WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinas re-vegetation program

  1. [Effects of different re-vegetation patterns on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the wind-water erosion crisscross region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-tong; Wei, Yan-chun; Yang, Xian-long; Hao, Ming-de; Wei, Xiao-rong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) to three typical re-vegetation patterns, i.e., grassland, alfalfa land and peashrub land on the Loess Plateau of China, and also to assess the dynamics of SOC and TN with re-vegetation age. The results showed that all the three re-vegetation practices increased the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer, but their effects differed with re-vegetation age. Compared with adjacent croplands, the concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer in grassland did not change within 10 years of succession, but increased after 20 years of succession. In alfalfa land, the concentrations of SOC and TN increased by 51.6%-82.9% and 43.4%-67.0% in the 0-10 cm soil layer, with the increasing rates of stocks of SOC and TN being 0.17-0.46 and 0.015-0.043 t · hm⁻² · a⁻¹, respectively. However, SOC and TN were not affected by re-vegetation age in alfalfa land. The increases of concentrations of SOC and TN remained high in the first 20 years after conversion of cropland to peashrub land, but decreased after 40 years of conversion. In conclusion, the conversion of croplands to peashrub or alfalfa land could be better in contributing to high stocks of SOC and TN than natural succession of grassland. However, their positive effects on the enrichment of SOC and TN may not be sustainable due to the scarcity of soil moisture and high water consumption of these two re-vegetation plants.

  2. Responses of soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation in gully Loess Plateau of Northwest China%黄土高原沟壑区土壤酶活性对植被恢复的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林海; 邱莉萍; 梦梦

    2012-01-01

    结合野外调查与室内分析,研究了黄土高原沟壑区小流域自然坡面和不同植被恢复条件下剖面土壤酶活性的分布特征,以及土壤酶活性对植被恢复的响应.结果表明:黄土高原沟壑区小流域坡地土壤的脲酶、蔗糖酶和碱性磷酸酶活性为高度变异指标,过氧化氢酶活性则为弱变异指标.土壤剖面酶活性受植被恢复措施的显著影响,随土层的加深,土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和碱性磷酸酶活性逐渐降低,过氧化氢酶活性升高.3种水解酶活性之间呈显著正相关,并与土壤物理性质显著负相关,与土壤化学性质显著正相关;过氧化氢酶活性除与含水量和pH正相关外,与其他理化性质呈负相关.土壤水解酶类可以敏感指示植被恢复的土壤效应,植被恢复措施可以改善表层和深层土壤的生物学性质.%In combining field investigation with laboratory analysis, this paper studied the distribution characteristics of soil enzyme activities along the soil profiles and natural slopes with different re-vegetation treatments in gully Loess Plateau, aimed to assess the responses of the soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation. In the study area, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phos-phatase along natural slopes were highly varied, but the activity of soil catalase was in adverse. The profile distribution of the soil enzyme activities varied significantly with vegetation type, and with increasing soil depth, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatase decreased while the catalase activity increased. There existed significant positive correlation among the three hydro-lases activities. The activities of the three hydrolases were all significantly negatively correlated with soil physical properties and positively correlated with soil chemical properties, while the soil catalase activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content and pH and negatively correlated

  3. Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are Soil Water Index (SWI, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and precipitation, were used to investigate the response of soil moisture in the one-meter layer of top soil to the re-vegetation during the GGP. SWI was estimated based on the backscatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2 and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp, while NDVI was derived from SPOT imageries. Two separate periods, which are 1998–2000 and 2008–2010, were selected to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998–2000 was close to that of 2008–2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm. From 1998–2000 to 2008–2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. The average NDVI over the Loess Plateau increased rapidly by 17.76% after the 10-year GGP project. However, the average SWI decreased by 4.37% for two-thirds of the area. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI, 23.34% of the area had an increased NDVI and SWI. NDVI and SWI decreased simultaneously for 14.99% of the area, and the decreased NDVI and increased SWI occurred at the same time for 4.02% of the area. These results indicate that re-vegetation, human activities, and climate change have

  4. Effects of Re-vegetation on Herbaceous Species Composition and Biological Soil Crusts Development in a Coal Mine Dumping Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yigang; Huang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Despite the critical roles of plant species' diversity and biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, the restoration of the diversity of herbaceous species and BSCs are rarely discussed during the process of vegetation restoration of anthropogenically damaged areas in these regions. In this study, the herbaceous plant species composition, along with the BSCs coverage and thicknesses, was investigated at six different re-vegetation type sites, and the natural vegetation site of the Heidaigou open pit coal mine in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was used as a reference. The highest total species richness (16), as well as the species richness (4.4), occurred in the Tree and Herbaceous vegetation type site. The species composition similarities between the restored sites and the reference site were shown to be very low, and ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. Also, among the restored sites, the similarities of the species were fairly high and similar, and ranged from 0.45 to 0.93. The density and height of the re-vegetated woody plants were significantly correlated with the indexes of the diversity of the species. The Shrub vegetation type site showed the greatest total coverage (80%) of BSCs and algae crust coverage (48%). The Shrub and Herbaceous type had the greatest thicknesses of BSCs, with as much as 3.06 mm observed, which was followed by 2.64 mm for the Shrub type. There was a significant correlation observed between the coverage of the total BSCs, and the total vegetation and herbaceous vegetation coverage, as well as between the algae crust coverage and the herbaceous vegetation coverage. It has been suggested that the re-vegetated dwarf woody plant species (such as shrubs and semi-shrubs) should be chosen for the optimal methods of the restoration of herbaceous species diversity at dumping sites, and these should be planted with low density. Furthermore, the effects of vegetation coverage on the colonization and development the BSCs

  5. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  6. Hydropower Development Programming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the speech delivered by Mr.Zhou Dabing,Deputy Manager General of China National Electric Power Corporation,on its hosted “Hydropower Developing Seminar”, during the national “10th Fivc-ynar Plan” and the “Farsight Program to 2015”, the installed capacity of hydropower shall be up to 75GW by 2000,

  7. China Continues Its FY Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    China will continue its FY program by launching FY-2C atop LM-3A launch vehicle probably in October 2004. The geostationary meteorological satellite FY2C will be deployed to replace FY-2B launched on June 25, 2000.

  8. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C.; Santos, Vilma M.; da Silva, Danielle Karla A.; Fernandes, Marcelo F.; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  9. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  10. Current progress of China's free ART program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Jie; ZHANG; Jennifer; PAN; Lan; YU; Yi; WEN; Yan; ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    China's Free ART Program was initiated in 2002 as an emergency response to save and improve the lives of AIDS patients living mainly in impoverished rural regions of central China. With little experience in HIV/AIDS treatment and care and resource limitations, China's efforts to provide widespread access to free antiretroviral therapy has been a process fraught with difficulty. However, the Free ART Program is progressing from an emergency response to a standardized treatment and care system. The development of national guidelines, training programs, a laboratory support network, a national patient database, programs for special populations such as children and patients living with coinfections, and operational research has improved the scope and quality of the free treatment program. As of June 30,2005, a total of 19,456 patients in 28 provinces, autonomous regions, and special municipalities had received free ART.Challenges stemming from the nature of China's health system and patient population persist, but with strong government support and a diverse set of resources, China has the capacity to overcome these challenges and to provide nationwide access to high quality treatment and care.

  11. Expansion of China's free antiretroviral treatment program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-cai; ZHANG Fu-jie; WEN Yi; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Yao; WU Ya-song; LIU Xia; Elizabeth Au; LIU Zhong-fu

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003,China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program (NFATP) was initiated as a pilot,which covered only 100 HIV/AIDS patients.By 2011,the pilot had evolved into a nationwide program and had provided free treatment for over 150 000 patients.The objective of this study was to report and evaluate the progress of China's free antiretroviral treatment program.Methods The NFATP Database was systematically reviewed and a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study.Program progress indicators including the number of treated HIV/AIDS patients,follow-up visit rate,CD4 test rate,and viral load test rate were summarized and examined over a calendar year to evaluate the progress of NFATP quantitatively and qualitatively.Results By the end of 2011,a total of 150 692 HIV/AIDS patients had been treated through the NFATP and 122 613 of them were still on treatment.Of all patients,about 72% were enrolled during the past four years.The dominant transmission route was blood related in the early phase of the NFATP,but gradually changed to sexual contact.Besides quantitative improvements,progress indicators also demonstrated significant qualitative improvements that the program had made during the past 9 years.Conclusions Great achievement has been made by China's NFATP.China's experience indicates the importance of a comprehensive response to the success of its treatment program.However,to ensure the quality and sustainability of treatment in the long term,more attention and resources should be paid towards program management.Chin Med J 2012; 125(19):3514-3521

  12. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  13. Current Situation of Preschool Immersion Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林蔚

    2014-01-01

    English Immersion programs in China have become a popular choice among parents for their children since the intro-duction of the Canadian model to the Chinese school system in 1997. English Immersion programs in China differ from tradition-al English instruction because in such programs content-based language programs are designed to immerse Chinese students in English and promote their communicative skills. From the perspective of Education and Applied Linguistics, this essay tries to study the idea and practice of English Immersion programs in China on preschool children in the perspective of the conception, theoretical foundation, foreseeable problems, etc., in order to make a thorough inquiry of their feasibility.

  14. Attitudes toward Dual Language Immersion Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qing

    2014-01-01

    With the development of economy and the English learning reform in China, the role of English has increased than ev⁃er before. Dual language immersion (DLI) programs, as a new way to offer both languages and content instructions, will gradually take place of traditional English learning and become a new tendency in China. The attitudes of related groups toward the DLI programs are very important to its further development. This paper will first give a brief introduction to the current situation in China, and then analyze the attitude toward DLI programs, includingones of students, teachers and administrators, to find out problems existing in current DLI programs.

  15. Chang Jiang and Her "Automobiles and China" Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.

  16. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    , reduction of compensation payment rate lowers the treatment effect of the SLCP on participating households from both River basins. Lastly, the third paper, ― The effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on farm household productivity in rural China, investigates the treatment effect (the causal effect......Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ― The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the effects...

  17. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  18. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  19. 2+2 Program for Teachers' Performance Appraisal in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

  20. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower......By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  1. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our...... results show that the SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention to increase rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the implementation of the SLCP has had heterogeneous effects on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  2. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  3. An Empirical Estimation of Effects of Priority Forestry Programs on Farmers’ Incomes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has launched six Priority Forestry Programs (PFPs) since 1998, i.e. the Natural Forest Protection Program, the Cropland Conversion to Forest and Grassland Program, Sandification Control Program for the Vicinity of Beijing & Tianjin , Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program, Forest Industrial Base Development Program and Shelterbelt Development Programs for regions such as Three North and the Yangtze River Catchments. The Government of China has made different policies for these PF...

  4. Establishing an education program for chronic wound care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Fu, Xiaobing

    2012-12-01

    Chronic wounds in China are an important issue. However, wound care knowledge and the skill of health care professionals varies among hospitals and cities. The Chinese Tissue Repair Society (CTRS) has developed a 3-year training program in wound care in China that is sponsored by the World Diabetes Foundation and the Coloplast Access to Healthcare foundation. The project focuses on training physicians and nurses in wound care for patients with diabetic mellitus and other chronic skin wounds. In the past 2 years, 1618 health care professionals, including 915 physicians and 703 nurses, have been trained. Participants are from more than 200 hospitals in 21 provinces. About 1200 patients per month, on average, have benefited from this project. In total, 13 hospitals have become training bases to continue the education program. The aim of the program is to help Chinese medical professionals efficiently manage chronic wounds, thereby shortening the wound healing time, reducing the amputation rate and treatment costs, and improving quality of life.

  5. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  6. Education Abroad in China: Literature Review of Study Abroad Program Types, Outcomes and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brett

    2013-01-01

    While there has been an increase in students studying abroad in China, this increase has not been seen in the respective number of articles published in scholarly journals on education abroad in China. This paper summarizes articles from journals on the types of education abroad programs in China, organized by topic, and by the outcomes and…

  7. All of China Should Contribute to Success of Children’s Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    IN February 1992 the State Council Standing Meeting discussed and endorsed the National Program of Action for Child Development (hereinafter referred to as National Program for short) in China in the 1990s which is a program of action for children. Children are the future of our motherland and the hope of our Chinese nation. The wholesome development of children has a bearing upon the future of China. Improvement of the quality of our entire nation begins with them.

  8. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of 15 curriculum projects is the result of a summer seminar in China for teachers and scholars. Projects in the collection are: (1) "Perspectives on Modern Political/Social Issues in China" (Sandy Conlon); (2) "Ancient History X Projects/China" (Michael Corey); (3) "Education and Development: China, a Case Study" (Marcia J. Frost);…

  9. Meeting the Demand for Accountability: Case Study of a Teacher Education Program in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Cheung CHAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for accountability, a teacher education program in a university located in South China has established processes at the college, the program, and the faculty levels to assure its program quality. Highlights of the processes are: involvement of stakeholders and the examination of program effectiveness. Although much has been done to help program candidates succeed, more effort is needed in the areas of program assessment and continuous improvement to assure program quality. An accountability implementation plan, a beginning teacher mentoring program, and a comparative study of beginning teacher performance were recommended to further enforce its strategies toward program accountability.

  10. Bibliometrics Course Offerings by Library and Information Science Programs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Zhao, Dangzhi; Yin, Yali; Yu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report results from a survey of bibliometrics courses offered by LIS programs in mainland China. We found that more than 27% of Chinese LIS programs offer bibliometrics courses. The majority of these programs teach bibliometrics as 2- or 3-credit, required courses to both undergraduate and graduate students, indicating the…

  11. Science & Technology for Sustainable Water in China A Perspective of the IAC Water Program and Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun

    2012-01-01

    Water is a big issue in the world. As we enter the 21st century, a global water crisis threatens the security, stability and environmental sustainability of all nations, particularly those in the developing world. The Inter-Academy Council (IAC) proposed to undertake a study of the current and emerging challenges and opportunities for sustainable water resources management at its 2009 Board meeting. This paper gives a perspective of the IAC Water Program, and the case studies conducted by China Working Group of the IAC Water Program on three key issues, namely climate change & water adaptive management, agricultural water & ecology, and urban water & environment. The purpose is to show the role of science & technology for sustainable water in China. These studies are the 1st phase of the IAC Water Program in China. Perspectives of new challenges and opportunities on this Program for the water future in the world and China are also given in the paper.

  12. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  13. Efficient System Design and Sustainable Finance for China's Village Electrification Program: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S.; Yin, H.; Kline, D. M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a joint effort of the Institute for Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEE), and the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support China's rural electrification program. This project developed a design tool that provides guidelines both for off-grid renewable energy system designs and for cost-based tariff and finance schemes to support them. This tool was developed to capitalize on lessons learned from the Township Electrification Program that preceded the Village Electrification Program. We describe the methods used to develop the analysis, some indicative results, and the planned use of the tool in the Village Electrification Program.

  14. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2013-09-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differ between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine.

  15. Sustainability Capacity Building Based on Educational Method: A Case Study on China and Sweden Joint Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Marie Nesser; Jonathon Wigley; Yu Guopei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development (EE&ESD) have been widely accepted as an effective educational method to contribute to capacity development and processes of change in developing countries. This paper takes SIDA supported EE&ESD in formal educationadvanced international training program, China as an example. By analyzing and reflecting its orientation, implementation, outcomes and evaluation, experiences and lessons learned are expected to help improve the sorts of international cooperation capacity building programs both from international and also Chinese perspectives.

  16. An Innovative Continuing Nursing Education Program Targeting Key Geriatric Conditions for Hospitalized Older People in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Shen, Jun; Wu, Haifeng; Ding, Fu; He, Xizhen; Zhu, Yueping

    2013-01-01

    A lack of knowledge in registered nurses about geriatric conditions is one of the major factors that contribute to these conditions being overlooked in hospitalized older people. In China, an innovative geriatric continuing nursing education program aimed at developing registered nurses' understanding of the complex care needs of hospitalized…

  17. An Innovative Continuing Nursing Education Program Targeting Key Geriatric Conditions for Hospitalized Older People in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Shen, Jun; Wu, Haifeng; Ding, Fu; He, Xizhen; Zhu, Yueping

    2013-01-01

    A lack of knowledge in registered nurses about geriatric conditions is one of the major factors that contribute to these conditions being overlooked in hospitalized older people. In China, an innovative geriatric continuing nursing education program aimed at developing registered nurses' understanding of the complex care needs of hospitalized…

  18. Payment for Environmental Services: The Sloping Land Conversion Program in Ningxia Autonomous Region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Tu, Q.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    China's Sloping Land Conversion Program has been implemented since 2002. It aims to achieve goals of ecological recovery and poverty alleviation, by retiring steeply sloping land from crop production and freeing surplus agricultural labor for off-farm activities. Given the huge investment that has b

  19. Evaluation of 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal Program in Shanxi, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

  20. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities: the Expanded Government-led HIV/AIDS Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has posed an increasingly serious issue in China. In recent years, Chinese government has taken further intensified efforts to combat HIV/AIDS with high-level political commitment, supportive policy development, increased financial allocation, large-scale of governmentled initiatives, expanded international cooperation and great involvement of non-governmental organizations. Meanwhile gaps and challenges coexist impacting the implementation and the results of national HIV/AIDS programs. Thus, further government efforts are needed to improve and tailor the actions to meet the requirement of HIV/AIDS control in China.

  2. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  3. China's Primary Programs of Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration: Initiation, Implementation, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Yin, Guiping

    2010-03-01

    China has undertaken several major programs of terrestrial ecosystem restoration (ERPs) in recent years, including the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP). There have been reports on the implementation of these programs, their preliminary impacts, and the problems encountered in carrying them out; a great deal has been learned from these studies. Nonetheless, China’s ERPs are not limited to the NFPP and the SLCP. Because a complete documentation and a timely update of these major efforts are still missing from the literature, it is difficult to gauge the scope of these programs and the scale of their impacts. In addition, a more thorough and critical analysis of both the general ERP policy and the specific technical measures used in implementing the ERPs remains urgently needed. The purpose of this article is to tackle these tasks. Overall, with the huge government investments in the ERPs, tremendous progress has been made in implementing them. To complete them successfully and to fundamentally improve the targeted ecosystems, however, it is essential for China to have a more balanced and comprehensive approach to ecological restoration. This approach must include: adopting better planning and management practices; strengthening the governance of program implementation; emphasizing the active engagement of local people; establishing an independent, competent monitoring network; and conducting adequate assessments of program effectiveness and impact.

  4. Yulu Shequ - a unique rehabilitation program for illicit drug users in Kaiyuan in southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gericke Christian A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In China, illicit drug use and addiction have been rapidly increasing over the last two decades. Traditional compulsory rehabilitation models in China are widely considered ineffective. Recently, a new model of drug user rehabilitation called the 'Yulu Shequ Program' has gained a national reputation for successful rehabilitation in the city of Kaiyuan in southwest China. The aim of this study was to describe this program to the international public and to assess the program's effectiveness in terms of relapse rates and costs to participants and public payers. Case description The Yulu Shequ program provides up to one hundred participants at any point in time with the opportunity to live and work in a purpose-built, drug-free community after completing compulsory rehabilitation. The length of stay is not limited. Community members receive medical and psychological treatment and have the option to participate in social activities and highly valued job skills training. The program has very strict policies to prevent illicit drugs entering the community. Evaluation The evaluation was carried out through 1 a review of literature, official documents and websites in Chinese language describing the program and 2 an on-site visit and conduct of semi-structured interviews with key staff members of the Yulu Shequ program. The relapse rate in 2007 was 60% compared to 96% in the compulsory program. Annual costs to public payers of CNY4800 (US$700 were largely offset by income earned through on-site labour by participants totalling CNY4600 (US$670. Conclusions The Yulu Shequ program is an interesting model for drug rehabilitation that could lead the way for a new Chinese national policy away from compulsory rehabilitation towards a more collaborative and effective approach. Caution is needed when interpreting relapse rates as Yulu Shequ participants need to have completed compulsory rehabilitation before entering the program. A more

  5. Designing and Implementing a 5-Year Transfusion Medicine Diploma Program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Wang, Wenjing; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Ye; Lai, Fucai; Fu, Yongshui; Wang, Chuanxi; Yang, Baocheng; Zhu, Weigang; Wu, Yanyun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Stevens, Lori; Li, Chengyao

    2016-11-16

    The need for physicians and technical consultants specialized in transfusion medicine is urgent in China, as there are 20 000 hospitals and 500 blood centers in need of staff with this expertise. The progress made in transfusion medicine as a specialty has been relatively slow in China. Current Chinese medical education and service systems have not developed transfusion medicine as a stand-alone medical specialty. Most physicians receive only minimal training in transfusion medicine in medical school. This training is usually integrated into surgical training and addresses the most common technologies. In 2008, a 5-year bachelor's diploma program in transfusion medicine was established as an undergraduate specialty in Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. This article intends to summarize the 8 years of experience educating undergraduates in the specialty of transfusion medicine.

  6. Towards government-funded special biomedical research programs to combat rare diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Liu, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    Rare diseases are rarely conditions that are often debilitating and even life-threatening, which was identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) with a prevalence of 0.65-1‰. 5,000-7,000 rare diseases are thought to exist, which account for around 10% of diseases for individuals worldwide. It is estimated that over 10 million people were patients with rare disease in China. During the past years, public awareness of rare diseases has in fact heightened with the launching of campaigns by patients' organizations and spontaneous efforts by members of the public, not only in developed countries and regions including United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and in Japan, but also in China. However, the features of missed or delayed diagnosis, shortage of effective drugs, and the high cost of currently available drugs for rare diseases make it an important public health issue and a challenge to medical care worldwide. To combat rare disease, the government should assume the responsibility of taking on the important task of promoting the sustained development of a system of medical care for and research into rare diseases. Government-funded special biomedical research programs in the USA, EU, and Japan may serve as a reference for China coping with rare diseases. The government-funded special biomedical research programs consisting of leading clinicians and researchers to enhance basic and applied research on rare diseases were expected to be launched in China.

  7. Towards Internationalising the Curriculum: A Case Study of Chinese Language Teacher Education Programs in China and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…

  8. A Study on the Application of STP Marketing Strategy in the MBA Education Program of Universities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    The MBA education has begun in America and now it has become mature after nearly one hundred years' development. Although China's MBA merely has a history of 17 years, it has already gained great achievements. In 1991, 9 universities in China had MBA program and 86 students enrolled in. In 2007, the two numbers were 127 and 59,776 respectively.…

  9. China and the United States - A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    that it focused on hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass energy development and deployment, coordinating renewable energy development with economic...from agricultural or forestry residues.36 Biomass energy is also viewed as a part of the solution to arrest desertification in China, with programs...the Energy and Security Act of 1980 were the following: U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation Act, Biomass Energy and Alcohol Fuels Act, Renewable Energy

  10. The Elite Strategies in the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program(1986-2000)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Manpower is the key factor to the success of the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program. Many manpower strategies have been used in the CIMS Subject, which include elite strategies, training and practicing strategies, and culture strategies. This paper is mainly about the elite strategies such as to discover the talents, to cultivate the elites and to establish the mechanism for the expert groups to work in team, echelon and vigor.

  11. The Training and Culture Strategies in the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program(1986-2000)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Manpower is a key factor for the success of the CIMS Subject of China 863 Program. Many manpower strategies have been used in the CIMS Subject, which include elite strategies, training and practicing strategies, and culture strategies. This paper is mainly about the training and culture strategies such as to pay attention to the training and the practice of the technical team, and to form a fine CIMS culture.

  12. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    . Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43%) and vegetables (42%) were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set...... meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students' knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...

  13. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  14. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  15. The effects of China's Sloping Land Conversion Program on agricultural households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Henningsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, China aimed to mitigate environmental degradation from agricultural production activities by introducing the world's largest "Payments for Environmental Services" program: the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP). We develop a microeconomic Agricultural Household Model, which...... nonfarm labor supply and total consumption in some regions, these effects could not be observed in others. The recent reduction of the SLCP compensation payment rates generally had negligible effects on agricultural production and off-farm work and only very small effects on household consumption....

  16. Impacts of Clinic-based Informed Choice Program on Quality of Individualized Counseling Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qing WU; Xi-kuan CHEN; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of clinic-based informed choice program on quality of individualized service in family planning clinics in ChinaMethods During the program, family planning service staff in intervention clinics were trained on counseling skills and key points of individualized counseling service. Questionnaire surveys were conducted pre- and post-informed choice program to evaluate the impacts of the program.Results Informed choice program had significantly improved the quality of individualized counseling service. The multivariate regression analysis showed that clients of the clinic were more likely to give the better evaluation of the service, the OR of evaluation score of individualized service is 1.712 (95% CI is 1.146 to 2.564) in Experiment Group of post-program in contrast with pre-program. The program also could satisfy individual needs of clients and increase the satisfaction degree of the service.Conclusions Informed choice program is helpful for the improvement of the quality of individualized counseling service. It is necessary and imperative to improve the skills of counseling service provided in family planning clinics.

  17. Reforestation Programs in Southwest China: Reported Success, Observed Failure, and the Reasons Why

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the disastrous floods of 1998,the Chinese government has used the Natural Forest Protection and Sloping Land Conversion Programs to promote afforestation and reforestation as means to reduce runoff, control erosion, and stabilize local livelihoods. These two ambitious programs have been reported as large-scale successes, contributing to an overall increase in China's forest cover and to the stated goals of environmental stabilization. A small-scale field study at the project level of the implementation of these two programs in Baiwu Township, Yanyuan County, Sichuan, casts doubt upon the accuracy and reliability of these claims of success; ground observations revealed utter failure in some sites and only marginal success in others. Reasons for this discrepancy are posited as involving ecological, economic, and bureaucratic factors.Further research is suggested to determine whether these discrepancies are merely local aberrations or represent larger-scale failures in reforestation programs.

  18. A Research Program of Spherical Tokamak in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何也熙

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this program is to explore the spherical torus plasma with a SUNIST spherical tokamak. Main experiments in the start phase will be involved with breakdown and plasma current set-up with a mode of saving volt-second and without ohmic heating system, equilibrium and instability, current driving, heating and profile modification. The SUNIST is a university-scale conceptual spherical tokamak, with R = 0.3 m, A 1.3, Ip ~ 50 kA, BT < 0.15 T, and PRF = 100 kW. The only peculiarity of SUNIST is that there is a toroidal insulating break along the outer wall of vacuum vessel. The expected that advantages of this arrangement are helpful not only for saving flux swing, but also for having a deep understanding of what will influence the discharge startup and globe performances of plasma under different conditions of strong vessel eddy and ECR power assistance. Of course, the vessel structure of cross seal will be at a great risk of controlling vacuum quality, although we have achieved positive results on simulation test and vacuum vessel test.

  19. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Over the last twenty years, with growing policy emphasis on improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution and carbon emissions, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is needed to identify gaps that still exist when compared with international best practices. The review of China’s S&L program development and implementation in comparison with major findings from international experiences reveal that there are still areas of improvement, particularly when compared to success factors observed across leading international S&L program. China currently lacks a formalized regulatory process for standard-setting and do not have any legal or regulatory guidance on elements of S&L development such as stakeholder participation or the issue of legal precedence between conflicting national, industrial and local standards. Consequently, China’s laws regarding standard-setting and management of the mandatory energy label program could be updated, as they have not been amended or revised recently and no longer reflects the current situation. While China uses similar principles for choosing target products as the U.S., Australia, EU and Japan, including high energy-consumption, mature industry and testing procedure and stakeholder support, recent MEPS revisions have generally aimed at only eliminating the bottom 20% efficiency of the market. Setting a firm principle based on maximizing energy savings that are technically feasible and economically justified may help improve the stringency of China’s MEPS program and reduce the need for frequent revisions. China also lacks robust survey data and relies primarily on market research data in

  20. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  1. Aeolian desertification and its control in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian desertification is a kind of land degradation through wind erosion resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in Northern China. To compare the results of remote sensing data in the late 1950s, 1975, 1987, 2000 and 2010, we can summarize that the expansion of aeolian desertified land in Northern China has been accelerated for 5 decades, as its annual expanded rate was 1,560 km2 during the late 1950s and 1975, 2,100 km2 between 1975 and 1988, 3,600 km2 from 1988 to 2000, and -1,375 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The desertified land kept expanding before 2000 and began to get rehabilitated since 2000. The impact of human activity on the aeolian desertification process is much more active than that from natural process which mainly incarnates on land use change (from rangeland to farmland and increased land use intensity (over-cultivation, over-grassing, and over-fuelwood collection. The natural vegetation cover destroyed by the human activities has accelerated the development of aeolian desertification. China has made great progresses in understanding and combating aeolian desertification through decades of effort and there were many projects carried out for the prevention and control purpose. The National Project of Grain for Green Program is the most important one with 1060 counties of 22 provinces involved. The objective is to withdraw 3.67 million ha of dry land farming and degraded steppe, and 5.13 million ha of aeolian desertified land suited to reforestation and re-vegetation will be rehabilitated. There are about 8 million ha of lands suffering from aeolian desertification will be brought under control in the next ten years and 26.67 million ha of windbreaks will be planted. The total investment from the central government is estimated to be 75 billion RMB (11 billion USD.

  2. The impact of the vaccination program for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Hu County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Wu, Kejian; Tan, Xin; Yan, Tiecheng; Li, Haitao; Yan, Yongping

    2014-02-03

    The incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Hu County ranked third of all counties in China in 2010. Although this county has provided a HFRS vaccination program freely since 1994, the impact of HFRS remains quite substantial. In order to continue the vaccination program effectively and control HFRS, a detailed understanding of the effect of the vaccination program should be undertaken. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was employed to examine the temporal trends of HFRS incidences, mortality rate and vaccination compliance. Temporal cluster analysis was performed to detect time periods of high HFRS risk. Cross correlation analysis was conducted to detect the correlation between HFRS incidence and vaccination compliance. Wavelet analysis was employed to detect the shift of the periodicity of HFRS. Between 1971 and 2011, the HFRS incidence and mortality rate ranged from 9.53/100,000 to 300.57/100,000 and 0 to 24.91/100,000, respectively, with a fluctuating but distinctly declining trend (incidence: Z=-34.38, P1994. In conclusion, the increase in vaccination compliance may play an important role in HFRS control and prevention in Hu County, China.

  3. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  4. Progress of the National Pediatric Free Antiretroviral Therapy program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Xin; He, Yun; Tang, Zhirong; Peng, Guoping; Liu, Aiwen; Qiao, Xiaochun; Li, Huiqin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dou, Zhihui; Ma, Ye; Liu, Zhongfu; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-10-01

    In 2003, the Chinese Government initiated a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program focusing on adult AIDS patients. Pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations were yet unavailable. It was not until July 2005, with the initiation of a two-stage program implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Health, that pediatric formulations became accessible in China. Initially, the pediatric ART program was piloted in six provinces with the highest incidences of pediatric HIV/AIDS. The pilot stage allowed the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) to finalize entry criteria, treatment regimen, and patient monitoring and follow-up procedures. The second stage commenced at the end of 2006 when the program was scaled-up nationally. In order to guarantee treatment of pediatric patients, extensive training in the selection of appropriate ARV drug regimen and dosage was provided to doctors, often through on-site collaboration with domestic and international experts. The CCDC simultaneously established a pediatric ARV management system and a pediatric ART information system. CD4 count and other laboratory tests are being routinely performed on these pediatric patients. By the end of June 2009, 1529 pediatric patients had received ARV under the national program. However, challenges remain. Firstly, many children infected with HIV/AIDS live in rural areas where the treatment quality is hindered by the limited number of medical facilities and skilled medical workers. Secondly, much of the pediatric ARV drug supply depends on donation. An effort needs to be made by the Chinese Government to establish China's own drug procurement and supply system.

  5. Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1991. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    Written by U.S. teachers who traveled to China in 1991, this document contains a compilation of curriculum projects about China. The projects include: "China Via the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography" (S. Cassady); "Jiemei (Sister): An Analysis of the History and Role of Women in the People's Republic of China" (M. Collescano); "China: An…

  6. Measuring a professional conservation education training program for zoos and wildlife parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askue, Laurel; Heimlich, Joe; Yu, Jin Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Lakly, Shelly

    2009-09-01

    Designed and implemented in 2006, the Academy for Conservation Training (ACT) is a conservation education academy modeled after the Association for Zoos and Aquariums' (AZA) professional conservation education course. ACT incorporates conservation education best practices utilized by AZA-accredited institutions to provide zoo and wildlife park professionals in China with the skills, knowledge, and tools needed to design, implement, and evaluate effective conservation education programs at their facilities. Initial findings indicate that the ACT model is an effective approach to connect these emerging educators with conservation education best practices. The strongest satisfaction responses in this study were in perceptions of the program preparing the individual for work and in personal development. In terms of the longitudinal survey conducted with ACT graduates after the training, the lowest scoring items were the opportunities to meet other zoo educators in China and the quantity of information provided. The most revealing trend in regards to preparedness in becoming zoo educators was that specific pedagogical skills were those where perceived gain was consistent and strong across all three academies.

  7. Performance and prospects of payments for ecosystem services programs: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Liu, Wei; Viña, Andrés; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-09-30

    Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental effects of the NFCP were evaluated through a historical trend (1965-2001) analysis of forest cover to estimate a counter-factual (i.e., without-PES) forest cover baseline for 2007. The socioeconomic effects of the NFCP were evaluated using data collected through household interviews carried out before and after NFCP implementation in 2001. Our results suggest that the NFCP was not only significantly associated with increases in forest cover, but also had both positive (e.g., labor reduction for fuelwood collection) and negative (e.g., economic losses due to crop raiding by wildlife) effects on local households. Results from this study emphasize the importance of integrating local conditions and understanding underlying mechanisms to enhance the performance of PES programs. Our findings are useful for the design and implementation of successful conservation policies not only in our study area but also in similar places around the world.

  8. Is the crop insurance program effective in China? Evidence from farmers analysis in ifve provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; ZHANG Qiao; Shingo Kimura; Suraya Akter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese crop insurance program in terms of farmers’ utility and welfare. A simulation model based on the power utility function was ifrst developed to evaluate the effectiveness of crop insurance. Then, the Monte Carlo approach was used to generate the datasets of area, price, yield, cost, and income based on the characteristics of representative farmers, which were clustered and calibrated using the farm-level data of 574 individual farmers from ifve Chinese provinces. Finaly, the effectiveness of Chinese crop insurance was evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of farmers’ utility/welfare under alternative crop insurance scenarios. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the crop insurance program. The government should subsidize more than 50%of the crop insurance premium to motivate more farmers to participate in the program. The ifndings also show that the current crop insurance program in China has increased the farmers’ welfare but stil need to be improved to achieve the Pareto improvement and to make ful use of the ifnancial fund of the government. This paper is believed to not only extend academic research but also has signiifcant implications for policymakers, especialy in the context of rapid development of Chinese crop insurance with much issues such as rate, subsidy and coverage level needed to be improved.

  9. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  10. Impact of a nationwide training program for neonatal resuscitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; MA Yi; William Keenan; Susan Niermeyer; WANG Hui-shan; YE Hong-mao; YU Ren-jie; HUANG Xing-hua; WANG Dan-hua; Wang Li-xin; FENG Qi; GONG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    Background Seventeen million births occur in China each year.Neonatal mortality is the leading cause of under 5-year-old child deaths,and intrapartum-related injury accounts for much of mental retardation in young children.The Chinese Ministry of Health sought to improve infant and child survival through a nationwide initiative to have at least one person trained in neonatal resuscitation at every birth.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of China Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) on policy and infrastructure changes and its effectiveness in decreasing the incidence of mortality among newborn infants.Methods The Chinese NRP incorporated policy change,professional education,and creation of a sustainable health system infrastructure for resuscitation.Multidisciplinary teams from all 31 provinces and municipal states disseminated NRP in a train-the-trainer cascade.The intervention targeted 20 provinces with high neonatal mortality and programs to reduce maternal mortality.Program evaluation data came from 322 representative hospitals in those provinces.Results Changes in policy permitted midwives to initiate resuscitation and required resuscitation training for licensure.From 2004 through 2009 more than 110659 professionals received NRP training in the 20 target provinces,with 94% of delivery facilities and 99% of counties reached.Intrapartum-related deaths in the delivery room decreased from 7.5 to 3.4per 10000 from 2003 to 2008,and the incidence of Apgar ≤7 at 1 minute decreased from 6.3% to 2.9%.Conclusions The Chinese NRP achieved policy changes promoting resuscitation,trained large numbers of professionals,and contributed to reduction in delivery room mortality.Improved adherence to the resuscitation algorithm,extension of training to the township level,and coverage of births now occurring outside health facilities can further increase the number of lives saved.

  11. An evaluation of a health screening program for migrant women to Taiwan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chu Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. Method: We performed a mixed methodological evaluation of a public health nurse (PHN-led intervention to promote an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. The clinical case yield was determined by an audit, and staff/client questionnaires were used for the evaluation. Screening comprised surveillance for four untreated chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and liver disease, four cancers (mouth, bowel, liver, and cervix, parasitic infection, and hyperlipidemia. Results: Three hundred and thirty-six PHNs and 4751 immigrant women – with an average age of 29.2 years, most of whom were from Vietnam (44% or mainland China (41% – took part in the programme. Two thirds of screened women had no abnormalities. Further investigation was required in 1523 women, of whom 1220 were found to have significant disease. The majority of 280 PHNs (85% found the content, processes, and waiting time to be ‘highly acceptable’ and thought the program was worthwhile and could be incorporated into standard care. Conclusions: The Taipei County Comprehensive Health Screening Programme provided an accessible, free-of-charge, and preventative intervention for female migrants to Taiwan and had a good clinical case yield.

  12. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  13. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  14. China’s Talent Recruitment Programs: The Road to a Nobel Prize and World Hegemony in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-09

    success in at- tracting talent. A total of 1.09 million people have returned to China since reform and opening started in the late 1970s. According to...they joked, stands for “ Stupid Chinese Information.” Some scientists interviewed for this study suggest that the Ten Thousand Talents Program could be

  15. Institutions of Higher Education as Public Diplomacy Tools: China-Based University Programs for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgar, Emily T.

    2016-01-01

    Two flagship Chinese universities are home to newly established English-language graduate programs intended to arm international cohorts of future leaders with the skills, knowledge, and insights necessary to thrive in a world in which China will play a leading role. Employing the literature of international education and public diplomacy, this…

  16. Strengthening the Social Information-Processing Skills of Children: A Controlled Test of the "Let's Be Friends" Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fraser, Mark W.; Guo, Shenyang; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study had two objectives (a) to adapt for Chinese children an intervention designed to strengthen the social information--processing (SIP) skills of children in the United States, and (b) to pilot test the adapted intervention in China. Methods: Adaptation of the "Making Choices" program involved reviewing Chinese…

  17. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  18. Implementation of a novel train-the-trainer program for pharmacists in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Linh Banh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacy services in North American are well implemented both in community pharmacies and in hospital pharmacies. In 2009 the Chinese government mandated the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in all secondary and tertiary hospitals by 2020. The mandate would require adequately trained clinical pharmacists. However, most pharmacy education programs in China have not yet incorporated clinical pharmacy into their curricula. Many pharmacists have been sent to countries, including the United States and Canada, to receive clinical pharmacy training. Because of different health care systems, medical team dynamics, and language barriers, it became difficult for the returning pharmacists to apply the skills gained from this type of training. As a result, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University initiated an international academic–run train-the-trainer program. The objectives are to provide adequate training for pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care to patients, conduct clinical pharmacy–related research, and engage in scholarly activities. After evaluation of local readiness, the course commenced in 2014, and to date four trainers have received personalized one-on-one training by an advanced pharmacist with 15 years of experience of delivering similar curricula in North America. We present the initial process evaluation and learning that will contribute to the development of clinical pharmacy courses at Central South University.

  19. Spain to Launch China Program,Aiming at Developing Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ China has become the fifth supplier of Spain and has achieved great development in the Spanish market. But China's investment in Spain is not in a high level, which does not assort with her status of world's great economic country.

  20. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results.

  1. Successfully managing a rapidly growing peritoneal dialysis program in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao; MAO Hai-ping; GUO Qun-ying; YU Xue-qing

    2011-01-01

    Background The maximal use of the limited resource to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) penetration and clinical outcomes is a challenge for all PD centers.In this study,we reported the experience and outcomes in successfully managing a rapidly growing PD center in Southern China.Methods A standard PD program with a team consisted of 6 nephrologists (3 doctors were in charge of catheter insertion and in-patients care,the other 3 doctors focused on PD patients' follow-up and education) and 11 nurses in a PD center at Sun Yat-sen University was established for PD patients follow-up in 2005.A prospective and observational study was conducted in all patients undergoing continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) at our center from January 1,2006 to December 31,2009.Results The yearly number of prevalent CAPD patients was 297,409,547 and 695 in 2006,2007,2008 and 2009,respectively.The PD catheter insertion was performed by the nephrologists with open surgical procedure and 94% of catheters were patent at one year.In 841 incident CAPD patients,the survival rates at the end of 1,2,3 and 4 years were 94%,87%,83% and 76%,respectively,while cumulative technique survival rates (death-censored) were 98%,95%,91% and 90%,respectively.Peritonitis rate was 1/68.5 patient months.Conclusions Better patient and technical survival rates as well as lower peritonitis episode have been achieved in our rapidly growing PD center.A standardized PD program,well-trained team members of PD doctors and nurses,and continuous quality improvement of PD are important elements in managing a successful PD program.

  2. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research.

  3. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  4. Progress of Glaciology and Geocryology Incubation Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Guodong; Zhang Yaonan; Wang Zhengwen

    2007-01-01

    The 10th 5-year Plan for National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for fostering competent research teams and highly qualified scholars in fundamental research in glaciology and geocryology was based on the strategy of incubating "competitive, problem-solving oriented and motivated fledgling scientists, who can effectively lead and greatly advance the aimed subjects and conduct the cutting edge research". This principle has been playing crucial roles in restructuring the team aiming at world-first-class research projects and at solving critical problems in national key projects. It was under the guidance of this strategy that the key research team for mitigating the challenging and differential frost and thaw hazards along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) had been formed, that a strong group focused on the cryosphere (snow, ice and permafrost ) research was re-established and enhanced. These accomplishments have facilitated the formation and growth of highly motivated competitive research teams on comprehensive and integrated fundamental research, which promoted, intensified, and expanded the research programs in glaciology and geocryology.

  5. Medicine and health care along the Silk Road. China's population control program among the national minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    1985-01-01

    Travel along the Silk Road where many of China's national minorities live gives a new insight into the population growth problem. As a whole China's "one-child-for-one-family" campaign seems to have succeeded in controlling its national population, although the government takes a more liberal attitude toward the national minorities.

  6. Spain to Launch China Program,Aiming at Developing Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Duoduo

    2005-01-01

      China has become the fifth supplier of Spain and has achieved great development in the Spanish market. But China's investment in Spain is not in a high level, which does not assort with her status of world's great economic country.……

  7. Mobile health in China: a review of research and programs in medical care, health education, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpman, David W

    2013-01-01

    There are nearly 1 billion mobile phone subscribers in China. Health care providers, telecommunications companies, technology firms, and Chinese governmental organizations use existing mobile technology and social networks to improve patient-provider communication, promote health education and awareness, add efficiency to administrative practices, and enhance public health campaigns. This review of mobile health in China summarizes existing clinical research and public health text messaging campaigns while highlighting potential future areas of research and program implementation. Databases and search engines served as the primary means of gathering relevant resources. Included material largely consists of scientific articles and official reports that met predefined inclusion criteria. This review includes 10 reports of controlled studies that assessed the use of mobile technology in health care settings and 17 official reports of public health awareness campaigns that used text messaging. All source material was published between 2006 and 2011. The controlled studies suggested that mobile technology interventions significantly improved an array of health care outcomes. However, additional efforts are needed to refine mobile health research and better understand the applicability of mobile technology in China's health care settings. A vast potential exists for the expansion of mobile health in China, especially as costs decrease and increasingly sophisticated technology becomes more widespread.

  8. E-learning for grass-roots emergency public health personnel: Preliminary lessons from a national program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangquan; Jiang, Qicheng; Qin, Xia; Fang, Guixia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-07-19

    In China, grass-roots emergency public health personnel have relatively limited emergency response capabilities and they are constantly required to update their professional knowledge and skills due to recurring and new public health emergencies. However, professional training, a principal solution to this problem, is inadequate because of limitations in manpower and financial resources at grass-roots public health agencies. In order to provide a cost-effective and easily expandable way for grass-roots personnel to acquire knowledge and skills, the National Health Planning Commission of China developed an emergency response information platform and provided trial access to this platform in Anhui and Heilongjiang provinces in China. E-learning was one of the modules of the platform and this paper has focused on an e-learning pilot program. Results indicated that e-learning had satisfactorily improved the knowledge and ability of grass-roots emergency public health personnel, and the program provided an opportunity to gain experience in e-course design and implementing e-learning. Issues such as the lack of personalized e-courses and the difficulty of evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning are topics for further study.

  9. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  10. An Introduction to China Rice Functional Genomics Program%中国水稻功能基因组学研究计划介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbiao XUE; Zhihong XU; Jingliu ZHANG; Da LUO; Jiayang LI; Yaoguang LIU; Hongwei XUE; Kang CHONG; Hai HUANG; Guohua LIANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ To discover genes essential for agronomic performances of crops we initiated a program on rice functional genomics of important agronomic traits in rice in 1999. The program was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China through the National Basic Research Initiative and is expected to last for five years.

  11. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  12. Using stochastic dynamic programming to support catchment-scale water resources management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Pereira-Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A hydro-economic modelling approach is used to optimize reservoir management at river basin level. We demonstrate the potential of this integrated approach on the Ziya River basin, a complex basin on the North China Plain south-east of Beijing. The area is subject to severe water scarcity due to low and extremely seasonal precipitation, and the intense agricultural production is highly dependent on irrigation. Large reservoirs provide water storage for dry months while groundwater and the external South-to-North Water Transfer Project are alternative sources of water. An optimization model based on stochastic dynamic programming has been developed. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of supplying water to the users, while satisfying minimum ecosystem flow constraints. Each user group (agriculture, domestic and industry) is characterized by fixed demands, fixed water allocation costs for the different water sources (surface water, groundwater and external water) and fixed costs of water supply curtailment. The multiple reservoirs in the basin are aggregated into a single reservoir to reduce the dimensions of decisions. Water availability is estimated using a hydrological model. The hydrological model is based on the Budyko framework and is forced with 51 years of observed daily rainfall and temperature data. 23 years of observed discharge from an in-situ station located downstream a remote mountainous catchment is used for model calibration. Runoff serial correlation is described by a Markov chain that is used to generate monthly runoff scenarios to the reservoir. The optimal costs at a given reservoir state and stage were calculated as the minimum sum of immediate and future costs. Based on the total costs for all states and stages, water value tables were generated which contain the marginal value of stored water as a function of the month, the inflow state and the reservoir state. The water value tables are used to guide allocation decisions in

  13. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  14. Assessment of vehicle emission programs in China during 1998-2013: Achievement, challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-01

    China has been embracing rapid motorization since the 1990s, and vehicles have become one of the major sources of air pollution problems. Since the late 1990s, thanks to the international experience, China has adopted comprehensive control measures to mitigate vehicle emissions. This study employs a local emission model (EMBEV) to assess China's first fifteen-year (1998-2013) efforts in controlling vehicles emissions. Our results show that China's total annual vehicle emissions in 2013 were 4.16 million tons (Mt) of HC, 27.4 Mt of CO, 7.72 Mt of NOX, and 0.37 Mt of PM2.5, respectively. Although vehicle emissions are substantially reduced relative to the without control scenarios, we still observe significantly higher emission density in East China than in developed countries with longer histories of vehicle emission control. This study further informs China's policy-makers of the prominent challenges to control vehicle emissions in the future. First, unlike other major air pollutants, total NOX emissions have rapidly increased due to a surge of diesel trucks and the postponed China IV standard nationwide. Simultaneous implementation of fuel quality improvements and vehicle-engine emission standards will be of great importance to alleviate NOX emissions for diesel fleets. Second, the enforcement of increasingly stringent standards should include strict oversight of type-approval conformity, in-use complacence and durability, which would help reduce gross emitters of PM2.5 that are considerable among in-use diesel fleets at the present. Third, this study reveals higher HC emissions than previous results and indicates evaporative emissions may have been underestimated. Considering that China's overall vehicle ownership is far from saturation, persistent efforts are required through economic tools, traffic management and emissions regulations to lower vehicle-use intensity and limit both exhaust and evaporative emissions. Furthermore, in light of the complex

  15. The Effects of a Community-Based Sodium Reduction Program in Rural China – A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijing L.; Niu, Wenyi; Yao, Chen; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Jianxin; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Ruijuan; Hao, Zhixin; Chu, Hongling; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xian; Pan, Jianhong; Li, Zhifang; Sun, Jixin; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Yan; Engelgau, Michael; Labarthe, Darwin; Ma, Jixiang; MacMahon, Stephen; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background Average sodium intake and stroke mortality in northern China are both among the highest in the world. An effective, low-cost strategy to reduce sodium intake in this population is urgently needed. Objective We sought to determine the effects of a community-based sodium reduction program on salt consumption in rural northern China. Design This study was a cluster-randomized trial done over 18 months in 120 townships (one village from each township) from five provinces. Sixty control villages were compared to 60 intervention villages that were given access to a reduced-sodium, added-potassium salt substitute in conjunction with a community-based health education program focusing on sodium reduction. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion between randomized groups. Results Among 1,903 people with valid 24-hour urine collections, mean urinary sodium excretion in intervention compared with control villages was reduced by 5.5% (-14mmol/day, 95% confidence interval -26 to -1; p = 0.03), potassium excretion was increased by 16% (+7mmol/day, +4 to +10; psalt substitute. The absence of effects on blood pressure reflects the moderate changes in sodium and potassium intake achieved. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01259700. PMID:27935977

  16. Large-scale bioenergy and oil forestry programs in rural China : an institutional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Liquid biofuel from oil crops are broadly promoted globally, among which biofuel from perennial wood species, as well as from bushes and small trees such as jatropha. In China, oil-bearing small trees, which mainly grow on slope land, are applied as so-called bioenergy and oil forests for liquid bio

  17. Integrating Regional Development, Promoting Local Cooperation Reflections on the China-UK Regional Leaders Exchange Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chang

    2016-01-01

    The first China-UK Regional Leaders Meeting was held March21-24 in the United Kingdom,both in London and the industrial city of Sheffield.The event was jointly organized by the CPAFFC and the British Department for Communities and Local Government.The Chinese delegation,comprising government

  18. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  19. National Program of Action for Child Development in China in the 1990s(Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    I. Introduction 1. The children of today will run the families of the 21st century. Their survival, protection and development decide, for the most part, the quality of a people and lay the foundation of human progress as a whole. The 1990 World Summit for Children endorsed the "World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children" and the "Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s," (hereinafter referred to as "Declaration" and "Plan of Action" for short), In March 1991, Premier Li Peng signed the two documents on behalf of the Chinese Government, making a solemn commitment to this major undertaking. 2. The wholesome development of children has a bearing upon the future of China. The Communist Party of China and the Chinese Government have always paid close attention to the survival, protection

  20. China’s Military Space Program: A Threat to the United States or a Peaceful Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    seizure of Taiwan.”29 Japan has historically advocated for the peaceful use of space in large part due to its pacifist constitution. So it was no...space objectives, and the judgments of space experts from the United States, Russia, Japan , and India. The paper concludes that the Chinese are...boom has propelled the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) ahead of Japan as the second largest economy behind the United States (U.S.) and has

  1. Identification of Non-economic Influencing Factors Affecting Farmer’s Participation in the Paddy Landto-Dry Land Program in Chicheng County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is global enthusiasm for payments for ecosystem services (PES programs to solve environmental problems, including in China. However, PES programs in China go against the principle of ‘voluntary transaction’, which weakens the influences of economic factors on farmers’ participation decisions and makes it hard to reveal their influence on farmers’ participation willingness. Using household survey data and a logistic regression model, this study attempts to understand the influencing factors of farmers’ decision-making on involvement in PES projects for hypothetical voluntary participation and focuses on whether the farmer would reject the program if the payment stopped. A surprising but promising result is found in the case of the Paddy Landto-Dry Land (PLDL program in Chicheng County, China, wherein, apart from the negative impact of education and the positive effect of off-farm income, two non-economic factors play a significant role in farmers’ participation. The one is basic cognition, which negatively affects farmers’ participation, and the other is inner altruistic motivation, which positively contributes to the participation. In addition, the high proportion of reconversion to paddy land after the payment period threatens the long-term sustainability of the PLDL program. Faced with the low education and environmental cognition statuses in remote agricultural areas, increasing educational quality and promoting the popular awareness of PES programs in rural areas should be highlighted in sustaining the efficiency and effectiveness of PES programs in the long run.

  2. An Estimation of the Effects of China's Priority Forestry Programs on Farmers' Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Lu, Jinzhi; Yin, Runsheng

    2010-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Chinese government initiated some new programs and consolidated other existing ones of ecological restoration and resource development in its forest sector, and renamed them as “Priority Forestry Programs,” or PFPs. They include the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), the Desertification Combating Program around Beijing and Tianjin (DCBT), the Shelterbelt Development Program (SBDP), and the Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program (WCNR). In addition to improving the environmental and resource conditions, a frequently reiterated goal of these PFPs is to increase rural households’ income, therefore discussing why looking at rural household income impacts might be an important part of forest program evaluation. Thus, an interesting and important question is: How has implementing the PFPs affected the farmers’ income and poverty status? This article addresses this question using a fixed-effects model and a panel dataset that covers 1968 households in four provinces for ten consecutive years (1995-2004). The empirical evidence indicates that their effects are mixed. The SLCP, the SBDP, and the NFPP have made positive impact and, by far, the SLCP has the largest effect. But the WCNR and the DCBT still have not had a pronounced overall effect due to their short time span of execution, even though they may have exerted certain influence at the margin. Notably, the impact of the WCNR, if any, is negative.

  3. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  4. Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in rural areas in China's antiretroviral therapy programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the national Free Care Program (China CARES. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Yunnan and Shanxi Provinces, where HAART and all medical care are provided free to HIV-positive patients. Health expenditures and costs in the first treatment year were collected from medical records and prescriptions at local hospitals between January and June 2007. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the factors associated with the actual expenditures in the first antiretroviral (ARV treatment year. Results Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT + lamivudine (3TC + nevirapine (NVP, stavudine (D4T + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV, D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs and opportunistic infections (OIs were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus P P P = 0.04 and OIs (P = 0.02 were significantly

  5. Emerging Urban Poverty and Effects of the Dibao Program on Alleviating Poverty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the current urban poverty situation, examines the factors affecting the probability of a household being in poverty and investigates how the urban minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program helps poor people to get out of poverty.The targeting efficiency of the urban dibao program is discussed. The present study finds that the poverty rate of households with unemployed workers is much higher than that of households without unemployed workers. The urban dibao program is helpful in reducing poverty rates, but it does not reduce poverty rates too much. The government should place emphasis on helping laid-off and unemployed workers to become reemployed. The most urgent problem for the dibao program is improving the efficiency of targeting.

  6. Marketing China Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China may grow into a global branding powerhouse, one master degree at a time Bringing the first international Master of Marketing program to Beijing, Professor Susan Ellis, Associate Dean of China Programs atMelbourne Business School, knows onething for

  7. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers’ preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of “low risk and high return efficiency” in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  8. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  9. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  10. A risk explicit interval linear programming model for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization in the Lake Fuxian watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Kai; Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of "low risk and high return efficiency" in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  11. Using stochastic dynamic programming to support catchment-scale water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia

    2013-01-01

    based on stochastic dynamic programming has been developed. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of supplying water to the users, while satisfying minimum ecosystem flow constraints. Each user group (agriculture, domestic and industry) is characterized by fixed demands, fixed water...

  12. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (6) Evaluation of a Classroom-based Physical Activity Promotion Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI-LING LIU; XIAO-QI HU; GUAN-SHENG MA; ZHAO-HUI CUI; YONG-PING PAN; SU-YING CHANG; WEN-HUA ZHAO; CHUN-MING CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of Happy 10 program on the promotion of physical activity, physical growth and development of primary-school students, and on obesity control and prevention. Methods Two similar primary schools from one district of Beijing, China were selected, one as an intervention school and the other as a control school. Happy 10program was implemented at least once every school day in the intervention school for two semesters, whereas no intervention was adopted in the control school. The information on energy expenditure and duration of physical activity was collected by a validated 7-day physical activity questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained investigators following the standardized procedure. Energy expenditure and intensity of each Happy 10 session was measured by a physical activity monitor. Results The average energy expenditure and duration of total physical activity per day among students in the intervention school increased significantly from 15.0 to 18.2 kcal/kg, and 2.8 to 3.3 h respectively, whereas the figures significantly decreased in the control school. There was a significant difference in change of weight and BMI between girls in the intervention and control school (2.4 kg vs 4.6 kg, -0.47 kg/m2 vs 0.66 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the intervention school decreased by 0.4%-5.6%, as compared to the increase by 0.6%-4.5% in the control school. The average energy expenditure and intensity per 10-minute session ranged from 25.0-35.1 kcal, 4.8-6.2 kcal/kg/h respectively in grades 1-5.Conclusion Happy 10 program provides a useful strategy to promote physical activity among school children and also plays a positive role in building up physical growth and development of girls.

  13. National occupational health service policies and programs for workers in small scale industries in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhi; Wang Sheng; Levine, S.P.

    2000-07-01

    Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. In this paper, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services.

  14. National Occupational Health Service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, S; Sheng, W; Levine, S P

    2000-01-01

    Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. From 1978 to 1991, the number of enterprises has increased 11.5 times; the number of employees has increased 2.4 times; the fixed assets have increased 13.7 times; and the value of the total output has increased 22.5 times. In this article, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for township enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%.

  15. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.

  16. Red China’s Capitalist Bomb: Inside the Chinese Neutron Bomb Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    for civilian and military use. Programs for laser technology, space, biotechnology , information technology, automation and manufacturing technology...deployed capability.187 As long as the United States and Russia are bound by the Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, neither state can deploy...agreements with the United States and Russia . This study’s analytic framework suggests that the PRC is likely to continue developing and may eventually

  17. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China--Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-20

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China.

  18. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China – Myanmar border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China. PMID:26785944

  19. Adherence to a web-based intervention program for traumatized persons in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper investigated adherence to a self-help web-based intervention for PTSD (Chinese My Trauma Recovery, CMTR in mainland China and evaluated the association between adherence measures and potential predictors, for example, traumatic symptoms and self-efficacy. Methods: Data from 56 urban and 90 rural trauma survivors were reported who used at least one of the seven recovery modules of CMTR. Results: The results showed that 80% urban users visited CMTR four or less days and 87% rural users visited CMTR for 5 or 6 days. On average, urban users visited 2.54 (SD=1.99 modules on the first visiting day and less from the second day; rural users visited 1.10 (SD=0.54 modules on the first visiting day, and it became stable in the following days. In both samples, depression scores at pre-test were significantly or trend significantly associated with the number of visited web pages in the relaxation and professional help modules (r=0.20–0.26, all p<0.14; traumatic symptom scores at pre-test significantly or trend significantly correlated to the number of visited web pages in the relaxation, professional help, and mastery tools modules (r=0.20–0.26, all p<0.10. Moreover, urban users’ coping self-efficacy scores at pre-test significantly or trend significantly related to the number of visited web pages in the relaxation, professional help, social support, and mastery tool modules (r=0.20–0.33, all p<0.16. Conclusions: These findings suggest that individuals tend to focus on one or two recovery modules when they visit CMTR, and the number of web pages visited during the intervention period relates to users’ traumatic and depressive symptoms and self-efficacy before intervention.

  20. Effect of an art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia (GBTS) on prison inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China-A randomized, longitudinal, and controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-Zhong; Ye, Zeng-Jie; Liang, Mu-Zi; Huang, Yue-Qun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhi-Dong

    2017-01-12

    Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia. This article concludes that the art brut therapy was effective for the inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China and provides encouraging data on how to enhance mental health for inmates with schizophrenia.

  1. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  2. An effective Australian-Chinese peer education program on HIV/AIDS/STDs for university students in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ IntroductionCurrently, there are at least 850,000 people living with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China. Among them 16-29 years old account for about 65%. According to the Chinese health authorities, if the preventive measures are not effective, the figure could reach as many as 10 million by the year 2010[1]. Since there are currently no cure or vaccines for HIV/AIDS, changing people's high-risk behaviors is the main approach that is taken to slow down the epidemic. This can be done through effective HIV/AIDS education, especially for young people. In 1997, a 4-year adolescent HIV/AIDS peer education program was introduced to in Beijing and Shanghai, which was based on a successful Australian model developed by Professor Roger Short, in which senior medical students were trained and used as peer educators to teach their junior peers about HIV/AIDS[2].

  3. 衡阳紫色土丘陵坡地不同恢复阶段土壤微生物特性%Soil microbial properties under different re-vegetation stages on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟; 杨宁

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to study the soil microbial properties under different re-vegetation stages on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang. Taking the 0-40 cm soil layers in grassplot community stage(Ⅰ), frutex and grassplot community stage(Ⅱ), FG), frutex community stage(Ⅲ) and arbor and frutex community stage(Ⅳ) in typical areas as test objects by using the space series to replace time series. The results showed that:(1)From Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, BD(bulk density, BD), qCO2 significantly decreased(P0.05). (2) The value of SMBC/SMBN was from 5.26 to 6.29 in the whole re-vegetation stages and the soil microbial community was mainly composed of bacteria; inⅡ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, the ratio of fungi to microbial community, the ratio of ergosterol-C to SMBC and SMBC/SMBN were significantly higher than them in Ⅰ(P<0.05). This study will to some degree enrich the restoration ecology of this area and provide theoretical basis for the vegetation recovery and reconstruction of ecosystem on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang.%  为了探讨衡阳紫色土丘陵坡地不同恢复阶段土壤微生物特性,采用空间代替时间序列方法,以草坡群落阶段(Ⅰ)、灌草群落阶段(Ⅱ)、灌丛群落阶段(Ⅲ)与乔灌群落阶段(Ⅳ)的0~40 cm的土层为研究对象,研究土壤微生物特性的演变特征。结果表明:(1)从Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ至Ⅳ,土壤容重(Bulk Density,BD)、代谢熵(qCO2)显著降低(P<0.05);非毛管孔隙度(Non-capillary Porosity,NCP)、孔隙比(Non-capillary Porosity/Capillary Porosity,NCP/CP)、土壤有机碳(Soil Organic Carbon,SOC)、全氮(Total Nitrogen,TN)、阳离子交换量(Cation Exchange Capacity,CEC)、土壤微生物量碳(Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon,SMBC)、土壤微生物量氮(Soil Microbial Biomass Nitrogen,SMBN)与土壤基础呼吸(Soil Base Respiration,SBR)显著增加(P<0.05);pH值逐渐减小(P>0.05)。(2)SMBC/SMBN比在5.23~6.96之间,土

  4. Improving China's antiretroviral treatment program: assessing current and future performance using the principals of ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Fu-jie; Naomi Juniper; WU Zun-you

    2009-01-01

    @@ The global commitment to providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in low-income countries has raised hope that the increasing momentum in the fight against the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic will be sufficient to control it. However, improved availability of subsidized antiretroviral (ARV) treatments in low-income countries raises complex ethical issues.1,2 In many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment far exceeds the supply of ARV medication. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological,ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria,Healthcare systems and funding in low-income countries are limited, requiring a step-by-step aipproach to scalingup programs to reach their stated aims.

  5. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...... for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water values, resulting...... in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at minimum costs....

  6. Soil organic carbon dynamics in Xilingol grassland of northern China induced by the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangxia; Cao, Wei; Fan, Jiangwen

    2016-09-01

    To mitigate impacts of sandstorms on northern China, the Chinese government launched the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Program (BTSSCP) in 2000. The associated practices (i.e., cultivation, enclosure, and aerial seeding) were expected to greatly enhance grassland carbon sequestration. However, the BTSSCP-induced soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remain elusive at a regional level. Using the Xilingol League in Inner Mongolia for a case study, we examined the impacts from 2000 to 2006 of the BTSSCP on SOC stocks using the IPCC carbon budget inventory method. Results indicated that over all practices SOC storage increased by 1.7%, but there were large differences between practices. SOC increased most rapidly at the rate of 0.3 Mg C•ha-1•yr-1 under cultivation, but decreased significantly under aerial seeding with moderate or heavy grazing (0.3 vs.0.6 Mg C•ha-1•yr-1). SOC increases varied slightly for grassland types, ranging from 0.10 Mg C•ha-1•yr-1 for temperate desert steppe to 0.16 Mg C•ha-1•yr-1 for temperate meadow steppe and lowland meadow. The overall economic benefits of the SOC sink were estimated to be 4.0 million CNY. Aerial seeding with no grazing was found to be the most cost-effective practice. Finally, we indicated that at least 55.5 years (shortest for cultivation) were needed for the grasslands to reach their potential carbon stocks. Our findings highlight the importance and effectiveness of BTSSCP in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration which may help mitigate climate change, and further stress the need for more attention to the effectiveness of specific practices.

  7. Rural Household Preferences for Active Participation in “Payment for Ecosystem Service” Programs: A Case in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Kebin; Yang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Many payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP), are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of “active and incomplete” participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation. As such, this paper uses the Choice Experiment (CE) method to explore ways for inducing effective program participation, by analyzing the effects of different regime attributes. The case study used to analyze participation utility was the Jing-Ji Afforestation Program for Ecological and Water Protection (JAPEWP), a typical active-participation forestry PES program, and a key source of water near Beijing in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment (MRC). Analyzing rural household survey data indicated that the program faces a variety of challenges, including long-term maintenance, implementation performance, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring approaches. There are also challenges with one-size-fits-all payment strategies, due to ineffective program participation or imperfect implementation regimes. In response, this study proposes several policies, including providing secure and complete land tenure to the participants, creating more local off-farm employment opportunities, designing performance-based monitoring systems that are integrated with financial incentives, applying differentiated payment strategies, providing capacity building to support forestation activities, and establishing a comprehensive implementation regime that would address these challenges. These policy conclusions provide valuable lessons for other active-participation PES programs as well. PMID:28046106

  8. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  9. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Methods: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. Results: The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more

  10. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  11. Barriers and Potential Improvements for Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in China: A Qualitative Study from Perspectives of Both Health and Public Security Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Chen, Xi; Chow, Eric P F; Jing, Jun; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acceptability, the barriers to the implementation of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) and the potential improvement strategies in China from the perspectives of governmental health and public security officials. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment of participants who had been involved in NSPs implementation. Semi-Structured individual interviews were conducted in Mandarin to address three aspects of NSPs: (1) participants' attitudes towards NSPs, (2) participants' opinions on the effectiveness and barriers of NSPs, and (3) suggestions for improving the program. Content analysis was used to analyse the translated interview data. A total of 68 participants from 12 Hunan counties were interviewed (34 from each of the Bureau of Health and the Narcotic Division). Both groups recognised the importance and effectiveness of NSPs in HIV prevention, but public security officials regarded NSPs as a temporary intervention in place of punitive measures. Most health officials (32/34) regarded the main barriers to its implementation as administrative and structural, whereas participants from Narcotics Division (n=24) questioned the legitimacy of NSPs and concerned about the poor management of drug users' risk behaviours. Close cooperation between the health and public security sectors, engagement of the drug user community and an enabling policy environment were reportedly to be critical for potential improvements of NSPs in China. Misconceptions about NSPs encourage drug users' addictive behaviour, and an unclear leadership and insufficient support de-motivate the participants from the Bureau of Health and the Narcotics Division to actively support the program implementation.

  12. The Effect of Payments for Ecosystem Services Programs on the Relationship of Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy among Rural Communities in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The security and quality of livelihoods for peasant households is the core issue for rural areas in China. A stable livelihood contributes to the harmonious development of related polices, poverty eradication and sustainable use of resources. In Qinghe County, located in the extremely arid zone of Northwest China, 238 validated surveys were conducted. The analysis focuses on the importance of livelihood capitals for the selection of on- or off-farm livelihood strategies among beneficiaries of different kinds of ecological compensation packages. The goal is to see if different groups of beneficiaries are better able to pursue off-farm livelihoods activity, which reduces pressure on the resource base, and whether specific capitals are especially effective in helping households pursue off-farm livelihoods, which benefits their well-being. The findings show that proportionally more herdsmen (who participated in a pastureland rehabilitation program were able to pursue off-farm livelihoods than farmers (who participated in the cultivated land reforestation program, and especially agro-pastoralists (who participated in both programs. Further, models of livelihood strategy show that human and financial capitals facilitate off-farm livelihoods, while productive capital tends to lead to on-farm livelihoods. These findings indicate that there is no single determinant of livelihood strategy, and future policies must consciously differentiate among beneficiaries to reach the desired result.

  13. Simulation of runoff and nutrient export from a typical small watershed in China using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofu; Liu, Hongyu; Luo, Chuan; Li, Yan; Li, Hengpeng; Pan, Jianjun; Jiang, Xiaosan; Zhou, Quansuo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-05-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), which is a hydrological and water-quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, was employed to simulate runoff and nutrient export from a typical small watershed in a hilly eastern monsoon region of China. First, a parameter sensitivity analysis was performed to assess how changes in the model parameters affect runoff and nutrient export. Next, the model was calibrated and validated using measured runoff and nutrient concentration data. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (E NS ) values of the yearly runoff were 0.87 and 0.69 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. For storms runoff events, the E NS values were 0.93 for the calibration period and 0.47 for the validation period. Antecedent precipitation and soil moisture conditions can affect the simulation accuracy of storm event flow. The E NS values for the total nitrogen (TN) export were 0.58 for the calibration period and 0.51 for the validation period. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the observed and simulated TN concentrations were 0.84 for the calibration period and 0.74 for the validation period. For phosphorus export, the E NS values were 0.89 for the calibration period and 0.88 for the validation period. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the observed and simulated orthophosphate concentrations were 0.96 and 0.94 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The nutrient simulation results are generally satisfactory even though the parameter-lumped HSPF model cannot represent the effects of the spatial pattern of land cover on nutrient export. The model parameters obtained in this study could serve as reference values for applying the model to similar regions. In addition, HSPF can properly describe the characteristics of water quantity and quality processes in this area. After adjustment, calibration, and validation of the parameters, the HSPF

  14. A Virtual Reconstruction Methodology for Archaeological Heritage in East Asia – Practical Experience from the Re-relic Program in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is as much abundance of archaeological heritage in East Asia as there is diversity in the methodology for its reconstruction and representation. The Re-relic program in China recognizes the uniqueness of archaeological heritage in East Asia and has developed a tailored virtual reconstruction methodology that is both scientifically robust and popular for public interpretation. The theoretical consideration and field experience over the years shall contribute to the global understanding of the value and technique in virtual reconstruction, while testifying to the very principles of Seville Charter.

  15. China's Lunar Exploration Program——The Third Milestone for China's Space Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luan Enjie

    2006-01-01

    To explore the moon demonstrating the wisdom and capability of mankind. China's Lunar Exploration Program is the third milestone for China's space industry. We have formed China's lunar exploration program that features three milestones, i.e. "orbiting", "landing" and "returning". As a developing country, China conducts definite deep space activities under limited conditions, reflecting China's strong national strength and symbolizing ability of China's space industry.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293 per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02 for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W.; So, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15–25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10–19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32–75 (195–460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62–110 (379–670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63–120 (384–734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  19. Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case Study of the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lobscheid, Agnes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dai, Yue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    China’s cement industry accounted for more than half of the world’s total cement production in 2010. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of total national PM emissions. Although specific regulations and policies are needed to reduce the pollutant emissions from the cement industry, air pollution can also be reduced as a co-benefit of energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation policies and programs. Quantifying and accounting for these co-benefits when evaluating energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation programs reveals benefits beyond the programs’ energy and global warming impacts and adds to their cost effectiveness. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions that result from energy-saving measures in China’s cement industry.

  20. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  1. A comparative analysis of information literacy curriculum standards in the educational programs of high schools in China and in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua; WU; Jing; GUO; Jing; SUN

    2011-01-01

    Our study aims to take a closer look at China’s current information literacy(IL)program standards at secondary schools and to analyze their level of success and/or failures in a comparative way with those of the United States in terms of fulfilling their each other’s mission-oriented mandates.Our research findings show that China’s current IL standards of high schools contain a disproportionate emphasis on information technology(IT).Moreover,the stipulations of these IL standards are narrowly construed and without being solidly grounded on a broad and comprehensive educational perspective.We also suggest that there are two underlying causes for this set of unsound IL standards in China.Firstly,there is a lack of collaboration between two major competing forces engaged in the curricular development and research of IL in China:Those professionals in educational IT discipline vis-à-vis those in Library and Information Science.Secondly,library professionals have a very limited influence on major socio-cultural policies,even at their own institutions.As a result,this paper recommends the following three possible measures,which may help remedy this situation strategically:1)Establishing a set of new IL curriculum standards based on an IL-centered educational perspective;2)establishing a teacher-librarian’s training program to promote school librarians’role in IL education;and 3)strengthening the research and development of an online IL education program and an accompanied evaluation mechanism.

  2. Effects of the "Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program" on the water budget of the Jinghe River catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Yin, Jing; Tian, Fei; Geng, Shu

    2011-01-01

    In 1999 China adopted the "Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program" (CCFGP), a nationwide ecological recovery program, to minimize wide-scale soil erosion and vegetation degradation in China, as well as to improve water budgeting results. In the 10 yr since implementation, the CCFGP has resulted in the recovery and reforestation of >100,000 km of cropland and bare land, though the quantitative effect of this program on catchment water budget is not entirely clear. Therefore, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to evaluate and quantify the effects of the CCFGP on the water budget of the Jinghe River catchment, a tributary of the Yellow River covering the central region of the Loess Plateau. Our results indicated that precipitation had dropped by 12.0% from the 1970s (611.6 mm) to the 2000s (538 mm) and that there was a corresponding 25.2% decrease in humidity index from 0.48 to 0.36. Before the CCFGP's implementation, forest and grassland had been decreasing, while bare land, cropland, and shrub land had been increasing. After the implementation of the CCFGP, the opposite trend was observed. Moreover, streamflow increased by about 15 and 20% for the upstream and middle stream subbasins, respectively, while soil water content also showed an obvious increase. Over the same period, evapotranspiration decreased by 5.2 and 13.5 mm and runoff decreased by 37.5 and 38.6% in the two subbasins. The same trends were obtained in the downstream subbasin, where changes were even greater. As a result of the reduced runoff and evapotranspiration, utilization of water resources was more efficient and ecological environment was improved under the CCFGP policy. Our results indicate the CCFGP resulted in a favorable ecological impact and should therefore be maintained.

  3. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. Methods: The China Rural Health Initiative Sodiu

  4. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. METHODS: The China Rural Health Initiative Sodiu

  5. Achievements of Manned Space Program and Construction of Space Station in China%我国载人航天成就与空间站建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善广; 陈金盾; 姜国华; 刘伟波; 李莹辉

    2012-01-01

    我国载人航天工程自1992年启动以来,已成功完成了5次无人飞船飞行和4次载人飞行,突破和掌握了载人天地往返技术、航天员出舱活动技术和空间交会对接技术,为建造空间站奠定了坚实基础.2010年9月,国家批准启动载人空间站工程,工程将分空间实验室和空间站两个阶段实施.本文首先回顾我国载人航天工程计划的形成过程,总结我国载人航天工程发展历程及所取得的成就;其次,简要介绍我国交会对接任务实施情况;然后概述我国空间实验室和空间站的技术方案以及建设规划;最后展望空间站应用与国际合作前景.%Five unmanned spaceship test flights and four manned missions have been carried out since the initiation of China' s manned space program in 1992. Breakthrough and mastering of three basic technologies, in-chuding the space transportation technology, the extravehicular activity ( EVA) technology and the space rendezvous and docking ( RVD) technology, laid a solid foundation for the building of manned space station. China started her space station program in Sep. 2010. First,the manned space program and its achievements were reviewed in this paper. Second, the ongoing project, spacecraft rendezvous and docking, was summarized. Then, the space station program was outline. In the end, the prospects of the space station application and international space science cooperation were presented.

  6. Protective immune barrier against hepatitis B is needed in individuals born before infant HBV vaccination program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shigui; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Deng, Min; Cao, Qing; Li, Yiping; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kaijin; Yao, Jun; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Tian, Guo; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-12-14

    The hepatitis B prevalence rate in adults is still at a high to intermediate level in China. Our purpose was to explore the incidence rate and protective immune barrier against hepatitis B in adults in China. A sample of 317961 participants was multi-screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) in a large-scale cohort of the National Hepatitis B Demonstration Project. A total of 5401 persons were newly-infected, representing an incidence rate of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) per 100 person-years after adjusted by gender and age. History of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, birth prior to 1992, coastal residence, family history of HBV, and migrant worker status were significantly associated with higher incidence, while HBV vaccination and greater exercise with lower incidence. The hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) positive rate was negatively correlated with the incidence rate of hepatitis B (r = -0.826). Linear fitting yielded an incidence rate of 1.23 plus 0.02 multiplied by HBsAb positive rate. The study firstly identified the HBsAg incidence rate, which was reduced to 0.1 per 100 person-years after vaccination coverage of about 64%. The protective immune barrier against hepatitis B needs to be established in individuals born prior to the advent of infant HBV vaccination.

  7. 美国阿波罗计划组织管理经验及对我国的启示%Apollo Program Management:Lessons for China's Large-scale S&T Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义芳

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo program which landed a team of American astronauts on the Moon is generally considered as the greatest technological endeavors in the history of mankind.In order to achieve this, managerial efforts were made by NASA, including reforms on management system and operational mechanisms, and the use of system engineering methods.Based on the research into Apollo program management, its best management practices are summarized, with some reflections on China's ongoing National large-scale S&T Programs.%美国1961年实施的阿波罗登月计划是人类历史上划时代的科技工程.为实现登月计划,美国NASA创造性地建立了适应计划需要的部门管理体制和运作机制,并在计划实施中引入了系统工程的思想和方法.本文解析了阿波罗计划组织管理体系,分析总结该计划值得借鉴的组织管理经验,并结合我国科技重大专项实施中的问题,提出优化我国科技重大专项实施的建议.

  8. Drought offset ecological restoration program-induced increase in vegetation activity in the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhitao; Wu, Jianjun; He, Bin; Liu, Jinghui; Wang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yong

    2014-10-21

    To improve the ecological conditions, the Chinese government adopted six large-scale ecological restoration programs including 'Three-North Shelterbelt Project', "Grain for Green Project" and "Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Project". Meanwhile, these ecologically vulnerable areas have experienced frequent droughts. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of drought on the effectiveness of these programs. Taking Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) as study area, we investigated the role of droughts and ecological restoration program on trends of vegetation activities and to address the question of a possible "drought signal" in assessing effectiveness of ecological restoration program. The results demonstrate the following: (1) Vegetation activity increased in the BTSSR during 2000-2010, with 58.44% of the study area showing an increased NDVI, of which 11.80% had a significant increase at 0.95 confidential level. The decreasing NDVI trends were mainly concentrated in a southwest-to-northeast strip in the study area. (2) Drought was the main driving force for a decreasing trend of vegetation activity in the southwest-to-northeast regions of the BTSSR at the regional and spatial scales. Summer droughts in 2007 and 2009 contributed to the decreasing trend in NDVI. The severe and extreme droughts in summer reduced the NDVI by approximately 13.06% and 23.55%, respectively. (3) The residual analysis result showed that human activities, particularly the ecological restoration programs, have a positive impact on vegetation change. Hence, the decreasing trends in the southwest-to-northeast regions of the BTSSR cannot be explained by the improper ecological restoration program and is partly explained by droughts, especially summer droughts. Therefore, drought offset the ecological restoration program-induced increase in vegetation activity in the BTSSR.

  9. The Good Pain Management (GPM) Ward Program in China and its impact on Chinese cancer patients:the SYSUCC experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Peng Yang; Yu-Xiang Ma; Yan Huang; Yuan-Yuan Zhao; Fei Xu; Ying Tian; Ben-Yan Zou; Rui-Zhen Gao; Li Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve cancer pain management, the Medical Oncology Department of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) launched the Good Pain Management (GPM) Ward Program, which has been recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Health and promoted throughout the nation. This retrospective case-control study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Patients diagnosed with malignant solid tumors with bone metastasis were eligible. Patients who were admitted 6 months before the initiation of the GPM program were used as the control group, and patients admitted 6 months after the initiation of the program were used as the GPM group. The pain-reporting rate and pain management index (PMI) were calculated. The pain levels before and after pain management were compared. A total of 475 patients (244 in the control group and 231 in the GPM group) were analyzed. The pain-reporting rate of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (62.8% vs. 37.7%,P< 0.001). The PMI of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.083 vs. -0.261,P< 0.001). Therefore, the GPM Ward Program improved the pain management of cancer patients and provided experience for improving cancer pain management in the future.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of a NSCLC patient assistance program for pemetrexed maintenance therapy in People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Hu, Shanlian; Furnback, Wesley E; Guzauskas, Gregory F; Shen, Jiejing; Wang, Bruce CM

    2017-01-01

    Background Eli Lilly and the China Primary Health Care Foundation are currently implementing a patient assistance program (PAP) in China, which allows first-line nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who complete four cycles of pemetrexed induction therapy to receive free, continuous pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy vs basic standard care (BSC) and the economic impacts of providing a PAP for pemetrexed maintenance therapy to NSCLC patients who have completed pemetrexed induction therapy in a Chinese health care setting. Methods We developed a novel decision-analytic model to evaluate the long-term costs and clinical efficacy of pemetrexed plus BSC vs BSC alone. We utilized a three-state (progression-free survival, progressed disease, and dead) partition survival model for both the clinical and economic aspects of the analysis. Cost and health utility estimates were derived from the literature. We performed a scenario analysis to estimate the real-world impact of introducing the PAP in China by comparing the use of the PAP vs non-PAP. Model uncertainty was evaluated using one-way and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results Compared to BSC, pemetrexed plus BSC resulted in a gain of 0.22 years of life (95% credible range [CR]: 0.04–0.46) and 0.13 quality-adjusted life years (95% CR: 0.04–0.26) per patient, at an increased cost of $28,105 (95% CR: −$22,720 to $48,646) without a PAP and $3,068 (95% CR: −$1,263 to $9,163) with a PAP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for pemetrexed plus BSC vs BSC alone was cost-prohibitive at $222,700 for non-PAP, but cost-effective at $24,319 with a PAP. Conclusion Our study suggests that maintenance pemetrexed therapy following pemetrexed induction for patients with advanced NSCLC is likely to be highly non-cost-effective in the absence of a PAP, but the pending implementation of the PAP promises to make it

  11. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Dave

    2006-04-01

    To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services) should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.

  12. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  13. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  14. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  15. First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China%中国首个预防瑞复美®胎儿暴露的风险最小化项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹骁靖; 李敏; 邹建军; BWIRERobert; LONDONCalvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the design, implementation, and the outcome from the first eighteen months of the Celgene product Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China project, RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China. Methods RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China was developed based on the global principles and requirements of Celgene RMP, and the unique medical practices in China. RevCare consists of 3 core elements. Meanwhile, i-access First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China, a IT system, has been developed to serve as the database for RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China , and also contributes to the compliance control of the program. Results Prescribers and pharmacists are key players in the program. The impact on their daily work brought by RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China is considered as reasonable. The compliance rate of RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China is high during the first eighteen months of implementation since the launch of Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China and there is no report of pregnancy related to the use of the drug. It suggests the effectiveness of the program in controlling the risk of Revlimid First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China fetal exposure. Conclusion RevCare First Risk Minimization Program for Preventing Foetal Exposure of Revlimid ® in China, the first PPP requires significant interaction and collaboration between Celgene with prescribers and pharmacists. The first eighteen months of implementation, general acceptance by the healthcare

  16. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  17. A grey multi-objective programming approach for sustainable land-use in the Miyun Reservoir Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huai-cheng; ZHANG Zhen-xing; YU Yong

    2004-01-01

    Miyun Reservoir is the most important water source to Beijing City. Land-use of the basin plays a great role in the protection of water resources. Hence a sustainable land-use planning is required to optimize land-use structure and protect water resources in the basin. Based on the complete land-use system analysis in Miyun, a grey multi-objective programming to basin land-use(GMOPBLU)model was developed and applied to land-use planning. Two alternatives were produced and analyzed by means of interactive adjustment and scenario analysis. The results showed the GMOPBLU model is a valuable approach for basin land-use planning.

  18. 我国开展供应链安全项目的挑战与对策%Challenges and Suggestions for Implementing Supply Chain Security Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欣; 吴正威; 李彦和; 任金珠

    2013-01-01

      首先介绍了供应链安全项目的内涵以及世界各国的实施现状,然后从海关和企业两个角度出发,分析了我国供应链安全项目的开展的现状,着重阐述实施的重要性以及实施过程中面临的困境,最后给出了相关政策建议。%First the concept of supply chain security programs is introduced and the current worldwide implementing situations is presented. Then, from both the customs and the business point of view, the current implementing situations in China is discussed. Finally, recognized the importance and problems for China in supply chain security programs, policies and suggestions are proposed.

  19. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-12-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species ( Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  20. Modeling daily reference ET in the karst area of northwest Guangxi (China) using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fu, Zhi-yong; Chen, Hong-song; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear complexity is a characteristic of hydrologic processes. Using fewer model parameters is recommended to reduce error. This study investigates, and compares, the ability of gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in modeling ET0 by using fewer meteorological parameters in the karst area of northwest Guangxi province, China. Over a 5-year period (2008-2012), meteorological data consisting of maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were collected from four weather stations: BaiSe, DuAn, HeChi, and RongAn. The ET0 calculated by the FAO-56 PM equation was used as a reference to evaluate results for GEP, ANN, and Hargreaves models. The coefficient of determination ( R 2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used as statistical indicators. Evaluations revealed that GEP, and ANN, can be used to successfully model ET0. In most cases, when using the same input variables, ANN models were superior to GEP. We then established ET0 equations with fewer parameters under various conditions. GEP can produce simple explicit mathematical formulations which are easier to use than the ANN models.

  1. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-03-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species (Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  2. Inter-hemispheric comparisons of geospace environment in the polar regionsA proposed cooperative research program between China and Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese Zhongshan Station in Antarctica and the stations in Svalbard (Auroral station at Longyearbyen and NP station at Ny-lesund) are closely magnetic conjugate. All of them are equipped similar measurement instruments dealing with upper atmospheric physics. Therefore, there is a good reason to conduct a cooperative research program between China and Norway to do the inter-hemispheric comparisons of geospace environment in the polar regions. It will make significant contribution to further understanding of the coupled magnetosphere-ionsphere system. The scientific aims of the cooperative project are: to experimentally verify the modeled complicated conjugate relationship between Zhongshan Station in the Antarctic and Svalbard in the Arctic. To derive knowledge from the conjugate characteristics of auroral formations, ionospheric features and space plasma waves in the polar regions, which in turn will lead to better understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. The proposed research contents, research methods and experimental techniques are discussed, and the manners of the cooperative research are suggested in the paper.

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    were avoided during construction activities. Twenty one of the 34 projects had sites within the distribution range of the threatened desert tortoise. NNSA/NSO must comply with the terms and conditions of a permit (called a Biological Opinion) from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) when conducting work in tortoise habitat. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas. No desert tortoises were accidentally injured or killed, nor were any captured or displaced from project sites. One desert tortoise was accidentally killed along a paved road. One site specific re-vegetation plan was submitted this year as required by the desert tortoise habitat re-vegetation plan approved in 2004. This year a total of 1.89 ha (4.69 ac) of tortoise habitat was disturbed. Re-vegetation of habitat at the Bren Tower burn was completed in the spring of 2006. In the summer of 2006, NSTec scientists prepared a Biological Assessment of the security activities that were being conducted at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). NNSA requested a Biological Opinion from FWS in late 2006. Ecosystem mapping and data management in 2006 focused primarily on two tasks: (a) converting hardcopies of about 17 reports (EMAC annual reports and selected topical reports from 1996 to 2003) into electronic versions (Portable Document Format [PDF] files) to facilitate electronic document exchange, rapid retrieval, duplication, and printing, and (b) conducting an annual vegetation survey to determine wildland fire hazards on the NTS. Copies of the PDF documents were sent to DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information website in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Public Reading Facility.

  4. Stratification of carbon fractions and carbon management index in deep soil affected by the Grain-to-Green Program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fazhu; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of slope cropland to perennial vegetation has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in A horizon. However, the impact on SOC and its fraction stratification is still poorly understood in deep soil in Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China. Samples were collected from three typical conversion lands, Robinia psendoacacia (RP), Caragana Korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AB), which have been converted from slope croplands (SC) for 30 years in LHR. Contents of SOC, total nitrogen (TN), particulate organic carbon (POC), and labile organic carbon (LOC), and their stratification ratios (SR) and carbon management indexes (CMI) were determined on soil profiles from 0 to 200 cm. Results showed that the SOC, TN, POC and LOC stocks of RP were significantly higher than that of SC in soil layers of 0-10, 10-40, 40-100 and 100-200 cm (P2.0 in most cases of RP, CK and AB. Moreover, CMI values of RP, CK, and AB increased by 11.61-61.53% in soil layer of 100-200 cm compared with SC. Significant positive correlations between SOC stocks and CMI or SR values of both surface soil and deep soil layers indicated that they were suitable indicators for soil quality and carbon changes evaluation. The Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) had strong influence on improving quantity and activity of SOC pool through all soil layers of converted lands, and deep soil organic carbon should be considered in C cycle induced by GTGP. It was concluded that converting slope croplands to RP forestlands was the most efficient way for sequestering C in LHR soils.

  5. The News China Can Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JACK CARNEY

    2010-01-01

    @@ Xinhua, China's biggest news wire service, began broadcasting English-language programs on its China Xinhua News Network Corp. (CNC) on July 1. CNC will soon go on to broadcast other programs in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Russian. CNC TV itself, now broadcasting 24 hours a day, was inaugurated in December 2009 amid much fanfare as "an important move for Xinhua to enrich the agency's business sectors and embrace the multimedia world," said Xinhua President Li Congjun during its launch.

  6. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  7. China and EU Engaged in Energy and Environment Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the delegation from the European Commission of European Union to China jointly unveil the 42.9-million-euro China-EU Energy and Environment Program in Beijing on November 3 to improve China's energy efficiency.

  8. CAS Scientists Develop China's First RFQ Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the support of the National Program on Key Basic Research Projects (dubbed the "973Program"), researchers from the CAS Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) have developed the first high-power Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator in China.

  9. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  10. Barriers and enablers of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS program in China: a systematic review and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxin Peng

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: Experience in China suggests that the government’s role in coordination and the acceptability and accessibility of the service should be the primary concerns in regard to the PMTCT project.

  11. Program of Happiness: Changing Poor Mothers’ Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE Program of Happiness is a nationalaction plan aiming to help poormothers in poverty-stricken areas.Itwas jointly launched in February 1995 by theChina Population Welfare Foundation,ChinaFamily Planning Association and thenewspaper,China Population. In China,there are three groups whoneed the most help—women,children and thes

  12. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  13. The China Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Steve; Juefei, Wang

    1991-01-01

    Nearly half of all Vermont school districts have participated in the China Project since its inception in 1986. During the program's first two years, participants examined Chinese history, politics, economy, geography, philosophy, arts, ancient inventions, foreign policy, social life, women's social status, the Chinese language, and the Beijing…

  14. Progress of Ischemic Stroke Medical Care Quality Improvement Program in Outpatient Setting in China and the USA%中美缺血性卒中门诊医疗质量改进项目进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼; 王拥军

    2015-01-01

    美国指南优势(The Guideline Advantage,TGA)医疗质量改进项目为“跟着指南走”(Get With the Guideline,GWTG)项目的门诊延伸,其数据直接通过电子病历和卫生技术平台进行收集,以体现循证医学指南的依从性。中国门诊医疗质量改进项目刚起步,其中中国金桥工程中的中国城市神经科门诊缺血性卒中登记研究拟对全国约100家医院门诊的1.5万例缺血性卒中患者进行调查和随访,评估缺血性卒中的医疗服务现状、二级预防的长期依从性、临床结局等,为进一步的医疗质量改进提供基础数据。%The Guideline Advantage quality improvement program (TGA) is an extended program of Get With the Guideline (GWTG) in outpatient setting in USA. TGA utilizes data from electronic health records (EHRs) or health technology platforms to report on adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Outpatient medical care quality improvement program has just started in China. Registry of outpatients with ischemic stroke in urban China (ROOTS) study evaluates the secondary prevention status, adherence and long-term persistence to secondary prevention and clinical outcome of 15 000 outpatients with ischemic stroke in 100 hospitals in China. ROOTS provides basic data for further medical care quality improvement process.

  15. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  16. Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LisaChiu

    2003-01-01

    CHINA-Enabling A New Era of Changes paints a comprehensive and extremely up-to-date look at the current growth trends in China and examines ways to maintain this fast-paced growth for future generations.

  17. An integrated GIS-based interval-probabilistic programming model for land-use planning management under uncertainty--a case study at Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shasha; Zhou, Min; Guan, Xingliang; Tao, Lizao

    2015-03-01

    A large number of mathematical models have been developed for supporting optimization of land-use allocation; however, few of them simultaneously consider land suitability (e.g., physical features and spatial information) and various uncertainties existing in many factors (e.g., land availabilities, land demands, land-use patterns, and ecological requirements). This paper incorporates geographic information system (GIS) technology into interval-probabilistic programming (IPP) for land-use planning management (IPP-LUPM). GIS is utilized to assemble data for the aggregated land-use alternatives, and IPP is developed for tackling uncertainties presented as discrete intervals and probability distribution. Based on GIS, the suitability maps of different land users are provided by the outcomes of land suitability assessment and spatial analysis. The maximum area of every type of land use obtained from the suitability maps, as well as various objectives/constraints (i.e., land supply, land demand of socioeconomic development, future development strategies, and environmental capacity), is used as input data for the optimization of land-use areas with IPP-LUPM model. The proposed model not only considers the outcomes of land suitability evaluation (i.e., topography, ground conditions, hydrology, and spatial location) but also involves economic factors, food security, and eco-environmental constraints, which can effectively reflect various interrelations among different aspects in a land-use planning management system. The case study results at Suzhou, China, demonstrate that the model can help to examine the reliability of satisfying (or risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. Moreover, it may identify the quantitative relationship between land suitability and system benefits. Willingness to arrange the land areas based on the condition of highly suitable land will not only reduce the potential conflicts on the environmental system but also lead to a lower

  18. 中国国家科技计划资助国际合作特征分析*--基于中美合著SCI论文计量分析的视角%Analysis on the International Collaborations Characteristics of China's National Science and Technology Programs:an Analysis of China-U. S. Co-authored SCI Papers in Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文平; 刘云; 蒋海军

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the China-U. S. co-authored papers funded by China's National Science and Technology Programs ( CNSTP) published in 2008-2012 in Science Citation Index Expanded in bibliometrics, such as amounts, subject fields, countries and co-funding relations, this study finds that CNSTP made important contributions to the China-U. S. collaboration;most of the CNSTP were involved in the China-U. S. collaboration;the papers sponsored by CNSTP were more than those of the US; the papers funded by CNSTP were multidisciplinary;the Chinese scientists funded by CNSTP were more active than those funded by the funding agencies in the US. Mean-while, there are two problems related to CNSTP:firstly, the efficiency of the CNSTP should be improved;secondly, China should attend more multilateral cooperation. At last, some suggestions of international collaborations of CNSTP are offered to policy makers.%基于SCI中美科技合作论文数据,对中国国家科技计划于2008-2012年资助的中美合著SCI论文的数量、领域分布、国别分布、联合资助等进行分析,研究发现我国科技计划资助的中美合作研究具有规模大、范围广、领域宽等特点,并呈现以中国为主导的国际合作特征,同时,也发现我国科技计划在一定程度上存在重复资助、对多边合作资助比例偏低等问题。最后,提出了我国科技计划国际合作的改进建议。

  19. Choosing the Right Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Given the transient nature of the job market, fewer companies are willing to fund the better quality international or global programs, programs that can clearly add value for those focusing on a career in China. "The connection between the pricing point and the perceived value is missing, even when the same program, quality and degree are twice as much in the US. There is absolutely a disconnection between the local market and the high-end foreign or joint programs," says Ira Cohen, Rutgers International Executive MBA Program China director.

  20. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  1. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  2. Launching the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a CUSBEA (China-United States Biochemistry Examination and Administration) Program fellow of Class IV (1985), I am very excited to announce the official launch of the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life

  3. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  4. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  5. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  6. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  7. Overview of antiretroviral treatment in China: advancement and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ling; LI Tai-sheng

    2011-01-01

    As the severity of the HIV epidemic in China grew, National Free Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Program was announced since 2003. Even though there still were many difficulties, China had obtained great achievements in fighting against HIV.Over 52 000 adult patients had received first-line HAART thus far and the mortality of AIDS in China decreased significantly. This paper presents an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China; the status of national free ART program,the difficulties suffered and the achievements made since the initiation of program and the challenges ahead for continued progress for China. This paper also provides suggestions to overcome these challenges.

  8. 关于八年制临床医学教育的认识与思考%Cognition and consideration to medical education of eight-year medical program in China ZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧明; 周花; 张友元; 王庭槐

    2009-01-01

    我国现有13所高校开办八年制临床医学专业,学校及社会各界对八年制医学教育的办学质量和办学模式评价不一.本文通过分析研究八年制临床医学专业的教学现状,以保证八年制临床医学专业教学质量作为出发点和归宿,对进一步明确八年制临床医学专业培养目标,合理设置"医预阶段",深化课程体系和教学内容、教学方法改革,以及优化教学管理等方面进行了探讨.%There are 13 universities with eight-year medical program in China at present. The schools and the society have different views on the quality and the model of eight-year medical program. For the purpose of ensuring the quality of teaching, this paper firstly analyzes the teaching status quo of eight- year medical program at present, then points out how to define the objective, set up pre-medical phase rea- sonably, reform curriculum and teaching, and optimize the teaching administration for the program.

  9. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  10. Evaluating China's Exchange Rate Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Xiao Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1994 China established a de facto currency peg.1 The dollar-RMB exchange rate was fixed at 8.28.The People's Bank of China(PBC) allowed the rate a narrow band of around .01 to .02 percent in which it could shift daily.The exchange rate program did not become newsworthy until U.S.Treasury Secretary John Snow's visit in 2003.In fact as a study by Frankel and Wei (2007)showed, the RMB's forward was actually selling at a discount against the dollar prior to Secretary Snow's visit to China and his subsequent report, signaling that investors were anticipating RMB depreciation.

  11. Research Situation and Development Trend of Work-Study Program of University Libraries in China%我国高校图书馆勤工助学研究现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈若乒

    2011-01-01

    At present, researches on work-study programs of university libraries in China focus on the significant meaning, working content, management and political background of work-study programs of university libraries. However, the practical work of work-study programs is lack of scientific management, has blank administrative policies and regulations, while work-study students have weak psychological quality universally. Accordingly, university libraries should take work-study programs as the important component of development strategies, enhance the training of work-study students, and build the work team for work-study students, so as to improve the level and technology content of work-study programs, and benefit libraries and students jointly in work-study programs.%目前我国高校图书馆勤工助学研究集中于勤工助学的重要意义、勤工助学工作内容、图书馆勤工助学工作的管理及勤工助学的政策背景。然而,在实践工作中普遍存在缺乏科学管理、行政政策与法规空白、勤工助学学生心理素质较差等问题。为此,高校图书馆应将勤工助学工作作为发展战略的重要组成部分,加强勤工助学学生的培训,组建勤工助学学生工作团队,从而提升勤工助学工作的层次与技术含量,使图书馆与勤工助学学生共同受益。

  12. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  13. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  14. Internationalization of postgraduate programs in China to construct world-class university%推进我国研究生教育国际化争创世界一流大学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志伟; 马长中; 孔宪玲

    2011-01-01

    研究生教育是我国教育结构中的最高层次,它的国际化是当前高等教育发展的重要特征与明显趋势,是经济全球化趋势下国家增强国力和国际竞争力的重要支撑力量,是高等院校创建世界一流大学的重要发展战略.本文通过分析我国研究生教育国际化的发展现状,探讨了当前我国研究生教育国际化面临的一些问题,最后针对我国研究生教育国际化发展进程、创建世界一流大学提出了相应的对策和建议.%Graduate education is the highest level in Chinas education system.Internationalization of China's graduate programs is a marked feature and an obvious trend of the current development of higher education.It is also a crucial development strategy for higher institutions to become worldclass institutions,and further could help strengthen national power and increases national competitiveness under the background of economic globalization.This paper analyzes the current situation of internationalization of China's graduate education,and discusses some issues that we are facing in this development process.Suggestions and countermeasures are also made for the development process and creating world-class universities.

  15. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  16. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  17. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  18. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing.

  19. Survey of different types of field epidemiology training programs in China%我国省市县现场流行病学培训项目现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 张丽杰; 施国庆; 裴迎新; 马会来; 曾光

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the current status,type,and effect of training programs conducted by Health Bureau and CDC in China.Methods One person of each province was selected from China field epidemiology training network and designated as contact person who was responsible for collecting information of field practical training lasting for at least 6 months for staff of public health emergency and infectious disease control in each province from October 2001 to October 2010.Questionnaire including basic condition,organization and management,training design,faculty condition,trainee condition and training outputs was designed and filled in by contact person.Results There were 35 training programs covering over 9 provinces in China.The first province and city FETP started in 2004,including Guangdong FETP,Zhejiang FETP,Hangzhou FETP,Ningbo FETP and Guizhou FETP.Thirty-five training programs had 355 mentors,22(6%)were CFETP graduates and 57 (16%)were local FETP graduates.All program funds were paid by local governments.The training programs included two parts,theoretical lectures and field practice,which occupying 10%-20% and 80%-90% of the whole training time,respectively.Among 6 evaluative items including emergency investigation,surveillance analysis,surveillance evaluation,planned investigation,investigation report and paper publication,most programs(50%-94%) had less than average one person per time.Conclusions Field epidemiology training program after several years of development in china achieves the certain scale.Some provincial programs are successful,but the effect and quality of training programs in different areas are uneven.We suggest optimizing of field epidemiology training resources and further expanding China field epidemiology training network.%目的 了解我国省、市、县开展的现场流行病学培训项目(field epidemiology trainingprograms,FETP)现状、类型、培训效果及存在问题.方法 在中国现场流行病

  20. A Four-Step Method for Optimising the Normal Water Level of Reservoirs Based on a Mathematical Programming Model—A Case Study for the Songyuan Backwater Dam in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Feng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optimal normal water level of reservoirs (RNWL was investigated, incorporating environmental ecology as a primary consideration. RNWL constitutes a relatively significant eigenvalue of any water conservancy project. In the present study, a four-step method based on a mathematical programming model and suitable for RNWL decision making was developed and applied to the water conservancy project of the Songyuan backwater dam in China. System analysis, correlation analysis, significance testing, principal component analysis, sensitivity analysis, and system optimisation theory are used in the solution process. In this study, various factors that impact the economic viability, engineering characteristics, environmental and urban ecology are considered for holistic optimisation. The study shows that the proposed four-step method may provide a feasible quantitative form of support for RNWL decision making.

  1. On the Conjunction of China-Vietnam Border Hydrangea Culture and the National Fitness Program%中越边境绣球文化与全民健身的契合及发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 王成科

    2013-01-01

    With a long history, hydrangea culture has rich content and sound foundation in the boarder area of China and Vietnam. To develop hydrangea culture in National Fitness Program being carried out has great significance to improve the health level of boarder area people, to improve their spirit conditions and inherit their ethnic sports culture.%  绣球文化历史悠久,内容丰富,在中越边境地区具有广泛的群众基础。在全民健身计划实施的过程中发展绣球运动,对提高中越边境各族人民健康水平、提高民族精神面貌与少数民族体育文化传承有着重要社会意义。

  2. China's Crude Exports to Japan Suspended

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The stalemate of the trade negotiation between China and Japan has recently aroused extensive attention in the two nations. China has suspended oil exports to Japan due to the divergences arising from in the sales negotiation, risking the future of a three-decade long oil shipment program.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  4. Understanding Families with Children with Special Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing dialogues and exchanges for special education programs between China and the rest of the world as the development continues in China. Policy makers, administrators, and educators need to keep in mind the historical and cultural backgrounds when working with families with children with special needs in China. Together, this…

  5. Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules before and after implementation of the universal salt iodization program in mainland China from 1985 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We comprehensively estimated the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules (TNs before and after the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program in mainland China and provided information for creating effective health policies. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases were searched for relevant studies from Jan 1985 to Feb 2014. Data from eligible citations were extracted by two independent reviewers. All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: Eligible articles (N = 31; 4 in English and 27 in Chinese included 52 studies (15 about goiter rates made before 1996 and 14 afterwards, and 23 about TNs. Our meta-analysis suggests a pooled prevalence for goiter before and after 1996 and for TNs of 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8% and 22.7% (95% CI: 18.3%, 27.0%, respectively. Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of goiter was reduced by almost half after 1996 in mainland China, so the USI program was considered beneficial. However, subgroup analysis suggests that both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with goiter. The prevalence of goiter and TNs increased significantly after 2002, suggesting a risk of excessive iodine intake. Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

  6. Approaches to antiretroviral therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce L GILLIAM; Robert R REDFIELD

    2005-01-01

    China has recognized the threat of HIV to its population and responded with a national antiretroviral treatment (ART)program. However, high ART failure rates and the spread of resistance within populations are important realities to consider when developing and managing ART programs in China and worldwide. Concepts which will define treatment success and local and national programmatic goals are 1) access to ART, 2) durability of ART at the patient level, 3)scalability of treatment modalities, and the 4) sustainability of the program at the community or national level. In the face of limited resources, China must also consider when to start ARV therapy, which agents to use, when to switch them, and how to treat highly experienced patients with drug resistance. The optimal ARV regimen to start with is changing frequently with the introduction of new agents and the presentation of new data. Currently, a regimen including tenofovir, emtricitabine or lamivudine and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor appears to have optimal characteristics to treat HIV/AIDS in China. However, critical to all of these choices is the evaluation of programs implemented to insure wide scale success. China has wisely begun this process of evaluating the performance of local programs through systematic monitoring and evaluation of treatment outcomes. This will allow regimens and programs that work to be expanded, and programs with high failure rates to be eliminated. In the end,evidence based data supporting treatment strategies will allow China to successfully confront its AIDS epidemic early and prevent its tragic consequences

  7. Enlightenment of National Nutrition Monitoring Program in the United States on China%美国国家营养监测计划及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏慧; 王宁; 彭亚拉

    2013-01-01

    公众的营养与健康状况是反映一个国家社会与经济发展、卫生健康水平和人口素质的重要指标,是国家制定营养相关政策的重要依据,因此,对全国居民展开营养监测必不可少.本文分析了美国相对完善的国家营养监测计划、对比了我国营养监测的现状,认为美国的营养监测计划在体制、执行和财政投入等方面对完善我国营养监测体系具有重要的借鉴价值.我国应尽快制定和完善适合本国国情的国家营养监测计划,提高其全面性、严密性、时效性及针对性,及时采取干预措施,指导人群健康膳食,保护公众的健康和安全.%The nutrition and health status of people is an important indicator for the economy and social development, health care level and the population diathesis of a country or region, and important basis for countries to develop nutrition-related policies. Therefore, it's essential to develop nutrition surveillance on residents. This article analyzed relatively perfect national nutrition monitoring program in the United States, and compared the current situation of China's nutrition monitoring. The nutrition monitoring program in the United States is a reference to China in system, executive and financial investment and so on. China should develop the national nutrition monitoring as soon as possible, improve its comprehensiveness, rigor, timeliness and relevance, take timely interventions, guide healthy diet, and protect the health and safety of the public.

  8. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  9. Chinas Legal Protection of Television Programs Templates%我国电视节目模板的法律保护探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世栋

    2012-01-01

    Television Programs Templates are large industry in the whole world, but people know few about the concept of television programs templates and its legal protection. In the existing legal system, television programs templates are often difficult to be effectively protected by law. This article discusses the concept and value of television programs templates, analyzes on the status quo of television programs templates, and combined with the China's law, put forward proposals of television programs templates'legal protection.%电视节目模板已在国际上形成巨大产业,但人们对电视节目模板本身及其法律保护问题仍存在着模糊认识。在各国现行的法律体系下,电视节目模板作为一个整体往往很难受到法律的有效保护。文章探讨了电视节目模板的概念及价值,分析了电视节目模板的现状,并结合我国法律实际,提出了保护电视节目模板的法律建议。

  10. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  11. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  12. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  13. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  14. Population Education in China: Now and into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taijin, Zhang

    1991-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive plan for the expansion of China's population education program. Evaluations which demonstrate the success of the program are the foundation for the plans that address new trends and requirements for population management. (MCO)

  15. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  16. Facets of Software Development Computer Science & Programming,Engineering & Management In fond Memory of Professor Wu Yunzeng,Peking University,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DinesBjner

    1989-01-01

    Professor Wu Yunzeng epitomiazed ancient and nodern Chinese culture,Professor Wu Yunzeng was an eminent computer scientist.logician and philosopher,professor Wu Yunzeng won innumerable friends for China.We are many,in the West,who were very fond of him.his visit to Denmark made positive,and lasting impressions,we found,also ,that professor Wu Yunzeng introduced into chinese scholarly life very commendable features,The wqay he guided his students and colleagues was an example to be followed by us all.Professor Wu Yunzeng was profoundly engaged in the mathematical (logic and other)foundations of the computation sciences,in the didactics of that field,and in the broader,philosophical issues at stake when pursuing scientific and engineering work in computation.In this testimonial allow me to speculate on a context in which our many,individual contributions to the computation sciences may fit into practical life.

  17. 浅谈气象频道广西本地插播节目的设计%Discussion on Insertion of Guangxi Meteorological Programs to China Weather Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎琮炜; 孔毅民

    2011-01-01

    Combined with social needs and the actual work, analyzing the current problems of insertion of Guangxi meteorological programs to China Weather Channel, the content, forms, service, specialized information etc. of the local meteorological programs were discussed. And some improved design ideas were also proposed.%通过分析目前气象频道广西本地插播节目存在的问题,结合社会需求及实际工作情况,从丰富和加深节目内容.加强地市级的本地化服务,提高气象信息时效性,丰富节目表现形式,加强精细化服务,凸显专业化信息几个方面阐述了气象频道本地插播节目改进的设计思路,以提高插播节目服务水平。

  18. 我国参与欧盟研发框架计划的总体情况%Outline of China Participation in the Framework Program of the European Community for Research and Technological Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊杰; 马晓倩

    2014-01-01

    欧盟研发框架计划是世界上规模最大的、综合性的官方研发计划,具有研发领域广、投资规模大、延续时间长、参与的机构和人员多等特点。自欧盟第四研发框架计划正式对欧盟以外的国家开放以来,其开放的领域不断扩大,包括信息通讯技术、纳米技术、能源、环境等众多领域。从我国参与欧盟第四至第七框架计划的情况来看,参与项目的数量增长较快,但经费增长缓慢;合作领域由以传统领域为主向高技术领域扩展;参与主体以大学和科研机构为主。目前,欧盟已开始实施“地平线 2020”计划,并将推行对等开放、双向合作的国际科技合作方式。我国应认真总结前期参与欧盟框架计划的经验,积极应对新的挑战。%The Framework Program of the European Community for Research and Technological Development (FP) is the largest comprehensive ofifcial program for research and technological development in the world with characteristics of broad ifelds, large funds, long period and large quantity of participants. Since FP4 opened outside EU formally, FP continues to extend the opening areas including information and communication technology, nanotechnology, energy, and environment. China has participated in the EU research program from FP4 to FP7, and the number of projects involved increased rapidly but with slow increase of funds. The cooperation between EU and China has extended from traditional areas to high-tech areas with participants mainly from higher and secondary education organizations (HES) and research organizations (REC). EU has executed“Horizon 2020” since 2014 and will promote the reciprocal opening and bilateral cooperation. So, we should summarize the experiences of early participation in FP and take active ways to meet the new challenges.

  19. Children's Rights Protection Enters New Stage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HUAWEN

    2012-01-01

    The State Council of China issued the National Program on the Development of Children (2011-2020) on July 30,2011,outlining new targets and new measures by the government in promoting undertakings concerning children.The new program marks the start of a new era of children's rights protection in China.

  20. China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Under the joint auspices of the Ministry of Sciences & Technology (MOST) and China Association for Science & Technology, more than 1,600 Chinese scholars including CAS and CAE members, chief scientists of the National Basic Research Program (dubbed 973 Program) and directors of national key labs, have voted for China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007.

  1. Major research project to explore mineralization in South China landmass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by the National Basic Research Program (dubbed "973" Program), a research project on intracontinental metallogenesis on the South China block recently kicked off. The launching meeting was held on 19 to 20 October, 2007, in Guiyang, capital of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  2. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  3. Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Steady-State Analysis Program for Primary Loop of China Experimental Fast Reactor%中国实验快堆一回路热工水力稳态计算程序开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶彧先; 崔满满; 郭赟

    2012-01-01

    针对中国实验快堆(CEFR)的具体结构和稳态运行特点,利用Fortran语言开发了CEFR一回路热工水力稳态计算程序.重点开发了有关钠的多种物性的子程序、适应不同工况的钠的流动与换热计算子程序,并对关系式进行了对比分析,最后建立了稳态计算模型并开发了程序.在此基础上,对CEFR的一回路系统在满功率下的稳态热工水力特性进行了计算分析,所获得的结果同设计参数吻合,证明了所开发的子程序及稳态程序的正确性.%According to the characteristics of structure and steady-state for primary loop of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), a thermal-hydraulic steady-state analysis program was developed by using Fortran language. This paper focused on the development of a set of subroutine of physical properties of sodium and the sodium flow and heat transfer correlations for different operation conditions. And the difference among these correlations was compared. The calculation program was developed based on the steady model. At last, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of steady-state of the primary loop of CEFR at full power were calculated. The calculation results are consistent with the design parameters and the correctness of the developed subroutines and steady-state calculation program was proved.

  4. A Review of Volcano Monitoring Program in China%中国活动火山监测进展回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建东

    2011-01-01

    The National Volcano Monitoring Network (NVMN), which was established in 2006 and is made up by four provincial volcano centers, is the headcounter of the active volcano monitoring and research of China. The National Volcano Monitoring Network Center is currently monitoring six active volcanoes in China, Changbaishan Tianchi volcano and Longgang volcano in the Jilin province, Wudalianchi volcano and Jingbohu volcano in the Hei-longjiang province, Tengchong volcano in the Yunnan province, and Qiongbei volcano in the Hainan province. The major task of the National Volcano Monitoring Network Center includes: to observe the six active volcanoes, manage observation data management, report annual situation of volcano activities to the administration; and propagate the knowledge of volcano to the public.%自2006年国家火山监测台网中心建成到目前为止,我国已有6处活火山受到监测:吉林长白山天池火山、龙岗火山、云南腾冲火山、黑龙江五大连池火山、镜泊湖火山和海南琼北火山.设在中国地震局地质研究所的国家火山监测台网中心,负责全国火山监测台网及火山流动观测的数据汇集、数据分析处理、数据存储管理、数据服务,承担火山异常判断、火山灾情分析、组织会商和上报等任务,同时承担着全国火山岩测试、火山挥发分测试、火山灾害模拟等实验室工作,以及通过互联网提供数据服务和火山宣传工作.

  5. Changing Forestry Policy by Integrating Water Aspects into Forest/Vegetation Restoration in Dryland Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; Mike Bonell; Karl-Heinz Feger; YU Pengtao; XIONG Wei; XU Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Restoration forestry (forest rehabilitation) or re-vegetation is one effective measure to solve environmental problems, notably soil erosion. It may be further stimulated by the Clean Development Mechanism for carbon sequestration. However, there is an intensive and on-going debate about the adverse effects arising from afforestation in dryland areas, such as soil drying up which may cause further damage to the success of forest restoration, and the water yield reduction from watershed which may harm the regional development. On other hand, some preliminary studies showed a possibility that these adverse effects may be diminished more or less by properly designing the system structure and spatial distribution of forest/vegetation in a watershed. However, it is urgent to develop an evidence-based and sustainable new forestry policy for harmonizing forest-water interrelation. As a leading country in afforestation, China is beginning to develop a more trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral forestry policy for harmonizing forestry development with water management. The main points of the changing new forestry policy should include: (1) Establishing a regional development strategy focusing on harmonized forest-water relations; (2) Taking forest-water interactions as an important part of evaluation; (3) Reducing the 'eco-water' quota of forests through technical advancement; (4) Developing and extending water-adaptive forest management practices; (S) Strengthening forest ecohydrological research and decision support ability.

  6. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  7. China's Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the spread of the global financial turmoil.China is Under growing tension from its large population,limited resource,environment Problems,and losing its competitive edge in the world as exports are being driven down by shrinking demand abroad as well as higher costs.

  8. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  9. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  10. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  11. Introduction to the China Jellyfish Project——The Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Shiwei; SUN Song

    2011-01-01

    @@ As a National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China, the Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters led by Prof.SUN Song from Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) was endorsed by the Ministry of Science and Technology.Recently, the kick-off meeting of this five-year (2011-2015) program was held on January 15-16 in Qingdao,China.More than 120 participants attended the meeting.

  12. Business Journalism Education in a Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Wendi A.

    2009-01-01

    In fall 2007, Tsinghua University in Beijing and the Washington, D.C.-based International Center for Journalists (ICFJ) launched the Global Business Journalism Program at Tsinghua, one of China's most prestigious universities. The two-year master's degree program, taught entirely in English, aims to produce top-quality journalists who can analyze…

  13. 国内低俗电视节目监管及对策研究%Study on Supervision and Countermeasures of Vulgar Television Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the supervision of present domestic vulgar television programs and discovers that this supervision has been mainly executed through three channels: legal regulation, regulatory agencies and professional supervision, with regulatory agencies being the most effective and legal supervision and professional regulation being insufficient. Finally, the paper discusses how to strengthen the supervision of vulgar television programs.%对目前国内低俗电视节目的监管现状进行了研究,认为国内对低俗电视节目的监管主要是通过法律监管、机构监管和行业监管三个方面来进行的,其中机构监管效果最明显,法律监管和行业监管不够到位。最后对如何加强对低俗电视节目的监管进行了探讨。

  14. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  15. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  16. Invasive mechanism and manasement stratesy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN FangHao; CUI XuHong; ZHANG LiPing; ZHANG Fan; ZHANG QingWen; LIU WanXue; LIANG Pei; LEI ZhongRen; ZHANG YongJun; ZHANG GuiFen; LIU ShuSheng; LUO Chen; CHU Dong; ZHANG YouJun; ZANG LianSheng; JIU Min; Lǖ ZhiChuang

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci bio-type B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The in-digenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating in-teractions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up wide-spread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vapo-rariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its suc-cessful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  17. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B:Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B,called a "superbug",is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide.In this report,the invasive mechanism and management of B.tabaci biotype B,based on our 5-year studies,are presented.Six B.tabaci biotypes,B,Q,ZHJ1,ZHJ2,ZHJ3 and FJ1,have been identified in China.Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country.Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant,geographical conditions,and/or insecticidal application.The activities of CarE(carboxylesterase) and GSTs(glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants,which might have increased its resistance to insecticides.The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants.Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes.The indigenous B.tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d.The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes.B.tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions.Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T.vaporariorum.Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants,which might enable it to better compete with T.vaporariorum.Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B.tabaci under field conditions.The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids.The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity

  18. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  19. The State of EFL/TESOL Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓彤

    2016-01-01

    In the past forty years, English language teaching and learning have played a quite important role in China, which is closely related to the nation's modernization and development of economy. The policies and programs of expanding English language teaching in China have varied according to the different periods. They are typically affected by various elements such as the economic, political and social development of China in the past four decades. This paper mainly discusses the state of TESOL/EFL education in China and also illustrates some typical problems and solutions of EFL Teaching in China.

  20. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  1. 面向西部高校的网络通信编程课程教改研究%Research on Network Communication Programming Teaching for Universities in the Western of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬超; 范恒祯

    2014-01-01

    网络工程专业的建设可以缓解网络人才的需求,然而现有的培养模式并不能达到培养工程型人才的目标。网络通信编程作为网络工程的核心课程之一,对网络工程型人才的培养起到了非常重要的作用。但是该课程在教学过程中存在很多问题,尤其是对西部高校。文章首先结合西北地域性特点分析了课程开展存在的问题主要在于授课模式、教学法、学生生源地等;然后详述了该类课程的教改方案和思路,主要包括了理论与实验课设置,基于工程化的项目教学方法以及师资力量等;该方案的实施将会帮助学生建立工程化的编程理念和思维,对网络通信编程课程的开设起到一定的指导和借鉴意义。%Construction of major in Network Engineering eases the need of network talent. However, the existing teaching mod⁃el does not achieve the goal. Network communication programing is one of the main courses for the field of Network Engineer⁃ing. It is important for cultivating the Network Engineering talents. But there are some problems for the teaching of this course. Especially, it is taught in western universities of China. Firstly, this paper combines with regional characteristics and analyzes prob⁃lems which can be concluded by:teaching mode, teaching methodology, student education background, etc. Then, this paper de⁃tails the improvement of course teaching. It is mainly includes theoretical and experimental classes, engineering based teaching methodology, faculty background and so on. This idea of teaching course will help students to develop a project concept of net⁃work programming. It is also can be guidance for teaching of network communication programming.

  2. THIRSTY CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions have blighted much of China over the past year and a pattern of increasing drought has emerged. The problem is both economic and human. Swathes of farmland have been hit by drought leading to production losses and millions of people have had difficulty accessing fresh water. While the government is attempting to tackle the issue,increasingly dry weather is something that could prove a long-term problem for the countryA rare longdrought has had severe consequences across China and brought up difficult auestions about the thecause"Guilin tops the world in landscape"is a well-accepted saying for Chinese people. Guilin is a city and tourist resort in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and attracts many people because of its charming beauty,

  3. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  4. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  5. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  6. Why Will China Explore the Moon?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Landing on the Moon has been a dream of the Chinese nation for thousands of years. In addition to providing an important support to the longterm, sustainable development of human society, lunar exploration will be a novel opportunity for China's scientific and technological progress and economic prosperity, explains OUYANG Ziyuan, chief scientist of China's Lunar Exploration Program and an astro- and geo-chemist from the CAS Institute of Geochemistry, in an recent article in the Guangming Daily.

  7. China Struggles to Meet Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李端奇

    2005-01-01

    China is making plans not only to bolster1 energy production to meet everincreasing domestic needs2 but also to cut down on overall energy use in coming years. Headed by Premier Wen Jiabao, China's cabinet3 unveiled its longer-term energy development plan, in which the heart of the program is to be as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly as possible while pursuing4 economic growth between now and 2020.

  8. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  9. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  10. 中国消除新生儿破伤风现场认证调查%Validation on the elimination of neonatal tetanus programs through Lot Quality Assurance-Cluster Sample Survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊朝阳; 关宏岩; 罗树生; 左树岩; 朱徐; 夏伟; 罗会明; 徐晓超; 曹彬

    2014-01-01

    Objective Field surveys were performed under WHO recommended validation procedures,using the Lot Quality Assurance-Cluster Sample (LQA-CS) method to validate the elimination status regarding neonatal tetanus in China.Methods LQA-CS surveys were conducted in two areas under the highest risk of neonatal tetanus-Jiangrnen prefecture in Guangdong and Hechi in Guangxi.Random sampling method was conducted on 96 survey clusters in each prefecture with 12 eligible live births (live birth born one year before the survey) for each cluster,by trained investigators.Results There were 1 153 eligible live births from 23 465 families surveyed in Jiangmen and 1 152 eligible live births from 21 623 families being studied in Hechi.All the indices on quality control were strictly followed.There was no neonatal tetanus case which met the criteria of neonatal elimination found in either of the areas.Data showed that neonatal tetanus had been eliminated in both Jiangmen and Hechi cities.Conclusion Since both Jiangmen and Hechi were cities having the highest-risk in China,it was most likely that neonatal tetanus had also been eliminated in other prefectures at lower risk.Elimination programs on MNT was therefore considered validate in China when the study was carried out.However,the achievements needed to be maintained.%目的 现场调查认证中国是否消除新生儿破伤风(NT).方法 采用批质量保证-群抽样(LQA-CS)方法,现场入户调查中国NT发病风险最高的广东省江门市和广西壮族自治区河池市各随机抽取的96个调查点、每个点调查12名符合条件(调查前一年内出生)活产儿的NT发病情况.结果 江门市共调查23 465户家庭、1 153名合格活产儿,河池市共调查21 623户家庭、1 152名合格活产儿.现场认证调查所设立的各项质控指标均符合要求.调查中两市均未发现因NT引起的死亡或者住院病例,已达到消除NT的标准,结合现场调查各项可靠质控指标,也

  11. Survey of the patients with cleft lip and palate in China who were funded for surgery by the Smile Train Program from 2000 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-juan; SHI Bing; SHI Zong-dao; ZHENG Qian; WANG Yan

    2006-01-01

    Background Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) are two of the most frequent congenital malformations.Many epidemiologic studies on this deformity have been conducted worldwide, often producing inconsistent results. This study assessed epidemiology and some genetic aspects of cleft lip and palate in a Chinese sample from the Smile Train Program and to compare with other methodologically sound surveys.Methods The general information, family history, classification of cleft and associated malformations of 8000CL and CP surgery patients were analyzed.Results Of the 8000 cases, 7812 had complete data. The distribution of cleft types is 17.04% with CP, 23.39%with CL and 59.58% with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Unilateral clefts were more common than bilateral, with involved 29 CP cases, 41 CL and 156 CLP. The frequency of associated malformations in CLP (3.35%) was higher than CL (2.24%) and CP (2.22%) (P<0.05). Patients with CP or CLP were born less often in the winter than in the summer (P<0.05). A history of family members having clefts occurred in 6.84% of patients. The proportion of CLP cases (7.56%) was significantly higher than that of CL cases (5.64%) (P<0.05).Conclusions The different types of clefts appeared in the highest proportion in CLP and lowest proportion in CP. Males are more common with CL and CLP and less common with CP. These characteristics are the same as those of other Chinese surveys but different from some European reports.

  12. Impacts of China' s Large-Scale Ecological Restoration Program on Society and the Environment%生态修复项目对自然与社会的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹世雄

    2012-01-01

    1978年以来,我国开展了一系列大规模的生态修复项目,包括三北防护林工程、天然林保护项目、退耕还林还草工程等.为了讨论这些项目对社会经济和环境的综合影响、及其应用前景,本文通过相关文献综述与展评,研究环境修复政策与社会可持续发展之间的内在关系.30多年的实践经验表明,封山禁牧、退耕还林还草、天然林保护、以及其他环保政策使项目区的绿色植被覆盖度迅速提高.但是与撂荒地的自然恢复过程相比,半干旱地区植树造林降低了总的植被覆盖度,导致退化土地面积增加,加剧了当地的沙漠化;同时,由退耕引起的粮食减产部分可以通过在更适宜地区改进农业生产技术来补偿,退耕还林工程对中国的粮食安全没有造成负面影响.在大规模环境修复工程的实施过程中,中国人民对环保政策的态度也在平稳进步.与其相反,由于天然林保护项目所实施的禁采、禁牧政策缺少必要的补偿措施,对当地居民的生计造成一定的负面影响;而且,由于只有极少数人认为植树种草应该是农业可持续发展的首要目标,当退耕还林还草工程结束后,许多已修复的植被面临被再一次开垦的危险.由此可见,通过改进农业技术和提供适当的生态补偿,可以在改善环境和促进社会发展的同时避免贫困与环境恶化.同时,必须警惕不适当的技术和政策对环境和社会的危害.%Since 1978, China has pursued some of the world' s most ambitious conservation and restoration programs. To evaluate potential links between China' s environmental policy and the country* s environmental and social sustainability, we reviewed published materials to provide a historical perspective on these programs and provide a preliminary assessment of their socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Based on this review, we discuss the potential applications of this approach. After

  13. Human induced dryland degradation in Ordos Plateau, China, revealed by multilevel statistical modeling of normalized difference vegetation index and rainfall time-series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHANG; JianMing NIU; Tongliga BAO; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; Qing ZHANG; JianJun DONG; XueFeng ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation causes serious environmental problems in many regions of the world, and although it can be effectively assessed and monitored using a time series of rainfall and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remotely-sensed imagery, dividing human-induced land degradation from vegetation dynamics due to climate change is not a trivial task. This paper presented a multilevel statistical modeling of the NDVI-rainfall relationship to detect human-induced land degradation at local and landscape scales in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, and recognized that anthropogenic activities result in either positive (land restoration and re-vegetation) or negative (degradation) trends. Linear regressions were used to assess the accuracy of the multi-level statistical model. The results show that:(1) land restoration was the dominant process in the Ordos Plateau between 1998 and 2012;(2) the effect of the statistical removal of precipitation revealed areas of human-induced land degradation and improvement, the latter reflecting successful restoration projects and changes in land man-agement in many parts of the Ordos; (3) compared to a simple linear regression, multilevel statistical modeling could be used to analyze the relationship between the NDVI and rainfall and improve the accuracy of detecting the effect of human activities. Additional factors should be included when analyzing the NDVI-rainfall relationship and detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands to improve the accuracy of the approach and elimi-nate some observed non-significant residual trends.

  14. China's Spacecraft Technology Developing Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 sees the 40th anniversary of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).As the main satellite manufacture base,CAST has overcome many difficulties in the field of space technology,achieved project approval for several major space science and technology programs,and made many breakthroughs in core technologies and key technologies with its own intellectual property rights in 40 years development.

  15. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  16. China Eximbank Promotes China-Tunisia Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Export and Import Bank of China(China Eximbank) and Tunisia Embassy, on March 28,jointly held "China-Tunisia Cooperation Forum" in Beijing. Wei Jianguo, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce,Li Ruogu, President of China Eximbank and Mohamed Nouri Jouini, Minister of the Tunisia Development and International Cooperation Department attended the forum. Government officials and entrepreneurs from both sides had deep communications on the topics of the investment environment, economic and trade cooperation, etc..

  17. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of different land cover types in the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the impacts of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration (ET of five land cover types in the Loess Plateau in northern China. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon, subshrub (Artemisia scoparia, shrub (Spiraea pubescens, plantation forest (Robinia pseudoacacia, and crop (Zea mays vegetation were continuously monitored during the growing season of 2011. There were more than 10 soil moisture pulses during the period of data collection. Surface soil moisture of all of the land cover types showed an increasing trend in the rainy season. Soil moisture under the corn crop was consistently higher than the other surfaces. Grass and subshrubs showed an intermediate moisture level. Grass had slightly higher readings than those of subshrub most of the time. Shrubs and plantation forests were characterized by lower soil moisture readings, with the shrub levels consistently being slightly higher than those of the forests. Despite the greater post-rainfall loss of moisture under subshrub and grass vegetation than forests and shrubs, subshrub and grass sites exhibit a higher soil moisture content due to their greater soil retention capacity in the dry period. The daily ET trends of the forests and shrub sites were similar and were more stable than those of the other types. Soils under subshrubs acquired and retained soil moisture resources more efficiently than the other cover types, with a competitive advantage in the long term, representing an adaptive vegetation type in the study watershed. The interactions between vegetation and soil moisture dynamics contribute to structure and function of the ecosystems studied.

  18. Dew formation characteristics in a revegetation-stabilized desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan-xia; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Ya-feng

    2010-06-01

    SummarySoil moisture in the upper layer plays an important role in arid desert ecosystems. Dew as an additional source of fresh water, may have a positive impact upon the ecosystems in arid and semi-arid zones. Measurements on dew formation amount and duration were carried out in the whole October of 2008 at different condensing surface types (bare dune sands, physical soil crusts and biological soil crusts) associated with different inter-space positions between plants, and at the area under plant canopy in a revegetation-stabilized arid desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, China. The results indicated that there was a positive linear correlation between dew amounts and relative humidity, while mean temperature was negatively linearly related to dew amounts and no significant relationship was found between dew amounts and wind speed. Clear and foggy mornings were characterized by higher dew amounts and longer dew duration, whereas less dew was recorded during cloudy and especially windy mornings. Crusts, especially the biological soil crusts, obtained significantly higher amounts of dew than that of bare moving sand dunes. It was more difficult for dew to condense under the canopy of the plants than on the bare sand dunes. At the first stage of ecological engineering projects, dew can renew the moisture losing through the evaporation of soil and transpiration of leaves, and thus can supply important source of water for xerophytic shrubs. The higher dew amount at the inter-space of re-vegetated plants is an important driving factor for the growth of microorganisms and spore plants, which further accelerate the formation of biological soil crusts and stabilization of moving sand dunes. The presence of biological soil crusts, in turn, helps to facilitate the formation of dew. Therefore, a mutual enhanced effect exists between dew and artificially revegetation ecosystems.

  19. Perspectives on China's Development in General Practice(Family Medicine) Residency Programs and Curriculum%对中国全科医师规范化培训基地和培训大纲的研究和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国平; 牛丽娟; 王家骥

    2014-01-01

    近年来我国全科医生制度的建立已经取得明显的进展。一系列关于全科医学住院医生培训基地建设的方针政策和培训大纲指南的制定和完善,促进了在岗/转岗全科医生、骨干全科医生的培养和师资队伍从无到有的发展。同时也显示出这些大纲存在着一些不足和缺陷。主要表现在没有完全抓住全科医学培训的核心内容,即全科医学自身的重点培训,造成全科医学病房训练和长期连续的社区门诊服务培训缺失,过度重视临床专科轮转培训。随着全国应急性在岗/转岗全科医生及骨干全科医生培训逐渐过渡到规范化全科医生的长远培训上来,尽快修订现行大纲纠正这些重大缺陷十分迫切,从而为保障高水平的全科医学人才培训打下长远的坚实基础。%Establishment of family physician( General Practice,GP) system in China has made some noticeable pro-gress. A series of government policies and training curriculums on " residency programs" promoted growth of GP work force and teaching/education power through on-job training and job-switch training in GP. It has been also noted,however,some major flaws exist in the current national residency program curriculum,as it misses the core training components:the training in GP it-self,thanks to lack of GP department inpatient training and longitutive outpatient clinic training. The training program has been wrongly focused on various specialty rotation training. As current emergency models of on-job/job switch GP training are gradual-ly transitioned into long term formal residency programs,those major flaws in the current curriculum must be recognized and a-mended as soon as possible,in order to lay down a solid foundation for effective training of high quality GP( future family physi-cians)and for achieving healthcare reform goal in 2020 to provide better primary care for all people.

  20. An important pathway of mental health service reform in China:introduction of 686 Program%中国精神卫生服务模式改革的重要方向:686模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马弘; 刘津; 何燕玲; 谢斌; 徐一峰; 郝伟; 唐宏宇; 张明园; 于欣

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprehensively describes the main contents and outcomes of National Continuing Management and Intervention Program for Psychoses (686 Program) which has been developed for seven years. With a new hospital-community integrated service model, this program has actually covered 0. 33 billion general population in 680 districts/counties, 160 cities. Above 280000 patients suffering from psychoses were registered, 200000 person-times received regular follow-up, 94000 person-times received free medication, and 12400 person-times were given a subsidy for hospitalization. The statistic results of five consecutive years (From January 2006 to April 2011) showed that the proportion of followed up patients in stable condition increased from a baseline of 67. 0% to 90.7% in the fifth year; the rate of violating social security regulations declined from 4.8% to 0. 5% , while that committing crimes reduced from 1.5% to 0. Meanwhile, the radius of mental health care out-reached to an average of 74 kilometers from the hospitals. About 382000 persons and 525000 person times were trained as members of multi-functional team, in which 10000 were psychiatrists that accounting for half of all psychiatrists in China. Currently, above 70000 persons are participating in 686 Program, including psychiatric personnel and other medical personnel in the ratio of 1: 7. 25, which means mental health service team nationwide has been enlarged to 7 times during the past seven years.%本文全面介绍了"中央补助地方重性精神疾病管理治疗项目"实施7年来的主要内容和效果.该项目以崭新的"医院社区一体化"服务模式覆盖了全国160个市(州)的680个区县,实际覆盖人口3.3亿.共登记建档了28万例重性精神病患者,随访20万例次,提供免费药物治疗累计9.4万例次,免费收治患者1.24万人次.2006年1月至2011年4月的统计显示,随访患者病情维持稳定的比例从基线的67.0%增加到第5年的90.7%;所管

  1. China Rolls Out the Welcome Mat for Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennock, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Renmin University of China's summer school, now in its fourth year, is one of the most ambitious efforts so far to meet China's goal of bringing half a million foreign students to its shores by 2020. To reach the bold target, the Ministry of Education is pouring money into colleges to establish programs friendly to Americans and other…

  2. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  3. On Quality Assessment of Early Childhood Programs in the International Context and Reconstructing the Related Conceptions in China%国际视野中的托幼机构教育质量评价——兼论我国托幼机构教育质量评价观的重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克建; 胡碧颖

    2012-01-01

    This article firstly summarizes and sorts through the related important research literatures in the international context in recent decades from the 1970s. Then, based on the reflective critique on the differences concerning quality assessment between China and the West, the authors propose that the conceptions on the quality assessment of early childhood programs in China should be reconstructed. And some related problems are discussed in the end of the article.%本文重点对20世纪70年代以来国际上有关托幼机构教育质量评价的重要研究文献进行了总结和梳理。在此基础上,本文提出了我国托幼机构教育质量评价观念重构的设想,并对相关问题进行了探讨。

  4. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  5. Brief Review of Some CLIVAR-Related Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Climate Variability and Predictability(CLIVAR)program is one of the sub-programs of the World Climate Research Program(WCRP).In this paper,CLIVAR related research in China(2003-2006) is briefly reviewed,including four major components,namely,low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations,interannual variability,decadal variations in East Asia,and global warming simulations.

  6. Reducing Overweight and Obesity among Elementary Students in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…

  7. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  8. 中国2005-2008年肾综合征出血热监测及疫情分析%Epidemiology and surveillance programs on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China, 2005-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 周航; 韩仰欢; 王晓芳; 王世文; 殷文武; 李群; 许真

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic and surveillance data of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HERS) in China, from 2005 to 2008, to describe the epidemiology and trend of HERS. Methods Descriptive epidemiology were studied to analyze the surveillance data from 2005 to 2008, collected from both the internet-based national notifiable disease reporting system and 40 HFRS sentinel sites developed since 2005 in 40 counties around China. Results A total of 56 077 HERS cases and 692 deaths reported in China with case fatality rate as 1.23%. Morbidity and mortality had been annually decreasing since 2004. The top 7 provinces with HFRS cases were Heilongjiang, Lianning, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi, Hebei and Zhejiang, which had a total of 44 081 cases reported, accounting for 78.61% of the total number of cases, in the nation. More cases were reported in spring and autumn-winter season, with the peak in November. Cases reported in males were 3.13 times of the females and most cases seen in young and middle-aged farmers. The density and the virus carrying rate of animal hosts and the distribution of dominant species were relatively stable and similar to the previous findings. Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus were still the most common and predominant animal hosts. No genetic mutation of Hantavirus was detected in the surveillance program. Conclusion The continuous descending trend of the HERS epidemics could be related to the successful strategies on comprehensive prevention and control measures, as controlling the number of rodents and vectors, carrying out HERS vaccination campaign and health education by the local health care takers in the recent years. Implementation of the new national Expanded Program of Immunization on HFRS vaccine in high-risk areas may further reduce the epidemics. However,both the density and the virus carried rate among the host animals remain high in some areas, together with the emergence of new epidemic areas, all call for more

  9. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the South China Sea (C.S.K. Program, Cruise II) and around Seribu Islands by R.V. Jalanidhi, December 6-December 28, 1971 (NODC Accession 7300974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations from the R.V. JALANIDHI in the South China Sea and other areas. Data were collected from 06 December 1971 to 28...

  10. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  11. SIAL CHINA 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The 5th edition of SIAL CHINA, organized by China Development Chamber of Commerce and Exposium, will take place from March 30th to April 1 st 2004 in Shanghai New International Expo Centre of Pudong. It has been 5 years since SIAL CHINA firstly held in Beijing in 2000. Now, it has been a typical show in China food industry and became the largest international food show in China.

  12. China to share expertise with other developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China will pass on its technical knowledge to de veloping nations. CAS President LU Yongxiang said the country is now in a position to provide such support in tandem with other foreign aid programs.

  13. Nigcomsat-1 Created Many Firsts In China's Space History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Offcials and experts from the Commission of Science,Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND),and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) met in Beijing recently to review the results of the Nigcomsat-1 satellite program.

  14. New development of China's population programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1998-06-01

    This article presents excerpts of a speech presented by the State Family Planning Commissioner of China at the UNFPA headquarters. Madame Peng Peiyun indicated that China has adopted some new decision-making processes as a follow-up to the 1994 ICPD Plan of Action. President Jiang Zemin stated that sustainable development must be achieved as part of the movement toward modernization. China places great importance on balancing population growth, social production, economic development, resources, and the environment. In 1995, the State Family Planning Commission changed its guidelines and approaches by integrating family planning (FP) within socioeconomic development and shifting to an interest oriented program integrated with social restraints and integrating FP publicity and education with comprehensive services and modern management. The FP program should meet the needs for reproductive health and contraception and be integrated within poverty alleviation and economic development schemes in rural areas. The aim is to build happy and more civil-minded farming families. Attention should be directed to the interests of farmers and the physical and psychological health of women. Programs should be voluntary. Many poverty reduction programs operated in the early 1990s. Pilot programs were established in 1995, in 11 selected counties and urban districts. The aim was to improve grassroots efforts to meet clients' needs for quality reproductive health and contraception. In 1994, providers received upgrading of skills. As the most populous country in the world, China needs UNFPA support in stabilizing population growth.

  15. Coping with size: China's efforts pay off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    With a population of 1.2 billion people, China is the world's most populous country. With so many people and more than 24 million births per year, China has difficulty ensuring that all of its children have been immunized. Most difficult is keeping track of an increasingly mobile population in the current move toward a market economy. Two immunization targets, set by the Chinese government and supported by the World Health Organization and UNICEF, have been reached. By 1988, immunization programs launched in the 1980s had vaccinated at least 85% of infants under 1 year old in all provinces and regions against tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and measles. By 1990, the same coverage level had been achieved in all of China's urban districts and rural counties, and China is now well on its way to achieving 85% coverage in all townships by the end of 1995. China's coverage against individual diseases is also impressive. The incidence of targeted vaccine-preventable diseases has plummeted, while life expectancy at birth has risen from approximately 64 years in the 1970s to 69 years in 1992 for both sexes combined. Despite reducing its estimated neonatal tetanus (NT) death rate from around 55 deaths/1000 births in 1954 to 4/1000 in 1980, an estimated 98,000 infants still die annually in China due to NT. Education programs and two 1-day immunization campaigns against NT are planned for the southern province of Guizhou.

  16. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  17. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  18. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  19. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  20. Magnetospheric Physics in China During the Period of 2004 - 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jinbin; LIU Zhenxing

    2006-01-01

    Their brief report presents the advances of the magnetospheric physics researches in China during the period of 2004-2006. During the past two years, China-ESA cooperation DSP (Double Star Program) satellites were successively launched. In addition, China also participated in the scientific research of ESA's Cluster mission. The DSP and Cluster missions provide Chinese space physicists high quality data to study multiscale physical process in the magnetosphere. The work made based on the data of DSP is presented in the paper of "Progress of Double Star Program" of this issue.

  1. Is China Developing an Independent Technology Capability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Are Chinese technology enterprises only the "hired laborers" of other countries? Does China possess high technology in a real sense? When will the country develop independent scientific and technological innovation? Those are not brand new questions. However, after the Chinese Government issued its National Guidelines on the Long- and Medium-Term Program for Science and Technology

  2. How China's Procuratorial Organs Protect Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING DALI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Question: The Twelfth Five-Year Program, which was approved by the 2011 session of the National People's Congress, calls for better protection of human rights and more work to promote China's human rights cause.Would you tell us about the role played by procuratorial organs in this endeavor?

  3. China Faces Nine Obstacles in Population Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    With drastic changes in both the international and domestic environment for population and family planning development, China faces nine major challenges in its efforts to further its population and family planning program, said Zhang Weiqing,Minister of the National Population and Family

  4. LM-2F: A Great Launch Vehicle for China's Manned Spaceflight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang; Zhang Huiting

    2011-01-01

    The LM-2F launch vehicle is China's first launch carrier developed for China's Manned Space Program,which is one of the most important parts of the Program.It is developed from the LM-2E launch vehicle,with addition of two new systems,an escape system and a fault detection system.

  5. The Dragon Eyes the Top of the World: Arctic Policy Debate and Discussion in China (China Maritime Study, Number 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Strategy AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program C CAA Canadian Arctic Archipelago CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CCTV China Central...IM E S T U D IE S N o . 8 David Curtis Wright Number 8 The Dragon Eyes the Top of the World Arctic Policy Debate and Discussion in China Report...Discussion in China 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  6. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  7. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  8. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  9. Significance of ocean drilling and China's paleooceanographic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tungsheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ Many significant progresses of earth science in the mid to late 20th century were closely related to the international Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP). The sedimentary record obtained from underneath several thousands of seawater opened a new window for mankind to understand the Earth and its evolution. The Chinese earth science community learned the DSDP through the introduction of the plate tectonic theory in the 1970s, but deep-sea study remained remote and unrealistic for the then China. The onset of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) in 1985 triggered the hope for China to be involved in the international paleoceanographic studies. With the establishment of an "Ocean Drilling Program Committee of China", the aim was to bring China onto the new international frontier of science, but little could be done because of the lack of necessary conditions at the time.

  10. China Meets G7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵福

    2004-01-01

    Parties held by the wealthy, seldom welcome poor guests. But last week China made it through the doors into a gathering of the world's richest countries. Jin Renqing, China's finance minister, and Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of the People's Bank of China, joined a meeting of the Group of Seven'on October. It is the first time that China has had direct talks with the club.

  11. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  12. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  13. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  14. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  15. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  16. CHINA PRINT 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Introduction CHINA PRINT 2009, the Seventh Beijing International Printing Technology Exhibition, will be held at New China International Exhibition Center from May 12 to 16, 2009.CHINA PRINT, known as the Olympics of China’s print-ing and printing related business, has been organized onceevery four years since 1984 by PEIAC and CIEC. It has be-come one of the

  17. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  18. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  19. 学生营养改善项目的国际经验及对我国营养工作的启示%The international experience of students nutrition improvement program and its inspiration to the nutrition practitioners in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雯菁; 沈秀华

    2015-01-01

    Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger is one of the objectives of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals. Many countries all over the world have developed and implemented children nutrition policies and intervention programs. School feeding program has become one of the most successful programs in developed countries and many developing countries. Since 2007, China has launched the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students. In order to carry out this program more successfully and fruitfully, China needs to learn from other countries especially developing countries. In this paper, some school feeding programs of developing countries have been comprehensively analyzed and summarized, and some suggestions have been put forward for our school feeding program and nutrition practice.%联合国的千年发展目标将“消灭极端贫穷和饥饿”作为其中一项目标。世界各国都制定和实施了儿童营养政策和干预项目。学校供餐计划作为儿童营养改善和保障的重要环节,已成为发达国家和许多发展中国家最为成功的项目之一。我国自2007年起开展“农村义务教育学生营养改善项目”。为使该项目的实施更加顺利和富有成效,需要借鉴其他国家尤其是发展中国家的经验。对发展中国家的学校供餐计划进行综合分析,总结各国经验,对我国贫困地区的学校供餐计划的实施以及营养改善工作提出建议。

  20. Visual neuroscience research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historically,vision research in China was one of a few distinct research programs within the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS).With improved funding opportunities and research environment in neuroscience,vision research at several research institutes within the academy has made significant progress not only in the quantity of publications,but also in the quality of the work.Based on our own expertise,this review is mainly focused on the findings that have advanced the understanding of visual processing in the central visual pathway,visual perceptual learning,visual development and eye diseases.

  1. China's Space Activities In 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rain .L

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 means a great deal,not only for the space section,but for the whole society of China.The Ups and Downs happened in 2008 will be remembered and talked about by people for a long time.The country suffered savage snow storms in the South in January,bird flu out breaks in February,and the Wenchuan earthquake in May.The successful hosting of the Beijing Olympic Games rallied the nation's confidence and the perfect Shenzhou 7 performance inspired public interest in space programs.

  2. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China...... relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  3. Remedies proposed for China's groundwater problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A.

    Groundwater experts and hydrologists from China and 10 other nations recently gathered in Beijing to exchange state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge on groundwater hydrology, modeling, remediation, and management. The participants also reviewed groundwater environmental conditions in China, identified key problems, and made recommendations to help guide the nation's groundwater policy.The Regional Workshop on Ground Water Contamination, held from July 31 to August 4, 1995, was the fifth of a series of regional workshops sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the United Nations Environmental Program. Earlier workshops were held in Thailand (1991), Costa Rica (1993), the Czech Republic (1994), and Australia (1994).

  4. China celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    China played an active role in the establishment of the International Year of Chemistry (IYC) 2011.Year-around programs in the country have celebrated the wonderful changes in our lives brought about by advances in chemical sciences.Chemists,chemical engineers,students,and the general public have used a range of interactive,entertaining,and educational activities around the country to celebrate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to society.These have been reported on the IYC China websites at http://www.iyc2011.cn/(Chinese) and http://iyc2011.casad.cas.cn/iyc2011/(English) and newspaper and TV accounts.

  5. Introduction to International NPOCE Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fan; HU Dunxin

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Northwestern Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment(NPOCE)"was recently endorsed by Climate Variability and Predictability(CLIVAR)as an international joint program,which provides framework for 19 institutions from 8countries so far including Australia,China,Germany,Indonesia,Japan,Korea,Philippines and United States to conduct cooperative field experiment and joint studies in the northwestern Pacific(NWP).

  6. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  7. Advanced ASON prototyping research activities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, WeiSheng; Jin, Yaohui; Guo, Wei; Su, Yikai; He, Hao; Sun, Weiqiang

    2005-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of prototyping research activities of automatically switched optical networks and transport networks (ASONs/ASTNs) in China. In recent years, China has recognized the importance and benefits of the emerging ASON/ASTN techniques. During the period of 2001 and 2002, the national 863 Program of China started the preliminary ASON research projects with the main objectives to build preliminary ASON testbeds, develop control plane protocols and test their performance in the testbeds. During the period of 2003 and 2004, the 863 program started ASTN prototyping equipment projects for more practical applications. Totally 12 ASTN equipments are being developed by three groups led by Chinese venders: ZTE with Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Wuhan Research Institute of Posts and Telecommunication (WRI) with Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), and Huawei Inc. Meanwhile, as the ASTN is maturing, some of the China"s carries are participating in the OIF"s World Interoperability Demonstration, carrying out ASTN test, or deploying ASTN backbone networks. Finally, several ASTN backbone networks being tested or deployed now will be operated by the carries in 2005. The 863 Program will carry out an ASTN field trail in Yangtse River Delta, and finally deploy the 3TNET. 3TNET stands for Tbps transmission, Tbps switching, and Tbps routing, as well as a network integrating the above techniques. A task force under the "863" program is responsible for ASTN equipment specifications and interoperation agreements, technical coordination among all the participants, schedule of the whole project during the project undergoing, and organization of internetworking of all the equipments in the laboratories and field trials.

  8. Introduction of English Immersion in China: A Transplant with Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiyan; Siegel, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of replicating the French immersion model used in Canada to English immersion programs in China. It provides the Chinese context of this program highlighting the importance of English education and the defect of traditional English teaching and learning. The paper explains the borrowable features of the French…

  9. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice and key legislative documentations. Major debates in restorative justice among Chinese scholars and a review of the indigenous restorative justice practice, criminal reconciliation (Xingshi Hejie, are provided. The study also analyzes the impetus of this soaring popularity of restorative justice in China, considering the macro social, political and legal background. Last but not least, a review of the major evaluation studies of current programs reveals that little is known about the process of various restorative justice programs from the parties’ own perspective.

  10. Feeding China's Pigs: Implications for the Environment, China's Smallholder Farmers and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1978, Deng Xiaoping introduced a program of economic reforms in China that began to move the country in the direction of becoming a market economy. The following year, pork started on the path to global domination as the world’s most produced and consumed meat. These

  11. Diagnosis and Forecast of Chinese Power Industry——An interview with Mr.Song Yonghua, Academician of Royal Academy of Engineering and expert of China power reform under UN Development Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xuemin; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mr.Song Yonghua, an Academician of Royal Academy of Engineering has made great contributions to power industry. He has initiated a new generation of optimization and intellectual technologies to solve some of the most complicated problems in power system,and presented a series of new concepts and structures while expanding OPF models. These achievements have been fully applied in auxiliary business price assessment by categorized pricing, blocking management and assessment of available transmission capability. Recently, Mr.Song had an interview with the journalist of China Electric Power to discuss in depth the world energy patterns, China power market reform and trend of power industry development. Although his personal opinions, yet it is really instructive.

  12. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingo Ilja MICHELS; Yu-xia FANG; Dong ZHAO; Li-yan ZHAO; Lin LU

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however,China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drugrelated problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the "Action Plan on Drugs and Addiction" in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003,China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history,population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of these 2

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on overseas geological structures. Program for exchanging engineers (coal mining area) with China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Chugoku 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese coal mining engineers were dispatched to China, to transfer techniques for mining in mine cavities and general production management techniques covering, e.g., safety, transportation and ventilation, and techniques for discovering and solving problem, in order to help improve productivity in China's coal mining. In this year, the lectures were given to managers of including manager of Meitan Industrial Co.in Zhenzhou in Henan province in China. A total of 7 lecturers, 6 from Taiheiyo Coal Mining and one from Coal Energy Center, were dispatched from Japan. The themes included outline of Taiheiyo Coal Mining; excavation techniques; transportation techniques/ventilation management/production management; equipment management/technological development/improvement of working conditions/cost management; quality management/emergency management/management of enterprises/education of employees; outline of management techniques; entering of Chaohua meitan Mine; group discussion/problems listing-up/5-stage problem solution procedure (introduction of examples); questionnaire analysis/group discussion; preparation of self check lists/roles of managers. It is considered that Japan's advanced techniques are very useful for the Chinese coal industry. (NEDO)

  14. How NOT to Choose an MBA Program!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnD.VanFleet

    2004-01-01

    Every year, tens of thousands of people in China select MBA programs. Many of these people make unwise choices, ultimately joining programs that do not meet their needs. Want to avoid being one of them? Avoid their mistakes by asking the right questions, in the right ways.

  15. WB to Lend $441m for Energy Efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The World Bank (WB) has approved loans of $441 million to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants in China. The loans, which account for almost one third of planned loans for China in fiscal 2008, would go to three projects, according to the lender.The energy efficiency project, co-financed by the WB and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), would get a loan of $200 million. The project, which would also receive a grant of 13.5 million U.S. dollars from the GEF, aims to boost large-scale loans for energy efficiency programs in China. China's commercial banks are also reported to participate in the project, such as the Export-Import Bank of China and Huaxia Bank, to offer loans ranging from 5 million to 10 million U. S. dollars for energy conservation projects, especially in heavy industries.

  16. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  17. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  18. Challenges Suffered by Depository Library Program and Its Inspirations for the Government Information Depository Work in China%联邦寄存图书馆计划面临的挑战及其对我国政府信息寄存工作的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安向前

    2012-01-01

    政府信息寄存工作在我国刚刚兴起,但在发达国家或地区已较为完善,如美国的联邦寄存图书馆计划(FDLP)。在网络技术和数字技术飞速发展的时代,政府信息寄存工作面临着巨大的生存挑战。FDLP面临的困境对我国开展政府信息寄存工作有所启发,我国政府信息寄存工作应以政府为主导,全国共建共享政府信息数据库,发挥公共图书馆和档案馆的固有职能,以此顺应数字信息存取和网络服务的发展趋势。%Government information depository work emerges in China currently, but it has been more perfect in developed countries and regions, such as Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) in America. However, in the era of the rapid development of internet and digital technologies, the government information depository work faces great challenges of survival. The predicament suffered by FDLP brings inspirations for the government information depository work in China. The government information depository work in China should take the government as the dominant, construct and share the national government information database, and play the inherent function of public libraries and archives, in order to comply with the development trend of the digital information access and network services.

  19. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  20. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  1. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  2. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  3. China Satcom Merged Into CASC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Satellite Communications Corporation (China Satcom) merged with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently on the request under regrouping and structure readjustment by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

  4. Think London, Think china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The China-UK relationship has a long history and is one of the most important contemporary China-European ties.The UK was the first western country to recognize the People's Republic of China after it was founded in 1949.Later,the two sides reached an agreement to exchange Charges d'Affairs in 1954,and signed the Joint Communiqué for the Agreement on the Exchange of Ambassadors in 1972.

  5. Understanding the Real China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese officials underlined the need for the EU to gain a more balanced view of China-by looking not only at its progress but also at its challenges-at the recent China-EU strategic dialogue. Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton co-chaired the September 1 meeting in Guiyang, capital of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  6. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  7. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  8. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  9. "CHINA IS MY HOME"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>AMemoir of More Than 80 Years in China by Israel Epstein was translated into Chinese and published by the New World Press in April this year to celebrate the author’s 89th birthday. The 415-page book tells about his love for China, his profound friendly sentiments towards the Chinese people, his great expectation for the construction of new China and his confidence in the bright prospects for its future.

  10. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  11. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    caused by peanut mild mottle virus (PMMV) was predominant throughout all areas. Peanut yellow mosaic and common mosaic caused by cucumber mosaic virus ...Fujian 42 Types and Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 42 TAIWAN Yao Chia-wen on Taiwan’s Legal...Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 40110003 Wuhan ZHONGGUO YOULIAO [OIL CROPS OF CHINA] in

  12. IBF Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  13. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  14. Soil and Terrain Database Soil for China primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.; Batjes, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for China primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). The primary database was compiled using the SOTER methodology

  15. Application of EMTP in China s UHVAC Pilot Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of the UHVAC Pilot Project in China,the importance of study on electromagnetic transient overvoltage in UHVAC projects is demonstrated in this paper.Through analysis and comparison on the simulation programs for electromagnetic transient overvoltages,EMTP is then recommended for the UHVAC Pilot Project in China.The element models in EMTP used in simulating power frequency overvoltage and power resonance of non-entire phase operation,etc.,are introduced.The paper also points o...

  16. 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Weimin; Gan; Qianyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year of 2012 was designated the "China-Nepal Friendship Exchange Year" by the Chinese and Nepalese governments,and,as one of the important cultural exchange programs, the 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the World Culture Net(WCN) of Nepal,was held from November 30 to December 6. The CPAFFC organized an 18-member Delegation of government

  17. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  18. Building biophysics in mid-century China: the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Yi Lai Christine

    2015-01-01

    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). By showing how the university and its biophysics program co-evolved with national priorities from the school's founding in 1958 to the eve of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the purpose of this paper is to assess the development of a scientific discipline in the context of national demands and institutional politics. Specific materials for analysis include the school's admission policies, curricula, students' dissertations, and research program. To further contextualize the institutional setting of Chinese biophysics, this paper begins with a general history of proto-biophysical institutions in China during the Nationalist-Communist transitional years. This paper could be of interest to historians wanting to know more about the origin of the biophysics profession in China, and in particular how research areas that constitute biophysics changed in tandem with socio-political contingencies.

  19. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  20. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...

  1. Patriotic Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLin; GaoYu

    2005-01-01

    From last year on, a few news media in Japan have reported that China has began anti-Japanese education among the young people since the middle of 1990s. This biased view does not reflect the fact, for China has never conducted the so-called“anti-Japanese education” The education conducted in China now is to promote patriotism rather than instigate anti-Japanese sentiment. During my contacts with Japanese friends I have found that lots of Japanese are not familiar with what China's patriotic education is about. I hope this article can present readers with an objective picture.

  2. Exploring metal recycling business in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, K. [DOWA Environmental Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2007-07-01

    Recycling activities related to the copper smelting process in China were discussed. Although China is a key player in terms of resource circulation in the world, the lack of proper recycling capabilities has hindered the growth of a recycling industry in China. A recycling network established by DOWA Environmental Management was established by contracting with Chinese smelters and refineries. This paper also provided details of recent recycling initiatives, metal scrap processes, industrial waste treatment processes, and soil remediation programs recently initiated in the country. The study concluded by suggesting that the trade of recycling materials must not remain one-sided between China and other developed countries. The high demand for natural resources in Brazil, Russia, India and China can be used as an incentive to increase recycling processes on a wider scale. A pilot project is now being planned by DOWA to establish an international network to collect and transfer used cellular phones to Japan for resource recovery. The company will research and evaluate feasible collection schemes for each participating country. The project may be expanded to include other products. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Schistosomiasis control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    and health education emphasized. Annual mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental both reduces the prevalence rate and decreases the intensity of the infection for inhabitants and live-stock. As a consequence of the therapy a low prevalence rate can be obtained in a short time. The length of such arrangement period can be decided in accordance with the prevalence of the infection before the drug program is begun. Therefore,a maintenance phase is urgently needed. As China's ecomony expands and people's living standard rises, schistosomiasis will be controlled more effectively and successfully.

  4. Participatory Training Applied to the Program of Maternal and Child Health Poverty Alleviation Fund in China%参与式培训在世界银行-云南省妇幼卫生扶贫资金项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 刘凤英; 石安萍; 胡世云

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduced the definition of participatory Training,and briefly reviewed the concept,operation steps of the seven kinds of tools of participatory training that applied in the Program of Maternal and Child Health Poverty Alleviation fund (MCHPAF)in China. At last,the authors briefly described the evaluation and the key issues should be attention of the participatory training.%给出了参与式培训的定义,并简要介绍了在世界银行-云南省妇幼卫生扶贫资金项目培训中所采用的7种具体方法的定义及其具体步骤,最后对培训的效果评估及组织参与式培训的注意事项进行的阐述。

  5. 《中国制造2025》战略下的智能制造专业实训项目开发与研究%The Development and Research of the Intelligent Manufacturing Specialty Training Program under"China made 2025"Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦

    2016-01-01

    This paper simply introduces the"made in China 2025"strategic planning and virtual manufacturing technology, out the intelligent manufacturing professional training project should have the function, and discusses the intelligent manufac-turing design and application. Finally, the paper introduced the intelligent manufacturing professional training project with some teaching effect of professional training programs.%本文简单介绍了《中国制造2025》战略规划和虚拟制造技术,并指出了智能制造专业实训项目应具备的功能,探讨了智能制造专业实训项目的构建与应用,最后阐述了智能制造专业实训项目具有的教学效果。

  6. Drug abuse in China: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Fang, Yuxia; Wang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    Following British importation of opium to China in 1760s, the use and production of the drug in China increased dramatically. This situation was aggravated after the failure of Opium Wars that occurred between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China with the aim of forcing China to import British Opium; this war made China open the door to a free flowing opium trade, with disastrous social and public health consequences. The subsequent rise of the new China created drug-free atmosphere by strict legislation and punishment, in which drug use greatly decreased. However, in the context of governmental reform and the open-door policies of the 1980s, drug abuse has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Today, drug abuse is highly linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS and to drug-related crimes in China. To combat the severe drug problem facing the nation, the Chinese government has adopted the Methadone Maintenance Treatment program, a multi-faceted therapeutic approach that aims to reduce the health and social problem induced by drug epidemics. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal therapy and acupuncture, both found to be effective in the prevention of relapse and causes few side effects, making them useful for the treatment of opiate addiction. With continuous application of these therapies and managements that have been proved to be effective in harm reduction in the western countries, we believe that drug abuse and its related problems in China will be brought under control.

  7. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  8. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  9. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China

  10. Luxury Loves China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ With luxury sales in the rest of the world either shrinking or growing more slowly,it showcased a completely different scene in China. Although not immune to the global economic crisis, the country has suffered far less than others,and the continued health of China's luxury market makes it an oasis of hope and possibility in a recession-battered world.

  11. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  12. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China and the composer who is the pride of Poland will be on show this year.

  13. Probing China's Lysine Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The lysine sector in China developed further in 2006. Both the capacity and the output hit new highs and China had a major impact on the global lysine market. The import amount of lysine satisfied only a very small portion of the domestic market's demand.

  14. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  15. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  16. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  17. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  18. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  19. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  20. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  1. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  2. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  3. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  4. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  5. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  6. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  7. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  8. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  9. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  10. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  11. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  12. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  13. Petaflop supercomputers of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After ten years of development, high performance computing (HPC) in China has made remarkable progress. In November, 2010, the NUDT Tianhe-1A and the Dawning Nebulae respectively claimed the 1st and 3rd places in the Top500 Supercomputers List; this recognizes internationally the level that China has achieved in high performance computer manufacturing.

  14. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  15. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  16. REDD-plus and China's contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyong, Li; Mei, Huang; Shenggong, Li

    2014-03-01

    The United Nations' program Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) seeks to reduce emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. The program's overarching goal is to curb rising CO2 levels and combat global climate change, and it focuses in particular on nations in or near the tropics that possess abundant rainforest resources. REDD-plus upgrades the program to include additional emphases on the roles of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. China has one of the world's richest forest resources and, through its afforestation and reforestation efforts, also possesses the world's largest reserve of planted forests. Currently, most of China's forests are young and/or mid-aged, and, as a result, China is positioned to make significant contributions to REDD-plus through sustainable forest management that enhanced forest carbon stocks. Though REDD-plus does not represent a comprehensive solution to global climate change, it can help stabilize rising temperatures and buy time for researchers to devise solutions that target the greenhouse effect.

  17. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  18. EMC Program Emerqency!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ On June 15,2009,at the 2009 China Beijing International Energy Saving and Environmental Protection High-level Forum-EMC and Energy Conservation Service Industry,there were 12 enterprises participating in the contract signing ceremony for EMC programs.All the contracted energy conservation companies are member units of Beijing Commission for Promotion of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection(Beijing CPPESEP).And the total amount of cooperation intention is up to tens of millions RMB.It seemed that the EMC mechanism oriented by the market and serving the energy conservation was thriving again.So what is the EMC?

  19. Research undertaken by CAS scientists with support of "973 Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The National Basic Research Program (dubbed as the "973 Program") is China's on-going national keystone basic research program, which was approved by the Chinese government in June 1 997 and is organized and implemented by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

  20. A qualitative exploration of youth in the "new" China: perspectives on tobacco use from adolescents in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Janet; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Yan, He; Qiu, Peiyuan; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    School-based prevention programs are not common in China and the attempts to modify successful Western prevention programs have largely shown little effect. Distinct cultural and social systems differences could explain why modified programs have been unsuccessful. Smoking behavior is examined from the perspective of Chinese adolescents as part of the development of a large intervention trial. A total of 16 focus groups with 128 participants were conducted in Chengdu in Sichuan province of China. Impressions of adolescent smokers were mixed, most seeing the behavior as common among boys. Smokers were seen as being overwhelmed and stressed. Girls' smoking was mostly seen as universally "bad" and reflecting poorly on a girl's character. However, a small portion of focus group participants suggested that female smoking was fashionable and trendy. With social norms changing rapidly in the "new" China, understanding what the new generation of Chinese youth thinks about smoking is critical in determining how to address and tailor prevention efforts.

  1. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  2. 美国医学生科研能力培养对我国八年制医学教育的启示%Developing research skills in medical students in the US:implications for eight-year program design in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽琴; 罗长坤; 黄建军; 黄继东

    2013-01-01

    八年制医学教育致力于培养能够参与国际竞争与合作的医学精英.培养八年制医学生的科研能力,对其适应21世纪的挑战至关重要.美国一流医学院校医学生科研能力培养的特点,尤其是早期、全程、缜密的科研训练安排,为我国八年制医学生科研能力的培养提供了参考,科研训练时间的安排、课程与科研项目的建设、早期全程导师制的建立、专门组织机构的设立应当成为八年制医学教育改革的重点.%The eight-year program in China is designed to cultivate advanced healthcare talents competitive in the global community.As the 21st century emphasizes scientific research,research skills have become a key to the success of eight-year program education.The first-class medical schools in the US develop students' research skills through early,rigorous,and whole-process training.In reference to this approach,our program should optimize the research training schedule,improve the course and project design,establish the mentorship in an early stage and through the whole program,and set up a specialized management committee.

  3. How to Do a Better IP Commercialization in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Status of IP commercialization in China A sound social ecosystem for IP (intellectual property) commercialization will not be established in China overnight because the training of IP professionals and the introducing of IP into management are both a process that takes time. In recent years, the CAS has conducted a series of training programs concerning IP management and service as well as IP team building.Over the past three years, more than 70 senior staffs from CAS institutes have received certificates of IP Specialists from the CAS headquarters after successfully completing a training program.

  4. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  5. Committed to a Digitized China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Guo Wei, President and CEO of Digital China, answers questions about the company's operating strategies and prospects for China's IT service sector in a written interview with Beijing Review. Beijing Review: Digital China has detailed its strategies as "IT Serves China" and "IT Service on Demand." What is the operating objective for 2006?

  6. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  7. The fertility revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, C; Shah, I

    1990-10-01

    As a result of a concerted government effort, China has undergone one of the most rapid fertility transitions in history. At present, the 1- child family is the norm in urban areas such as Beijing and Shanghai, while there are an average of 2 children per family in rural areas. There is now concern that this urban-rural discrepancy will lead to serious labor shortages and inadequate family resources to care for the elderly in Chinese cities. Stricter enforcement of the 1-child policy is rural areas, combined with relaxation of fertility disincentives in the cities, may be required. Another concern is the failure of modernization and intensive education to reduce the traditional preference for male children. Over 50% of respondents in fertility surveys express a desire for their first child to be a boy; only 5% prefer a girl. On the other hand, impressive progress has been made in introducing family planning programs in ways that do not assault traditional values. Although the average age at marriage in China--well over 20 years--is similar to that in developed countries, traditional marriage customs, such as co-residence with parents after marriage, remain intact. Similarly, while young people now have greater freedom of choice in the selection of a marriage partner and arranged marriages are now illegal, parents remain an important part of family decision making. Finally, China has not followed the pattern observed in other countries where declining fertility and increased women's status have reduced the extent and duration of breastfeeding. Rather, it appears that the 1 child norm has actually increased the duration of breastfeeding since the last child tends to be nursed for longer periods.

  8. Recreational drug use: an emerging concern among venue-based male sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 survey of 418 venue-based male commercial sex workers in Shenzhen, China revealed that 19.9% used recreational drugs. Consistent condom use by drug users was lower than that by nonusers. HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus 2 prevalences were higher among drug users. Prevention programs need to address drug use among male commercial sex workers in China.

  9. The Actiotope Model of Giftedness: A Useful Model for Examining Gifted Education in China's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    In March 1978, under the suggestion of Chinese-born Nobel Prize laureate Tsung-Dao Lee, China launched its first gifted education program at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Based on nominations and interviews, 21 gifted students aged 11-16 were enrolled in USTC and comprised a special class. Five years later, the early…

  10. China’s Relations with Portuguese-speaking Countries: A Growing but Unnoticed Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Brazil and China Expand Satellite Program and African Countries Receive data from CBERS) Ministerio da Ciencia e Tecnologia do Brasil (Brazilian Ministry...Washington D.C. Ministerio da Ciencia e Tecnologia do Brasil (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology). “Brasil e China Ampliao Base do Programa CBERS

  11. A Snapshot of the Current Status of Social Work Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Daley, James

    2014-01-01

    This article compares 49 colleges and universities in mainland China on the level of social work education, department and school affiliation, and duration of the program. Findings indicate great diversity in all 3 categories. Bachelor's degrees of social work are offered in 83.3% of the programs, and 38.8% of the programs offer master's degrees.…

  12. A Snapshot of the Current Status of Social Work Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Daley, James

    2014-01-01

    This article compares 49 colleges and universities in mainland China on the level of social work education, department and school affiliation, and duration of the program. Findings indicate great diversity in all 3 categories. Bachelor's degrees of social work are offered in 83.3% of the programs, and 38.8% of the programs offer master's…

  13. 中国八年制医学教育与美国医学教育的差距%Disparity between 8-year program medical education in China and medical education in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 李立明; 金涛

    2011-01-01

    This article compared and studied on the disparity between a new medical doctoral course in 2009 at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and 8-year medical education model in China, to evaluate the disparity between medical education system in America and 8-year medical education in China.A new educational course which has been processing from 2009 at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is called as ' Genes to Society'.The new course is based on the newest continuous variation on self-genes of human expressed on human genes group plan and more it can change the disease prognosis.The new course integrated the newest knowledge and concepts in the field of social sciences,behavioral science and public health.The aim of the new course is to improve health conditions in the society.The new course much more emphasizes and pays attention to effect of genes on the medical model comparing with the existing medical model of biology-psychology-society.The 8-year medical education in China has still being adopted a traditional medicine education model.This study gave a helpful suggestion and improvement measures on 8-year medical education in China.%约翰·霍普金斯大学医学院是代表美国医学教育最高水平的医学院校之一,该校自2009年起实施了新的医学课程计划——“从基因到社会”。本文以此为例,与我国正在试行的八年制临床医学专业教育的状况进行了比较研究。“从基因到社会”课程计划根植于最新的人类基因组计划所展示的人类基因自身不断的变异,并可以对疾病的预后做出改变。“从基因到社会”课程计划整合了社会科学、行为科学以及公共卫生领域最新的知识和理念,尤为注重和强调基因在医学模式中的作用,旨在提高整个社会的健康水平。目前,我国八年制医学教育仍然处于探索阶段,通过比较中美国医学教育的差异所在,对改进我国的八年制医学教育提出了建议。

  14. 封闭叙述与开放叙述:法律的两种电视话语再现%Closed Narrative and Opened Narrative: Two Discourse Ways of Laws' Representations by TV Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笑春

    2012-01-01

    本文在对法律制度自身发展和其大众化过程中两对矛盾分析的基础上,分别考察了在中国电视屏幕上流行的“电视法制社教节目”和“法制题材电视剧”两种话语方式。通过比较分析它们在叙述过程中不同的诉求、手段和效果,电视社教法制节目通过相对封闭的叙述方式,将故事纳入法律的解释体系,可能弥合“应然之法”与“实然之法”之间的矛盾;法制题材电视剧则将法律融入更为广阔的社会语境,从而为现实生活与法律规则之间的矛盾共生提供一个相对开放的电视文本。%This article explores to study on the topic of laws" TV representations by which laws affect the social life in contemporary China as a life style, cultural heritage and a rule system. "Legal educational program" and "legal TV series" are researched comparatively as the representative text of two discourse types of "closed narrative" and "opened narrative". The research tries to interpret why the laws need to be reappear and how to be reappeared by the TV texts in China through discourse analysis including the aim, means and the effect of narrative.

  15. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  16. An analysis on leniency program of hard core cartel and the regulation and perfection of this rule by China's anti-monopoly law%论核心卡特尔中的宽恕制度及我国《反垄断法》对其规制和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2009-01-01

    核心卡特尔通过相同的定价、一致的行动、固定的份额来获取高额的利润,给竞争带来重大的危害,但是其隐蔽性强,难以为执法机关所侦破.宽恕制度,通过豁免卡特尔协议成员的方式以鼓励其对卡特尔协议的披露,成为西方国家打击卡特尔的重要武器.我国虽对宽恕制度做了规制,但尚且不足.仍待完善.%Hard core cartel usurps high profits through fixing price,concurrent action and allocating market share,which are harmful to competition. As cartel is usually secrete,it's not easy to be detected, Leniency program encourages the member of cartel to dis-close the covenant by exempting its liability and becomes an important weapon to punish the cartel.The Anti-monopoly Law of Chi-na also regulates the leniency program,but is not complete,and needs further perfection.

  17. 引导农户施肥行为在农业面源污染治理中的影响--基于中英项目调查分析%The Effects from Guidance of FarmersˊBehavior for Fertilizer Using in the Regulation of Agricultural Non -point Source Pollution:Based on the Survey of China -UK Educational Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春林; 陆迁; 姜雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Based on the implementation of the China -UK educational program,this paper empirically analyzes the effects from guidance of farmersˊbehavior for fertilizer using with the survey data of 331 farmers in Yangling Demonstration Zone and Wugong County of Shaanxi Province.The result indicates that the amount of farmersˊfertilizer using is significantly re-duced by correct guidance.During the process of constructing the governance micro -mechanism of agricultural non -point source pollution,it is necessary to seriously consider the guiding function of educational program.%基于中英项目实施情况,利用陕西省杨凌示范区及泾阳县331份农户实地调查数据,实证分析引导农户化肥施用行为在污染治理中的影响。分析结果表明对农户化肥施用行为的正确引导会减少化肥量的投入,最终影响我国农业面源污染的治理效果。因此,在构建我国农业面源污染微观治理机制时,要重视具有引导农户生产行为作用的治理手段。

  18. 建设项目策划策略与实践-以成都彭州·中国家纺商贸城概念规划为例%Project Programming And Practice:Conceptual Planning Of Pengzhou-China Home Textile Business City, Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海量

    2015-01-01

    Project programming is playing an important role in urban rural planning. The conceptual planning of Pengzhou-China home textile business city introduces project programming system, makes in-depth analysis at macro, intermediate, and micro scales. By “orientation-resource integration-industrial chain” technical route, the plan promotes home textile industrial upgrade and transition and regional economic growth, and integrates urban-rural development.%随着社会的多元发展,项目策划在城乡规划实践中发挥着越来越重要的作用。成都彭州·中国家纺商贸城概念规划引入项目策划体系,从宏观、中观和微观层面对规划做了全方位的深入分析,通过准确定位、整合资源,构建家纺全产业链,促进传统家纺产业升级转型,带动区域经济发展,实现彭州城乡一体化发展,使园区成为城市有机生长的新区域和新亮点。

  19. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  20. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  1. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  2. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  3. The Spiders of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sevaral books about Chinese spider systematics and biology have been published,mostly since the later 1970s and the majority of then are designed as classification guides to the spider fauna of a particular area of China,or focused on a particular group ,for example Fauna of Zhejiang Province ,Araneida and Salticids of China. The newly published book "The Spiders of China",in English,differs from all others by including all 2361 described Chinese spider species and by reviewing literature of over 200 years of work on Chinese spider classification.

  4. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  5. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  6. A Trip to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Martin

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:The Vermont School of Colombia is one of the few middle schools in the country that teaches Chinese as the second foreign language.In early June 2013,a 77-member student delegation came to China to attend a summer camp jointly hosted by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC)and the North China University of Technology(NCUT).The following is an essay written in Chinese by a Colombian student recording his tour in China.

  7. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  8. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  9. All the coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, N

    1993-01-01

    China is emerging as a serious producer of carbon emissions from its burning of coal. China contributes 11% of global carbon emissions, which is still less than its population share. Economic reforms are likely to boost emissions. 33% of all fuel burned in China produces useful energy compared to 50-60% in the USA and Japan. Low prices encourage wasteful use. The Chinese government responds to energy shortages by investing scarce capital in building more mines, power plants, and oil wells. It is unlikely that investing in expanding conventional energy supplies will be a viable solution, regardless of the availability of capital to invest, because air pollution threatens life. Particulate suspension is 14 times greater in China than in the USA. 14% of the country is affected by acid rain. Global warming may be affecting the northern drought prone areas. The solutions must involve greater efficiency. Industrial consumption of energy is more than 66% of energy produced. Energy use for a typical steel or cement factory is 7-75% greater per ton than Western countries, i.e., 55-60% efficiency versus 80% in Europe. The inefficiency is due to poor maintenance and operating procedures and old or obsolete technology. The savings in building a compact, fluorescent light bulb factory is compared to the cost of building coal-fired power plants and transmission facilities. Conservation of heat in northern buildings could be accomplished with boiler improvements, insulation, and double- glazed windows. A $3 billion/year investment could yield a cut in energy demand by nearly 50%. The carbon emissions would be reduced from 1.4 billion tons to 1 billion tons in 2025. Between 1980 and 1985 the energy efficiency program was able to reduce growth in energy from 7% to 4% without slowing growth in industrial production. Since 1985, the government has directed expenditures toward expanding the energy supply, which reduced efficiency expenditures from 10% to 6% of total investment

  10. Care of HIV-infected patients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; Zhen; CAO; Hong; Zhou; LU

    2005-01-01

    Compared with high infection areas of the world, the total HIV infection rate in China is relatively low. Nonetheless,because of China's vast territory and large population, the potential infection risk must be taken seriously. In the next few years, needle sharing among injection drug users will remain the most common route of transmission for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Unprotected sex is gradually becoming a major route of transmission. China began to implement HAART in 1999 according to international standards. Prior to 2003, there were only about 150 HIV/AIDS patients were treated with HAART in some clinical trials and about 100 HIV/AIDS patients were treated by private sources.Results of those treatments are the scientific basis for development of the therapeutic strategies in China. In March of 2003, the Chinese government initiated China CARES program. In November of 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health announced a national policy of free ARV treatment to all HIV+ Chinese citizens who were in poverty and required ARV therapy. There are total of 19,456 HIV/AIDS patients received free ARV drugs to date in 159 regions and 441 towns.Current challenges are how to follow-up and evaluate those patients in the clinical settings. The longer the therapy is postponed, the more side effects and the higher probability of drug resistance are going to occur. It remains unclear,therefore, when HAART regimen should be started in the HIV/AIDS population in China.

  11. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China.

  12. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  13. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  14. Launching the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG ZengYi

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a CUSBEA (China-United States Biochemistry Examination and Administration) Program fellow of Class Ⅳ (1985), I am very excited to announce the official launch of the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, a journal in which I am currently serving as Executive Vice-Editor-in-Chief.A couple of months ago, I initially proposed this idea to the Editor-in-Chief of SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Professor Wang Da-Cheng and to the Editor General of SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Professor Zhu Zuoyan, both of whom responded very positively.The article contributed by Dr.Luo Liqun [1],CUSBEA fellow of Class Ⅵ (1987) and currently professor in the Department of Biology at Stanford University, as well as Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, marks the official beginning of this series.

  15. 一试析福泽谕吉的国权扩张论和武力侵华策%On Fukuzawa Yoshi with His Point of Expansion in Japanese National Rights and His Program in Japanese Military Invasion of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海君

    2014-01-01

    日本近代学者福泽谕吉既是日本思想界的资产阶级启蒙大师,也是日本鼓吹强权政治的狂人。在甲午中日战争前,他先后提出了“东洋盟主论”和“脱亚入欧论”,大肆鼓吹“国权扩张论”;同时还竭力叫嚣“武力侵华策”,企图通过对华侵略战争谋求日本在东亚的霸权。他的对外扩张言论紧密呼应了明治政府的军国主义“大陆政策”,他因而成为日本推行东亚近代殖民主义扩张路线的主要鼓吹者。%Fukuzawa Yoshi,as a modern Japanese scholar,was not only a master of bourgeois enlightenment in Japanese ideology,but also a maniac with Japanese power politics. Before the Sino-Japanese War in 1894,he had in turn put forward his point of ″ Oriental leader ″ and ″ Out of Asia into Europe″ for wantonly preaching his point of ″ expansion in Japanese national rights″ ,and strongly shouted his program of ″ invasion of China by Japanese military″ ,at the same time,for trying to seek Japanese hegemony in East Asia through the war of aggression against China. His speech closely echoed Meiji government of militarist ″ mainland policy″ ,and became the main advocate of Japanese aggression on the colonialism expansion line in modern East Asia.

  16. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  17. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  18. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  19. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  20. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  1. China's New Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ The RMB4-trillion stimulus package is a bold move, but the economy still needs attention China unveiled a massive spending package in November to bolster investment and consumption as exports falter amid the global economic slowdown.

  2. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  3. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Construction, City ptanning, Decorations The llth China Beijing International Construction Machinery, Construction Materials machinery & Mining Machinery Exhibition and Technology Seminar Venue: Beijing Jiuhua International Exhibition Center Duration: October 18-October 21,

  4. Japan's China Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01

    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  5. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  6. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  7. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  8. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  9. One Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Guoling; Lu, Jiahai

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China. PMID:27906124

  10. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical....... Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  11. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  12. Winter Storms Paralyze China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Severe snowstorms over broad swaths of eastern and central China have wreaked havoc on traffic throughout the country, creating gigantic passenger backups, spawning acci- dents and leaving at least 24 people dead, according to

  13. 中国城乡11市县常见恶性肿瘤发病趋势分析%Study on cancer incidence through the Cancer Registry Program in 11 Cities and Counties, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛; 毛伟敏; 杨红健; 陈晓钟; 雷通海; 汪祥辉; 应倩; 陈万青; 张思维

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨中国恶性肿瘤发病特点及时间趋势.方法 采用中国城乡11个市县肿瘤登记处的1988-2002年资料进行统计与分析,描述恶性肿瘤发病现状,研究其时间趋势与发病特点.结果 11个市县肿瘤登记处覆盖地区15年内新发恶性肿瘤695 050例,粗发病率为215.50/10万,世界标准人口调整发病率为170.97/10万.主要恶性肿瘤发病率排序依次为肺癌、胃癌、肝癌、食管癌、乳腺癌、结肠癌、直肠癌、胰腺癌、膀胱癌、白血病.16种主要恶性肿瘤占全部的85.56%.1988-2002年恶性肿瘤合并的粗发病率呈较快上升趋势.按部位分析,增幅最大的是前列腺癌(185.48%),其次为胆囊癌、乳腺癌、结肠癌等.发病率下降幅度最大的是宫颈癌(17.00%),其次为食管癌、胃癌、鼻咽癌.结论 中国11个市县1988-2002年恶性肿瘤总的粗发病率呈上升趋势,调整年龄因素后变化不明显.胰腺癌、膀胱癌、白血病已进入前10位,成为常见恶性肿瘤.前列腺癌和胆囊癌发病率虽然较低,但是增长幅度最大.%Objective Aim of this paper was to explore the trend and characteristics of cancer incidence in 11 areas (5 cities and 6 counties) in China. Methods Data from cancer registries during 1988 to 2002 collected from the 11 cancer registry points were used to analyze the trends and characteristics of cancer incidence rates. Results There were 695 050 newly developed cancer cases in this study. The crude rate of incidence and the world age-adjusted incidence were 215.50/10~5 and 170.97/10~5 respectively. The leading cancer sites were lung, stomach, liver, esophagus, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, bladder and leukemia. The sixteen key cancers accounted for 85.56% of all the cancer cases. The crude incidence rate of all cancers had been significantly increased from 1988 to 2002. Among them, prostate (185.48%) ranked the fastest growing one followed by cancers of the gallbladder, breast, colon

  14. E-Commerce Education in China: Driving Forces, Status, and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xianfeng Zhang; Qi Li; Lin, Z

    2005-01-01

    With an explosive growth of e-businesses worldwide, e-commerce in China is booming, leading to the development of e-commerce education. This paper is intended to investigate whether the education system in China accords well with the market demand and the status of e-commerce programs in China in order to seek strategies for China to cope with the challenges of global e-commerce empowered by fast updated information technologies. First, we construct a four-layer conceptual model to describe t...

  15. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  16. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  17. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  18. Folk Songs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE folk song in China is an art form created by working people through the ages to express therr feeling and emotions. In China,as elsewhere,such songsare a repository of the folk wisdomof the nation.Origins of China’s FolkSongsIn primitive society our ances-tors created in their struggle againstnature.In the Xia Dynasty(21st-16th centuries B.C.),Slaves used

  19. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    not distort facts, divulge state secrets, and infringe upon others’ legitimate rights, we must also provide for their relative independence in no...The Study of Species Biology of Chrysanthe- mum The System of Com- puter Data of Plant Gene Chemotaxonomy of Genus Arzemisia of China The...Institute of Biology , Academia Sinica Fudan University Peking University Jiansu Institute of Bot- any South China Institute of Botany

  20. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Xinjiang [Zhang Pingquan; NONGYE JINGJl WENTI, 23 Oct 87] 72 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China [Xu Bao, ct at.; ZIIONGGUO NONGYE...should be suitably limited. 12986 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China 40110011 Beijing ZHONGGUO NONGYE KEXUE [SCIENTIA...of Agricultural Sciences, Gongzhuling, Jilin] [Text] In 1981-1985, the photo-thermo effects on the development of wild soybean (G. soja Sieb, et

  1. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  2. China Report, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    During this visit to China, Lee Kuan Yew repeatedly emphasized "the existence of broad cooperation between China and Singapore." In the past 20...seek new economic cooperation and trade partners. Lee Kuan Yew himself also thinks that Singapore’s economy is in depression and "it must seek new...that there is great potential for cooperation between the two countries. Accompanying Lee Kuan Yew in this visit were a number of ministers and high

  3. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Comparing China with South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, the ratio was 1 to 6. Compar- ing China with Thailand , India, and Pakistan the ratio was 1 to...Xinjiang, 3,500 tons of tomatoes worth more than 500,000 yuan, were dumped into the Gobi desert and ditches of Manasi County, with bright red juice ... beverages , instant noodles, and other things, the difference between the wages of a janitor, assistant editor, and copy editor will become

  4. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).

  5. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).……

  6. One Health in China

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accu...

  7. China's Regional Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shimin

    2005-01-01

    @@ China is a vast country with a long history and splendid culture. One reason for this is that the Chinese nation consists of many ethnic groups. They have lived, procreated, struggled and made creative achievements on this land for several thousand years. China is a big family consisting of 56 ethnic groups. While the Han ethnic group has the largest population, the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, so they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities."

  8. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  9. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  10. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  11. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  12. On risks analysis of BOT financing programs of railways in China based on improving FAHP method%基于改进FAHP方法谈我国铁路BOT融资项目的风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠礼; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes all the risk factors of the BOT financing programs for railways,undertakes the research by adopting improving FAHP method,calculates the weights of all risk factors,locates main risks,provides the reference for the risk policy-making in the programs,improves the traditional FAHP method,improves the consistency to judge the matrix,and ensures the reliability of the analysis results.%解析了铁路BOT融资项目各风险因素,运用改进的FAHP方法对其进行了研究,计算出各风险因素权重,找出其中的主要风险,为项目风险决策提供依据,对传统FAHP方法进行改进,提高其判断矩阵的一致性,保证分析结果的可靠性。

  13. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  14. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  15. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  16. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  17. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  18. The Potential Geographic Distribution of Radopholus similis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-sheng; XIE Bing-yan; WAN Fang-hao; XIAO Qi-ming; DAI Liang-ying

    2007-01-01

    The burrowing nematode(Radopholus similis)is one of the main quarantine pests in China,and the risk of invasion posed by this nematode is becoming more and more serious with regard to the international trade being intensified day by day.It is urgent to analyse the potential geographic distribution of R.similis in China.Genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction modeling system(GARP)and maximum entropy(MAXENT),the two niche models which have been widely used to predict the potential geographic distribution of alien species,were used to predict the distribution of R.similis in China.We also presented a model comparison of the results by both threshold-dependent and threshold-independent evaluations.It has been shown that the two niche models could be used to predict the potential distribution of R.similis reliably.The potential distribution of R.similis should be constricted within the south of China,such as Hainan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian,Yunnan provinces,and Taiwan of China.The MAXENT gives a better prediction than that of GARP.R.similis can be introduced to China by flowers and nursery stock's international shipping.The predicted results indicate that R.similis can occur in south coastal area of China and Yunnan Province,which are the main flower and nursery stock's import-export areas in China.Consequently,a strong quarantine program is needed at the ports of such areas to prevent the pest from being introduced to China.

  19. China's Energy Law Drafted to Cope with Severe Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tong

    2006-01-01

    @@ To implement the decision of the State Council, State Energy Office, National Development and Reform Commission and Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council held a joint conference in Beijing early this year to establish a drafting team of the Energy Law. As a result, the program of drafting China's Energy Law was unveiled.

  20. Constructing the Discipline of Humanistic Medicine on Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baisheng; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Humanistic medicine, as an interdisciplinary science, synthesizes knowledge concerning medical philosophy, medical ethics, medical law, medical history, medical sociology, medical logic, and doctor-patient communication. On Mainland China, increasing attention is being paid to humanistic medicine, as evidenced by doctoral education programs being…

  1. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  2. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  3. Needs Assessment Survey: Doing Business with China. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuschke, Daylene M.; Gribbons, Barry C.

    Discusses industry interests in international trade and the need or desire for business training programs involving international trade at the College of the Canyons. A survey was conducted on industry representatives from the Santa Clarita Valley on their need for training on doing business in the Pacific Rim, mainly China. In January 2003, 577…

  4. China Eximbank:A Bridge Linking China and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Established in 1994 and solely owned by the central government, The ExportImport Bank of China (China Eximbank)is a government policy bank under the direct leadership of the State Council.……

  5. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  6. Green supply chain management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinghua; Sarkis, Joseph

    2004-02-01

    Globalization results in both pressure and drivers for Chinese enterprise to improve their environmental performance. As a developing country, China has to balance economic and environmental performance. Green supply chain management (GSCM) is emerging to be an important approach for Chinese enterprises to improve performance, possibly on both these dimensions. Using empirical results from 89 respondents on GSCM practice in Chinese manufacturing enterprises, we examine the relationships between pressures, practice and performance. The results will look at multiple dimensions of GSCM practice and performance, as well as various pressures they face. Discussion of the results will include practical implications for organizations, not only in China, but internationally who face similar pressures and seek to implement similar programs.

  7. Recent progress in submarine geosciences in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    In China submarine geosciences represents a newly established discipline of oceanography, focusing on the oceanic lithosphere, and its interface with the hydrosphere and biosphere. Recently, supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program and other high-tech development projects, significant progress has been made in the development of advanced technologies and equipment. This en-ables the scientists in China to carry out explorations of the international seabed area in the Pacific Ocean and on the Southwest Indian Ridge. In addition, they have been active in the research activities associated the mid-ocean ridges and western Pacific marginal seas. It is anticipated that this research field will continue to be highly fruitful in the near future.

  8. China's urban transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration

  9. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  10. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  11. STUDY OF RURAL TOURISM IN TURPAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYIM Parhad; YANG De-gang; ZHANG Xiao-lei

    2005-01-01

    Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development,and has become a development tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s.Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has shaped, with the core of Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu of China. But in Xinjiang, the westem part of China, there are hardly any studies in this field in spite of its richness of tourism resources. In this paper, development of rural tourism is studied in Turpan of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. With its rich natural and cultural tourism resources, Turpan has become one of the pioneer tourism destinations in China. But same to the rural tourism development of the other areas' of China, rural tourism programs in Turpan mainly aimed at sightseeing activities, and little attention had been paid to the protection and exploitation of national minority culture-an important factor to satisfy both tourists demand and local economic development. However, this kind of rural tourism development policy is harmful on the long run. Because, many tourists seek tourist destinations that offer pleasant experiences related to not only the natural environment but also historic heritage and cultural patterns. The study suggests that on the base of government support in the long term, to enhance tourism training, to protect and exploit national minority culture are essential elements of rural tourism development in Turpan.

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in Chinese college students mainly from the rural areas of western China and born before HBV vaccination integrated into expanded program of immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xue-Yan; Zhou, Zhen-Zuo; Wei, Fu-Bang; Qin, Han-Ning; Ling, Yuan; Li, Rong-Cheng; Li, Yan-Ping; Nong, Yi; Sun, Kui-Xia; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a population aged 15 y or older was high in China, but an immunization strategy for this population was unavailable. We investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and immune response to HBV vaccine in Chinese college students (n=2040 participants), 11.1%, 80.8%, and 8.1% had confirmed, unknown and no HBV vaccination history, respectively. The seropositive rates for HBsAg, anti-HBs sole and anti-HBs plus anti-HBc were 12.6%, 25.7%, and 30.1%, respectively. The HBsAg seropositive rate was significantly lower in participants with confirmed HBV vaccination history than in those with unknown or no vaccination history (5.3%, 13.6%, and 12.6%, respectively, P=0.0019). The anti-HBs alone seropositive rate was significantly higher in participants with confirmed HBV vaccination history than in those with unknown or no vaccination history (37.6%, 25.3%, and 13.8%, respectively, Pvaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) at month 0, 1, and 6. Robust immune response was elicited after two and three doses (seroprotective rate: 91.9% and 99.0%, respectively, and geometric mean concentration [GMC]: 95.8 and 742.6 IU/L, respectively). Fourteen months after the third dose, the anti-HBs seroprotective rate of the group remained more than 97%. The seroprotective rates and GMCs did not differ significantly by vaccination history. This study suggested that three doses of 20 μg HBV vaccine were needed for college students negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc to ensure high seroprotective rates and concentrations.

  13. Overview of contemporary issues of forest research and management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong S; Shifley, Stephen R; Thompson, Frank R

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO(2) efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  14. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  15. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  16. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  17. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  18. Developing Good HR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT HU

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the shape of the recruitment market in China at the moment? What you have to understand first is that 20 years ago there was no recruiting market in China. The government allocated all jobs.

  19. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  20. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  1. Foreigners Who Marry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ayoung Frenchman hoped to have his wedding in China because he has loved Chinese culture since he was a child. The Golden Connection Tourist Company of China arranged a wedding in Beijing so that his dream could come true.

  2. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  3. Palaeogeography of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Palaeogeography is a science that studies the features and evolution of physical geography in geological history and human history. The palaeogeography of China has multiple disciplines and multiple types of palaeogeographic map. These perfectly reflect "a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought content". The palaeogeography of China has three characteristics. The first is multiple disciplines flourishing simultaneously. The second is that lithofacies palaeogeography is in a leading position. The third is that palaeogeography of China is closely connected with industrial practice. It is why palaeogeography, especially lithofacies palaeogeography of China, can flourish continually. We have two journals of palaeogeography, i. e. Journal of Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition) and Journal of Palaeogeography (English Edition). The former primarily publishes articles of Chinese authors regarding Chinese palaeogeography and related disciplines and has a foothold in China. The latter will publish the articles of both Chinese and international authors and caters to foreign readers. These two journals will cooperate together and display their own expertise, which will effectively make a great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese palaeogeography and international palaeogeography.

  4. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  5. Rutgers International Part-Time MBA Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Rutgers Business School has been offering first-rate, graduate business instruction in China on a continuous basis since 1994, longer than any other American business school. The quality of our international part-time MBA program has been recognized in the Financial Times, which cited it as being among the 10 best in the country. Classes are offered in both Beijing and Shanghai.

  6. Choosing an MBA Program That Suits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    MBA programs have become more popular in China in the past decade among people who want to go to into business or who are already in the field but want to improve their management knowledge and skills. Many more schools are offering MBA courses to Chinese students at home and abroad available.

  7. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Science in China (monthly) is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Acade-my of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important devel-opments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in both China and other countries. The contents are se-lected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly-esteemed scientists in China today.

  8. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  9. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural scienes sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular,rapid and authoritative reviews of currcnt important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China today.

  10. Quasiconvex Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    2004-01-01

    We define quasiconvex programming, a form of generalized linear programming in which one seeks the point minimizing the pointwise maximum of a collection of quasiconvex functions. We survey algorithms for solving quasiconvex programs either numerically or via generalizations of the dual simplex method from linear programming, and describe varied applications of this geometric optimization technique in meshing, scientific computation, information visualization, automated algorithm analysis, an...

  11. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  12. China PR Industry Report 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Background The 2005 annual survey on the PR industry in China was conducted by China International Public Relations Association(CIPRA)from January 20the to February 20th ,in order to better reflect the development of the PR service market in China,investigate trends within the PR industry,and promote its continuous development.

  13. Hotels Continue to Target China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within the global hotel industry, China is the buzzword on everybody's lips.From April 26th to 28th,senior executives of leading international hotel brands and China hoteliers gathered in Shanghai to attend the 2nd China Hotel Investment Summit. The event attracted a record number of over 450international and local delegates from over 20 countries.

  14. TAIWAN, The Treasure of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The island of Taiwan lies some 120 kilometers off the southeastern coast of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait, and has an area of 35,801 km2(13,822.8 sq mi). The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.

  15. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular ,rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.

  16. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee

  17. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  18. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  19. Global China Insights December 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien T.; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  20. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…