green Food" is a Chinese food production innovation, and has been described as "one of the most successful eco-labelling programs in the world" (Giovannucci, 2005, p.12). Green Food provides a "middle way" between chemical and organic farming. China's development of the Green Food concept resolves issues with both chemical and organic agriculture - for the former by offering reduced pesticide use, and for the latter by providing a stepped pathway for conversion from chemical to organic agric...

  15. Deviant fertility in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li

    1992-01-01

    While most Western and Chinese scholars emphasize the success of Chinese family planning programs, this dissertation focuses on fertility behavior which violates family planning regulations in China. The study contributes to a better understanding of the Chinese "deviant" fertility by conceptualizing the phenomenon in a theoretical framework and conducting an empirical investigation of the issue. In this dissertation, the concept of "deviant fertility" is defined as reprodu...

  16. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  17. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  18. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  19. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  20. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  1. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. Nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    large uranium deposit called Julongan deposit of Xiangshan uranium field in Jiangxi province and two medium size deposits named Heshang deposit of Xiangshan field and Xiangyangping deposit of Ziyuan field in Guangxi autonomous region were discovered. Finally the presentation will examine uranium requirements and production. There are plans for production from 10 major uranium deposits, linked to 6 milling and processing centers in China. China is intensifying its exploration and development program; last year, it drilled more than 0.5 million meters in exploration for more uranium resources. Meanwhile, China is increasing its international activities, including the construction of new mines and mills abroad, and direct purchases form the international market. It will outline how the government is developing policies to help meet future requirements of uranium. (author)

  3. Social, economic, political and health system and program determinants of child mortality reduction in China between 1990 and 2006: A systematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lin Feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2006, China reduced its under-five mortality rate (U5MR from 64.6 to 20.6 per 1000 live births and achieved the fourth United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal nine years ahead of target. This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success.

  4. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  5. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  6. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  7. Approaches to antiretroviral therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce L GILLIAM; Robert R REDFIELD

    2005-01-01

    China has recognized the threat of HIV to its population and responded with a national antiretroviral treatment (ART)program. However, high ART failure rates and the spread of resistance within populations are important realities to consider when developing and managing ART programs in China and worldwide. Concepts which will define treatment success and local and national programmatic goals are 1) access to ART, 2) durability of ART at the patient level, 3)scalability of treatment modalities, and the 4) sustainability of the program at the community or national level. In the face of limited resources, China must also consider when to start ARV therapy, which agents to use, when to switch them, and how to treat highly experienced patients with drug resistance. The optimal ARV regimen to start with is changing frequently with the introduction of new agents and the presentation of new data. Currently, a regimen including tenofovir, emtricitabine or lamivudine and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor appears to have optimal characteristics to treat HIV/AIDS in China. However, critical to all of these choices is the evaluation of programs implemented to insure wide scale success. China has wisely begun this process of evaluating the performance of local programs through systematic monitoring and evaluation of treatment outcomes. This will allow regimens and programs that work to be expanded, and programs with high failure rates to be eliminated. In the end,evidence based data supporting treatment strategies will allow China to successfully confront its AIDS epidemic early and prevent its tragic consequences

  8. Choosing the Right Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Given the transient nature of the job market, fewer companies are willing to fund the better quality international or global programs, programs that can clearly add value for those focusing on a career in China. "The connection between the pricing point and the perceived value is missing, even when the same program, quality and degree are twice as much in the US. There is absolutely a disconnection between the local market and the high-end foreign or joint programs," says Ira Cohen, Rutgers International Executive MBA Program China director.

  9. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  10. China's spent nuclear fuel management: Current practices and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although China's nuclear power industry is relatively young and the management of its spent nuclear fuel is not yet a concern, China's commitment to nuclear energy and its rapid pace of development require detailed analyses of its future spent fuel management policies. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy, and to suggest strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program. The study is broken into four sections. The first reviews China's current nuclear fuel cycle program and facilities. The second discusses China's current spent fuel management methods and the storage capability of China's 13 operational nuclear power plants. The third estimates China's total accumulated spent fuel, its required spent fuel storage from present day until 2035, when China expects its first commercialized fast neutron reactors to be operational, and its likely demand for uranium resources. The fourth examines several spent fuel management scenarios for the present period up until 2035; the financial cost and proliferation risk of each scenario is evaluated. The study concludes that China can and should maintain a reprocessing operation to meet its R and D activities before its fast reactor program is further developed. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy.→ This study suggests strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program.→ China will experience no pressure to lessen the burden of spent fuel storage in the next 30 years.→ China should maintain sufficient reprocessing operations to meet its demands for R and D activities.→ China should actively invest on R and D activities of both fuel cycling and fast reactor programs.

  11. Is China ready for its nuclear expansion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's rapid pace of nuclear energy growth is unique, and its impact on the global nuclear market as both a customer and potential future supplier is already tremendous and will continue to expand. It is crucial to understand this energy policy development and its impact on various global areas. Unfortunately, there is relatively limited English-language information available about China's nuclear power industry and its current development. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the Chinese nuclear energy program and policy, reviewing its past, present, likely future developments, as well as to consider potential challenges that deserve further attention. This paper will explore reasons that have caused the existing industry, describe China's nuclear bureaucracy and decision making process to understand how different stakeholders play a role in China's nuclear energy development. This study concludes that China's existing nuclear program and industry, in combination with its current stable economic and political environment, provides a sound foundation for the planned nuclear expansion. However, challenges which are crucial to the success of the nuclear expansion will need to be addressed. - Research Highlights: →This study provides an overview of China's nuclear energy program. →We identify the main stakeholders and potential challenges in the program. →We found there is little doubt that China will meet its 40 GW capacity target by 2020. Safety oversight and an adequately trained workforce are two major challenges to be addressed.

  12. 数字音频技术对我国体育电视节目发展的影响%Influence the development of digital audio technology to sports TV programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅丽娜

    2014-01-01

    电视体育节目在现代生活中,成为人们接受体育信息,了解体育事件的迅速、快捷的重要手段。体育电视事业要健康发展,也需进行一系列的创新,使其更好地为广大受众,为我国的体育事业服务。%TV sports programs in modern life,becomes the people to accept the sports information,an important means to understand the sports event quickly,fast.To the healthy development of sports TV industry,also need to carry out a series of innovations,make it better for the majority of the audience,as China's sports service.

  13. Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules before and after implementation of the universal salt iodization program in mainland China from 1985 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We comprehensively estimated the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules (TNs before and after the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program in mainland China and provided information for creating effective health policies. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases were searched for relevant studies from Jan 1985 to Feb 2014. Data from eligible citations were extracted by two independent reviewers. All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: Eligible articles (N = 31; 4 in English and 27 in Chinese included 52 studies (15 about goiter rates made before 1996 and 14 afterwards, and 23 about TNs. Our meta-analysis suggests a pooled prevalence for goiter before and after 1996 and for TNs of 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8% and 22.7% (95% CI: 18.3%, 27.0%, respectively. Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of goiter was reduced by almost half after 1996 in mainland China, so the USI program was considered beneficial. However, subgroup analysis suggests that both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with goiter. The prevalence of goiter and TNs increased significantly after 2002, suggesting a risk of excessive iodine intake. Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

  14. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  15. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  16. Children's Rights Protection Enters New Stage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HUAWEN

    2012-01-01

    The State Council of China issued the National Program on the Development of Children (2011-2020) on July 30,2011,outlining new targets and new measures by the government in promoting undertakings concerning children.The new program marks the start of a new era of children's rights protection in China.

  17. China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Under the joint auspices of the Ministry of Sciences & Technology (MOST) and China Association for Science & Technology, more than 1,600 Chinese scholars including CAS and CAE members, chief scientists of the National Basic Research Program (dubbed 973 Program) and directors of national key labs, have voted for China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007.

  18. The Latest Development of AP Program and Its Inspiration to China%美国大学先修课程的最新发展及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘姬新; 王海表

    2015-01-01

    American Advanced Placement (AP) is a program administered by the College Board,which offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students. Placement test scores are generally acknowledged as important college admission criteria and American universities often grant corresponding course credits to students who obtain high scores on the examinations. The AP Program prepares high school students to make a successful transition to higher education and their participation increases the likelihood to be admitted to the university and receive a college degree. AP program in China is still at its infant stage. It is essential to create a national organization to improve the coordination among AP Curricula,AP instructors, AP students and AP teaching mode. The successful experience of the United States will help to promote the development of AP program in China and the close collaboration between universities and high schools.%美国大学先修课程是为高中学生开设的具有大学学业水准的课程,由美国大学理事会统一管理、编制课程、组织考试. 美国的大学普遍承认先修课程考试成绩,将之作为大学录取的重要参考标准,并授予大学相应课程的学分. 先修课程增强了高中与大学的教学衔接,提高了高中学生的大学入学率,提升了学生的大学毕业率. 我国先修课程在课程设置、教学模式、师资配备、学生选修资格等方面还处在初创阶段,应当借鉴美国的成功经验,成立全国统一的先修课程管理机构,发挥大学和高中在先修课程建设中的作用,推进先修课程在我国的发展.

  19. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  20. Traveling Uncharted Waters: The Exchange of Government Information between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program established between the United States and China for exchange of government publications through their national libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Library of China. Challenges to the program, including the shift to electronic formats in the United States and government Internet censorship in China, are…

  1. The health physics programs in low-level radioactive waste management at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the health physics programs in low-level radioactive management is to ensure radiation safety for personnel and environment of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and also for the general public surrounding INER. In view of the above, the Health Physics programs in low-level radioactive waste management are divided into three sub-programs: the radiation control program, the environmental survey and bioassay program, and the radiation dosimetry supporting program. The general guidelines, responsibilities, and performance of these programs will be discussed in this paper in the following order. The responsibility of radiation control group is to conduct area monitoring and radiation surveillance for the radioactive waste treatment workers. It includes the control of radiation field level of the working area, servicing personnel dosimeters, instruction on radiation safety, and handling of radiation accidents. The responsibility of the environmental survey and bioassay group is to perform environmental surveys and bioassays. Environmental gamma monitoring stations were installed both on-site and off-site at INER. For bioassays, urine samples are taken from radioactive waste treatment workers, and for internal contamination checks of workers, total body counting systems are being used. The main responsibility of the radiation dosimetry group is to provide radiation dosimetrical support to the radiation control group and the environmental survey and bioassay group. Some typical work of the radiation dosimetry group is the qualitative assay and quantitative determination of radioactive samples, and calibration of dosimeters and survey meters

  2. Facets of Software Development Computer Science & Programming,Engineering & Management In fond Memory of Professor Wu Yunzeng,Peking University,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DinesBjner

    1989-01-01

    Professor Wu Yunzeng epitomiazed ancient and nodern Chinese culture,Professor Wu Yunzeng was an eminent computer scientist.logician and philosopher,professor Wu Yunzeng won innumerable friends for China.We are many,in the West,who were very fond of him.his visit to Denmark made positive,and lasting impressions,we found,also ,that professor Wu Yunzeng introduced into chinese scholarly life very commendable features,The wqay he guided his students and colleagues was an example to be followed by us all.Professor Wu Yunzeng was profoundly engaged in the mathematical (logic and other)foundations of the computation sciences,in the didactics of that field,and in the broader,philosophical issues at stake when pursuing scientific and engineering work in computation.In this testimonial allow me to speculate on a context in which our many,individual contributions to the computation sciences may fit into practical life.

  3. Epidemiological trends and characteristics of Japanese encephalitis changed based on the vaccination program between 1960 and 2013 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liang, Nengxiu; Tan, Yi; Xie, Zhichun

    2016-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe kinds of viral encephalitis and is prevalent in Asia and the Western Pacific. In China, JE was first reported in the 1940s and became the main cause of viral encephalitis, including in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 1951, JE was included in the Chinese mandatory disease reporting system. In the pre-vaccine era of the 1960s and 1970s, the incidence of JE continued to rise without any vaccine supply. Since JE vaccines became available in the late 1970s (MBD) and 1989 (LAV-SA-14-14-2), and as JE vaccine became freely available to patients beginning in 2008, the incidence of JE has declined significantly. Despite these gains, outbreaks continue to occur among children in rural and suburban areas. Strengthening vaccine delivery models and improving swine vaccine production are important in order to sustain continuous declines in the incidence of JE in Guangxi. PMID:26972041

  4. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  5. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  6. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  7. Designed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's embrace ofthe automobile over the past decade has been staggering.A total of 13.6 million vehicles were sold in China in 2009,when China overtook the United States as world's largest car market.

  8. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  9. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  10. Changing Forestry Policy by Integrating Water Aspects into Forest/Vegetation Restoration in Dryland Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; Mike Bonell; Karl-Heinz Feger; YU Pengtao; XIONG Wei; XU Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Restoration forestry (forest rehabilitation) or re-vegetation is one effective measure to solve environmental problems, notably soil erosion. It may be further stimulated by the Clean Development Mechanism for carbon sequestration. However, there is an intensive and on-going debate about the adverse effects arising from afforestation in dryland areas, such as soil drying up which may cause further damage to the success of forest restoration, and the water yield reduction from watershed which may harm the regional development. On other hand, some preliminary studies showed a possibility that these adverse effects may be diminished more or less by properly designing the system structure and spatial distribution of forest/vegetation in a watershed. However, it is urgent to develop an evidence-based and sustainable new forestry policy for harmonizing forest-water interrelation. As a leading country in afforestation, China is beginning to develop a more trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral forestry policy for harmonizing forestry development with water management. The main points of the changing new forestry policy should include: (1) Establishing a regional development strategy focusing on harmonized forest-water relations; (2) Taking forest-water interactions as an important part of evaluation; (3) Reducing the 'eco-water' quota of forests through technical advancement; (4) Developing and extending water-adaptive forest management practices; (S) Strengthening forest ecohydrological research and decision support ability.

  11. A Review of Volcano Monitoring Program in China%中国活动火山监测进展回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建东

    2011-01-01

    The National Volcano Monitoring Network (NVMN), which was established in 2006 and is made up by four provincial volcano centers, is the headcounter of the active volcano monitoring and research of China. The National Volcano Monitoring Network Center is currently monitoring six active volcanoes in China, Changbaishan Tianchi volcano and Longgang volcano in the Jilin province, Wudalianchi volcano and Jingbohu volcano in the Hei-longjiang province, Tengchong volcano in the Yunnan province, and Qiongbei volcano in the Hainan province. The major task of the National Volcano Monitoring Network Center includes: to observe the six active volcanoes, manage observation data management, report annual situation of volcano activities to the administration; and propagate the knowledge of volcano to the public.%自2006年国家火山监测台网中心建成到目前为止,我国已有6处活火山受到监测:吉林长白山天池火山、龙岗火山、云南腾冲火山、黑龙江五大连池火山、镜泊湖火山和海南琼北火山.设在中国地震局地质研究所的国家火山监测台网中心,负责全国火山监测台网及火山流动观测的数据汇集、数据分析处理、数据存储管理、数据服务,承担火山异常判断、火山灾情分析、组织会商和上报等任务,同时承担着全国火山岩测试、火山挥发分测试、火山灾害模拟等实验室工作,以及通过互联网提供数据服务和火山宣传工作.

  12. Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns (ACoRN: quantitative and qualitative educational evaluation of the program in a region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Nalini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN program was developed in Canada for trained health care providers for the identification and management of newborns who are at-risk and/or become unwell in the first few hours or days after birth. The ACoRN process follows an 8-step framework that enables the evaluation and management of babies irrespective of the experience or expertise of the caregiving individual or team. This study assesses the applicability of the program to Chinese pediatric practitioners. Methods Course content and educational materials were translated from English into Chinese by bilingual neonatal practitioners. Confidence and knowledge questionnaires were developed and reviewed for face and content validity by a team of ACoRN instructors. Bilingual Chinese instructors were trained at the tertiary perinatal centre in Hangzhou Zhejiang to deliver the course at 15 level II county hospitals. Participants completed pre- and post-course confidence and knowledge questionnaires and provided feedback through post-course focus groups. Results 216 physicians and nurses were trained. Confidence and knowledge relating to neonatal stabilization improved significantly following the courses. Participants rated course utility and function between 4.2 and 4.6/5 on all items. Pre/post measures of confidence were significantly correlated with post course knowledge. Focus group data supported the perceived value of the program and recommended course adjustments to include pre-course reading, and increased content related to simulation, communication skills, and management of respiratory illness and jaundice. Conclusions ACoRN, a Canadian educational program, appears to be well received by Chinese health care providers and results in improved knowledge and confidence. International program adaptation for use by health care professionals requires structured and systematic evaluation to ensure that the program meets the needs of

  13. Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns (ACoRN): quantitative and qualitative educational evaluation of the program in a region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal Nalini; Lockyer Jocelyn; Fidler Herta; Aziz Khalid; McMillan Douglas; Qiu Xiangming; Ma Xiaolu; Du Lizhong; Lee Shoo K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN) program was developed in Canada for trained health care providers for the identification and management of newborns who are at-risk and/or become unwell in the first few hours or days after birth. The ACoRN process follows an 8-step framework that enables the evaluation and management of babies irrespective of the experience or expertise of the caregiving individual or team. This study assesses the applicability of the program to ...

  14. LARS GRAFF TALKS ABOUT TENNIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    You’ve been to both Beijing and Shanghai for tournaments.You even came to these two cities for MBA program.What’s your impression of China and the people? Do you think tennis is getting much more popular in the past 10 years? A:I am very interested in the Chinese culture and history.China has gone through an enormous economic development the last 30 years and according to an unofficial website,10 million people play tennis in China.That equals the entire population of Sweden.I think tennis will become more and more popular in China in the future. Firstly,the economy in China is growing extremely fast and the average Chinese are becoming more and more affluent.More

  15. Bacterial and Fungal Communities in a Degraded Ombrotrophic Peatland Undergoing Natural and Managed Re-Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon J. M.; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R Henrik; Sen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 year...

  16. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions. PMID:26490883

  17. FIBER ROLLS AS A TOOL FOR RE-VEGETATION OF OIL-BRINE CONTAMINATED WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that fibrijute burlap cylinders filled with organic matter and inoculated with salt tolerant plants and mycorrhizal fungi promoted remediation of an historic brine scar devoid of vegetation since the 1960's. Soils in plots that received a surface treatment of hay, org...

  18. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. PMID:26172107

  19. Carbon gas exchange of a re-vegetated cut-away peatland five decades after abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only little is known about the long-term carbon dynamics related to peatland restoration. We studied CO2 and CH4 dynamics of spontaneously regenerated peat trenches five decades after peat harvesting had ceased. We used non-linear regression models and interpolation for simulating gas exchange of four regenerating plant communities during two growing seasons and one winter. The studied communities all acted as seasonal (June-September) sinks of CO2 between 14 and 118 g C m-2, while the emissions of CH4 ranged from -4.9 to -28.8 g C m-2. When the winter time losses of carbon and the estimated leaching were subtracted, the balance was very low or negative: between -67 and 31 g C m-2. The low or even negative annual carbon balance in all communities may suggest a decrease in carbon sink strength in the advanced regeneration after the previously observed strong sink in the first regeneration stages caused by mass colonization by Eriophorum. (orig.)

  20. Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Steady-State Analysis Program for Primary Loop of China Experimental Fast Reactor%中国实验快堆一回路热工水力稳态计算程序开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶彧先; 崔满满; 郭赟

    2012-01-01

    针对中国实验快堆(CEFR)的具体结构和稳态运行特点,利用Fortran语言开发了CEFR一回路热工水力稳态计算程序.重点开发了有关钠的多种物性的子程序、适应不同工况的钠的流动与换热计算子程序,并对关系式进行了对比分析,最后建立了稳态计算模型并开发了程序.在此基础上,对CEFR的一回路系统在满功率下的稳态热工水力特性进行了计算分析,所获得的结果同设计参数吻合,证明了所开发的子程序及稳态程序的正确性.%According to the characteristics of structure and steady-state for primary loop of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), a thermal-hydraulic steady-state analysis program was developed by using Fortran language. This paper focused on the development of a set of subroutine of physical properties of sodium and the sodium flow and heat transfer correlations for different operation conditions. And the difference among these correlations was compared. The calculation program was developed based on the steady model. At last, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of steady-state of the primary loop of CEFR at full power were calculated. The calculation results are consistent with the design parameters and the correctness of the developed subroutines and steady-state calculation program was proved.

  1. 某校国家公派研究生项目管理的做法%The Implementation of China Scholarship Graduate Student Overseas Study Program in a University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许放; 万辉; 周东

    2013-01-01

    为配合新时期国家发展战略,满足建设创新型国家的人才需求,培养若干年后国家建设所需各行各业拔尖创新人才,教育部于2007年设立“国家建设高水平大学公派研究生项目”,现已成为高层次国际化人才培养的重要模式.本文对本校实施国家公派研究生项目的思路和做法加以总结,以期对进一步做好公派留学工作,提高公派留学效益,探索行之有效的研究生国外联合培养模式有所助益.%To match up with the national development strategy in the new period and satisfy the demand for talents,with the view of cultivating top-notch innovative personnel for every industry in the future,Ministry of Education has set up the China Scholarship Graduate Student Overseas Study Program in 2007,which is now a very important way to cultivate high-level talent.In this article,aiming at a further implementation on this program,the thinking and practice were summarized of the implementation of this program in Second Military Medical University,so as to explore a more effective way of cultivating graduate students by joint training at home and abroad.

  2. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  3. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  4. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  5. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler

  6. Belgian Sisters’ Lifelong Love for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC,Ms.Carolina Tengrootenhuysen,Vice President of the Belgium-China Association(BCA),and her younger sister Anna Tengrootenhuysen paid a visit to China from May 11 to 16.In Beijing,they attended the China International Friendship Conference in Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of the CPAFFC and the recording of a special program 60 Years Unforgettable at CCTV.They also visited Hunan Province.Carolina Tengrootenhuysen said Chinese President Xi Jinping’s speech

  7. Why Will China Explore the Moon?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Landing on the Moon has been a dream of the Chinese nation for thousands of years. In addition to providing an important support to the longterm, sustainable development of human society, lunar exploration will be a novel opportunity for China's scientific and technological progress and economic prosperity, explains OUYANG Ziyuan, chief scientist of China's Lunar Exploration Program and an astro- and geo-chemist from the CAS Institute of Geochemistry, in an recent article in the Guangming Daily.

  8. Public History in China: Is it Possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Na Li

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on my experience of teaching a graduate seminar in public history at Chongqing University, explores the possibilities of public history in China. It discusses how a reflective and collaborative curriculum works, and its implication for establishing Public History programs in the Chinese context. The article also argues that, despite a myriad of challenges, public history pushes the methodological boundary of urban preservation in China.

  9. 审美视阈下的中国电视娱乐节目走向%Trend of China Television Entertainment Program from Aesthetic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秋实

    2013-01-01

    电视作为现代社会中最具有影响力的媒体,在传达公共政策、引导社会舆论等方面发挥着举足轻重的作用。电视传媒是现代科技传播的重要标志,是最广泛的大众文化传播媒体之一。本文通过梳理中国电视娱乐节目的发展历程,论述了中国电视娱乐节目的发展的四个时期,最后,阐释了娱乐化电视节目的发展走向。%As the most influential media in modern society,TV plays a decisive role in communication of public policy,guiding the public opinion and other aspects. TV media is an significant symbol of modern science and technology communication,and one of the most widely popular culture media. Based on carding the develop-ment of Chinese television entertainment program,this paper discusses the four period of Chinese television en-tertainment program development, and finally expounds the developing trend of the entertainment television program.

  10. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music...... attractiveness of the Chinese market. Mandopop and rock music are carefully integrated, while national/international artists and companies engage in self-censorship and thereby support the mainstream ideology. The transformation of Chinese pop reflects necessary steps towards cultural liberalism, yet it is based...

  11. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  12. Invasive mechanism and manasement stratesy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN FangHao; CUI XuHong; ZHANG LiPing; ZHANG Fan; ZHANG QingWen; LIU WanXue; LIANG Pei; LEI ZhongRen; ZHANG YongJun; ZHANG GuiFen; LIU ShuSheng; LUO Chen; CHU Dong; ZHANG YouJun; ZANG LianSheng; JIU Min; Lǖ ZhiChuang

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci bio-type B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The in-digenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating in-teractions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up wide-spread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vapo-rariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its suc-cessful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  13. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  14. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B:Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B,called a "superbug",is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide.In this report,the invasive mechanism and management of B.tabaci biotype B,based on our 5-year studies,are presented.Six B.tabaci biotypes,B,Q,ZHJ1,ZHJ2,ZHJ3 and FJ1,have been identified in China.Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country.Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant,geographical conditions,and/or insecticidal application.The activities of CarE(carboxylesterase) and GSTs(glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants,which might have increased its resistance to insecticides.The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants.Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes.The indigenous B.tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d.The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes.B.tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions.Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T.vaporariorum.Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants,which might enable it to better compete with T.vaporariorum.Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B.tabaci under field conditions.The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids.The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity

  15. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  16. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  17. Clinical Pharmacy Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Melody; Shao, Hong; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug disco...

  18. Application of Employee Assistance Program (EAP) in China Mobile in a City%员工援助计划(EAP)在中国移动某市公司的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢淋淋; 吴树

    2015-01-01

    Mental health of staff directly affect the future development of enterprises, Employee Assistance Program (EAP) is through the provision of professional guidance to help employees solve a variety of psychological problems, a method to improve the mental health of employees. In this study, a city of China Mobile's case, to explore the feasibility of the imple-mentation of EAP in the company, analyze the content and manner of implementation of EAP in the company, noting that EAP can effectively relieve employee stress, improve employee mental health, improve employee performance, promote the construction and development of company.%员工的心理健康直接影响企业的未来发展,员工援助计划(EAP)是指通过提供专业指导,帮助员工解决各种心理问题,提高员工心理健康水平的一种方法。本研究以中国移动某市公司为例,探讨EAP在该公司实施的可行性,分析EAP在该公司实施的内容和方式,指出EAP能够有效缓解员工压力,提升员工心理健康水平,提高员工绩效,促进公司建设与发展。

  19. 中盖艾滋病项目经费运用与管理的探讨%Research on the funds' use and management of China-Gates AIDS Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 戴秀兰; 赵晨希

    2011-01-01

    China-Gates AIDS Program has become an important part of the AIDS prevention in our country, the use and management of its funds has its own characteristics and requirements. The author described and analyzed the current situation of the capital accounting and management in the process of the program's activities, affirmed the beneficial aspects and positive role in its accounting and management methods, also found some problems and the reasons of them, finally came up with some recommendations to adjust its accounting and management methods.%中盖艾滋病项目已经成为我国艾滋病防治工作中的重要工作之一,其经费运用与管理方式有其自身的特点与要求,给财务管理带来了新鲜的血液与理念。本文将中盖艾滋病项目活动过程中资金核算与管理的现状进行阐述与分析,肯定了其核算与管理方法的有益方面与积极作用,同时也发现了一些问题及产生问题的根源,提出了对其核算与管理方法进行调整的一些建议。

  20. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone. PMID:27348303

  1. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  2. Hong Kong and China and the global recession

    OpenAIRE

    Janet L. Yellen

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong and China are recovering impressively from global recession thanks to effective stimulus programs. But authorities worry that expansionary U.S. monetary policy may fuel asset bubbles in their economies. In the long run, the recession may nudge China toward increased domestic consumption by highlighting the risks of export-driven development. This Letter is adapted from a report by the president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco on her visit to Hong Kong and China ...

  3. China: Trotz hoher gesamtwirtschaftlicher Dynamik noch keine Lokomotive der Weltwirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    With China's economic integration a new growth center capable of having a decisive influence on the global economy has emerged. Thus, strong increases in production in China could help to bolster the flagging economies of the industrialized world. This article will analyze the extent to which China already determines macroeconomic growth in the euro area and the US today. It considers the example of the Chinese economic stimulus program implemented during the financial crisis. The analysis sh...

  4. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  5. China Accomplished Its First Space Rendezvous and Docking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    At 1:36 am on November 3,China's Shenzhou 8 unmanned spaceship and Tiangong 1 space lab spacecraft accomplished the country's first space docking procedure and coupling in space at more than 343km above Earth's surface,marking a great leap in China's space program.

  6. Overview of Spent Fuel Management In China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly introduces the current reprocessing situation and challenges in the world, the policy and status of the nuclear energy development and SFM for the back end of the fuel cycle in China. Chinese government has already launched the nuclear energy medium- long-term development program, the opted policy of closed fuel cycle and the technical development strategy, the projected commercial reprocessing plant, The cold uranium test for nuclear power plant spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant is finished and the radioactive test is carried out in the early this year. The R&D program of reprocessing technology is emphasized. The challenges faced by China are described. (author)

  7. Press kit. Areva in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved in the nuclear energy field illustrate the exemplary nature of the cooperation between France and China. Over 20 years, China has developed the nuclear technology for generating electricity, using the expertise and knowledge of the AREVA Group. AREVA has been present in China since 1986 and now employs 3,500 staff there. The group supplied the nuclear islands for 4 reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao as well as technology and equipment for 4 more reactors at the Qinshan II and Tianwan plants. AREVA has developed an ambitious program for transferring technology to the Chinese industry and developing local skills. The group's objective is to remain China's partner of choice in terms of its nuclear program. During an official visit to France in June 2004, China's Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan said he was in favor of 'overall and long-lasting cooperation between China and France in the field of nuclear energy'. AREVA took the opportunity to sign two letters of intent for cooperation over technology from its next generation of nuclear reactors. Electricity consumption forecasts report a need for 900 GW through 2020 and the country's objective is to increase nuclear-generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output (36 GW: the equivalent of around twenty 1,500 MWe reactors). An official decision to build 4 new reactors was announced in July 2004 and a further decision concerning another 4 reactors is expected in the near future. Various construction sites are being considered, mainly along the country's eastern coast. An official decision to build four duplicate reactors was announced n July 2004. In addition to these four duplicate reactors to be built on existing sites, China has decided to build four 3. generation reactors at Yangjiang and Sanmen. An international call for tender was launched on September 28, 2004. AREVA will reply to the tender by offering its EPR model. AREVA also aims to expand its Chinese operations into exploring and extracting

  8. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  9. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  10. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. Important challenges remain with implementation

  11. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health? Results from a two-year study in PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan; Tai, Baojun; Jiang, Han

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from one district were divided into three groups: OHE group (Group E), sugar-free chewing gum in addition to OHE group (Group G), and the control group (Group C). All children of grade 1 (aged 6-7 years) were recruited (n = 1342). After 2 years, 1143 children remained in the study group at follow-up. The overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P improving children's oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries. PMID:15848976

  12. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of different land cover types in the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the impacts of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration (ET of five land cover types in the Loess Plateau in northern China. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon, subshrub (Artemisia scoparia, shrub (Spiraea pubescens, plantation forest (Robinia pseudoacacia, and crop (Zea mays vegetation were continuously monitored during the growing season of 2011. There were more than 10 soil moisture pulses during the period of data collection. Surface soil moisture of all of the land cover types showed an increasing trend in the rainy season. Soil moisture under the corn crop was consistently higher than the other surfaces. Grass and subshrubs showed an intermediate moisture level. Grass had slightly higher readings than those of subshrub most of the time. Shrubs and plantation forests were characterized by lower soil moisture readings, with the shrub levels consistently being slightly higher than those of the forests. Despite the greater post-rainfall loss of moisture under subshrub and grass vegetation than forests and shrubs, subshrub and grass sites exhibit a higher soil moisture content due to their greater soil retention capacity in the dry period. The daily ET trends of the forests and shrub sites were similar and were more stable than those of the other types. Soils under subshrubs acquired and retained soil moisture resources more efficiently than the other cover types, with a competitive advantage in the long term, representing an adaptive vegetation type in the study watershed. The interactions between vegetation and soil moisture dynamics contribute to structure and function of the ecosystems studied.

  13. 英国体育休闲计划的特点及启示%The characteristics of British sports leisure program and its enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡涛

    2016-01-01

    以文献资料为主要研究方法,对英国体育休闲计划的实施特点进行了梳理,研究发现注重体育与健康、教育相关政策间的协同性;注重发挥体育产业对民众体育休闲的推动作用;将所有阶层作为制定休闲政策的基准等。研究还提出以下英国体育休闲计划对我国实施全民健身计划的启示:完善相关体育政策法规体系;保障不同社会阶层民众的公平、基本体育休闲需求;注重休闲体育产业经济效益与社会效益的均衡发展等。%The main research methods of the literature review of the implementation of the characteristics of the British sports leisure plan, the research found that the sports and health, education related policies of the synergy between the sports industry to play a role in promoting the sports leisure, the class as a benchmark for the development of leisure policy. The research also proposed the following enlightenment of the British sports leisure plan to our country to carry out the national fitness program: to improve the relevant laws and regulations system; to protect the public from different social strata, the basic sports leisure needs; to pay attention to the development of the leisure sports industry economic benefits and social benefits.

  14. Nigcomsat-1 Created Many Firsts In China's Space History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Offcials and experts from the Commission of Science,Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND),and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) met in Beijing recently to review the results of the Nigcomsat-1 satellite program.

  15. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  16. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  17. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  18. Effect of a multidiscipline mentor-based program, Be Resilient to Breast Cancer (BRBC), on female breast cancer survivors in mainland China-A randomized, controlled, theoretically-derived intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Liu, Mei Ling; Hu, Guang Yun; Zhu, Yun Fei; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing Jing; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the risk of adjustment problems for breast cancer patients in mainland China, we examined the efficacy of a multidiscipline mentor-based program, Be Resilient to Breast Cancer (BRBC), delivered after breast surgery to (a) increase protective factors of social support, hope for the future, etc.; (b) decrease risk factors of Physical and Emotional Distress; and (c) increase outcomes of Resilience, Transcendence and Quality of Life (QOL). A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted at 6 specialist cancer hospitals. 101 and 103 breast cancer patients were allocated to intervention group (IG) and control group (CG), respectively, and 112 general females (without breast cancer) were allocated to the norm group (NG). Participants completed measures that were related to latent variables derived from the Resilience Model for Breast Cancer (RM-BC) at baseline (T1), 2 months (T2), 6 months (T3), and 12 months (T4) after intervention. At T2, the IG reported significantly lower Depression (ES = 0.65,P = 0.0019) and Illness Uncertainty (ES = 0.57, P = 0.004), better Hope (ES = 0.81, P Resilience (ES = 0.83, P Resilience though not significant (P = 0.085) and better Transcendence (P = 0.0243) than did the NG. The BRBC intervention improves the positive health outcomes and decreases the risk factors of illness-related distress of breast cancer patients during the high-risk cancer treatment. PMID:27400910

  19. Is it possible for China to reduce its total CO2 emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Huanan Li; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    China's CO2 emissions have been the focus of attention for domestic and foreign scholars. However, very few articles have analysed whether and how a reduction of China's total CO2 emissions can be achieved. This is of great significance for meeting China's future CO2 emissions reduction targets. Based on input-output decomposition analysis model and dynamic programming approach, this paper analyses the factors affecting China's total carbon emissions and discuss whether and how it could be po...

  20. Strategic management and marketing strategy in insurance companies : case: China Life Insurance Company Limited in Shifang

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Miao

    2012-01-01

    Currently, rural issues have become the crucial obstacles to the sustainable development of China. In order to solve those problems, the Chinese government decided to implement the micro insurance policy in undeveloped rural areas. In light of the government decision, China Life Insurance Company Limited, the leader and state-own life insurance company in China, launched the pilot program to sell micro life insurance to the low-income population. China Life decided to enter the rural marke...

  1. Geoinformatics Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Gong, J; Yue, P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by th...

  2. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported

  3. Reducing Overweight and Obesity among Elementary Students in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…

  4. Brief Review of Some CLIVAR-Related Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Climate Variability and Predictability(CLIVAR)program is one of the sub-programs of the World Climate Research Program(WCRP).In this paper,CLIVAR related research in China(2003-2006) is briefly reviewed,including four major components,namely,low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations,interannual variability,decadal variations in East Asia,and global warming simulations.

  5. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  6. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  7. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  8. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  9. Soilless culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhilong

    2003-01-01

    Soilless culture in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The area of soilless culture in China was about0.1 ha in 1985, 117 ha in 1995, but in 2002 the area reached to 865 ha. This paper introduced the brief history of soillessculture in China, and the main soilless culture systems. The present situation and problems are also discussed in thispaper.

  10. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  11. Programs of Observing small Celestial Bodies in the Solar System with small Telescopes in China%中国小望远镜观测太阳系小天体项目的回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文敬; 彭青玉; 唐正宏; 赵海斌

    2011-01-01

    回顾了中国用小望远镜进行的一些科研项目,如小行星的天体测量和测光观测,近地天体的观测和天然行星卫星的天体测量观测.介绍了小行星和近地天体轨道的测定,以及行星/月球历表的编制.简述了天体测量标准区的建立,从射电源光学对应体推算光学和射电参考架的联系,双星轨道的测定,以及星团成员星自行的测定.提出了改进GSC2.3的新项目,其中包括消除星等差和南天恒星自行的系统差,以及减小偶然误差,并建议加入新的观测作为POSS和SERC项目第三历元的观测资料.%Several programs,such as astrometric and photometric observations of asteroids,observations of NEOs and astrometric observations of the natural planetary satellites,with small telescopes in China are reviewed.The orbital determinations for asteroids and NEOs as well as development of planets/lunar ephemeris are introduced.Studies on establishment of astrometric calibration regions,linkage between optical and radio reference frames from optical counterparts of radio sources,orbital determinations for binaries and determinations of the proper motion for membership of stellar cluster are briefly described.The new program on the improvements for GSC2.3 such as eliminating the magnitude equation and systematic error in proper motion in the southern hemisphere as well as decreasing the accident error,adding new observations as data at third epoch of POSS and SERC projects etc.is presented.

  12. Nuclear energy in China: Contested regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is leading the recent revival of nuclear energy programs; it is building not one but four nuclear power plants at a time. The government is determined to expand nuclear energy programs and the general public supports the efforts. China also has the financial and human resources to achieve the desired objective-building 40 GW generation capacity by 2020. The politics surrounding nuclear energy expansion, however, is fluid and competition for influence is vibrant. Nuclear energy issues have become openly contested between general economic and specific industry interests and between international and domestic perspectives and designs. This article examines the political dynamics in China to show how the rival players and their competing interests shape the strategy of nuclear energy development

  13. The China Digital Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Zhou

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN program was initiated in May 1983. On October 1, 1986, the CDSN began to distribute the network-day tapes to the research community. On October 22, 1987, the CDSN began full operation. The CDSN are supported by the State Seismological Bureau, People's Republic of China and the United States Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance of the network are taken by the staffs at the 10th Division of the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, QGSSB. At present the CDSN includes ten field stations, Le Beijing (BR, Lanzhou (LZH, Enshi (ENH, Kunming (KMI, Qiongzhong (QIZ, Shanghai (SSE, Urumqi (WMQ, Hailar (HIA, Mudanjiang (MDJ, and Lhasa (LSA, two national centers, i.e. the Network Maintenance Center (NMC and the Data Management Center (DMC, both at the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, Beijing.

  14. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the South China Sea (C.S.K. Program, Cruise II) and around Seribu Islands by R.V. Jalanidhi, December 6-December 28, 1971 (NODC Accession 7300974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations from the R.V. JALANIDHI in the South China Sea and other areas. Data were collected from 06 December 1971 to 28...

  15. On Quality Assessment of Early Childhood Programs in the International Context and Reconstructing the Related Conceptions in China%国际视野中的托幼机构教育质量评价——兼论我国托幼机构教育质量评价观的重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克建; 胡碧颖

    2012-01-01

    This article firstly summarizes and sorts through the related important research literatures in the international context in recent decades from the 1970s. Then, based on the reflective critique on the differences concerning quality assessment between China and the West, the authors propose that the conceptions on the quality assessment of early childhood programs in China should be reconstructed. And some related problems are discussed in the end of the article.%本文重点对20世纪70年代以来国际上有关托幼机构教育质量评价的重要研究文献进行了总结和梳理。在此基础上,本文提出了我国托幼机构教育质量评价观念重构的设想,并对相关问题进行了探讨。

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  17. Magnetospheric Physics in China During the Period of 2004 - 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jinbin; LIU Zhenxing

    2006-01-01

    Their brief report presents the advances of the magnetospheric physics researches in China during the period of 2004-2006. During the past two years, China-ESA cooperation DSP (Double Star Program) satellites were successively launched. In addition, China also participated in the scientific research of ESA's Cluster mission. The DSP and Cluster missions provide Chinese space physicists high quality data to study multiscale physical process in the magnetosphere. The work made based on the data of DSP is presented in the paper of "Progress of Double Star Program" of this issue.

  18. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  19. Luxury Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, the level of capital income is expanding significantly. The size of the rich population in China is becoming larger than ever. At the same time, the luxury market of China is also showing great vitality. There is no doubt that China is already the luxury market with the most growth potential. With increasing numbers of high-end consumer goods now being sold, the consumption gap between China and the world is being gradually shortened. And Chinese...

  20. China Faces Nine Obstacles in Population Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    With drastic changes in both the international and domestic environment for population and family planning development, China faces nine major challenges in its efforts to further its population and family planning program, said Zhang Weiqing,Minister of the National Population and Family

  1. Is China Developing an Independent Technology Capability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Are Chinese technology enterprises only the "hired laborers" of other countries? Does China possess high technology in a real sense? When will the country develop independent scientific and technological innovation? Those are not brand new questions. However, after the Chinese Government issued its National Guidelines on the Long- and Medium-Term Program for Science and Technology

  2. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  3. The People's Republic of China: Fueling tremendous growth with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has initiated an aggressive, national industrialization program and has gradually been introducing market reforms, particularly in the southeastern section of the country. This program has met with tremendous success, and when combined with the growing population base, China has become one of the fastest-growing and most important industrializing regions of the world. This type of growth requires enormous amounts of power, and China has made a major commitment to nuclear power to help fuel this expansion

  4. Research work on coolant technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Peoples Republic of China, research is being carried out in order to provide water chemistry data for design, construction and operation of small and medium size NPs in China. The nuclear program in China has some national features: the projects to study the water chemistry aspects reflects the requirements of China's NPS engineering and design. The structural materials made in China such as fuel cladding materials, steam generator heat transfer tubes and ion exchange reins are not the same as those made in other countries. We have learnt from other countries and we have actively adopted their successful experiences in all aspects, besides, we have carried out a series of experiments on water chemistry problems concerning design and operation of NPs in China. The preparation of nuclear grade resins, control of boron and lithium in dynamic water loop, determination of impurities (O2, Cl-, F- and other metallic species) in primary circuit and monitoring on-line the thermal breakdown of resins in high temperature, high pressure water loop, study of decontamination processes and study on Zircaloy and steam generator heat transfer tubes corrosion are some of the studies being carried out in the field of water chemistry. The project 'investigation on water chemistry of primary circuit for PWR unit' is essentially a fundamental study on water chemistry which is related to the three tasks of ''WACOLIN''. (author)

  5. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  6. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  7. Significance of ocean drilling and China's paleooceanographic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tungsheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ Many significant progresses of earth science in the mid to late 20th century were closely related to the international Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP). The sedimentary record obtained from underneath several thousands of seawater opened a new window for mankind to understand the Earth and its evolution. The Chinese earth science community learned the DSDP through the introduction of the plate tectonic theory in the 1970s, but deep-sea study remained remote and unrealistic for the then China. The onset of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) in 1985 triggered the hope for China to be involved in the international paleoceanographic studies. With the establishment of an "Ocean Drilling Program Committee of China", the aim was to bring China onto the new international frontier of science, but little could be done because of the lack of necessary conditions at the time.

  8. Visual neuroscience research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historically,vision research in China was one of a few distinct research programs within the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS).With improved funding opportunities and research environment in neuroscience,vision research at several research institutes within the academy has made significant progress not only in the quantity of publications,but also in the quality of the work.Based on our own expertise,this review is mainly focused on the findings that have advanced the understanding of visual processing in the central visual pathway,visual perceptual learning,visual development and eye diseases.

  9. The Role of Cities in Reducing Smoking in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Redmon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the “bottom up”. The Emory Global Health Institute—China Tobacco Control Partnership supported 17 cities to establish tobacco control programs aimed at changing social norms for tobacco use. Program assessments showed the Tobacco Free Cities grantees’ progress in establishing tobacco control policies and raising public awareness through policies, programs and education activities have varied from modest to substantial. Lessons learned included the need for training and tailored technical support to build staff capacity and the importance of government and organizational support for tobacco control. Tobacco control, particularly in China, is complex, but the potential for significant public health impact is unparalleled. Cities have a critical role to play in changing social norms of tobacco use, and may be the driving force for social norm change related to tobacco use in China.

  10. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping the...... world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  11. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  12. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  13. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  14. Governing uranium in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patton Schell, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is playing an increasingly prominent role in China's long-term strategic energy calculus. In response, China is responding by producing more uranium domestically, buying more uranium on the international market, and investing heavily in overseas uranium properties. At the same time, China has been updating its nuclear regulations over the last three decades, resulting in a myriad of regulatory agencies with widely varying responsibilities related to implementing uranium regulati...

  15. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  16. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  17. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  18. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  19. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  20. 广西第二轮全国艾滋病综合防治示范区艾滋病流行特点分析%AIDS Epidemic Characteristics of Second-Round China CARES Program in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 周月姣; 孟琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:对2008~2013年广西第二轮艾滋病综合防治示范区艾滋病流行特点进行分析,为探索和制订适合广西的艾滋病综合防治策略和干预措施提供科学依据。方法从全国艾滋病综合防治数据信息系统收集2008~2013年广西第二轮艾滋病综合防治区(13个)的数据,用SPSS19.0软件进行分析。结果2008~2013年示范区HIV/AIDS报告数中,男女性别比为2.27∶1。20~49岁年龄组患者占58.20%。2008~2013年,50岁及以上年龄组的构成比分别为30.76%、33.97%、35.66%、44.83%、43.67%、45.10%;农民的构成比分别为66.95%、69.67%、70.24%、75.60%、75.78%、76.60%;初中及以下文化水平的分别为90.99%、90.32%、88.86%、91.47%、91.72%、91.58%。13个示范区中HIV/AIDS累计报告数>500例的有10个,其中≥2000例的有1个,1000~1999例的有4个,500~999例的有5个。8个示范区的发病比例超过1.0‰。2008~2013年经性接触途径传播的构成比分别为64.73%、75.55%、85.84%、92.25%、92.59%、94.65%。结论“三间”分布特征提示应更加重视孕产期艾滋病抗体筛查;关注老年人群经性途径感染艾滋病的现象;尝试和探索更多针对低素质人群的有效防治模式;随着更多的地区成为高流行区域和性传播成为最主要的传播途径,艾滋病防治任务越来越艰巨,应继续深入实施防治艾滋病攻坚工程。%Objective To analyze AIDS epidemic characteristics of the second-round China CARES program which was conducted in Guangxi from 2008 to 2013 ,therefore to provide scientific evidences for developing HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention strategies for Guangxi .Methods The data of second-round China CARES program in Guangxi(13 comprehensive AIDS prevention and control demonstration zones ) from 2008 to 2013 collected from the

  1. AIDS Epidemic Characteristics of Second-Round China CARES Program in Guangxi%广西第二轮全国艾滋病综合防治示范区艾滋病流行特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 周月姣; 孟琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze AIDS epidemic characteristics of the second-round China CARES program which was conducted in Guangxi from 2008 to 2013 ,therefore to provide scientific evidences for developing HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention strategies for Guangxi .Methods The data of second-round China CARES program in Guangxi(13 comprehensive AIDS prevention and control demonstration zones ) from 2008 to 2013 collected from the national HIV/AIDS prevention and control epidemic information system were analyzed by using SPSS 19 .0 software . Results The HIV/AIDS reports(2008-2013) showed that,for the overall patients in demonstration zones,male to female ratio was 2.27∶1.Patients aged ≥20 and≤49 years old accounted for 58.20%in total.From 2008 to 2013, patients aged 50 years old or older accounted for 30.76%,33.97%,35.66%,44.83%,43.67%,45.10%, respectively . Farmers accounted for 66.95%,69.67%,70.24%,75.60%,75.78%,76.60%,respectively .Patients with education level of junior school or below accounted for 90.99%,90.32%,88.86%,91.47%,91.72%,91.58%.Ten of 13 demonstration zones reported a cumulative number of HIV/AIDS cases which was more than 500,of which there was one demonstration zone with HIV/AIDS cases more than 2000 ,4 demonstration zones with HIV/AIDS cases more than 1 000 and less than 1999 ,5 demonstration zones with HIV/AIDS cases more than 500 and less than 999 .There were 8 demonstration zones with HIV/AIDS incidence higher than 1 .0%.From 2008 to 2013 ,the proportions of HIV/AIDS transmission though sexual contact were 64.73%,75.55%,85.84%,92.25%,92.59%,94.65%,respectively.Conclusion The analysis on the characteristics of distribution of time ,region and population in the study suggests that:We should pay more attentions to the HIV/AIDS antibody screening in pregnancy women ,focus on HIV/AIDS infection though sexual transmission in elderly people ,and explore more effective ways to prevent HIV /AIDS infection for the population with poor education level

  2. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  3. All Fish for China?

    OpenAIRE

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A.; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China’s seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961–2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish...

  4. Sony Style in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aince the normalization of the diplomatic ties between China and Japan,the bilateral economic relations have deepened continually.According to the statistic of Japan,China passed U.S.to become Japan's top trade partner as well as is the second Iargest export market for Japan and is the largest import resource for Japan.Japan companies such as Mitsui,Sumitomo,Sony and Panasonic,have set the subsidiaries in China and explored their scales.This year 2008 marks the 30th anniversary of the signing of the China Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

  5. China's Post Accession WTO Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Mallon; John Whalley

    2004-01-01

    We discuss China's stance in the WTO post-accession, noting the many issues with implementation of China's accession terms by 2007. We evaluate how much benefit China can realistically receive from WTO membership given current problems with dumping actions against China and trade restrictions against textile and apparel exports. We discuss emerging WTO and non-WTO trade disputes involving China, and China's now extensive regional trade initiatives which raise issues of multilateral regional b...

  6. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

  7. Analysis of GIS Higher Education on China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Shen, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The first GIS Bachelor's Program arose in China in 1980s. After more than 30 years of exploration and practice, it is now in the period of full-scale development. The paper collects the data of the number and spatial distribution of colleges and universities with GIS specialty in China. After that it makes comparative analysis of GIS curriculum of three typical universities. Then on the base of data of enrolment and employment in Wuhan University, it discusses the classification of enrolments and graduates and emphasis on the industrial and regional distribution of the graduates. Through the above investigation and analysis, the paper finally draws the conclusion on the features and problems in China's GIS higher education.

  8. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingo Ilja MICHELS; Yu-xia FANG; Dong ZHAO; Li-yan ZHAO; Lin LU

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however,China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drugrelated problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the "Action Plan on Drugs and Addiction" in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003,China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history,population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of these 2

  9. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  10. WB to Lend $441m for Energy Efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The World Bank (WB) has approved loans of $441 million to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants in China. The loans, which account for almost one third of planned loans for China in fiscal 2008, would go to three projects, according to the lender.The energy efficiency project, co-financed by the WB and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), would get a loan of $200 million. The project, which would also receive a grant of 13.5 million U.S. dollars from the GEF, aims to boost large-scale loans for energy efficiency programs in China. China's commercial banks are also reported to participate in the project, such as the Export-Import Bank of China and Huaxia Bank, to offer loans ranging from 5 million to 10 million U. S. dollars for energy conservation projects, especially in heavy industries.

  11. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  12. Engineering Accreditation in China: The Progress and Development of China's Engineering Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaju, Bi

    2009-01-01

    Among engineering degree programs at the bachelor's level in China, civil engineering was the first one accredited in accordance with a professional programmatic accreditation system comparable to that of international practice. Launched in 1994, the accreditation of civil engineering aimed high and toward international standards and featured the…

  13. Feeding China's Pigs: Implications for the Environment, China's Smallholder Farmers and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1978, Deng Xiaoping introduced a program of economic reforms in China that began to move the country in the direction of becoming a market economy. The following year, pork started on the path to global domination as the world’s most produced and consumed meat. These

  14. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  15. Introduction of English Immersion in China: A Transplant with Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiyan; Siegel, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of replicating the French immersion model used in Canada to English immersion programs in China. It provides the Chinese context of this program highlighting the importance of English education and the defect of traditional English teaching and learning. The paper explains the borrowable features of the French…

  16. Schistosomiasis control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    and health education emphasized. Annual mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental both reduces the prevalence rate and decreases the intensity of the infection for inhabitants and live-stock. As a consequence of the therapy a low prevalence rate can be obtained in a short time. The length of such arrangement period can be decided in accordance with the prevalence of the infection before the drug program is begun. Therefore,a maintenance phase is urgently needed. As China's ecomony expands and people's living standard rises, schistosomiasis will be controlled more effectively and successfully.

  17. Shadow banking in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjun; Hsu, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This is an English summary of a 300-page report produced by Jianjun Li, Sara Hsu and Guangning Tian, “The Annual Report of China Shadow Banking System,” Project Sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project Number 71173246,

  18. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  19. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  20. CHARTING CHINA'S NEW COURSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China aims to achieve "major breakthroughs" in economic restructuring and will take reform as "a powerful driving force"to accelerate the transformation of its economic development pattern. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) made its intentions clear after approving a blueprint for the next five years on its fifth plenary session, which ended on October 18.

  1. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong ana

  2. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate the...... absence of a direct link between financial development and economic growth....

  3. Rural Informatization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Wei Qiang, Christine; Bhavnani, Asheeta; Nagy K. Hanna; Kimura, Kaoru; Sudan, Randeep

    2009-01-01

    China's recent economic growth has expanded industrialization and urbanization, upgraded consumption, increased social mobility, and initiated a shift from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry and services. Still more than half of China's people still live in rural areas where average income per capita is less than a third of the urban average, a gap that is among the l...

  4. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  5. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US...

  6. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  7. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  8. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it ...

  9. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  10. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  11. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  12. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)

  13. China's precarious synthetic natural gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2013, China's national government abandoned its previous cautious policy and started to promote large-scale deployment of coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG). Coal-based SNG is both carbon-intensive and very water-intensive. Driven by a smog crisis and the recession of coal industry, China's 2013 policy change is major setback in its long-term efforts in carbon mitigation and water conservation. The government of China made the policy change before the commercial commencement of China's first SNG demonstration plant. Since the commencement of China's SNG demonstration plant, many problems have started to appear. In this article, I discuss the nature of demonstration project and explain the danger in starting a crash program without evaluating the demonstration comprehensively and transparently. - Highlights: • China is promoting large-scale commercialization of synthetic natural gas (SNG) plants. • The push for commercialization started before the startup of its first SNG demonstration. • A crash SNG program is both financially risky and environmental detrimental. • China should reconsider its SNG policy and adopt a more cautious approach

  14. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Erie; Allen Carlson

    2014-01-01

    Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism ...

  15. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  16. 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Weimin; Gan; Qianyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year of 2012 was designated the "China-Nepal Friendship Exchange Year" by the Chinese and Nepalese governments,and,as one of the important cultural exchange programs, the 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the World Culture Net(WCN) of Nepal,was held from November 30 to December 6. The CPAFFC organized an 18-member Delegation of government

  17. Application of EMTP in China s UHVAC Pilot Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of the UHVAC Pilot Project in China,the importance of study on electromagnetic transient overvoltage in UHVAC projects is demonstrated in this paper.Through analysis and comparison on the simulation programs for electromagnetic transient overvoltages,EMTP is then recommended for the UHVAC Pilot Project in China.The element models in EMTP used in simulating power frequency overvoltage and power resonance of non-entire phase operation,etc.,are introduced.The paper also points o...

  18. Allelic diversity of the population of Phytophthora infestans in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Huang, S.; Lee; Kessel, G.J.T.; Jacobsen, E.; Zhang, R.; Jin, G.; Lan, C.; Zhao, Z.; Kamoun, S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of resistance genes from wild Solanum species into potato cultivars is considered the most promising and environmentally safe approach to achieve late blight resistance. An R-gene stacking breeding program using cisgenesis is planning to trial its products in China. To adapt this approach to local conditions, we propose to assess the allelic diversity of known avirulent genes of P. infestans from the intended introduction regions of the GM-potatoes in China. So far, we have a lar...

  19. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  20. 学生营养改善项目的国际经验及对我国营养工作的启示%The international experience of students nutrition improvement program and its inspiration to the nutrition practitioners in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雯菁; 沈秀华

    2015-01-01

    Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger is one of the objectives of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals. Many countries all over the world have developed and implemented children nutrition policies and intervention programs. School feeding program has become one of the most successful programs in developed countries and many developing countries. Since 2007, China has launched the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students. In order to carry out this program more successfully and fruitfully, China needs to learn from other countries especially developing countries. In this paper, some school feeding programs of developing countries have been comprehensively analyzed and summarized, and some suggestions have been put forward for our school feeding program and nutrition practice.%联合国的千年发展目标将“消灭极端贫穷和饥饿”作为其中一项目标。世界各国都制定和实施了儿童营养政策和干预项目。学校供餐计划作为儿童营养改善和保障的重要环节,已成为发达国家和许多发展中国家最为成功的项目之一。我国自2007年起开展“农村义务教育学生营养改善项目”。为使该项目的实施更加顺利和富有成效,需要借鉴其他国家尤其是发展中国家的经验。对发展中国家的学校供餐计划进行综合分析,总结各国经验,对我国贫困地区的学校供餐计划的实施以及营养改善工作提出建议。

  1. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  2. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  3. Diagnosis and Forecast of Chinese Power Industry——An interview with Mr.Song Yonghua, Academician of Royal Academy of Engineering and expert of China power reform under UN Development Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xuemin; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mr.Song Yonghua, an Academician of Royal Academy of Engineering has made great contributions to power industry. He has initiated a new generation of optimization and intellectual technologies to solve some of the most complicated problems in power system,and presented a series of new concepts and structures while expanding OPF models. These achievements have been fully applied in auxiliary business price assessment by categorized pricing, blocking management and assessment of available transmission capability. Recently, Mr.Song had an interview with the journalist of China Electric Power to discuss in depth the world energy patterns, China power market reform and trend of power industry development. Although his personal opinions, yet it is really instructive.

  4. PENGARUH KEPERCAYAAN DAN KESADARAN MASYARAKAT TERHADAP PROGRAM TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL DAN LINGKUNGAN (TJSL) PADA ASOSIASI PERUSAHAAN Studi Pada Perusahaan PetroChina Internasional (Bermuda) Ltd – Sorong, Papua Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Teljoarubun, Nancy Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the public perceived, trust and community awareness about the activities of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Company PetroChina International (Bermuda) Ltd. CSR is a moral responsibility to society, especially for native people that are in the vicinity of the Company's operations. Through these responsibilities, the Company is required to take into account the consequences of its presence on the local community through various social act...

  5. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  6. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  7. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  8. Deepening Health Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Health Organization,; Ministry of Finance, P.R.C.; National Health and Family Planning Commission, P.R.C.; Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, P.R.C.

    2016-01-01

    At a meeting in July 2014 in Beijing, we committed to working together on a flagship report that would help set the direction for health sector reform in China. This report, Deepening Health Reform in China, is the result. Using the successful model offered by previous flagship reports like China 2030 and Urban China, this report primarily offers a blueprint for a new direction for China’s health sector. The report’s main theme is the need for China to transition...

  9. Preliminary isotope studies of Poyang Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyang Lake is the largest fresh water lake in China, and the largest wetland protection area in Asia. The lake serves as the largest buffer for the Yangtze River as well. In order to make better understanding of the water dynamics, water balance, water chemistry, and the relations between lake, rivers and groundwater, isotope investigation has been carried out systematically for one and a half hydrological years. The paper will report the preliminary results from this program. (author)

  10. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong;

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical....... Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global...

  11. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  12. A close look at developing country customer's essential requirements from China's nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear power development in China was briefly introduced. The major features of China's nuclear power program were summarized, which was a reflection of the nuclear power policies of the developing stage in the country. From China's nuclear power development, the customer's essential requirements of nuclear power in developing countries were drawn. Among them, safety, improved economy and broadening financing channels should be emphasized in order to promote nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  13. Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China's policies for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianguo; Li, Shuxin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tam, Christine; Chen, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    To address devastating environmental crises and to improve human well-being, China has been implementing a number of national policies on payments for ecosystem services. Two of them, the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain to Green Program (GTGP), are among the biggest programs in the world because of their ambitious goals, massive scales, huge payments, and potentially enormous impacts. The NFCP conserves natural forests through logging bans and afforestation with incen...

  14. REDD-plus and China's contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyong, Li; Mei, Huang; Shenggong, Li

    2014-03-01

    The United Nations' program Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) seeks to reduce emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. The program's overarching goal is to curb rising CO2 levels and combat global climate change, and it focuses in particular on nations in or near the tropics that possess abundant rainforest resources. REDD-plus upgrades the program to include additional emphases on the roles of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. China has one of the world's richest forest resources and, through its afforestation and reforestation efforts, also possesses the world's largest reserve of planted forests. Currently, most of China's forests are young and/or mid-aged, and, as a result, China is positioned to make significant contributions to REDD-plus through sustainable forest management that enhanced forest carbon stocks. Though REDD-plus does not represent a comprehensive solution to global climate change, it can help stabilize rising temperatures and buy time for researchers to devise solutions that target the greenhouse effect.

  15. 美国实践型护理博士项目对我国高级护理实践发展的启示%Enlightenment of doctor of nursing practice program in America on development of advanced nursing practice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付敏丽; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    The spring up of the doctor of nursing practice (DNP)program greatly accelerated the development of advanced nursing practice in America.It has cultivated a large number of nursing personnel.At same time,it has standardized and improved the quality of nursing practice.Which made the nursing practice widely recog-nized and supported.However,the advanced nursing practice started later in China and developed slowly.And it didn’t form the unified standard.To develop the nursing practice in China through referencing the doctor of nursing practice in America was not only one way to train professional nurses,but also an important form of di-versified education for nursing graduates in China.%实践型护理博士项目的兴起,极大地加快了美国高级护理实践的发展,在培养大批护理人才的同时,也规范、提高了护理实践活动质量,使护理实践活动得到了广泛的认可和支持。我国的高级护理实践活动起步较晚,发展缓慢,且没有形成统一规范的标准,借鉴美国的实践型护理博士项目发展我国护理实践活动,不仅是培养专科护士的途径之一,也是我国护理研究生多元化教育的重要形式。

  16. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  17. The People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the proliferation of nuclear weapons has undergone a perceptible shift in focus. As the contributions to this book attest, we are placing more emphasis on the multiplication of sources for weapons-related materials and technology, the growth of sophisticated industrial and engineering capabilities in threshold states, and the condition of latent---or potential---proliferation they can create. A cardinal feature of this picture is the role played by new suppliers in the nuclear marketplace who offer a variety of materials, equipment, and services that cover an impressive span of the fuel cycle. Most prominent among them is the People's Republic of China. China is in the forefront of our attention for several notable reasons. It is, for one thing, a weapons state possessing a significant nuclear force comprising hundreds of warheads and a formidable array of delivery systems (including ballistic missiles and nuclear submarines). The size and composition of its forces bespeaks a sophisticated set of resource, engineering, and manufacturing capabilities covering uranium processing and enrichment, heavy water, fuel fabrication, warhead design, plutonium reprocessing, and nuclear waste management. This formidable military program, dating back to the 1950s, has endowed the PRC with extensive experience in nearly all facets of nuclear operations and management

  18. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  19. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  20. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  1. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  2. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  3. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  4. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  5. China and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    China was far in advance of the West in its technology and science by 1400. Yet the industrial revolution happened in the west. Christopher Cullen talks about some of the possible reasons for this puzzling fact.

  6. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  7. Rural Transformation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThe history of China is marked by peasant rebellions which, when they succeeded, occasionally led to mitigation of extreme inequality and oppression and a change in dynasty but without substantial reorganization of the social structure.

  8. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  9. Orphan Care in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng, Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Orphan care in China was once provided by the central government as a means of social control. The centralized welfare delivery guaranteed some of the poorest orphans to be protected by the government. Since the economic reform, the central government started to relinquish its control over social welfare delivery, new forms of orphan care were introduced into China, sharing the responsibilities and burdens for caring the orphans. Yet, many issues and problems exist in social delivery due to a lack of finances, professionals, and policy support. In this chapter, we will discuss the background of social welfare changes in China, as pertains to orphan care, focusing on the different types of orphans as a result of social issues, service delivery, barriers and solutions. It is claimed that during the reform, the burden of orphan care in China may not be reduced in the coming future, and we offer suggestions to cope with that.

  10. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  11. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  12. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  13. Trade Unions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Li; David Metcalf

    2006-01-01

    China apparently has more trade union members than the rest of the world put together. But as David Metcalf and Jianwei Li have found, Chinese unions function very differently from unions in the West.

  14. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  15. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  16. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  17. Economic Planning in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory C. Chow

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date study of economic planning in China as it affects the economic development, growth and fluctuations of the Chinese economy. Although economic planning has been practiced in China since 1953 when the first Five-Year Plan began, its nature has changed after economic reform started in 1978. Market reform reduced the importance of central planning, but more recently the global economic recession and China’s active macro-economic policy interventions have increase...

  18. China in den Medien

    OpenAIRE

    Psarris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Diese Dissertation befasst sich mit der zeitgenössischen Berichterstattung über China in den deutschen Medien. In ihrem Zentrum steht die Frage, wie die moderne Entwicklung Chinas und deren Auswirkungen auf den Rest der Welt von den deutschen Medien erfasst und dargestellt werden. Der Untersuchungszeitraum erstreckt sich vom Januar 1997 bis März 2011. Die Untersuchung bezieht sechs Printmedien ein, darunter die "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung", die "Süddeutsche Zeitung", "Die Welt", "Die Zeit...

  19. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  20. Book review: Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Sin Yee

    2013-01-01

    "Urban China." Xuefei Ren. Polity. March 2013. --- Currently there are more than 125 Chinese cities with a population exceeding one million. The unprecedented urban growth in China presents a crucial development for studies on globalization and urban transformation. This book examines the past trajectories, present conditions, and future prospects of Chinese urbanization, by investigating five key themes – governance, migration, landscape, inequality, and cultural economy. Sin Yee Koh fin...

  1. Healthy Aging in China

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  2. The Elements of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING; WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Visitors flocked to the World Expo site in Shanghai when the grand fair officially opened to the public on May 1.The most visited pavilions on that day were the theme pavilions,the China Pavilion and China's joint provincial pavilions,said Hong Hao,Director of the Bureau of Shanghai World Expo Coordination at a press conference on the Expo's first day of operation.

  3. Minority languages of China

    OpenAIRE

    Poa, Dory; LaPolla, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter looks at language endangerment in the People's Republic of China, focusing on three of the main factors that influence language maintenance in China today: increased contact due to population movements and changes in the economy; the population policies of the government, particularly the identification of nationalities and languages; and the education system, particularly bilingual education. Finally, we give a brief account of the major efforts to document endangered languages.

  4. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  5. Arbitration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, W

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, with China entering into the era of “reform and opening up”, the drive towards economic modernization via the policy of attracting foreign investment has been pressing. Although China has promulgated an impressive body of laws and regulations concerning foreign trade and investment, their enforcement has been less than satisfactory. In view of the lack of competence of Chinese courts and the reluctance of Chinese firms to put their fate in the hands of foreign courts, the Beijing ...

  6. All the coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, N

    1993-01-01

    China is emerging as a serious producer of carbon emissions from its burning of coal. China contributes 11% of global carbon emissions, which is still less than its population share. Economic reforms are likely to boost emissions. 33% of all fuel burned in China produces useful energy compared to 50-60% in the USA and Japan. Low prices encourage wasteful use. The Chinese government responds to energy shortages by investing scarce capital in building more mines, power plants, and oil wells. It is unlikely that investing in expanding conventional energy supplies will be a viable solution, regardless of the availability of capital to invest, because air pollution threatens life. Particulate suspension is 14 times greater in China than in the USA. 14% of the country is affected by acid rain. Global warming may be affecting the northern drought prone areas. The solutions must involve greater efficiency. Industrial consumption of energy is more than 66% of energy produced. Energy use for a typical steel or cement factory is 7-75% greater per ton than Western countries, i.e., 55-60% efficiency versus 80% in Europe. The inefficiency is due to poor maintenance and operating procedures and old or obsolete technology. The savings in building a compact, fluorescent light bulb factory is compared to the cost of building coal-fired power plants and transmission facilities. Conservation of heat in northern buildings could be accomplished with boiler improvements, insulation, and double- glazed windows. A $3 billion/year investment could yield a cut in energy demand by nearly 50%. The carbon emissions would be reduced from 1.4 billion tons to 1 billion tons in 2025. Between 1980 and 1985 the energy efficiency program was able to reduce growth in energy from 7% to 4% without slowing growth in industrial production. Since 1985, the government has directed expenditures toward expanding the energy supply, which reduced efficiency expenditures from 10% to 6% of total investment

  7. U.S.-China commercial nuclear commerce: Nonproliferation and trade issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report concludes that the United States should not be denied access to the Chinese nuclear energy program. To the contrary, the report finds that--provided China meets the requisite nonproliferation criteria--it is strongly in the US national interest to engage in peaceful nuclear, cooperation with China, from security, environmental, safety, and economic perspectives

  8. How to Do a Better IP Commercialization in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Status of IP commercialization in China A sound social ecosystem for IP (intellectual property) commercialization will not be established in China overnight because the training of IP professionals and the introducing of IP into management are both a process that takes time. In recent years, the CAS has conducted a series of training programs concerning IP management and service as well as IP team building.Over the past three years, more than 70 senior staffs from CAS institutes have received certificates of IP Specialists from the CAS headquarters after successfully completing a training program.

  9. Participatory Training Applied to the Program of Maternal and Child Health Poverty Alleviation Fund in China%参与式培训在世界银行-云南省妇幼卫生扶贫资金项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 刘凤英; 石安萍; 胡世云

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduced the definition of participatory Training,and briefly reviewed the concept,operation steps of the seven kinds of tools of participatory training that applied in the Program of Maternal and Child Health Poverty Alleviation fund (MCHPAF)in China. At last,the authors briefly described the evaluation and the key issues should be attention of the participatory training.%给出了参与式培训的定义,并简要介绍了在世界银行-云南省妇幼卫生扶贫资金项目培训中所采用的7种具体方法的定义及其具体步骤,最后对培训的效果评估及组织参与式培训的注意事项进行的阐述。

  10. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  11. Care of HIV-infected patients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhen CAO; Hong Zhou LU

    2005-01-01

    Compared with high infection areas of the world, the total HIV infection rate in China is relatively low. Nonetheless,because of China's vast territory and large population, the potential infection risk must be taken seriously. In the next few years, needle sharing among injection drug users will remain the most common route of transmission for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Unprotected sex is gradually becoming a major route of transmission. China began to implement HAART in 1999 according to international standards. Prior to 2003, there were only about 150 HIV/AIDS patients were treated with HAART in some clinical trials and about 100 HIV/AIDS patients were treated by private sources.Results of those treatments are the scientific basis for development of the therapeutic strategies in China. In March of 2003, the Chinese government initiated China CARES program. In November of 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health announced a national policy of free ARV treatment to all HIV+ Chinese citizens who were in poverty and required ARV therapy. There are total of 19,456 HIV/AIDS patients received free ARV drugs to date in 159 regions and 441 towns.Current challenges are how to follow-up and evaluate those patients in the clinical settings. The longer the therapy is postponed, the more side effects and the higher probability of drug resistance are going to occur. It remains unclear,therefore, when HAART regimen should be started in the HIV/AIDS population in China.

  12. ITER implementation and fusion energy research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER Project is jointly implemented by China, EU, India, Japan, Korea, Russian Federation and USA, under the coordination of Center Team of ITER International Fusion Energy Organization (IO-CT). Chinese fusion research related institutes and industrial enterprises are fully involved in the implementation of China contribution to the project under the leadership of ITER China Domestic Agency (CN-DA), together with IO-CT. The progresses of Procurement Packages (PA) allocated to China and the technical issues, especially on key technology development and schedule, QA/QC issues, are highlighted in this report. The specific enterprises carrying out different PAs are identified in order to make the increasing international manufactures and producers to ITER PAs know each other well for the successful implementation of ITER project. The participation of China to the management of IO-CT is also included, mainly from the governmental aspect and staff recruited from China. On the other hand, the domestic fusion researches, including upgrade of EAST, HL-2A Tokamaks in China, TBM program, the next step design activities for fusion energy power plant, namely, CFETR and training in this area, are also introduced for global cooperation for international fusion community. (author)

  13. Control of eolic erosion in a coal Port, by means of re-vegetation of arid areas and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the phenomenon of haulage of floor particles for the wind is known as erosion by deflation, and one in the ways of eolic erosion existent, although many authors constitutes they refer to her as eolic erosion. The eolic erosion includes the movement processes, transport, separation and deposition, it can present in any area that presents the following conditions: 1) Soil dry and loose until certain finely divided degree, 2) flat surface with little or any vegetable cover, 3) quite extensive land 4) sufficiently strong wind to transport the earth particles. It is considered that to begin the movement of particles 0.1 mm of diameter winds they are needed to 30 cm of height of 4,4m/s (FAO, 1961). All these conditions are presented in Port Bolivar in more or smaller measure. In port Bolivar two main groups of areas have been identified in process of material movement

  14. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  15. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  16. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  17. Decentralizing Eligibility for a Federal Antipoverty Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In theory, the informational advantage of decentralizing the eligibility criteria for a federal antipoverty program could come at a large cost to the program's performance in reaching the poor nationally. Whether this happens in practice depends on the size of the local-income effect on the eligibility cutoffs. China's Di Bao program provides a case study. Poorer municipalities adopt systematically lower thresholds—roughly negating intercity differences in need for the program and generating ...

  18. China marks World Population Day. Address by Zhang Weiqing: (Excerpts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1998-08-01

    This is a summary of remarks by Minister Zhang Weiqing of China's State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) given on World Population Day in China. The world's population size has increased by 1 billion since 1987, and will reach 6 billion by 1999. As the most populous developing country in the world, China has a greater population pressure and bears a large responsibility regarding stabilization of the world's population and realization of sustainable development. China has a less developed economy and a high percentage of rural and illiterate persons, many of whom are below the poverty line. The interests of both present and future generations must be taken into account with regard to development. In addition, the modernization drive must include strategies for sustainable development and basic national policies of FP and environmental protection in order to achieve a balance among population growth, the economy, resources, and the environment. After 30 years of effort, China has succeeded in solving its population problem by integrating governmental guidance with voluntary public participation in FP. In 1997, the birthrate decreased to 16.57/1000, and the total fertility rate was below replacement level. Changes in attitude toward marriage and childbearing have occurred, as has awareness of voluntary participation in FP. However, some problems have emerged in the implementation of population and FP programs. China will carry out its programs strictly and effectively while developing the national economy. Goals include: 1) stressing the IEC program regarding contraception and regular FP management and services; 2) integrating the FP program with economic development; 3) helping the public to become well off; 4) protecting maternal and child health; 5) improving the status of women; 6) delivering reproductive services; and 7) improving social security measures. Efforts will be made to enable the public to have a more active part in implementing the FP program. PMID

  19. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  20. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  1. E-Commerce Education in China: Driving Forces, Status, and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xianfeng Zhang; Qi Li; Lin, Z.

    2005-01-01

    With an explosive growth of e-businesses worldwide, e-commerce in China is booming, leading to the development of e-commerce education. This paper is intended to investigate whether the education system in China accords well with the market demand and the status of e-commerce programs in China in order to seek strategies for China to cope with the challenges of global e-commerce empowered by fast updated information technologies. First, we construct a four-layer conceptual model to describe t...

  2. Integrating technology education concepts into China's educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Faxian

    The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.

  3. 中盖艾滋病项目对广州市男男性接触人群社区组织干预检测能力的影响%Effect of China-Gates foundation HIV prevention cooperation program on the mobilization and testing of MSM community-based project in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊赫亚; 辛美哲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中盖艾滋病项目对广州市男男性接触人群(MSM)社区组织干预检测能力的影响.方法 以中盖艾滋病项目年度计划完成数量及质量为主的定量分析结合定性描述的综合评价.结果 项目实施四年间广州市MSM社区组织所干预高危人群中参加检测率从23.02%提高到36.48%,差异有统计学意义(x2 =2 767.00,P<0.01),检测指标计划完成率从75.60%提高到95.30%,差异有统计学意义(x2=311.00,P<0.05).其所动员检测人群中确认阳性率为4.46%,梅毒感染率为6.22%,4年间差异均有统计学意义(x2=19.04,39.17,P均<0.01).结论 通过以绩效为基础的中盖艾滋病项目的实施,广州市MSM社区组织干预检测能力逐步提高,发展思路及方向日益开阔.%Objective To assess the effect of China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation Program on the mobilization and testing of MSM community-based project in Guangzhou. Methods Comprehensive E-valuation of quantitative analysis coupled with qualitative description was conducted according to the quantity and quality of completed annual plan of the program. Results During the 4 year period after the implementation of the program, the number of people among high-risk population who have received HIV testing under the work of MSM community-based organizations increased from 23.02% to 36. 48% with the completion rate increased from 75. 60% to 95. 30%. The HIV positive rate among those tested was 4. 46% while the positive rate of syphilis infection was around 6. 22%. Conclusions MSM community-based organization has done a great job for HIV screening under the influence of implementation of China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation Program.

  4. CHINA Continuing cooperation with CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a visit to China in July, CERN Director General Carlo Rubbia signed an agreement with the Chinese Academy of Sciences which provides a reciprocal framework for CERN and China to continue and develop their scientific and technical cooperation

  5. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  6. Developing Good HR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT HU

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the shape of the recruitment market in China at the moment? What you have to understand first is that 20 years ago there was no recruiting market in China. The government allocated all jobs.

  7. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  8. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  9. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  10. Palaeogeography of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Palaeogeography is a science that studies the features and evolution of physical geography in geological history and human history. The palaeogeography of China has multiple disciplines and multiple types of palaeogeographic map. These perfectly reflect "a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought content". The palaeogeography of China has three characteristics. The first is multiple disciplines flourishing simultaneously. The second is that lithofacies palaeogeography is in a leading position. The third is that palaeogeography of China is closely connected with industrial practice. It is why palaeogeography, especially lithofacies palaeogeography of China, can flourish continually. We have two journals of palaeogeography, i. e. Journal of Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition) and Journal of Palaeogeography (English Edition). The former primarily publishes articles of Chinese authors regarding Chinese palaeogeography and related disciplines and has a foothold in China. The latter will publish the articles of both Chinese and international authors and caters to foreign readers. These two journals will cooperate together and display their own expertise, which will effectively make a great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese palaeogeography and international palaeogeography.

  11. Lifting China's water spell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  12. The Potential Geographic Distribution of Radopholus similis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-sheng; XIE Bing-yan; WAN Fang-hao; XIAO Qi-ming; DAI Liang-ying

    2007-01-01

    The burrowing nematode(Radopholus similis)is one of the main quarantine pests in China,and the risk of invasion posed by this nematode is becoming more and more serious with regard to the international trade being intensified day by day.It is urgent to analyse the potential geographic distribution of R.similis in China.Genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction modeling system(GARP)and maximum entropy(MAXENT),the two niche models which have been widely used to predict the potential geographic distribution of alien species,were used to predict the distribution of R.similis in China.We also presented a model comparison of the results by both threshold-dependent and threshold-independent evaluations.It has been shown that the two niche models could be used to predict the potential distribution of R.similis reliably.The potential distribution of R.similis should be constricted within the south of China,such as Hainan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian,Yunnan provinces,and Taiwan of China.The MAXENT gives a better prediction than that of GARP.R.similis can be introduced to China by flowers and nursery stock's international shipping.The predicted results indicate that R.similis can occur in south coastal area of China and Yunnan Province,which are the main flower and nursery stock's import-export areas in China.Consequently,a strong quarantine program is needed at the ports of such areas to prevent the pest from being introduced to China.

  13. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulaf, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  14. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  15. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  16. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulap rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  17. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural scienes sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular,rapid and authoritative reviews of currcnt important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China today.

  18. Deflation in China (1997 - 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990's and after the turn of the century, the problem of deflation dramatically emerged in China and in other countries. Since the 'open door' policy the economy in China has been growing relatively fast. Available statistical data reveal that the growth process in China between 1997 and 2000 was accompanied by a deflation. The economic development in China is observed with great attention in business circles and by scientists. The goal of this dissertation is the theoretical and econo...

  19. The Secret Behind China's Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the tumultuous period of the world financial crisis,China's economy sank,struck bottom and rebounded as its GDP in 2009 reached 8.7 percent,far beyond global expectations.But why has China succeeded so rapidly and what lessons can people draw from the experience? In his recent article China's New Deal: How to Response to International Financial Crisis,Hu Angang,Director of the Center for China Studies of Tsinghua University discussed these issues.

  20. Understanding and learning from china

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Virgínia

    2009-01-01

    The inauguration of a new research centre at ISCTE Business School: the Centre of Asian Studies - Asiânia. On Asiânia; on the day's events and on foreign multinationals in China - the case of Xian-Janssen. The making of a successful joint venture in China. On problems of brand transfer in China. Understanding the Chinese culture and working together. On distribution systems in China.

  1. A Snapshot of the Current Status of Social Work Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Daley, James

    2014-01-01

    This article compares 49 colleges and universities in mainland China on the level of social work education, department and school affiliation, and duration of the program. Findings indicate great diversity in all 3 categories. Bachelor's degrees of social work are offered in 83.3% of the programs, and 38.8% of the programs offer master's…

  2. STUDY OF RURAL TOURISM IN TURPAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYIM Parhad; YANG De-gang; ZHANG Xiao-lei

    2005-01-01

    Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development,and has become a development tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s.Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has shaped, with the core of Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu of China. But in Xinjiang, the westem part of China, there are hardly any studies in this field in spite of its richness of tourism resources. In this paper, development of rural tourism is studied in Turpan of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. With its rich natural and cultural tourism resources, Turpan has become one of the pioneer tourism destinations in China. But same to the rural tourism development of the other areas' of China, rural tourism programs in Turpan mainly aimed at sightseeing activities, and little attention had been paid to the protection and exploitation of national minority culture-an important factor to satisfy both tourists demand and local economic development. However, this kind of rural tourism development policy is harmful on the long run. Because, many tourists seek tourist destinations that offer pleasant experiences related to not only the natural environment but also historic heritage and cultural patterns. The study suggests that on the base of government support in the long term, to enhance tourism training, to protect and exploit national minority culture are essential elements of rural tourism development in Turpan.

  3. Project management and its characteristic analysis for China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first step of fast reactor development in China, China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), one of the key projects of the National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program), will reach the first physical criticality in 2009 and will be connected to grid in 2010. The CEFR project includes R and D, design, construction, commissioning and operation, and its technology and management are very complex. This paper describes its position, objective, task, management, and analyzes its characteristics. (authors)

  4. The Problems of Current Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education for Undergraduates in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Youli

    2008-01-01

    The tourism industry has boomed within the last three decades. With the rapid development of the tourism industry in China, tourism and hospitality education, especially higher education, has also flourished in China. In 1978, not a single program was offered in tourism and hospitality education at any of the universities and colleges. However, in 2005 there were 693 universities and colleges offering tourism and hospitality programs and this number is still rapidly increasing. This dissertat...

  5. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  6. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  7. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  8. Hotels Continue to Target China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within the global hotel industry, China is the buzzword on everybody's lips.From April 26th to 28th,senior executives of leading international hotel brands and China hoteliers gathered in Shanghai to attend the 2nd China Hotel Investment Summit. The event attracted a record number of over 450international and local delegates from over 20 countries.

  9. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.

  10. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Ping

    2006-01-01

      China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.……

  11. Arranged Marriage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>Marriage is an important institution in our society,which binds men and women the most frequently.When men and women are together,the gender relationship becomes obvious.Most societies in the world are patriarchal,so men’s power penetrates everywhere,including the marriage institution.Marriage institution is built on men’s power,and at the same time,it contributes to men’s power.Arranged marriage is a good example to illustrate how men’s power is over women,which was prevailing in China.China also has arranged marriage today,but particularly in rural areas.Urban China develops a new form of arranged marriage recently,but whether traditional arranged

  12. PetroChina & Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Back in December,CIB took a cue from Warren Buffett and looked at the recent A-share initial public offering (IPO) of PetroChina(中国石油),China's largest oil company and,at the time,the largest company in the world.We didn't like what we saw.While the argument in favor of PetroChina was obvious-it is of course,the primary provider of refined oil to a country with the fastest-growing oil demand in the world,and operating in a period of exponential growth in oil prices-the negatives were just as striking.It was overvalued from a revenue point of view,and had to contend with state price controls.

  13. China's petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country's growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China's petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report

  14. Recent progress in submarine geosciences in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    In China submarine geosciences represents a newly established discipline of oceanography, focusing on the oceanic lithosphere, and its interface with the hydrosphere and biosphere. Recently, supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program and other high-tech development projects, significant progress has been made in the development of advanced technologies and equipment. This en-ables the scientists in China to carry out explorations of the international seabed area in the Pacific Ocean and on the Southwest Indian Ridge. In addition, they have been active in the research activities associated the mid-ocean ridges and western Pacific marginal seas. It is anticipated that this research field will continue to be highly fruitful in the near future.

  15. How NOT to Choose an MBA Program!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnD.VanFleet

    2004-01-01

    Every year, tens of thousands of people in China select MBA programs. Many of these people make unwise choices, ultimately joining programs that do not meet their needs. Want to avoid being one of them? Avoid their mistakes by asking the right questions, in the right ways.

  16. Development status of nuclear power in China and fundamental research progress on PWR primary water chemistry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's non-fossil fuels are expected to reach 20% in primary energy ratio by 2030. It is urgent for China to speed up the development of nuclear power to increase energy supply, reduce gas emissions and optimize resource allocation. Chinese government slowed down the approval of new nuclear power plant (NPP) projects after Fukushima accident in 2011. At the end of 2012, the State Council approved the nuclear safety program and adjusted long-term nuclear power development plan (2011-2020), the new NPP's projects have been restarted. In June 2015, there are 23 operating units in mainland in China with total installed capacity of about 21.386 GWe; another 26 units are under construction with total installed capacity of 28.5 GWe. The main type of reactors in operation and under construction in China is pressurized water reactor (PWR), including the first AP1000 NPPs in the world (units 1 in Sanmen) and China self-developed Hualong one NPPs (units 5 and 6 in Fuqing). Currently, China's nuclear power development is facing historic opportunities and also a series of challenges. One of the most important is the safety and economy of nuclear power. The optimization of primary water chemistry is one of the most effective ways to minimize radiation field, mitigate material degradation and maintain fuel performance in PWR NPPs, which is also a preferred path to achieve both safety and economy for operating NPPs. In recent years, an increased attention has been paid to fundamental research and engineering application of PWR primary water chemistry in China. The present talk mainly consists of four parts: (1) development status of China's nuclear power industry; (2) safety of nuclear power and operating water chemistry; (3) fundamental research progress on Zn-injected water chemistry in China; (4) summary and future. (author)

  17. Work with China, not Just for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Tarvin

    2011-01-01

    For the last decade, China has represented the fastest growing economy on the planet. It first tapped its vast resources as a cheap manufacturer due to the low cost of labor and favourable exchange rate. This attracted an endless supply of western companies wishing to improve their competitiveness by lowering their cost base. This was the catalyst that powered the urbanization of the Chinese people and with it the need for a vast array of new infrastructure and concomitant natural resources that helped sustain a general trend of global growth.

  18. Handicapped people in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Tretter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the situation and living conditions of handicapped people in China. It describes the school and educational system, training and working conditions, rehabilitative and preventive activities as well as the public view and the view of the Chinese government on disabled persons.All in all it can be noticed that living conditions of handicapped people have improved a lot in China by, amongst others, national models of integration and local support. Nevertheless, there is still a big difference between rural and urban areas.

  19. Nuclear Industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  20. China in Overcapacity Exacerbating?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The problem of overcapacity has been plaguing China for years.Many economists claim that China's double-edged economic system of foreign trade and investment has resulted in a lack of consumption.It is estimated that approximately 35% of GDP depends solely on exports,some of which has naturally turned into excessive capacity due to the recent lack of external demand from western markets.Repeated build up in certain industries,which the government has failed to restrain,has resulted in prevailing overcapacity,and has also indirectly triggered the flood of anti-dumping cases against Chinese enterprises in recent years.

  1. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI SHI

    2011-01-01

    A100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published on August 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.Visions of China,the planned theme park,would cover an area of 120 acres in Rotherham,South Yorkshire,and feature distinct Chinese architecture including Chinese gardens,theaters,restaurants,a temple,a children's fantasy land,a Shanghai-style shopping street,a Shaolin pagoda,a hotel and a wellness center.

  2. Gnomons in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Google in China

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong analysis. The central question is explored from different angles and well supported. In addition, this student shows himself to be a real engineer-to-be by not only giving an analysis, but also trying...

  4. Why China Is Confident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis is far from over as world economic growth continues to decline. Can China stop the downward tendency of economic growth and reach an economic soft landing? Can China take the lead in getting out of the shadow of the economic crisis? Chen Huai, Director of the Economic Research Institute of China’s Urban and Rural Development under the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, discussed these questions in a recent article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. China: a critical decade

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Fergus; Stern, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    China’s consumption of coal could reach a peak by 2020, or even earlier, as part of its plans to pursue more sustainable economic growth. The policy paper by Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern notes that discussions are already taking place in China about the possibility of setting a target for ending the rise in its annual consumption of coal before the end of its 13th Five-Year Plan, which will cover the period from 2016 to 2020. The paper states: “China could intensify its efforts to re...

  6. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  7. India China Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Danendran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    This research report addresses the topic of India China supply chain. This study would be looking at the existing policies among the China India trade and a real life scenario of this trade will be analysed. By conducting this study, the current situation of trades can be put forward and it will give an idea to what extent trade policies are useful when it comes to trading and to what extent the policies aid the bottlenecks faced by a trader. The objectives of the research are to understa...

  8. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  9. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  10. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  11. Nuclear power perspective in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China started developing nuclear technology for power generation in the 1970s. A substantial step toward building nuclear power plants was taken as the beginning of 1980 s. The successful constructions and operations of Qinshan - 1 NPP, which was an indigenous PWR design with the capacity of 300 MWe, and Daya Bay NPP, which was an imported twin-unit PWR plant from France with the capacity of 900 MWe each, give impetus to further Chinese nuclear power development. Now there are 8 units with the total capacity of 6100 MWe in operation and 3 units with the total capacity of 2600 MWe under construction. For the sake of meeting the increasing demand for electricity for the sustainable economic development, changing the energy mix and mitigating the environment pollution impact caused by fossil fuel power plant, a near and middle term electrical power development program will be established soon. It is preliminarily predicted that the total power installation capacity will be 750-800GWe by the year 2020. The nuclear share will account for at least 4.0-4.5 percent of the total. This situation leaves the Chinese nuclear power industry with a good opportunity but also a great challenge. A practical nuclear power program and a consistent policy and strategy for future nuclear power development will be carefully prepared and implemented so as to maintain the nuclear power industry to be healthfully developed. (author)

  12. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  13. Assessment of China's energy-saving and emission-reduction accomplishments and opportunities during the 11th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). With a dramatic reversal of this historic relationship, energy intensity increased 5% per year during 2002-2005. China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP) set a target of reducing energy intensity by 20% by 2010. This paper assesses selected policies and programs that China has instituted to fulfill the national goal, finding that China made substantial progress and many of the energy-efficiency programs appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases exceed - their energy-saving targets. Most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program will meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program has become very robust. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure, are failing. It is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new policy mechanisms to improve the programs that are not on track to achieve the stated goals. - Research highlights: → This paper assesses selected national energy efficiency policies and programs China. → The policies were established to fulfill the 11th Five Year Plan energy efficiency improvement goal. → Many of the programs appear to be on track to meet or exceed their energy-saving targets. → For the 12th Five Year Plan, it is important to maintain and strengthen energy-saving policies. → Recommendations are made for revising or adding programs based on international experience.

  14. China's Energy Law Drafted to Cope with Severe Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tong

    2006-01-01

    @@ To implement the decision of the State Council, State Energy Office, National Development and Reform Commission and Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council held a joint conference in Beijing early this year to establish a drafting team of the Energy Law. As a result, the program of drafting China's Energy Law was unveiled.

  15. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. U.S. Campaign Advertises American Higher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2007-01-01

    A marketing campaign intended to persuade Chinese students to study in the United States will soon branch out to other parts of the globe. The U.S.-led program, which includes slick television commercials and a one-stop-shopping Web portal, was introduced in China last fall. The commercials, which run about 30 minutes and were filmed on American…

  17. China-U. S. Strategic Relations on the "Western Front"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zugui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In geopolitical terms, despite its broader global significance, the interaction between a rising China and a hegemonic America, had nevertheless all along been confined largely to East Asia, or the "Eastern Front," where issues like the Taiwan question, the nuclear program of the DPRK as well as bilateral trade, economic and military exchanges attracted the attention of observers or analysts.

  18. Constructing the Discipline of Humanistic Medicine on Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baisheng; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Humanistic medicine, as an interdisciplinary science, synthesizes knowledge concerning medical philosophy, medical ethics, medical law, medical history, medical sociology, medical logic, and doctor-patient communication. On Mainland China, increasing attention is being paid to humanistic medicine, as evidenced by doctoral education programs being…

  19. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  20. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  1. English Immersion in China as a Case of Educational Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiyan; Kang, Yeqin

    2011-01-01

    The English immersion program in China is a case of educational mode transfer from foreign language immersion in North America. This article analyzes the process of the transfer from the perspective of comparative education, using the model of "four stages of educational borrowing." First, it revisits the recent research on educational transfer…

  2. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and bioc

  3. Why is China going nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2007, China's State Council approved its 'Medium- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Development Plan', which set as a goal to increase the nation's nuclear capacity from about 7 to 40 GWe by 2020. In March 2008, the National Development and Reform Commission suggested installed nuclear power capacity might even exceed 60 GWe by 2020 due to faster than expected construction. Even with this growth, nuclear power's share of China's installed total capacity would be only about 5 percent. Yet China's rapid nuclear expansion poses serious financial, political, security, and environmental challenges. This study investigates China's claim that nuclear energy is necessary to meet its growing energy demands by analyzing China's energy alternatives and assessing their likelihood of contributing to total Chinese capacity. By looking at China's transformative energy policy from several perspectives, this study finds that nuclear energy is indeed a necessity for China.

  4. CHINA TEXTILE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s textile industry faces difficult times,but can survive them and create a brighter future. Sun Ruizhe,Vice Chairman of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC),shared his views with Belling Review while analysing the difficulties China’s textile industry is now confronted with.

  5. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  6. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  7. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  8. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R...

  9. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R...

  10. Chronicling China's Political Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Leading Chinese political scientist Zhao Baoxu has produced an overview of the evolution of China's political structure,its political studies as well as its foreign policy over the past six decades in his latest book In Pursuit of Harmony:An Academic Anthology of Zhao Baoxu.

  11. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  12. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  13. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  14. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  15. Women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    2000-01-01

    One of my best experiences when I lived in China (1998-1999) was when mydaughter and her friend Kathy visited me and we went to Putuoshan together. I’ vealways been interested in women’s lives in my own and other cultures, so

  16. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  17. Will China Save Europe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China is not the answer to Europe’s crisis, neither will it turn its back With a landslide victory in the Spanish general election on November 20, the People’s Party ousted the ruling Socialist Workers’ Party,which had governed Spain

  18. China's Demographic Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H. Yuan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    China's herculean efforts to slow the increase of its giant population appear to have worked: the annual birth rate fell from about 35 births per 1,000 in the 1950s to 20 per 1,000 in the 1990s. This bulletin examines the development and consequences of the strict population planning control measures introduced in the 1970s, and strengthened in…

  19. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  20. CHARTING ROADMAP FOR CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hu Jintao,General Secretary of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC),outlines ambitious goals for economic,political and social developments,as well as the nation’s position on the world stage,in his keynote report to the 17th National Congress of the CPC at its opening on October 15.