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Sample records for china yunnan interpreted

  1. Wavelet analysis and interpretation of gravity data in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong

    2005-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly data of Sichuan-Yunnan region and its vicinity were analyzed with wavelet transformation method. In the process, complete orthogonal wavelet function system with good symmetry and higher vanishing moment was selected to decompose the gravity anomaly into two parts. With the power spectral analysis on the decomposed anomalies, we interpreted that the two parts of anomalies represent the density variation in upper and middle crust, and in deep crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. The two parts of anomalies indicate the difference between shallow and deep tectonics. The results of shallow-layer apparent density mapping reveal that: a) the crustal density in Sichuan basin is higher than that in Songpan-Garze orogenic zone; b) the density of Kangdian rhombic block is heterogeneous; c) the boundary faults of Kangdian block are of different density features, suggesting different tectonic signification. The results of deep-layer apparent density mapping show a similar,but not the same, density distribution pattern as the shallow results, and indicate that the tectonics of shallow and deep crust are different, they may be in a status of incomplete coupling. Our results also show that the earthquakes in this area are controlled not only by the fracture zones but also by the deep density distribution.

  2. A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province is a hotspot for the research of early hominid evolution and its environmental background. During the implementation of the Program "Research of the Origin and Evolution of Early Man and Its Environmental Background" from 1998 to 2001, a huge quantity of hominoid and mammal fossils were collected. The present report systematically describes an Euprox robustus sp. nov. identified during the recent laboratory work on the collected material. Euprox is a group of earliest cervids with true antlers. The new species is the third one of the genus discovered in China. Judged by its morphologic characteristics, the new species feed on juicy and tender leaves of dicotyledon. It implies that the vegetation of its epoch in the Yuanmou Basin is a kind of southern subtropical evergreen forest and the climate is humid and temperate with evident seasonality. The latter is mostly influenced by the monsoon and secondly by the latitude.

  3. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  4. Development and countermeasures of flower industry in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yunan has attracted great attention from the world for its ideal location, advantaged climatic condition, rich biological resources and cheap labor forces. All these advantaged conditions make Yunnan become one of the most potential places in the world for flower production and trade. In recent wars, more and more foreign companies from different countries have forestalled their facilities in Yunnan, joining in the development process of Yunnan floriculture industry. The flower industry in Yunnan Province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Flower was only planted one hectare output totaled 35,000 yuan, and the planting area of the flower had 17,000ha and the sales volume of the flowers had 6 billion yuan in 2006. Yunnan Province accounts for 50% of the nation's total cut flower production. Yunnan's. flower industry, has become Asia's largest fresh, cut flower production and export base and sprout breeding and production base. And it has stepped into one of the major flesh-cut flower production areas in the world and a modern flower trading center that is leading in China.

  5. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Shi-Hong; WANG Huan-yu; Tang, Qing; Wang, Lin-Fa; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

  6. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao

    2007-01-01

    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  7. Spatial Patterns of Malaria Reported Deaths in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Yan; Hu, Wenbiao; Yang, Henling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yu, Weiwei; Guo, Yuming; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been a heavy social and health burden in the remote and poor areas in southern China. Analyses of malaria epidemic patterns can uncover important features of malaria transmission. This study identified spatial clusters, seasonal patterns, and geographic variations of malaria deaths at a county level in Yunnan, China, during 1991–2010. A discrete Poisson model was used to identify purely spatial clusters of malaria deaths. Logistic regression analysis was performed to detect change...

  8. Diversity of Soil Actinomycetes in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, L.; Li, Q.; Jiang, C

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, about 4,200 soil samples have been collected from 22 selected areas of various vegetational and climatic types throughout the province of Yunnan. Actinomycetes of 29 genera were isolated by the methods employed. The correlations between diversity and climate were grouped into tropical, subtropical plateau, cool temperate mountain, and snowy mountain types. Actinomycete populations of the first two types were more complex than were the other ones. Correlations between actinomycete ...

  9. The upper mantle anisotropy in Yunnan area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮爱国; 王椿镛

    2002-01-01

    Shear wave phase SKS of 11 earthquakes, collected from 23 stations of Yunnan Digital Seismic Network, is analyzed by fitting the theoretical transverse component with the observed one for determining the orientation and extent of polarization seismic anisotropy of upper mantle. Shear wave splitting is obviously observed in all stations except Heqing station (HQ). The results show that the polarization of fast split S-wave of upper mantle in Yunnan area is north-northeast in general and the time delay between fast and slow split shear waves is 0.5~2.0 s. It suggests that the influence of faults upon anisotropy analysis could not be neglected in such a geologically complex area. As the transitional zone between Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and the block of southern China, in Yunnan area the orientation of fast shear wave polarization indicating the subduction of Indian plate into Eurasian plate is the fundamental background of earth dynamics. While the southeast or south-southeast movement of Sichuan-Yunnan rhomb block, formed by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, plays an important role in the composition of complicated structural and stress environment of Yunnan area. The divergence between the fast direction and the movement of upper mantle indicates in Yunnan area there exists complex coupling effect between lower velocity layer or asthenosphere and crustal block. The distribution of structure driving force looks like a palm extending to northeast. According to the time delay between fast and slow split shear waves, it is deduced that the thickness of anisotropy layer is 60~225 km with variation range roughly equal to that of 104~260 km of the buried depth of lower velocity layer of the earth in Yunnan area. So it suggests the top of anisotropy zone starts from the bottom of crust or from the lower velocity layer varying with specific locations related to the tremendous variation of the Moho discontinuity in Yunnan area. Furthermore, it is deduced that the

  10. Evidence for fullerene in a coal of Yunnan, Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two types of coal from a coal mine in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, the presence of fullerene is confirmed. The fullerene had been suggested earlier by its characteristic infrared absorption spectrum. The present work reports verification by a high performance liquid chromatograph. A critical step leading to the confirmation is in the process of preparation of the liquid solution from the coal for chromatography and this is described. Possible conditions for the search of natural fullerenes are suggested. (orig.)

  11. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  12. Subjective Well-Being among Those Who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This work explores differences in subjective well-being (SWB) between two samples. Survey data from Yunnan China was collected by Yang and Luo in 2003 and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. A second pilot data set was collected in Thailand during January and February 2007. Predictors of SWB were explored among the Yunnan sample as…

  13. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits of technical sanitation options and programs in Yunnan Province, China, as part of the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) conducted by the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in East Asia. As an underdeveloped province, Yunnan has achieved huge progress in sanitation improvement since the 1990s. Sanitation options evaluated in the stu...

  14. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  15. Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-jian; Gong, Fu-ming; Li, Xiao-ran; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Feng, Yue; Nagano, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food, douchi, from Yunnan, China. The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods. Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan, and those strains were divided into twe...

  16. Prevalence of HPV infection among 28,457 Chinese women in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Li; Feng Liu; Si Cheng; Lei Shi; Zhiling Yan; Jie Yang; Li Shi; Yufeng Yao; Yanbing Ma

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the HPV type distribution in Chinese women from Yunnan Province, southwest China. A total of 28,457 individuals ranging in age from 17–84 years were recruited from 13 clinical hospitals located in 10 different regions of Yunnan Province. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed using Luminex xMAP technolo...

  17. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  18. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

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    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  19. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  20. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Small Towns : An Economic Analysis Conducted in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua; Jie HE; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and treatment service was e...

  2. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QiYue; ZHOU ChangYong; LU Tao; XIE Tao; LOU XiongYing; LIU Wei; SUN YuanYuan; HUANG JinYuan; ZHAO LaiShi

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, Invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  3. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  4. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

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    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  5. Modern tectonic stress field in Southwest Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢富仁; 苏刚; 崔效锋; 舒赛兵; 赵建涛

    2001-01-01

    By means of inversion of fault slip data, the parameters of 20 tectonic stress tensors in Southwest Yunnan region are determined. Compared with the average stress field of the region obtained from focal mechanism solutions, the following characteristics of modern tectonic stress field in this region are obtained. From the west of Zhenyuan- Yingpanshan fault to the south of Longling fault zone, the maximum compressional stress is in NNE direction and the stress regime is mainly of strike-slip type. In Longling fault zone and the area north to it, the direction of maximum compressional stress is near-NS or NNW, the stress regime is of strike-slip type.

  6. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; XIANG, GUANGXIN; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles ...

  7. An investigation of the mathematical elements of the Dai culture south-west Yunnan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-jun, Zhou; Yu-hong, Shen; Qi-xiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Dai ethnic mathematical culture is an important part of Dai ethnic culture. Mathematical elements show in their daily life. Through a research project of the Yunnan Dehong Dai people in southwest China, We collected the first-hand information, tried to do a small investigative study, and collected mathematics teaching resources that is useful to primary and secondary schools students on mathematics learning  in this minority areas. Keyword: Dai ethnic; Mathematical culture; Primary and second...

  8. Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Rijsoort, van, J.G.; Jinfeng, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Recent international forest policies stimulate involvement of communities in forest management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation and the quality of local livelihoods. Increasingly, the role of local people in monitoring forest resources is also acknowledged. This paper presents a participatory resources monitoring (PRM) system developed and implemented by representatives of 12 villages, six each within and adjacent to two nature reserves in Yunnan, China. The short-term objec...

  9. Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Using Needle Exchange Programs in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Morgan M; Zhang FuJie

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth...

  10. Phenotypic variation in cultivated populations of Azadirachta indica in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    PENG Xing-Min; WU Jiang-Chong; ZHENG Yi-Xing; Zhang, Yan-Ping; LI Gen-Qian

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objectives were to investigate phenotypic variation of Azadirachta indica in cultivated populations and to describe the relationship between phenotypic variation of the cultivated populations and different distribution areas.Methods We investigated 14 phenotypic traits for 90 individuals in nine cultivated populations of A. indica from Yunnan Province of China and used variance analysis, nested analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, UPGMA cluster analysis and m...

  11. Germanium isotopic systematics in Ge-rich coal from the Lincang Ge deposit, Yunnan, Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Hua-wen; Rouxel, Olivier; Hu, Rui-zhong; Bi, Xian-wu; Wen, Han-jie

    2011-01-01

    Organic matter plays an important role in the transport and precipitation of germanium (Ge) in coal-hosted Ge deposits. In this paper. Ge isotopes of coal samples and their combustion products were analyzed in order to investigate the potential use of Ge isotopes as tracers of Ge sources and enrichment mechanisms in coal. Germanium isotopic composition of various samples (mainly Ge-rich lignite) from the Lincang Ge deposit, Yunnan, Southwest China was analyzed using a continuous flow hydride ...

  12. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Sidle; Ghestem, M.; Stokes, A

    2014-01-01

    Expanding mountain road networks in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1, the upper end of this...

  13. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Sidle; Ghestem, M.; Stokes, A

    2014-01-01

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries have significantly increased the risk of landslides and sedimentation, and have created vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1, the upper end of this range bei...

  14. Genetic mutations in nonsyndromic deafness patients of Chinese minority and han ethnicities in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Feng; Yuan, Yongyi; Deng, Xiaoming; Han, Mingyu; Wang, Guojian; Zhao, Jiandong; Gao, Xue; Liu, Jun; Yu, Fei; Han, Dongyi; Dai, Pu

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year in China, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment. However, the molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Yunnan Province population where more than 52 minorities live has not been thoroughly investigated. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to these families, we investigated the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in this population. Methods Unrelated students with hearing loss (n = 235) who attended Kunming Huaxia second...

  15. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhua Bai; Guofa Kang; Guoming Gao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geol...

  16. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

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    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  17. Prediction of Drought Risk Based on the WRF Model in Yunnan Province of China

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    Chunhong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is the core region of the drought in the Southwest China, which makes the region become the hot spot in the meteorological research. However, among the various influencing factors of the drought in Yunnan province, the influence of the land use/cover change (LUCC on the drought has not been quantitatively analyzed. The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study. Given the fact that severe drought in Yunnan province is mainly due to much-less-than-normal precipitation and much-warmer-than-normal surface temperature, this study focused on the future spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation, which have great impacts on the drought. Finally, the influencing factors of drought in Yunnan province were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, and the risk of drought was spatially analyzed with the meteorological drought composite index. The results indicate that the large-area forest plays a more important role in alleviating the risk of drought than other vegetation types do. Besides, the changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying the risk of drought.

  18. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  19. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  20. First evidence of prey capture and meat eating by wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping REN, Dayong LI, Zhijin LIU, Baoguo LI, Fuwen WEI, Ming LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most extant nonhuman primates occasionally prey on fast-moving, warm-blooded animals; however, Indriidae, Lepilemuridae, and Colobinae either scavenged for meat or did not eat meat at all. Here we report six cases of animal consumption by the snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti in a wild, habituated group between 2004 and 2009 in Yunnan, China. At present, only males in an all-male unit within the study group were involved in active hunting. Such a male-biased activity may be related to the group structure and spatial spread of R. bieti. Two females were observed eating freshly killed birds. The findings confirmed that R. bieti engaged in scavenging and, when hunting, employed a cranio-cervical bite to kill their prey. Meat eating is likely a nutrient maximization feeding strategy in R. bieti, especially in males. A begging behavior occurred after successful prey capture. Although begging was observed, no sharing of the meat was seen. The present findings illuminate the dietary diversity of R. bieti and their ability to expand their dietary spectrum [Current Zoology 56 (2 : 227–231, 2010].

  1. The geographic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus among 25 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Hong; (石宏); DONG; Yongli; (董永利); LI; Weixiang; (李卫翔); YANG; Jie; (杨洁); LI; Kaiyuan; (李开源); ZAN; Ruiguang; (昝瑞光); XIAO; Chunjie; (肖春杰)

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus in 25 ethnic groups (33 populations) of China were analyzed in a total of 1294 samples. The average YAP+ frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations. Primi has the highest YAP+ frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP+ among all the eastern Asian populations studied. The YAP+ occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). The other 15 populations are YAP? including Lahu (2 populations), Hani, Achang, Drung, Lisu, Sui, Bouyei, Va, Bulang, Deang, Man and Hui and Mongol of Yunnan and Bai of Hunan. The YAP+ frequencies varied among the different ethnic groups studied, and even different among the same ethnic group living in different geographic locations. Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed.

  2. MAGNITUDE AND SEISMIC MOMENT SCALES IN WESTERN YUNNAN, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.; Li, Yizheng; Fischer, F.G.; Jin, Yafu

    1985-01-01

    Seismograms and accelerograms from 77 earthquakes in 1982 to 1984 near the northwest end of the Red River fault in western Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, have been used to calculate seismic moment, M//O, and local magnitude, M//L, using techniques established in California. For 1 1/2 APP 1STH M//L APP 1STH 3 1/2, log M//O equals 16. 97 plus (1. 17 plus or minus 0. 05)M//L, consistent with the log M//O minus M//L relation appropriate for central California. A comparison of these M//L values and the coda duration magnitudes M and S-wave amplitude magnitudes M assigned by the Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province suggests that M and M values are generally larger than the M//L values.

  3. Characterization of alphasatellites associated with monopartite begomovirus/betasatellite complexes in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Huanran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alphasatellites are single-stranded molecules that are associated with monopartite begomovirus/betasatellite complexes. Results Alphasatellites were identified in begomovirus-infected plant samples in Yunnan, China. All samples that contained alphasatellites also contained betasatellites, but only some samples that contained betasatellites contained alphasatellites. Thirty-three alphasatellites were sequenced, and they ranged from 1360 to 1376 nucleotides. All alphasatellites contain 3 conserved features: a single open reading frame (Rep, a conserved hairpin structure, and an adenine-rich (A-rich region. On the basis of the phylogenetic tree of the complete nucleotide sequences, the alphasatellites were divided into 3 types with one exception. Type 1 was associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV/Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB complex. Type 2 was associated with Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV/Tobacco curly shoot betasatellite (TbCSB complex. Type 3 was associated with TbCSV/Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite (AYVB complex. Within each type, nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 83.4 to 99.7%, while 63.4-81.3% identity was found between types. Mixed infections of alphasatellites associated with begomovirus/betasatellite complexes were documented. Conclusions Our results validate that alphasatellites are only associated with begomovirus/betasatellite complexes. Thirty-three sequenced alphasatellites isolated from Yunnan Province, China were divided into 3 types--each associated with a specific begomovirus/betasatellite complex. Mix-infections of alphasatellite molecules may not be unusual.

  4. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  5. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zai-quan; HUANG Xing-qi; YING Fu-you; LI Ding-qing; YU Teng-qiong; FU Jian; YAN Hui-jun; ZHONG Qiao-fang; ZHANG Dun-yu; LI Wei-jiao

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide.Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice.Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice.However,many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years.Therefore,the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preservation and utilization.Our investigations showed that the number of natural wild rice populations declined sharply in Yunnan Province during the past few years due to various reasons.Fortunately,one population of Oryza rufipogon,three of O.officinalis and ten of O.granulata have been newly found in different ecological sites,which were confirmed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker analysis in this study.ISSR analysis and investigation of some important traits of nutritional values indicated that the genetic diversity of the currently existing wild rice resources in Yunnan is still rich.The demonstration of genetic diversity of wild rice by a combined use of geographical distribution,morphological traits,nutrition contents and ISSR markers would be helpful for the conservation and exploration of these important wild rice resources.

  6. The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Youping; ZHANG Jie; SONG Linhua; BAO Haosheng

    2004-01-01

    Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County,Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms.These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ("algal shape-controlling role") of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10-3m) and minor-scale (10-3-10-1m) erosional forms. The algal shape-controlling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms,while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the "promoting role" of algae in the formation of karst forms,which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms.

  7. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  8. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant inf...

  9. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EM) with the distribution of ethnic minorities over the population, based on a sample of 1,464 freshmen from 25 EMs of Yunnan Province in P.R. China. Although this analysis shows that access to HE is equal for some categories of EM students, it is s...

  10. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  11. [Effects of different ecological conditions on grain quality and RVA profile of japonica rice from Yunnan of China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-hua; Kim, Ki-young; Yuan, Ping-rong; Zhao, Guo-zhen; Su, Zhen-xi; Liao, Xin-hua; Yang, Sea-jun; Dai, Lu-yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taking sixteen japonica rice varieties from Yunnan of China and Korea growing at three locations with different altitudes in Yunnan Plateau as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different ecological conditions on their grain quality, including brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW), length-width ratio (L/W), chalky rate (CR), whiteness (WH), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and alkali digestion value (ADV), and their starch RVA profile, including peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosity (HTV), final viscosity (FLV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistence viscosity( CTV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT). Of all the test parameters, SBV had the largest coefficient of variation. The coefficients of variation of BRL, CR, AC, PC, ADV, FLV, SBV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties were higher than those of Korean varieties, while the BRW, L/W, WH, PKV, HTV, BDV, CTV, and PaT of Korean varieties had higher coefficients of variation than those of Yunnan varieties. With increasing altitude, the BRL, BRW, L/W, WH, AC, ADV, FLV, and CTV of Yunnan varieties, and the BRL, BRW, WH, PC, PKV, HTV and BDV of Korean varieties decreased significantly, while the CR, PC, HTV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties, and the L/W, AC, ADV, SBV and CTV of Korean varieties increased significantly. The CR of Korean varieties had no obvious change. The PKV, BDV, and PaT of Yunnan varieties and the PaT of Korean varieties increased after an initial decrease, whereas the SBV of Yunnan varieties and the FLV and PeT of Korean varieties were in reverse. PMID:20353061

  12. Skyscraper dams in Yunnan : China's new electricity generator should step in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, G.

    2006-05-12

    The construction of a series of high-head hydroelectric power dams in China's earthquake-prone Yunnan province has raised concerns in China's scientific and environmental communities. The series of skyscraper-high dams are being built to meet Beijing's power production targets without the benefit of market discipline or effective regulatory oversight. Dam building is central to Beijing's plan for tripling the country's hydropower production by 2020. To meet that target, the State Council granted exclusive development rights to Hydrolancang, the Yunnan Huadian Nu River Hydropower Development Company and the Three Gorges Corporation. The Hydrolancang company is building 2 of the world's tallest and most controversial hydro dams on the Lancang River. When completed in 2012, Xiaowan will be the world's tallest arch dam at 292 metres high. Another dam, the 254 metre high Nuozhadu dam is expected to start generating power in 2017. In addition, there are plans for 13 other high dams along the Nu River, one of only 2 major rivers in China that remains free-flowing. This document expressed that China's new electricity regulator should initiate a full-cost review of state dam-building in the earthquake-prone province. It was argued that as state-owned power companies, the dam builders are not market-driven and are shielded from many of the financial risks and environmental liabilities associated with large dams. The author argued that China's electricity regulator should examine the dam builders' projects costs and profits and review the economic implications of the hydro policy for China's power consumers. It was also suggested that the country's modernization goals for the power industry should be reviewed. The immediate concerns are ecological damage and the frequency with which Yunnan province is hit by earthquakes, rock falls and landslides. Experts caution that the extra weight of the high dams and reservoirs

  13. Discoveries of new Longfengshaniaceae from the uppermost Ediacaran in eastern Yunnan, South China and the significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Feng; SONG Xueliang; YIN Chongyu; LIU Pengju; S. M. Awramik; WANG Ziqiang; GAO Linzhi

    2007-01-01

    A morphologically more diverse assemblage of Longfengshaniaceae has been found in the uppermost Ediacaran (Sinian) Jiucheng Member, Yuhucun Formation at Jinning and Jiangchuan, eastern Yunnan, South China. A majority of them are different from the Longfengshania found in the Neoproterozoic Changlongshan Formation, Yanshan Mountain area, North China and the Little Dal Group, North America. They are mainly characterized by a more varied, often thallus-like appearance with no branches, such as oval, pyriform, spindle, shovel, heart, ribbon and balloon shapes, and more sturdy stalk-like projection (stipe) with a smooth connection on the basal part of the thallus. In addition, they appear to have a remarkable attaching organ of lanceolate, shuttle-like or short stem-like structure at the base of the stipe. Six distinct morphological taxa are recognized, including one new genus, two new species and three conformis species. The characteristics of the family and the genus Longfengshania are further discussed in this paper. The new discoveries of these carbonaceous macrofossils identified as Longfengshaniaceae algae on the basis of the diagnostic forms and anastomosis patterns of their thalli and stipes demonstrate that an important evolutionary radiation of metaphytes took place in the last Ediacaran stage. The flourishing of the benthonic thallophytes attached to the substrate from eastern Yunnan and considered to be photosynthetic alga probably provided continuous nutritional habitats for the explosion and diversification of the Early Cambrian "Chengjiang biota".

  14. RNA-Based Investigation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; DONG, HAILIANG; WANG, Peng; Wang, Fengping; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2010-01-01

    Using RNA-based techniques and hot spring samples collected from Yunnan Province, China, we show that the amoA gene of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea can be transcribed at temperatures higher than 74°C and up to 94°C, suggesting that archaeal nitrification can potentially occur at near boiling temperatures.

  15. Paleomagnetism of the Jianshui basin in Yunnan, SW China, and geomorphological evolution of the Yunnan Plateau since the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianguo; Li, Youli; Zhong, Yuezhi; Si, Supei; Yao, Yifan

    2016-06-01

    There are still a lot of uncertainty on the process of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the response of the Yunnan Plateau in the Cenozoic. In order to have a further understanding on the Yunnan Plateau uplift process, we combine the studies on the sedimentary history of the Jianshui basin and other basins and faults in the Yunnan Plateau. We established magnetostratigraphy for the Wanyao (WY) and Qingyunshuiku (QS) fluviolacustrine sections in the northern and middle parts of the Jianshui basin, which indicates eight reverse magnetozones (R1-R8) and seven normal magnetozones (N1-N7), correlating to Chrons C1r.3r through C3n.2r. The strata are constrained to a span from ∼4.77 to ∼1.73 Ma, representing an early Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The accumulation rate of the WY section has accelerated trend, stopping deposit earlier than the QS section. The stratigraphic characteristics of the two sections and their nearby regions indicate the Shiping-Jianshui (SJ) and Xiaojiang faults have already existed and affected the accumulation of the basin at least since the early Pliocene. According to the history of faults activities and the sedimentary strata of basins, we established the geomorphological evolution process of the Yunnan Plateau since the Neogene.

  16. Strategic studies on the biodiversity sustainability in Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ying-shan; Zhang Zhi-yi; Pu Li-na

    2007-01-01

    With an area of 394,000 km2 (4.1% of China's total area) and specific diversified geographical environments, Yunnan houses over 18,000 species of higher plants (51.6% of China's total), 1,836 vertebrate species (54.8% of China's total) and multitudinous species of rare, endemic and epibiotic wildlife, ranking first in species richness value and endemicity rate of China's biodiversity, thus becoming a rare gene bank of wildlife species with the most concentrated distribution of important wildlife taxa and a key terrestrial biodiversity region of global significance. Despite its evident abundance and endemism, however, the biodiversity is faced with threats of ecological fragility and human disturbances in socioeconomic development resulting in attenuation of biodiversity,degradation of ecosystems and serious loss of species, thus, it needs to be carefully studied for its sustainability. Based on the analyses of the geographical diversity, the macro material bases of Yunnan's biodiversity were reviewed and six characteristics of the provincial biodiversity were described in the ecosystems, forest types, species compositions, endemic species, genetic resources, etc. By appraising the present status of the provincial biodiversity conservation, the facts that the biodiversity coexisted with fragility were revealed so that eight key disadvantageous factors in the provincial ecological fragility causing serious biodiversity loss were summarized and described in this paper. In order to satisfy the two-fold needs of biodiversity sustainability and socioeconomic development, eight strategies for the sustainable development were intensively elaborated by borrowing certain theories in modem conservation biology, recycling economics and some successful innovations, and by giving comprehensive consideration to the ecological fragility mechanism, nature reserve construction, environmental protection and the exploitability of resources for biodiversity sustainability and

  17. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jihua; Yunsheng ZHANG; Li, Yun; Guoqing YIN; Li, Yuebing; Bofu NING; Jiamin GUO

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report ...

  18. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer 
Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin ZHANG; Li, Jihua; Yajie WANG; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improvin...

  19. Extreme Drought-induced Trend Changes in MODIS EVI Time Series in Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme climatic events triggered by global climate change are expected to increase significantly hence research into vegetation response is crucial to evaluate environmental risk. Yunnan province, locating in southwest China, experienced an extreme drought event (from autumn of 2009 to spring of 2010), with the lowest percentage rainfall anomaly and the longest non-rain days in the past 50 years. This study aimed to explore the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of four land cover types in Yunnan province, including forest, grassland, shrub, and cropland during the period 2001-2011. We used remote sensing data, MODIS-derived EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to study the vegetation responses to this extreme drought event. The EVI time series were decomposed into trend, seasonal and remainder components using BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) which accounts for seasonality and enables the detection of trend changes within the time series. The preliminary results showed that: (1) BFAST proved to be capable of detecting drought-induced trend changes in EVI time series. (2) Changes in the trend component over time consisted of both gradual and abrupt changes. (3) Different spatial patterns were found for abrupt and gradual changes. (4) Cropland exhibited an abrupt change, due to its sensitivity to severe drought, while the forest seemed least affected by the extreme drought

  20. The Reconstruction of Paleovegetation and Paleoclimate in the Late Pliocene of West Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Xiang-Yu Kou [Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Ferguson, D.K. [Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Xu, Jing-Xian [Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing, 100050 (China); Wang, Yu-Fei [Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093 (China); Li, Cheng-Sen Li [The State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710075 (China)

    2006-08-15

    The Eryuan palynoflora from the Late Pliocene of western Yunnan, China is described in this paper, and is compared with two contemporary palynofloras from Yangyi and Longling. The palynological data of the three locations are analyzed to reconstruct the climatic parameters of these areas at that time by using the Coexistence Approach. The Late Pliocene climatic parameters of Eryuan are estimated, i.e., the mean annual temperature ranged from 13.3 to 18.6C, the mean temperature of the warmest month from 24.6 to 27.5C, the mean temperature of the coldest month from 1.9 to 12.1C, the difference in temperatures of coldest and warmest month from 14.2 to 16.6C, the mean annual precipitation from 619.9 to 1484.3 mm, the mean maximum monthly precipitation from 143.8 to 245.6 mm, and the mean minimum monthly precipitation from 12.7 to 16.4 mm. Both paleovegetation and paleoclimate of the three localities are compared with the modern data at each location. The present study suggests a MAT decrease accompanied by a doubling of the MAP in the Longling area between the Late Pliocene and the present. This seems to be related to the uplift of Gaoligong Mountain in Longling which is now part of the eastern portion (Western Yunnan) of the Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Correlation of Tectono-Stratigraphic Units in Northern Thailand with Those of Western Yunnan (China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A tentative correlation scheme for the tectono-stratigraphic units of Northern Thailand and those of Western Yunnsn (China) is proposed. We point out that a correlation between the Changning-Menglian belt in Western Yunnan and the Nan-Uttaradit zone in Northern Thailand (or and a "cryptic suture" in the Chiang Rai-Chiang Mai region) is unlikely, for it would demand a "suture" which cuts across a zone with high-grade metamorphics and granite intrusions (Doi lnthanon-Lincang unit).Therefore, the northern continuation of the Lampang region is situated in the Simao region of Yunnan,as indicated by a very similar development during Permian and Triassic (Lampang-Yunxian unit). The Nan-Uttaradit zone is considered to be the easternmost part of this unit, and its northern continuation should be traceable via Luang Prabang in Laos into the southeastern parts of the Simao basin. Here,however, outcrops of this unit have not yet been found. The same is the case with the Phetchabun unit which follows to the east. Both units are probably hidden under a thick cover of Mesozoic red beds. The whole region was characterized by a highly mobile tectonic development with alternating phases of compressional and extensional deformation.

  2. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

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    Chunhua Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed.

  3. Yummy Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ People everywhere remember food that was made for them by loved ones,a friend once told. "Often the meal is simple,served without pretense.I discovered this caf6 one day because,as I walked by,it smelled like my grandmother's kitchen:an aroma of lime,garlic,and ginger tantalized my nose,"sald Mei Mei,my Chinese friend from southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  4. Eocrinoid echinoderms from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Fauna in Wuding, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShiXue; LUO HuiLin; HOU ShuGuang; Bernd-Dietrich ERDTMANN

    2007-01-01

    This is a brief report of a new occurrence of eocrinoids from the Early Cambrian Wulongqing Formation in Yunnan, China. The eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna are among the earliest known eocrinoids. Different from many other Early and Middle Cambrian eocrinoids, the Guanshan eocrinoids are characterized by the absence of sutural pores and epispires, the long and spiral brachioles, the extremely long stalk, and the ratio of the length of the stalk versus that of the calyx. The discovery of the eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna not only provides new information to the investigation of the early evolution of this animal group, but also shed new light on the occurrence and migration of early eocrinoids.

  5. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy. PMID:17792016

  6. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Considering the environmental pollution, edible mushroom safety is of great concern to consumers. This study aimed at providing and evaluating data on As, Cd and Pb content of sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa collected across Yunnan in China. For the presented survey As, Cd, and Pb concentration in sclerotia of wild and cultivated W. extensa was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that As, Cd, and Pb content were below the limit promulgated by WHO, with the ranges 5.27-161, 1.51-42.1 and metals via daily consumption of 50 g sclerotia. Both HQ and HI through consumption of sclerotia were below 1, indicating that weekly consumption of sclerotia at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to an adult consumer. PMID:26883402

  7. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c. PMID:27162026

  8. Using multi-temporal remote sensing for mining area monitoring and management: the Yunnan Province case study (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Tarolli, Paolo; Li, Ke; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-05-01

    Abundant mineral resource is the basis for high-speed social and economic development, and huge economic benefits promoted the rapid development of modern mining industry. However, mining leaves the most significant signature on the Earth, by strongly changing and influencing landscapes and eco-systems. Disasters like water/soil pollution, soil erosion, landslides and land subsidence are often induced by mining activities. Multi-temporal remote sensing surveys can offer a basis upon which develop methodologies for better understanding the influences of mining on landscapes and related Earth surface processes. The aim of the study is to monitor a mining area using multi-temporal remote sensing data, for discovering and evaluating the influence of the mining activities on the environment. Our research area is located in Yunnan Province, China, where open-pit mining activities have been going on for about 10 years. For the study area there is the availability of multi-temporal spatial adjusted remote sensing images (2001 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2009 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2011 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix, 2012 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix). Through photo interpretation, it was possible to collect the evolutions of mining area, and to recognize areas subject to erosion and landsliding. The results have been validated using field surveys carried out in 2011 and 2012. The multi-temporal image interpretation indicates that the mining activities started between 2001 and 2009, with a significant increasing of land degradation between 2009 and 2012. This study represents the first step of a long-term analysis of Yunnan Province mining area. The goal is to arrange a multi-sensor yearly survey using different platforms and technologies (e.g. ground GPS, Structure from Motion photogrammetric technique SfM, UAV, and airborne and terrestrial laser scanner), in order to better understand the landscape evolution of the area, and analyze in detail the Earth

  9. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  10. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  11. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  12. The Distribution of DEN Infected People in Dushan and Xingyi Area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu; Li Zuo; Yongbing Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DEN, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) are mosquito borne and have caused 100 million cases of dengue fever each year in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. However, in the Southwest area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China, the previous work demonstrated that different geographic strains of Aedes albopictus were susceptible to dengue virus. In this study, we collected 456 sera samples from patients with fever and 994 sera samples from healthy population in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. All sera samples were tested for dengue IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients' sera samples were tested for dengue IgM and DEN antigen was checked in the sera of 6 from 456 samples with which C6/36 cell in culated by IFA. The results indicate that these patients with fever were infected with DEN-2 and suggest that DEN infection had existed in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

  13. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang

    2016-08-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011-2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China-Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  14. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yao Hu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of N. nabanhensis sp. n. and N. caoi sp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given.

  15. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of Nazeris nabanhensissp. n. and Nazeris caoisp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given. PMID:21594163

  16. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  17. On Geodynamic Evolution of Simao Region (Southwestern Yunnan, China) during Late Paleozoic and Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over the last years, the Simao region, southwestern Yunnan, China, turned out to be a very promising target to elucidate plate-tectonic processes around the Permian-Triassic boundary within the Tethyan domain of Asia. New data from this area reveal that Upper Paleozoic compressional deformations occurred along the Lancangjiang and in areas to the east. Along Lancangjiang, an angular unconformity is exposed, which separates quartz-phyllites-formed during a Carboniferous tectono-metamorphic event-from Triassic red beds to roofing rhyolites. The acidic volcanics were often said to be remnants of a volcanic arc that was active during the Triassic subduction and closure of an oceanic realm along the Lancangjiang zone. According to our new data, however, these volcanics indicate most probably an Upper Triassic stage of rifting. In the Yunxian anticline (NW of Simao), an angular unconformity of intra-Permian age is exposed where Carboniferous to lower Middle Permian strata, which were deposited in a rather deep basin, are unconformably overlain by a shallow marine sequence of upper Middle to Upper Permian sediments. The angular unconformity is of the same age as the syn-orogenous sediments filst described and dated from the Phetchabun region in Thailand and hence a convincing argument for a Late Variscan orogeny forming an extensive zone of mountain-building that can be traced through the central parts of mainland Southeast-Asia.``

  18. Platinum and Palladium in Coal Rock and Geochemical Anomaly in Eastern Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Yongqing; Zhang Shengyuan

    2008-01-01

    A series of geochemical anomalies of Pt and Pd were found in 1 358 recombined samples from a geochemical stream sediment survey in eastern Yunnan (云南) Province, China. Chemical optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and inductively coupled plasmas atomic emission spectrometry analyses of 22 elements and chemical compositions of 21 samples from coal-bearing strata from the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic show Pt and Pd concentrated to some extent in coal rocks, with Pd/Pt

  19. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gkarlaouni Ch; Papadimitriou E E; Karakostas V G; WEN Xue-ze; JIN Xue-shen; Kilias A; PAN Hua; YANG Jia-liang

    2008-01-01

    Coulomb stress changes associated with the strong earthquakes that occurred since 1904 in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China are investigated. The study area comprises the most active seismic fault zones in the Chinese mainland and suffers from both strong and frequent events. The tectonic regime of this rhombic-shaped area is affected by the eastern extrusion of the Tibetan highland due to the collision of Eurasian Plate against the Indian lithospherie block along the Himalayan convergent zone. This movement is accommodated on major strike-slip intraplate fault zones that strike in an E-W direction. The gradual 90° clockwise rotation of the faults in the study area contributes to the complexity of the stress field. The seismic hazard assessment in this region is attempted by calculating the change of the Coulomb Failure Function (ACFF) arising from both the coseismic slip of strong events (Ms≥6.5) and the stress built-up by continuous tectonic loading on major regional faults. At every step of the stress evolutionary model an examination of possible triggering of each next strong event is made and the model finally puts in evidence the fault segments that apt to fail in an impending strong event, thus providing fu- ture seismic hazard evaluation.

  20. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  1. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sidle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expanding mountain road networks in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1, the upper end of this range being the highest rate ever reported along mountain roads. The two roads with the highest landslide erosion (FG1 = 12 966 Mg ha−1 yr−1 ; DXD = 48 235 Mg ha−1 yr−1 had some of the highest sediment delivery rates to channels (about 80 and 86%, respectively. Overall, three times more landslides occurred along cutslopes compared to fillslopes, but fillslope failures had a combined mass >1.3 times that of cutslope failures. Many small landslides occurred along road cuts, but these were often trapped on the road surface. Given the magnitude of the landslide problem and the lack of attention to this issue, a more sustainable approach for mountain road development is outlined based on an analysis of landslide susceptibility and how thresholds for landslide trigger mechanisms would be modified by road location and construction techniques.

  2. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  3. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  4. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

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    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  5. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in bats from Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cao, Lili; He, Biao; Li, Jiping; Hu, Tingsong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Fan, Quanshui; Tu, Changchun; Liu, Quan

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in bats. A total of 247 bats, belonging to Rhinolophus sinicus , Rousettus leschenaultia, Aselliscus stoliczkanus , and Hipposideros fulvus , were collected in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and the intestinal tissues were examined for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). The overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% CI, 4.5 to 11.0%), with R. sinicus having the highest level at 9.5% (95% CI, 2.8 to 16.1%) followed by A. stoliczkanus at 7.8% (95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9%), H. fulvus at 7.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.4%), and R. leschenaultia at 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 15.7%). DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA revealed the presence of 2 novel genotypes, designated as Cryptosporidium bat genotype I in A. stoliczkanus and R. sinicus and Cryptosporidium bat genotype II in R. leschenaultia, R. sinicus , and H. fulvus . This is the first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in bats. Further biological and genetic characterization is needed to determine the relationship of the 2 novel genotypes to established Cryptosporidium species-genotypes. PMID:23886252

  6. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  7. The Full-length Genome Analysis of a Street Rabies Virus Strain Isolated in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Hai-lin Zhang; Xiao-yan Tao; Hao Li; Qing Tang; Xiu-yun Jiang; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of rabies has rapidly increased and expanded in Yunnan province in recent years.In order to further analyze and understand the etiological reasons for the rapid expansion of rabies in Yunnan,a strain of rabies virus CYN1009D in Yunnan was isolated,and the complete genomic sequencing was carried out,and the bioimfomative analysis on genes/encoded proteins and phylogeny with reference to sequences in GenBank was performed.The complete genome of CYN1009D was 11923 nt in length and belonged to genotype I.The genes encoding different structural proteins were all conserved in their lengths,in comparison to other strains in China.The amino acid sequence was conserved at different antigen sites of NP,but the variation was detected at the secondary phosphorylation site of position 375; variations were also detected in the phosphorylation sites at positions 63-63 and 162 of PP; the sites playing important roles in virus synthesis,budding and viral morphology in MP were conserved; two glycosylation sites were detected at Asn37 and Asn319in GP,the neutralizing antigen sites in GP were conserved; the initial amino acid of LP (ML) was different from that of most of the strains in China (MM); the variations in G-L region in the intergenic region were significant.The phylogenic tree showed that CYN1009D has a closer genetic relationship to the strains in Southeast Asia,indicating that prevention and control on rabies in borderland areas should be reinforced meanwhile efforts are made to control rabies in China.

  8. Tibet and China: The Interpretation of History Since 1950

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the way Tibet’s history and its relations with China have been interpreted and described in China since 1950. While China has long claimed that Tibet became part of China in the thirteenth century under the Yuan Dynasty, much evidence shows that this interpretation is a twentieth century construction. A more assertive Chinese position holds that historical China consists of the territory of the Qing Dynasty at its height, and that all within those boundaries have been un...

  9. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Qiyan Feng; Ruoyu Sun; Guijian Liu

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-...

  10. A Novel Genotype of GB Virus C: Its Identification and Predominance among Injecting Drug Users in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yue; Zhao, Wenhua; Feng, Yuemei; Dai, Jiejie; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li; BAI, JIE; Zhang, Huatang; Lu, Ling; Xia, Xueshan

    2011-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is prevalent globally and particularly among individuals at risk of parental exposures. Based on genetic diversity, this virus is now classified into six genotypes and many subtypes with distinct geographical distribution. In this study, 120 Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) were recruited from Yunnan province, China. Among them, 43 (35.8%) were positive for GBV-C RNA, 70 (58.3%) and 103 (85.8%) sero-positive for HIV-1 and HCV respectively. This revealed 18.3% of IDUs having GBV-...

  11. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  12. Common and Privatized: Conditions for Wise Management of Matsutake Mushrooms in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hardin's (1968 paper on the "Tragedy of the Commons," property rights of common-pool resources have been a central concern for natural resource management scholars. Matsutake, a common-pool resource, is an economically important mushroom in several locations around the world. Driven by growing international demand over the last few decades, matsutake management is a relatively new practice both for local communities and government agencies. In Northwest Yunnan, China, one of the most productive areas for matsutake globally, numerous local practices and systems have emerged in the last two to three decades. In this study, we investigate the differences between management systems in eight communities and the factors associated with them. The methods used for field research included key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires. Three main management patterns were identified through use of statistical clustering based on indicators such as physical environment, resource characteristics, tenure arrangements, regulations and implementation, harvesting behavior, income, and market regulation. It was found that private access—the principal characteristic of which is the exclusive use of resources—results in more income at lower labor cost per household than either of the other open-access management patterns. Even though under the context of ongoing Second Forest Tenure Reform in China—in which collective forest privatization is the key task—application of private-access regimes is limited because of site conditions including physical, institutional, and market environments. Common-access management systems have advantages in terms of managing conflict and balancing equity needs. No matter the type of access right, the key issue for wise matsutake management is institutional. Locally rooted innovative strategies should be encouraged, and institutional capacity building should be carried out to support innovations in

  13. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART eligibility. In China, flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas. In an attempt to address this issue, we conducted a study to validate the performance of Alere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer. Methods: Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province. Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer. Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference. Results: Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis. CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood. Compared to FACSCalibur, the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of − 47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement, [LOA]: −204-110 cells/μl for venous blood and −71.0 cells/μl (LOA: −295-153 cells/μl for finger-prick blood. For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl, the positive predictive value (PPV of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood, respectively. For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl, the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%, respectively. Conclusions: CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  14. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  15. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  16. Mosaics of Change: Cross-Scale Forest Cover Dynamics and Drivers in Tibetan Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon

    In reaction to devastating floods on the Yangtze River in the summer of 1998, the Chinese Central Government introduced a logging ban as part of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) with the goal of dramatically increasing national forest cover. Since then, over 11 billion USD has been allocated to the program, but the NFPP's success at promoting reforestation is unclear as neither the extent of forest cover change, nor the potential factors influencing the spatial variability of change have been examined. This research employs a case study in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China, to evaluate the spatial variability of forest cover change under the NFPP and investigate drivers that have influenced recent patterns of change. I employ a mixed methods, cross-scale research framework that includes the analysis of areal trajectories and spatial variability of Landsat-5 imagery-derived forest cover change at three administrative levels before and after the NFPP's introduction; landscape ecology-based metrics to measure the shifting patterns of forest cover change at the patch level; and household interview data on village-level forest resource use patterns and processes in three neighboring villages. Prefecture- and county-level analyses suggest rather stable forest cover across the three-county study area since the introduction of the ban, though township-level measures of forest cover change show a degree of spatial variability as well as a temporal delay in policy implementation effectiveness. Village-level remote sensing analysis shows comparable amounts of forest cover change between study villages but disparate forest resource use patterns in terms of location and amount. Though all research villages continue to exploit local forests for firewood and timber relatively unfettered by policy restrictions, villagers with tourism-derived income are able to buy forest products collected in outside forests much more often; this redistributes local

  17. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 ( M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  18. Infections with Sarcococystis wenzeli are prevalent in the chickens of Yunnan Province, China, but rare or absent from the flocks of domesticated pigeons and ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution and prevalence of infections with species of Sarcocystis in domestic fowl in Asia are poorly known. Here, ducks, pigeons, and chickens from Yunnan Province, China were examined for evidence of parasitic infection with Sarcocystis spp. One hundred ninety one chickens, 514 ducks, and...

  19. Distribution and development strategy for Jatropha curcas L. in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kun; Yang Wen-yun; Li Li; Zhang Chun-hua; Cui Yong-zhong; Sun Yong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the main distributing area of Jatropha curcas L. This plant is abundant in several drainage areas of the dry-hot, dry-warm and sub-humid valleys in the south subtropical area of Yunnan Province. The seeds that were picked from trees blossoming between April and May and fructifying between September and October will have large seed yield and fine quality. For developing bio-diesel stock forest of J. curcas in areas with adaptive climate, seeding measures for afforestation should be taken and techniques on breeding, fast-growing, and high-yielding plantation cultivation are very important.

  20. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang; Song Duan; Yan-Ling Ma; Ji-Bao Wang; Ying-Zhen Su; Hui Zhang; Chin-Yih Qu

    2015-01-01

    Background:CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility.In China,flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas.In an attempt to address this issue,we conducted a study to validate the performance ofAlere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer.Methods:Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province.Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer.Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference.Results:Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis.CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood.Compared to FACSCalibur,the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of-47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement,[LOA]:-204-110 cells/μl) for venous blood and-71.0 cells/μl (LOA:-295-153 cells/μ1) for finger-prick blood.For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl,the positive predictive value (PPV) of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood,respectively.For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl,the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%,respectively.Conclusions:CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  1. Vertical characteristics of the Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoshan CUI; Zheyuan YOU; Min YAO

    2008-01-01

    The Hani terrace paddyfield in Yunnan Province,China is categorized as a 'constructed wetland' under the Lamsar Convention classification.The Hani terrace paddyfield ranges from an altitude of 144 to 2000 m above sea level (ASL) in the southern slopes of the Ailao Mountains,angling down at a range of 15°to 75°.In this study,we investigated the ecosystem of the terrace paddyfields in the Mengpin and Quanfuzhuang administrative villages located at the center of the cultural heritage conservation district in the Hani terrace paddy-field.The Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem structure is "forest-village-terrace paddyfield-river" in the order of descending altitude.Soil and water samples were sequen-tially taken from forests,villages and the terrace paddy-fields to be able to study the vertical characteristics of Hani's terrace paddyfields.PO4-P and NH3-N in water were measured to test for water contamination.Seven soil nutrient factors were tested,including organic material (OM),char and nitrogen ratio (C/N),pH,total nitrogen (TN),total phosphorus (TP),available phosphorus (AP),and available potassium (AK).Soil quality was also eval-uated using the characteristics of the soil nutrient factors.Vertical changes in the landscape,wetland types,wetland plants,hydrology and soil nutrients were characterized.Results showed that:(1) Hani's terrace paddyfield can be divided into five types of wetlands; the rice varieties and cultivation patterns vary in each type of wetland.(2) Hani's terrace paddyfield has a great capacity for water conservation and a strong ability to purify contaminants.The impoundage of Hani's terrace paddyfield is about 5050 m3/hm2.Contaminants in the terrace paddyfield soils decrease exponentially with the decline in altitude.(3) Comparison of soil quality in five different land use types indicates decreasing soil quality from forest to ter-race land to terrace paddyfield to water source.Except for headwater soil,single factors such as OM,TN and TP

  2. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  3. Prevalence and genotype of Chlamydia psittaci in faecal samples of birds from zoos and pet markets in Kunming, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Feng, Yue-mei; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhong, Du-bo; Liu, Chen-jian

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an important zoonotic pathogen in birds and may be transmitted to humans and result in severe respiratory disease. To assess the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in birds in Kunming, Yunnan, China, a total of 136 specimens of psittacine birds involving 8 species were collected from the city’s zoos (n=60) and pet markets (n=76). The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 19.9% (27/136) in the psittacine birds. The prevalence of C. psittaci was higher in pet birds (26.3%; 20/76) than in zoo birds (11.7%; 7/60) (P=0.034). In particular, among Agapornis fischeri, the C. psittaci infection (50%; 10/20) was significantly more frequent in the pet markets than in the zoos (P=0.006). In addition, the highest prevalence of 41.2% (7/17) was found in Ara ararauna. To determine the genotype of C. psittaci, 23 OmpA gene fragments (about 1.4 kb) in 27 positive samples were successfully amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 23 strains belonged to genotype A. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of C. psittaci genotype A infection in psittacine birds in Yunnan Province, suggesting a potential threat to human health in this area. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among employees and customers.

  4. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-zhen; LIU Ji-xin; YANG Sea-jun; YEA Jong-doo; LIAO Xin-hua; SU Zhen-xi; SHI Rong; JIANG Cong; DAI Lu-yuan

    2009-01-01

    The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  5. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  6. Method for Evaluating the Degrees of Land Use Sustainability of Mountainous County and its Application in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; TAO Wenxing; XU Jingjing; ZHAO Qiaogui

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of sustainable land use is the key issue in the field of studying the sustainable land utilization. In general analysis, the sustainable land use is evaluated respectively from its ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability in China and other countries in recent years. Although this evaluation is an important work, it seems insufficient and hard to comprehensively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability. Thus, to make up this deficiency, this paper brings forward the evaluation indexes, which make it possible to quantitatively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability, namely, the concept of "degrees of overall land use sustainability" (Dos), and research and development of the method of measurement and calculation in Dos. Taking the evaluation of the degree of land use sustainability in county regions of Yunnan Province as the actual example for analysis, results are basically as follows: 1) The degree of land use sustainability (Dos) is the ration index to organically and systematically integrate the degree of ecological friendliness (DEF), the degree of economic viability (DEV) and the degree of social acceptability (DSA), able to comprehensively reflect the whole sustainability degree of regional land use. 2) Based on the value of Dos, the grading system and standard for the sustainability of land use may be established and totally divided into five grades, namely, the high-degree sustainability, middle-degree sustainability, low-degree sustainabflity, conditional sustainability and non-sustainability. Meanwhile, the standard for distinguishing sustainability grades has also been confirmed so as to determine the nature of sustainability degrees in different grades. This makes the possibility for the combination of nature determination with ration in research result and provides with the scientific guideline and decision-making gist for better implementation of sustainable land use strategy.3

  7. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Frayer; Daniel Müller; Zhanli Sun; Munroe, Darla K.; Jianchu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan,...

  8. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  9. Diversity of Aquatic Actinomycetes in Lakes of the Middle Plateau, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, C; Xu, L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 sediment and water samples were collected from 12 lakes of the Middle Plateau of Yunnan from 1983 to 1993. The diversity and biological characteristics of the aquatic actinomycetes in these lakes were studied. Sixteen genera of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. Micromonospores assumed a notable dominance (from 39 to 89%) in the actinomycete populations of these lake sediments. Streptomycetes were the second most abundant organisms. The diversity and counts of acti...

  10. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  11. Planar Velocity Distribution of Viscous Debris Flow at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China: A Field Measurement Using Two Radar Velocimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xudong; WANG Guangqian; KANG Zhicheng; FEI Xiangjun

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow were analyzed using the measured data at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China. The velocity data were measured through using two radar velocimeters. The cross-sectional mean velocities were calculated and used to examine Kang et al's (2004) relationship, which was established for converting the flow velocity at river centerline measured by a radar velocimeter into the mean velocity based on the stop-watch method. The velocity coefficient, K, defined by the ratio of the mean velocity to the maximum velocity, ranges from 0.2 to 0.6. Kang et al's (2004) relationship was found being inapplicable to flows with K smaller than 0.43. This paper contributes to show the complexity of the planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flows and the applicability of Kang et al's relationship.

  12. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  13. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei

    2007-01-01

    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  14. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  15. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  16. Status of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Ethnic Population in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zulqarnain Baloch; Lei Yue; Tao Yuan; Yue Feng; Wenlin Tai; Yanqing Liu; Binghui Wang; Xiao Li; Li Liu; A-Mei Zhang; Xiaomei Wu; Xueshan Xia

    2015-01-01

    HPV genotypes have distinct distributions among various ethnic populations worldwide. In December 2013, 237 and 159 cervical samples were collected from Hani and Han ethnic women, respectively, in Mojiang, a rural county in southern Yunnan. The overall HPV infection rate (21.1%) among the Hani women was significantly higher than that among the Han women (12.6%). The high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV and single- and multiple-genotype infection rates among the Hani women were 11.0%, 4.6%, 15...

  17. Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province,south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; MA Qinyan; DU Fan; YANG Yuming

    2007-01-01

    Altitudinal gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients,which vary continuously in different fashions.It is important to study the mountain floristic patterns along altitudinal gradients which reveal the regular pattern of the flora along the environmental gradients,the changing trend of biodiversity patterns along the altitudinal gradient,and relevance of biological fitness.To explore the compositional characteristics and ecological significance of floristic patterns along altitudinal gradient in China National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain in the southeast of Yunnan Province,field investigations have been made to the flora along the two routes of the southwest slope and the northeast slope of the said reserve,including a vertical vegetation transect.Meanwhile,further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain,which has been accounted for in the literature,as Flora Yunnan,The Seed Plant in Yunnan,and so on.The structural characteristics of the flora and the altitudinal distribution pattern of its floristic components were analyzed.By applying systematic cluster analysis,the altitudinal position of the dividing line of floristic changes along altitudinal gradient was detected,and the effects of the montane climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition were studied.Conclusions were put forward.This paper can be summarized as follows:(1) The obvious boundary that differentiates tropical floristic elements is located at the altitude of approximately 1,500 m;it is reasonable to stipulate the boundary line between tropical rain forests and the evergreen broad-leaved forests.(2) The vertical vegetation spectrum made by cluster analysis shows that humid rain forests are below 700 m a.s.1,montane rain forests are between 700 and 1,500 m,monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests are between 1,300 and 1,800 m,and montane mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests are above 1,800 m a.s.1.Nonrepresentative montane mossy dwarf forests (above

  18. Seismic anisotropy of the crust in Yunnan,China: Polarizations of fast shear-waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yu-tao; GAO Yuan; WU Jing; LUO Yan; SU You-jin

    2006-01-01

    Using seismic data recorded by Yunnan Telemetry Seismic Network from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003,the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves are obtained at l0 digital seismic stations by SAM technique, a systematic analysis method on shear-wave splitting, in this study. The results show that dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most stations are mainly at nearly N-S or NNW direction in Yunnan.The dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at stations located on the active faults are consistent with the strike of active faults, directions of regional principal compressive strains measured from GPS data, and basically consistent with regional principal compressive stress. Only a few of stations show complicated polarization pattern of fast shear-waves, or are not consistent with the strike of active faults and the directions of principal GPS compressive strains, which are always located at junction of several faults. The result reflects complicated fault distribution and stress field. The dominant polarization direction of fast shear-wave indicates the direction of the in-situ maximum principal compressive stress is controlled by multiple tectonic aspects such as the regional stress field and faults.

  19. Variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on the 2001 Shidian earthquakes in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 梁维; 丁香; 薛艳; 蔡明军; 刘希强; 苏有锦; 彭立国

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 three earthquakes occurred in Shidian in Yunnan Province, which were the MS=5.2 on April 10, the MS=5.9 on April 12 and the MS=5.3 on June 8. Based on the data from the station Baoshan of Yunnan Telemetry Digital Seismograph Network, the variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on these series of strong earthquakes has been studied by using the systematic analysis method (SAM) of shear-wave splitting. The result shows the time delays of shear-wave splitting basically increase with earthquake activity intensifying. However the time delays abruptly decrease immediately before strong aftershocks. It accords with the stress relaxation before earthquakes, which was found recently in study on shear-wave splitting. The result suggests it is significant for reducing the harm degree of earthquakes to develop the stress-forecasting on earthquake in strong active tectonic zones and economic developed regions or big cities under the danger of strong earthquakes.

  20. Relationship between ethnic landscape and environment in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Each nationality has formed unique ethnic culture in the long history. Ethnic culture is spatially reflected by ethnic distribution. The distribution of nationalities is influenced by ethnic history, culture, society and religion, also affected by regional physical setting. This paper analyzes the relationship between ethnic distribution pattern and natural setting with contrast analytical method. The digital elevation model (DEM) is established on basis of contour map on a scale of 1:250,000 in the Nujiang River basin, Yunnan Province by ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Based on DEM, the spatial analysis and statistical function of GIS, the landscape patterns of population distribution of the selected minorities is described, and 4 sub-regions are divided in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province while the features and disparity of landscape pattern and its forming mechanism are discussed, along with historical and archaeological data. The conclusions are as follow: (1) The ethnic distribution is mosaic in the matrix of other racial distribution, and have a distinct spatial correlation. (2) For the difference in cultivation between different nationalities, certain nationality lived in the area suitable for production mode of its own and coincident with appropriate geographical setting. (3) The spatial distribution of settlement spots of the minorities is controlled by the convenience of water supply. The landscape pattern of ethnic distribution is closely relative to natural environment.

  1. Prospects for biomass-to-electricity projects in Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Efforts have been underway since 1989 to assess the prospects for biomass-to-electricity projects in Yunnan Province. Results of prefeasibility studies for specific projects suggest that they are both financially and technically viable. Because of low labor costs and favorable climate biomass can be grown on marginal and underutilized land and converted to electricity at costs lower than other alternatives. Bases on current plantation establishment rates, the potential size of the biomass resource can easily support over 1 GW of electric generating capacity in small-sized (up to 20-40 MW) cogeneration and stand-alone projects. These projects, if implemented, can ease power shortages, reduce unemployment, and help sustain the region`s economic growth. Moreover, the external environmental benefits of biomass energy are also potentially significant. This report briefly summarizes the history of biomass assessment efforts in Yunnan Province and discusses in more detail twelve projects that have been identified for U.S. private sector investment. This discussion includes a feasibility analysis of the projects (plantation-grown biomass and its conversion to electricity) and an estimate of the biomass resource base in the general vicinity of each project. This data as well as information on power needs and local capabilities to manage and operate a biomass-to-electricity project are then used to rank-order the twelve projects. One cogeneration and one stand-alone facility are recommended for additional study and possible investment.

  2. Impact of Snow Storms on Habitat and Death of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dayong; Ren, Baoping; Hu, Jie; Shen, Yongsheng; He, Xinming; Krzton, Ali; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as snow storms have far-reaching effects on variations in the habitat structure and ecological aspects of non-human primates. Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit high-altitude forest and endure harsh winters. The effect of heavy snow-storms (January 19 to February 6, 2008) on two large groups of R. bieti (Gehuaqing group and Xiangguqing group) inhabiting Samage Forest in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve were assessed. Data on habitat damage were colle...

  3. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  4. Ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao; Fei, Han-Lan; Yuan, Sheng-Dong; Sun, Wen-Mo; Ni, Qing-Yong; Cui, Liang-Wei; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-04-01

    Generally, food abundance and distribution exert important influence on primate ranging behavior. Hoolock gibbons (genus Hoolock) live in lowland and montane forests in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. All information about hoolock gibbons comes from studies on western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) living in lowland forest. Between August 2010 and September 2011, we studied the ranging behavior of one habituated group of eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys) living in a seasonal montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China. Results show that the study group did not increase foraging effort, calculated in this study as the daily path length, when fruit was less available. Instead, the gibbons fed more on leaves and decreased traveling to conserve energy. They relied heavily on a single food species in most study months which was patchily distributed within their total (14-month) home range, and during most months they used only a small portion of their total home range. In order to find enough food, the group shifted its monthly home range according to the seasonal availability of food species. To satisfy their annual food requirements, they occupied a total home range of 93 ha. The absence of neighboring groups of gibbons and the presence of tsaoko cardamom (Amomum tsaoko) plantations may also have influenced the ranging behavior of the group. Further long-term studies of neighboring groups living in intact forests are required to assess these effects. PMID:24220849

  5. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  6. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  7. Identification and Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Primeval Forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces and Northeast Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were screened from 683 soil samples collected from tropical and semitropical primeval forests in Yunnan and Hainan provinces of China. Several shapes of crystals, including bipyramidal, square,ovoid, spherical, and amorphous, were observed in the B. thuringiensis isolates. Twenty-six pairs of primers were used to identify 31 holotype cry genes at primary rank of the B. thuringiensis cry gene nomenclature system. The cry gene-types of 92 B. thuringiensis isolates and 33 B. thuringiensis isolates screened from Northeast region of China were identified by PCR-RFLP and SDS-PAGE methods. Fifty-eight isolates harbored cryl genes, 32 isolates cry2 genes, 12 isolates cry8 genes, 3 isolates cry9 genes, 12 isolates cry11 genes, and 13 isolates cry30 genes. Of the tested isolates, 42 produced no reaction product with 26 pairs of primers and also exhibited no toxicity against 8 insect species tested. The isolate Z2-34 harbored a novel cry30 gene, exhibited insecticidal activity against Aedes albopictus of Dipterans. The accession number of the novel genes in this study is AY916046. Isolation and identification of B. thuringiensis and cry gene are important for investigating the diversity of B. thuringiensis resources and cloning new cry gene.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities in household biogas digesters from tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangliang; Li, Qiumin; Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yingjuan; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xiaolong; Zhang, Wudi

    2016-06-01

    A combination of 16S rRNA gene PCR-based techniques and the determination of abiotic factors were used to study community composition, richness, and evenness and the correlation between biotic and abiotic factors in 19 household biogas digesters in tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China. The results revealed that both bacterial and archaeal community composition differed between regions and archaeal community composition was more affected by season than bacterial; regardless of sampling location, the dominant bacterial phyla included Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, and the most dominant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota; in digesters from both regions, Chloroflexi as the first or second most dominant bacteria accounted for 21.50-26.10 % of bacterial library sequences, and the phylum Crenarchaeota as the second most dominant archaea accounted for 17.65-19.77 % of archaeal library sequences; the species Methanosaeta concilii as the most dominant archaeal species accounted for 67.80-72.80 % of the sequences. This study found that most of the abundant microbial communities in 19 biogas digesters are similar, and this result will provide enlightenment for finding the universal nature in rural biogas digesters at tropical and subtropical regions in China. PMID:26916266

  9. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXian-qi; YUMin; LINLi-fei; WANGYang; YUSheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  10. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; YU Min; LIN Li-fei; WANG Yang; YU Sheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  11. The Most Complete Pistosauroid Skeleton from the Triassic of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lijun; Tamaki SATO; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    A new specimen discovered from the Falang Formation in northeastern Yunnan represents the most complete skeleton of Triassic pistosauroids. The new specimen is referred to Yunguisaurus Cheng et al., 2006 on the basis of the skull features, such as the presence of a separated nasal entering the external naris, a large pineal foramen located at the frontal/parietal suture and an interpterygoid vacuity with a narrow anterior extension. The new specimen differs from the type species of Yunguisaurus liae Cheng et al., 2006 in some aspects. Most of these differences can be attributed to ontogenetic variations. The new specimen is provisionally considered as Yunguisaurus cf. liae although its relatively short snout of the skull and slenderer hyoid may not be explained ontogenetically. Whether or not the new specimen represents a different taxon has to wait for a detailed study of the whole skeleton.

  12. Potential variability of trans-lysozyme gene rice under ecological conditions of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxin YAO; Minghui XU; Wenzhong TIAN; Zuoshun TANG

    2008-01-01

    Using trans-lysozyme gene rice line D2-1-2 and its restorer Zhonghua No.9 as test materials, we studied their agronomic characters and grain qualities under two ecological conditions of Yunnan Province. The results show that there were no significant differences in the agro-nomic characters between D2-1-2 and Zhonghua No.9, but the seed setting rate and plant height of D2-1-2 were significantly lower, while the protein, amino acid and min-eral element (Ca, Fe and Zn in particular) contents in its crude grain were higher than those of Zhonghua No.9. It is suggested that there could be some potential genetic variances in the transgenic plant and the possibly induced environmental risk should be evaluated in multi-plots for several years.

  13. Relation Between Seismicity and Geothermal Structure of the Lithosphere in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Caiying; Zhou Zhenheng

    2001-01-01

    The isoline map of the heat flow has been drawn by using the measured and estimated values of the heat flow in Yunnan Province and its adjacent region. The contrast studies of the heat flow and epicenters of the strong earthquakes (886 ~ 1998), the distribution of the geotemperature and high accurate data of focal depth (1983 ~ 1997 ) show that the strong earthquakes take place along the geothermal gradient zone in which the thermal stress is concentrated, and that the foci are generally located between 100°and 600° isogeotherms corresponding to the depths of 3~ 25km and densely distribute between 200° and 450° isogeotherms, i.e. the depths of 5 ~20km. The distribution range of the focal depths is probably related to the crustal brittle to ductile transition which mainly results from the geotemperatures.

  14. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Zhan, Jinyan; Lin, Yingzhi; Zhao, Chunhong

    2014-09-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  15. Alpine Ecosystems of Northwest Yunnan, China: an Initial Assessment for Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Implementing conservation actions on-the-ground is not a straightforward process,especially when faced with high scientific uncertainty due to limited available information. This is especially acute in regions of the world that harbor many unique species that have not been well studied, such as the alpine zone of the Hengduan Mountains of Northwest Yunnan (NWY), a global biodiversity hotspot and site of The Nature Conservancy's Yunnan Great Rivers Project. We conducted a quantitative, but rapid regional-level assessment of the alpine flora across NWY to provide a broad-based understanding of local and regional patterns of the alpine flora, the first large-scale analysis of alpine biodiversity patterns in this region. Multivariate analyses were used to classify the major plant community types and link community patterns to habitat variables. Our analysis indicated that most species had small distributions and/or small population sizes. Strong patterns emerged with higher diversity in the more northern mountains, but beta diversity was high, averaging only 10% among sites. The ordinations indicated that elevation and geographic location were the dominant environmental gradients underlying the differences in the species composition among communities. The high beta diversity across the alpine of these mountains implies that conservation strategies ultimately will require the protection of large numbers of species over a large geographical area. However, prioritization should be given to areas where potential payoffs are greatest. Sites with high species richness also have a greater number of endemic species, and, by focusing efforts on these sites, conservation investments would be maximized by protecting the greatest number of unique species.

  16. Status of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Ethnic Population in Yunnan Province, China

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    Zulqarnain Baloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HPV genotypes have distinct distributions among various ethnic populations worldwide. In December 2013, 237 and 159 cervical samples were collected from Hani and Han ethnic women, respectively, in Mojiang, a rural county in southern Yunnan. The overall HPV infection rate (21.1% among the Hani women was significantly higher than that among the Han women (12.6%. The high-risk (HR and low-risk (LR HPV and single- and multiple-genotype infection rates among the Hani women were 11.0%, 4.6%, 15.6%, and 5.5%, respectively. HPV-16 (3.8% was the most prevalent genotype among the Hani women, followed by HPV-52 (1.7%, HPV-31 (0.8%, and HPV-33 (0.8%. Comparatively, the Han women had lower infection rates of high-risk (8.2%, low-risk (1.2%, single-genotype (9.4%, and multiple-genotype HPV infections (3.1%. HPV-16 (3.1% was also the predominant genotype among the Han women, followed by HPV-52 (1.3%, HPV-33 (0.6%, HPV-44 (0.6%, and HPV-54 (0.6%. The area background, number of children, and past history of STIs were recognized as potential risk factors for HPV infection. Rural background, age, education level, number of children, and illness history were significantly associated with HPV infection among the Hani women. These findings highlight the urgent need for HPV prevention and control strategies in Yunnan, particularly for the Hani ethnic women.

  17. Status of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Ethnic Population in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yue, Lei; Yuan, Tao; Feng, Yue; Tai, Wenlin; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Binghui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Li; Zhang, A-Mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2015-01-01

    HPV genotypes have distinct distributions among various ethnic populations worldwide. In December 2013, 237 and 159 cervical samples were collected from Hani and Han ethnic women, respectively, in Mojiang, a rural county in southern Yunnan. The overall HPV infection rate (21.1%) among the Hani women was significantly higher than that among the Han women (12.6%). The high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV and single- and multiple-genotype infection rates among the Hani women were 11.0%, 4.6%, 15.6%, and 5.5%, respectively. HPV-16 (3.8%) was the most prevalent genotype among the Hani women, followed by HPV-52 (1.7%), HPV-31 (0.8%), and HPV-33 (0.8%). Comparatively, the Han women had lower infection rates of high-risk (8.2%), low-risk (1.2%), single-genotype (9.4%), and multiple-genotype HPV infections (3.1%). HPV-16 (3.1%) was also the predominant genotype among the Han women, followed by HPV-52 (1.3%), HPV-33 (0.6%), HPV-44 (0.6%), and HPV-54 (0.6%). The area background, number of children, and past history of STIs were recognized as potential risk factors for HPV infection. Rural background, age, education level, number of children, and illness history were significantly associated with HPV infection among the Hani women. These findings highlight the urgent need for HPV prevention and control strategies in Yunnan, particularly for the Hani ethnic women. PMID:26819950

  18. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  19. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  20. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.

    2009-08-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  1. Winter drought variations based on tree-ring data in Gaoligong mountain, Northwestern Yunnan, china, A. D. 1795-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed two tree ring-width chronologies of coniferous species (Tsuga dumosa (D.Don) Eichler and Abies georgei Orr) in Gaoligong Mountain, northwestern Yunnan, China. Although the two chronologies come from different species, significant correlation existed between the two chronologies (r = 0.528, p<0.01), and the first principal component (PC1) accounted for 75% of total variance over their common period A. D. 1795 - 2005. Using the PC1 of tree-ring chronologies, the winter (prior October to current January) PDSI for the research area was reconstructed for the past 210 years (r = 0.617, p<0.01). Wet winters occurred during A. D.1827 - 1861, 1880 - 1896 and 1922 - 1961, while dry winters were prevailed in A. D. 1795 - 1826, 1862- 1879, 1897 - 1921 and 1962 to present. Long-term decadal drought variations of this reconstruction fitted quite close with the variations retained in drought sensitive tree-ring series of the nearby regions, and this demonstrated the new record was confidently reliable and could capture large-scale climate signals. (author)

  2. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases. PMID:27030920

  3. Composition and mode of occurrence of minerals in Late Permian coals from Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Shi-Feng Dai; Jian-Hua Zou; Sen Zhang; He-Hing Tian; Li-Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Minerals in the Late Permian coals from the Niuchang-Yigu mining area, Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China, were investigated using optical microscopy and low temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction (LTA ? XRD). The results showed that minerals in the coal LTAs are mainly quartz, kaolinite, chamosite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), pyrite, and calcite, with trace amounts of marcasite, dolomite, and bassanite. The authigenic quartz generally occurs in collodetrinite or as a filling in cleats or cell cavities. This silica was mainly derived from aqueous solutions produced by the weathering of basaltic rocks in the Kangdian Upland and from hydrothermal fluids. The presence of b-quartz paramorph grains in collodetrinite probably indicates that these grains were detrital and came from a volcanic ash. Clay minerals are generally embedded in collodetrinite and occur as cell-fillings. Pyrite occurs as framboidal, anhedral, and euhedral grains and a cell-filling. The coals are high in pyrite and the high pyrite content probably results from seawater invading during the stage of peat accumulation. Calcite generally occurs as vein-fillings, indicating an epigenetic origin.

  4. FUYUANPERLEIDUS DENGI GENG ET AL., 2012 (OSTEICHTHYES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUOYU SUN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two well preserved specimens of Fuyuanperleidus dengi Geng et al., 2012 are described from the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation (Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic in Luoping County, Yunnan Province, South China. The attribution  to Perleidiformes is confirmed according to a combination of features such as the general skull pattern, with the large preoperculum showing a prominent infraorbital process, the maxilla with deep posterior region and a dentition made of  long and stout peg-like teeth with an acuminate apex, the deep mid-lateral flank scales and the caudal fin with epaxial fin rays. However, this taxon shows an unique arrangement of the squamation (here considered as autapomorphy given by the insertion of several scales in each vertical row posterior to the pelvic fin, just below the scales carrying the lateral line, when their depth decreases abruptly. Owing to this unique character, and  in spite of the very recent description of this genus, the authors considered necessary the erection of a new family, Fuyuanperleididae offering also new insights on the evolutionary trends and morphological specializations of the “subholosteans”. A cladistic analysis of the well known perleidiformes, with this taxon included, supports a possible monophyly of the order, and matches well the paleobiogeographic relationships of the Gondwana fresh-water taxa. The specialized deep-bodied Gondwana and Tethyan perleidiformes are independently evolved, ascertained by the parsimony analysis. 

  5. HIV-infected Female Sex Workers High Risk Behavior and Attitude Changes in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo Wei; WANG Ning; HSI Jenny H; LIU Hui Xin; SU Ying Ying; WANG Jun Jie; BAI Jun; WANG Gui Xiang; WANG Hai Bo; DONG Rui Ling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the attitude and sexual behavior status and change among HIV positive female workers in entertainment sites in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China. The key information should be applied in the integrated intervention program in future. Methods A cohort survey among HIV positive female workers was conducted during 12 months, between 2010 and 2012. All the risk sexual behavior and attitude were collected for assessment for the potential secondary transmission to sexual partners. Results Of 99 HIV positive women who sell sex in Kaiyuan city, 99 participated in the survey at baseline, 80, 80, 75, and 75 at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. The percentage of participants who reported consistently used condoms in the last one month ranged between 94.5%and 95.5%. The client volume in the last one month, income per sex and age group were significant related with non-insistent condom use with their clients. Conclusion It was suggested that integrated intervention program package should include 100 percent condom use promotion for the HIV positive FSW with all sexual partners, and also, include socially support involved.

  6. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Qiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were interviewed before start of treatment and during the fifth month of treatment using structured questionnaires. Information on treatment outcome was extracted from patient records. Patients cured at the end of treatment were compared to patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (failure, default, and death. Results A total of 841 patients were registered between January-June 2007 of which 792 (94% were cured. Independent risk factors for non-cure were having a low income (30 days, a positive smear test result two months after start of treatment, not being aware of the need to go to the CDC for medical follow up during treatment, and not seeing the need for treatment observation. Conclusion Reducing the financial burden of TB disease and providing health education to improve compliance with treatment could increase the proportion of patients with successful treatment outcomes.

  7. My Days in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    1999-01-01

    In July 21st I started the last trip of my year-long stay in China. AnAmerican friend, Moira, had agreed to meet me in Shanghai and accompany me.Our goals were Yunnan Province, including Kunming, Lijiang, Dali, and thecountryside, and then on to the long-dreamed-of "top of the world" and spiritualbeacon-Tibet (the topic of next month’s article).

  8. Predictors for presence and abundance of small mammals in households of villages endemic for commensal rodent plague in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong You-Hong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ninety-one rodent plague epidemics have occurred in Lianghe county, Yunnan Province, China, between 1990 and 2006. This study aimed to identify predictors for the presence and abundance of small mammals in households of villages endemic for rodent plague in Lianghe county. Results Rattus flavipectus and Suncus murinus were the two species captured in 110 households. Keeping cats decreased the number of captures of R. flavipectus by one to two thirds and the chance of reported small mammal sightings in houses by 60 to 80%. Food availability was associated with fewer captures. Keeping food in sacks decreased the small mammal captures, especially of S. murinus 4- to 8-fold. Vegetables grown around house and maize grown in the village reduced the captures of S. murinus and R. flavipectus by 73 and 45%, respectively. An outside toilet and garbage piles near the house each reduced R. flavipectus captures by 39 and 37%, respectively, while raising dogs and the presence of communal latrines in the village increased R. flavipectus captures by 76 and 110% but were without detectable effect on small mammal sightings. Location adjacent to other houses increased captures 2-fold but reduced the chance of sightings to about half. In addition, raising ducks increased the chance of sighting small mammals 2.7-fold. Even after adjusting for these variables, households of the Dai had higher captures than those of the Han and other ethnic groups. Conclusion Both species captures were reduced by availability of species-specific foods in the environment, whereas other predictors for capture of the two species differed. Other than the beneficial effect of cats, there were also discrepancies between the effects on small mammal captures and those on sightings. These differences should be considered during the implementation and interpretation of small mammal surveys.

  9. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  10. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  11. [Degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2012-12-01

    Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed to analyze the degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau. The plant communities in the lakeside wetland could be classified into four associations, according to the TWINSPAN results. The succession patterns of the plant community were represented by aquatic plant community --> swamp plant community --> swamp meadow plant community --> meadow plant community. During the processes of succession, the plant community coverage, density, Shannon diversity index, species richness, and plant aboveground biomass increased, whereas the community height decreased. The succession of the plant hydro-ecotypes followed the sequence of aquatic --> helophyte --> hygrophyte --> mesophyte. With the succession of the plant community, the wetland water quality indices salinity, alkalinity, and hardness decreased but ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations increased, while total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations showed no significant changes. Meanwhile, the soil pH and soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents decreased gradually, soil total phosphorous and potassium contents were increasing, whereas soil available phosphorous and potassium contents decreased after an initial increase. The CCA showed that the community species composition and structure were mainly affected by the wetland water gradient. The soil pH and total phosphorus content and the water total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen concentrations had significant effects on the wetland plant species distribution and plant community succession. PMID:23479864

  12. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer 
Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin ZHANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05. Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.

  13. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  14. Molecular epidemic survey on co-prevalence of scrub typhus and marine typhus in Yuxi city, Yunnan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; LI Xue-mei; ZHANG De-rong; ZHANG Jing-shan; DI Ying; LUAN Ming-chun; FU Xiu-ping

    2007-01-01

    and their corresponding nucleotide sequences exhibited 100%, 100%, 99%, 99% and 99% similarity to R. mossori Wilmington and the analyses of predicted amino acid sequences indicated 100%, 100%,98%, 98% and 98% identity with the heat shock protein of R. mossoriWilmington strain. Of the 8 PCR positive patients, 3 showed a co-infection of scrub typhus with murine typhus. All the 13 serum samples from febrile patients were positive against O. tsutsugamushi and 8 of them were positive against R. mossori. All of the 8 paired specimens had four-fold elevation of antibody against O. tsutsugamushi, and seroconversion for typhus was demonstrated in 3 paired serum samples. Another finding in the study was that a high seropositive prevalence (76.9%) of Q fever was detected.Conclusion It's confirmed that co-prevalence of scrub typhus with murine typhus are occurring in Yuxi city of Yunnan province, China. Other rickettsial diseases also need to be investigated in these areas.

  15. Risk coefficient of radon-induced lung cancer and combined effect of arsenic in miners of Yunnan tin mine of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the suitability of excess relative risk (ERR) coefficient of radon-induced miner lung cancer proposed by NIH Publication (1994) which was based on the data of Yunnan tin miners. Methods: Using the collected materials of epidemiology, underground ventilation, radon progeny monitoring and environmental arsenic pollution, the problems in the process of estimation of cumulative exposure of radon progeny and adjustment of combined effect of arsenic exposure for Yunan tin miners by NIH Publication were analyzed. Results: Because of overestimation of the time of underground d working and actual exposure to radon progeny for previous Yunnan tin miners by NIH, the resultant ERR coefficient of radon induced lung cancer was underestimated. The relative risks of different radon-arsenic exposure groups were used by NIH to adjust the combined effect of arsenic without considering the difference of environmental pollution in miner and control groups; that was the another reason for the decrease of ERR coefficient. Conclusion: The ERR coefficient of radon-induced lung cancer was probably underestimated for Chinese miners by NIH Publication; therefore it is unsuitable to be used in the risk projection and risk management for radon-induced lung cancer in China. It may be premature to use the Yunnan tin miner data as the value for Chinese miners in the combined analysis of world miner studies

  16. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, XueLian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk...

  17. Establishment of dna fingerprinting in clonal tea improved cultivars from yunnan of china using issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, DNA fingerprints were constructed by using ISSR markers for 20 clonal improved varieties developed by two breeding institutes in Yunnan province. Seven core ISSR primers were selected from 15 primers. A total of 110 bands were generated by PAGE with seven core primers, 93 of which were polymorphic bands, the percentage of polymorphic band (PPB) was 84.54%, and the mean value of polymorphism information content (PIC) reached 0.417; the genetic similarity coefficient of the cultivars was 0.574-0.854. The two primers, UBC835 and ISSR2, had high PIC values, and could be used to distinguish all cultivars, presenting the most efficient single primers. Among the all of primer combinations from the seven core primers, the three combinations, UBC835/UBC811, UBC835/ISSR2, and UBC835/ISSR3 showed lower similar coefficients, and more efficient in identifying the 20 improved varieties than the other primer combinations. Then these three primer combinations were further scored in 15 traditional cultivars. The results showed that UBC835/ISSR2 was the optimal primer combination, which could be used to distinguish each material among the 20 clonal improved varieties and 15 traditional cultivals. Finally, the DNA fingerprints of the 20 clonal improved varieties were constructed based on country and region code, breeding institute, core primer name and ISSR marker data. The established fingerprints could provide reliable scientific base for the protection of intellectual property right for these clonal improved varieties, and the important molecular information contained in these fingerprints would be useful for the authenticity identification and genetic relationship analysis of tea varieties. (author)

  18. Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juan; Ma Qin-yan; Du Fan; Yang Yu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of floristic patterns along the vertical gradients of the National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain, located in the southeast of Yunnan Province. We analyzed the structural characteristics of the flora and the distribution patterns of its floristic components as a function of elevation on the basis of our field investigations along vertical vegetation transects. We carried out a systematic cluster analysis in order to determine the dividing line of floristic changes by elevation along gradients and studied the effects of mountain climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition. The study shows: 1)that the obvious boundary, which differentiates tropical distribution, is located at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m, which separates the tropical rain forests from the evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2) that humid rain forests are found below 700 m elevation,mountain rain forests between 700 and 1,500 m, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests between 1,300 and 1,800 m and mountain mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests above 1,800 m. Non-representative mountain mossy dwarf forests (above 2,100 m) in the area are found on the windward sides and barren lands on mountain slopes; 3) that Hopea mollissima is one of the major component species of mountain rain forests, but it should not be considered as the major indicator species in humid rain forests as is generally accepted.

  19. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  20. Study on the Basic Plague Pattern of Jianchuan Plague Natural Focus, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jie

    2001-01-01

    Since the plague natural focus of Jianchuan was found in 1974, it had broken the disputation whether Yunnan has plague natural focus among Chinese and foreign scholars for long. Because the focus locates the middle part of transversal mountains with higher biological diversity and complex landscape, many problems raised at beginning in distinguishing the major hosts and vectors, modeling the structure of the focus, and resolving the contradiction between theory and excitation. In review of that, according to the principle of unified of biological structure and function, the basic plague pattern has been systematically studied on through the generalized information concept in this paper. It suggests that the focus takes the community of Apodemus chevrieri + Rattus norvegicus : Neopsylla specialis + Frontopsylla. spadix + Menopsyllus anisus + Loptopsylla segnis as maintenance subsystem, the community of E. miletus:Ctenophthalmus quadratus + Neopsylla specialis as epidematic (amplifying) subsystem, the communities of squirrel rodent-flea as alternate subsystem. The relationship between subsystems is nonlinear. No human plague case is determined by the systematicness of the plague ecosystem. The possibility of human plague will remain in systemic changing or coming into chaos. Although most researches try to analysis of plague as system by means of experiments with many quantitative criterion, these measures are difficult to comprehension the systemic essence without application of the concept of systemic theory. They are often direct, discursive and paradoxical description of appearance rather than the analysis and generalization of interaction relationship between elements, thus reversing the basic ecological concept of Y.pestis as a living thing and agent of plague.

  1. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  2. Cold Tolerance of Core Collection at Booting Stage Associated with Eco-geographic Distribution in Yunnan Rice Landrace (Oryza sativa),China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shen-chong; LIU Jia-fu; ZENG Ya-wen; WANG Lu-xiang; SHEN Shi-quan; PU Xiao-ying; LI Zi-chao; WANG Xiangkun; WEN Guo-song; YANG Zhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-seven accessions of the second core collection of rice landrace from five rice cropping regions (16 prefectures) of Yunnan Province, China, were evaluated for cold tolerance at booting stage. The results showed as follows: 1) there was a significant positive correlation (0.588**) between anther length and seed setting rate under natural low temperature conditions but was not significant in greenhouse (0.080). 2) there were significant differences in cold tolerance among cora collections from different cropping regions under natural low temperature conditions while a negligible cold damage in greenhouse (with a seed setting rate approaching or exceeding 70%) for cold tolerance evaluation. Cold tolerance of core collection from Northwest Yunnan cold highland japonica region was the strongest, and that from south marginal paddy-upland rice region was the most sensitive, suggesting that the breeding goals for cold tolerance should be different in various rice cropping regions. 3) there were remarkable differences in cold tolerance of core collections from different prefectures of Yunnan Province under natural low temperature conditions. Based on the reduction of seed setting rate and characteristics of natural climate, the 16prefectures could be divided into three categories, i.e. serious cold damage, cold damage and slight cold damage regions. 4)Difference of cold tolerance between different rice cropping regions and prefectures revealed further that temperature change caused by elevation and latitude was not only a dominant factor for differentiation of japonica and indica but also the basic reason that the genetic diversity and six ecological group of indica and japonica were being developed and, even the critical factor leading to the formation of the cold tolerance gene as well. The cold tolerance at booting stage could be believed to be resulted from the long term co-evolution between Yunnan rice landrce and cold stress in rice cropping

  3. Chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidation by a thermophilic Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain TCC9-4 from a hot spring in Tengchong of Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dawei; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-01-01

    A new facultative chemolithoautotrophic arsenite (AsIII)-oxidizing bacterium TCC9-4 was isolated from a hot spring microbial mat in Tengchong of Yunnan, China. This strain could grow with AsIII as an energy source, CO2–HCO3- as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more than 90% of 100 mg/L AsIII could be oxidized by the strain TCC9-4 in 36 h. Temperature was an important environmental factor that strongly influe...

  4. Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

  5. 云南双扇蕨科植物的分类订正研究%A Taxonomic Revision of the Dipteridaceae from Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆树刚; 田治蛟

    2011-01-01

    Dipteridaceae is a natural taxon,containing a single genus,Dipteris Reinwardt and eight species,of which three are occuring in China, 0. Chinensis Christ,D. Conjugate (Kaulf.) Reinw.and D. Wallichii (R. Br.) T. Moore. Two species are found in Yunnan,China,D. Chinensis Christ and D. Wallichii (R. Br.) T. Moore. A newly recorded species,D. Wallichii (R. Br. )T. Moore from Yunnan,China,was reported and a key to the species and new color plates are provided.%双扇蕨科是一个自然的类群,为单型科,有8种.中国产3种:中华双扇蕨Dipteris chinensis Christ、双扇蕨D.conjugata( Kaulf.) Reinw.和喜马拉雅双扇蕨D.wallichii(R Br.)T Moore.云南产2种:中华双扇蕨和喜马拉雅双扇蕨.其中,喜马拉雅双扇蕨为云南分布新纪录.文中列出了国产种类的分类检索表,并均附有彩色图片.

  6. Mica-dominated seismic properties of mid-crust beneath west Yunnan (China) and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tongbin; Ji, Shaocheng; Oya, Shoma; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Wang, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) and calculations of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and anisotropy were conducted on three quartz-mica schists and one felsic mylonite, which are representative of typical metamorphic rocks deformed in the middle crust beneath the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Results show that the schists have Vp anisotropy (AVp) ranging from 16.4% to 25.5% and maximum Vs anisotropy [AVs(max)] between 21.6% and 37.8%. The mylonite has lower AVp and AVs(max) but slightly higher foliation anisotropy, which are 13.2%, 18.5%, and 3.07%, respectively, due to the lower content and CPO strength of mica. With increasing mica content, the deformed rocks tend to form transverse isotropy (TI) with fast velocities in the foliation plane and slow velocities normal to the foliation. However, the presence of prismatic minerals (e.g., amphibole and sillimanite) forces the overall symmetry to deviate from TI. An increase in feldspar content reduces the bulk anisotropy caused by mica or quartz because the fast-axis of feldspar aligns parallel to the slow-axis of mica and/or quartz. The effect of quartz on seismic properties of mica-bearing rocks is complex, depending on its content and prevailing slip system. The greatest shear-wave splitting and fastest Vp both occur for propagation directions within the foliation plane, consistent with the fast Pms (S-wave converted from P-wave at the Moho) polarization directions in the west Yunnan where mica/amphibole-bearing rocks have developed pervasive subvertical foliation and subhorizontal lineation. The fast Pms directions are perpendicular to the approximately E-W orienting fast SKS (S-wave traversing the core as P-wave) directions, indicating a decoupling at the Moho interface between the crust and mantle beneath the region. The seismic data are inconsistent with the model of crustal channel flow as the latter should produce a subhorizontal foliation where vertically incident shear

  7. Irrigation system and land use effect on surface water quality in river, at lake Dianchi, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Tanaka; Takahiro Sato; Kazuo Watanabe; Ying Wang; Dan Yang; Hiromo Inoue; Kunzhi Li

    2013-01-01

    The surface water samples were collected in river Dahe and its tributaries,which flow into severely eutrophic lake Dianchi,Yunnan Province,China,in order to elucidate factors controlling water quality fluctuations.The temporal and spatial distribution of water quality tendency was observed.The water quality of each river is dependent on the hydrology effect such water gate and circulating irrigation system.We must consider the hydrology effect to accurately understand water quality variations of river in this study field.In river without highly circulating irrigation system or water gate effect,the downstream nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration increase occurred in area dominated by open field cultivation,whereas the NO3-N concentration was constant or decreased in area dominated by greenhouse land use.This result suggests that greenhouse covers the soil from precipitation,and nitrate load of greenhouse could be less than that of open field cultivation while the rainfall event.In the upper reaches of river,where is dominated by open field cultivation,there were no sharp increase dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus concentration,but P load was accumulated in the lower reaches of river,whose predominant land use is greenhouse.Although the P sources is unclear in this study,greenhouse area may have potential of P loads due to its high P content in greenhouse soil.Considering hydrology effect is necessary to determine what the major factor is influencing the water quality variation,especially in area with highly complicated irrigation system in this studying site.

  8. Isotopic Ages of the Carbonatitic Volcanic Rocks in the Kunyang Rift Zone in Central Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbei; WANG Guilan; NIE Jianfeng; ZHAO Chongshun; XU Chengyan; QIU Jiaxiang; Wang Hao

    2003-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kunyang rift, which is located on the western margin of the Yangtze platform and the southern section of the Kangdian axis, is a rare massive Precambrian iron-copper polymetallic mineralization zone in China. The Mesoproterozoic Wulu (Wuding(Lufeng) basin in the middle of the rift is an elliptic basin controlled by a ring fracture system. Moreover, volcanic activities in the basin display zonation of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner ring with carbonatitic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic dykes discovered in the outer and middle rings. The Sm-Nd isochron ages have been determined for the outer-ring carbonatitic lavas (1685 Ma) and basaltic porphyrite of the radiating dyke swarm (1645 Ma) and the Rb-Sr isochron ages for the out-ring carbonatitic lavas (893 Ma) and the middle-ring dykes (1048 Ma). In combination of the U-Pb concordant ages of zircon (1743 Ma) in trachy-andesite of the corresponding period and stratum (1569 Ma) of the Etouchang Formation, as well as the Rb-Sr isochron age (1024 Ma) and K-Ar age (1186 Ma) of the dykes in the middle ring, the age of carbonatites in the basin is preliminarily determined. It is ensured that all of these carbonatites were formed in the Mesoproterozoic period, whereby two stages could be identified as follows: in the first stage, carbonatitic volcanic groups, such as lavas, pyroclastic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, were formed in the outer ring; in the second stage, carbonatitic breccias and dykes appeared in the middle ring. The metamorphic age of the carbonatitic lavas in the outer ring was determined to be concurrent with the end of the first stage of the Neoproterozoic period, corresponding to the Jinning movement in central Yunnan.

  9. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  10. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.L. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-08-15

    The minerals found in the no. 5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terrigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  11. Assessment of the Cadmium Exposure in the Blood, Diet, and Water of the Pumi People in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Feng, Yue-Mei; Wang, Song-Mei; Du, Yu-Qian; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metals. Accumulation of Cd in the human body can cause multiorgan dysfunction. Long-term irrational mining activities have led to serious Cd pollution in soil, water, and even agricultural products. Therefore, evaluating the Cd exposure levels of people living in mining areas is of great importance. In the current study, we chose the Pumi people who lived in Jinding and Tongdian towns of Lanping county in Yunnan province, China, to do the on-site nutritional epidemiology investigation and laboratory detection. We analyzed the content of the Cd in peripheral blood and mixed dietary, as well as water samples in the Pumi residents of the two towns. Results showed that the blood Cd levels of people in Jinding town, which is nearer the mining district, were statistically significantly higher than those in Tongdian town. The P 50 of blood Cd level of the two towns was 0.64 ng/mL. In addition, the P 50 of the mixed diet of the two towns was 8.32 μg/kg. There was a weak correlation between blood Cd levels and Cd exposure in the mixed diet, PTDI, and PTWI of the Pumi people. In addition, higher concentrations of Cd were observed in the water of Jinding town, indicating people in Jinding town risking more Cd exposure. These results indicated that diet and water are critical factors of Cd exposure for the residents and the nearer people living to mining district risking the more Cd exposure. PMID:26239574

  12. Use of Farmers' Indicators to Evaluate the Sustainability of Cropping Systems on Sloping Land in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SUBEDI; T.J.HOCKING; M.A.FULLEN; A.R.McCREA; E.MILNE; WU Bo-Zhi; D.J.MITCHELL

    2009-01-01

    Diversity in the biophysical and socio-economic attributes of agricultural systems makes them uniquely niche based.Farmers are expert in local biophysical and socio-economic situations and can contribute in developing pragmatic indicators of agro-environmental development.During evaluation of an agricultural research project in Yunnan,China,local farmers were capable of evaluating the effects of modified technologies on existing cropping systems and discussed their attitudes to the interventions using their own indicators.Farmers' response can be grouped into seven major aspects:i) effects on income,ii) effects on production resources,iii) effects on crop management,iv) existing local knowledge about the technology,v) availability of inputs,vi) access to information,and vii) socio-economic conditions of farming households.Farmers concluded that environmental conditions in the experimcntal catchment in comparison to an adjacent untreated catchment were better in terms of soil and water losses,vegetation cover and natural resources,infrastructures and catchment management,use of environmentally-friendly technologies,and crop productivity.Success in soil and water conservation programmes depends on the efforts of the farmers and other local users and their greater involvement helps to identify more pragmatic indicators.Furthermore,it increases ownership of the programme,enhances interactions with the project scientists,increases farmers' awareness of agro-environmental problems and their possible consequences.These development will enable scientists to develop better targeted interventions and increase the likelihood of adoption of tested technologies by local communities.The use of paired adjacent catchments improved evaluation activities and is proposed as good practice for future catchment improvement programmes.

  13. Permian fusulinid biostratigraphy of the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China with constraints on paleogeography and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Jin, Xiaochi

    2015-05-01

    Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south.

  14. Valuing Water Quality Improvement in China : A Case Study of Lake Puzhehei in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua; Shi, Yuyan; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    While polluted surface water is encountered across most of China, few economic valuation studies have been conducted on water quality changes. Limited information about the economic values associated with those potential water quality improvements or deteriorations is a disadvantage for making proper choices in water pollution control and clean-up activities. This paper reports an economic...

  15. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lixin; Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Mi, Kai; Zhao, Yanqiang; Ma, Junzeng; Liang, Chen; Pei, Shengji; Huai, Huyin; Xu, Gang; Hamilton, Alan C.; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Xue, Dayuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understan...

  16. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VISCOUS DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE JIANGJIA RAVINE, YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyi WANG; Chyandeng JAN; Changzhi LI; Wenliang HAN

    2001-01-01

    The rheological properties of natural debris flow are studied using experimental data obtained from a rheometer built by the authors. The present study is aimed to address the rheological properties of viscous debris flow at low shear rate. It is found that overstress effect and shear-rate-thinning phenomenon characterize the viscous debris flow in the Jiangjia Ravine, China. Results obtained from this study are believed to lay the foundation for further study on the theory of debris flow rheology.

  17. The Protection of Linguistic Minorities in Universities: the case of Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wnuk, Maciej Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    People's Republic of China is far from becoming a human rights regime that effectively protects linguistic minorities. This study analyzes the question of protection of linguistic minorities in universities from two angles: legal approach and sociolinguistic approach. Three questions were raised throughout this study: to what extent are linguistic rights protected by law? In addition, who has the obligation to protect linguistic minorities and to what extent are social attitudes important in ...

  18. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU

    2005-01-01

    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  19. Shilin: The Formation of Stone Forests in Various Rock Types(Lunan, Yunnan, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin KNEZ; Tadej SLABE

    2007-01-01

    Shilin is among the most interesting form of stone forest to occur in karst landscapes. They develop from karren subsoil, and their shapes, entire forests or just individual pillars and their rock relief, depend on the conditions under which they were formed, their location in the karst landscape,and above all on the characteristics of the rock: its composition, stratification, and fissuring. Because of the exceptional characteristics of this karst phenomenon in China, we propose that the term "shilin" be used in the professional literature for this type of stone forest.

  20. Study of climate change related to deforestation in the Xishuangbanna area, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the results of deforestation and the meteorological data of the Xinshuangbanna region of China shows that there are possible relations between the deforestation and climate change. With the forest area decreased by 33% during the past 30 years, the climate of this region has also been changed. The annual mean temperature has been increased by 0.7C, of which the increase is 0.97C in the dry season and 0.53C in the wet season. Together with the annual temperature increase the temperature variations have also been increased, which has resulted in more frequent low temperature damage to the local plantation agriculture. The relative humidity decreased by 3% annually; and the annual precipitation also decreased, with a decrease in the wet season of 6.8% and an increase in the dry season of 20.8%

  1. STATISTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GEOMORPHIC PARAMETERS- A CASE STUDY OF THE YUNNAN REACH OF THE LANCANGJIANG RIVER IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiji WANG; Shaohong WU; Erfu DAI

    2007-01-01

    The properties of rivers and their catchments can be expressed by statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters. These statistical relationships may reveal some inherent differences in geomorphic evolution for different reaches or different order tributaries of a river basin. A case study was undertaken of the Yunnan reach of the Langcangjiang River. The catchment area, channel length and gradient of the first-, second- and third-order tributaries all with catchment areas larger than 100 km2 in the Yunnan reach were the main geomorphic parameters evaluated. The correlation between catchment area and channel length as well as between catchment area and channel gradient with respect to the total tributaries, different reach tributaries, and different order tributaries were revealed using statistical methods. In general, the channel length as a function of catchment area, was best expressed by a quadratic function where channel length increases with increasing catchment area (half parabola), while the channel gradient as a function of catchment area is best expressed by an exponential decay function. Comparison of the best-fit formulas revealed the following phenomena: the lower Yunnan reach tributaries and the first-order tributaries have a dominant effect on geomorphic parameters of the total tributaries. In addition, the statistical relationships indicate that the river geomorphic system in the upper and lower Yunnan reaches evolved differently. This study method used to differentiate river characteristics by determining statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters may be extended to other rivers and their catchments.

  2. Weiwoboidae fam.nov.of 'Higher' Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera:Fulgoromorpha) from the Eocene Deposits of Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qibin; Jacek SZWEDO; HUANG Diying; Adam STROI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    A new family of so-called 'higher' planthoppers,Weiwoboidae fam.nov.,from the Lower Eocene of Yunnan is described.A new monotypic genus,Weiwoboa gen.nov.,with Weiwoboa meridiana sp.nov.is also described and illustrated.The characters of tegmen venation of the new family,its evolution,and supposed relationships are briefly discussed.

  3. Spatiotemporal transmission and determinants of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Hongta District, Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in Hongta District and their prevalence, at 113 per 100,000 individuals, remains the highest in China. However, the exact sources of the disease and its main epidemiological characteristics have not yet been clearly identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Numbers of typhoid and paratyphoid cases per day during the period 2006 to 2010 were obtained from the Chinese Center of Disease Control (CDC. A number of suspected disease determinants (or their proxies, were considered for use in spatiotemporal analysis: these included locations of discharge canals and food markets, as well as socio-economic and environmental factors. Results showed that disease prevalence was spatially clustered with clusters decreasing with increasing distance from markets and discharge canals. More than half of the spatial variance could be explained by a combination of economic conditions and availability of health facilities. Temporal prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with the monthly precipitation series. Polluted hospital and residential wastewater was being discharged into rainwater canals. Salmonella bacteria were found in canal water, on farmland and on vegetables sold in markets. CONCLUSION: DISEASE TRANSMISSION IN HONGTA DISTRICT IS DRIVEN PRINCIPALLY BY TWO SPATIOTEMPORALLY COUPLED CYCLES: one involving seasonal variations and the other the distribution of polluted farmland (where vegetables are grown and sold in markets. Disease transmission was exacerbated by the fact that rainwater canals were being used for disposal of polluted waste from hospitals and residential areas. Social factors and their interactions also played a significant role in disease transmission.

  4. Re-engineer cultural “DNA” of an innovation in the process of adoption and diffusion: In the lens of adopters of an eco-innovation in Honghe UNESCO World Heritage Site in Yunnan China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Coles, Anne-Marie; Qi, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will report on a project, which investigated a research gap in the theory of technology diffusion regarding the influence of socio-cultural and religious factors in adoption processes. The project was concerned with identifying local factors influencing the uptake of solar water heating systems in the Yuanyang Hani Rice Terrace community, an ethnic minority from Yunnan, China. The rice terraces are located in a remote, mountainous part of South Western China where the...

  5. Granite, gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves in the Gejiu area, Yunnan Province, China: a case of two-stage mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Mao, Jingwen; Rusk, Brian G.

    2012-10-01

    Geochronological, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd, and zircon Hf isotopic analyses were carried out on the Jiasha Gabbro, mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) and host Longchahe Granite samples from the Gejiu area in the southeast Yunnan province, SW China, with the aim of characterizing their petrogenesis. Compositional zoning is evident in the gabbro body as the cumulate textures and mineral proportions in the gabbro interior are distinct from the gabbro margin. The Longchahe Granite largely comprises metaluminous quartz monzonite with distinctive K-feldspar megacrysts, but also contains a minor component of peraluminous leucogranite. The MME have spheroidal to elongated/lenticular shapes with sharp, crenulated and occasionally diffuse contacts with the host granite, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of mafic magma globules within the cooler host felsic magma. Field observations, geochronology, geochemistry, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions point to a complex petrogenesis for this granite-MME-gabbro association. Zircon 206Pb/238U ages determined by LA-ICP-MS for a mafic enclave, its host granite and the gabbro body are 83.1 ± 0.9 Ma, 83.1 ± 0.4 Ma and 83.2 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively, indicating coeval crystallization of these igneous rock units. Crystal fractionation processes can explain much of the compositional diversity of the Jiasha Gabbro. The geochemical features of the gabbro, such as high Mg# (up to 70) and Cr (up to 327 ppm), enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Ba, K2O) and LREEs, and depletion in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), together with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.708-0.709 and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.23 to -6.45), indicate they were derived from a mantle source that had undergone previous enrichment, possibly by subduction components. The Longchahe Granite has a large range of SiO2 (59.87-74.94 wt%), is distinctly alkaline in composition, and has Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i > 0.712, ɛNd(t) = -6.93 to -7

  6. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  7. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  8. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  9. 云南米虾属一新种(十足目,匙指虾科)%A NEW SPECIES OF CARIDINA (DECAPODA, CARIDEA) FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卿; 梁象秋

    2005-01-01

    A new atyid shrimp from Yunnan, China, Caridina paucidentata, is described. The new species is closely allied to Caridina mongziensis but differs to the latter from the rostrum dorsal border which bearing only with 1-3 teeth.%记述了采集于云南蒙自匙指虾科米虾属1新种,贫齿米虾Caridina paucidentata sp.nov..文中详细描述了其形态特征,同时附特征图.新种和近似种蒙自米虾的主要区别在于前者额角背缘齿少,仅1~3个.模式标本保存于上海水产大学.

  10. A review of the genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae) in China, with notes on allied genera and description of four new species from Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese representatives of Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 are currently recognized to comprise seven species. Four new species - Raveniola montanasp. n. (♂♀), Raveniola shangrilasp. n. (♂), Raveniola songisp. n. (♂) and Raveniola yunnanensissp. n. (♂) - are described from the highlands of Yunnan Province, China. According to some characters (shape of the palpus, palpal tibia and tibia I in males) they can be placed together with Raveniola hebeinica Zhu, Zhang & Zhang, 1999 and with Raveniola guangxi (Raven & Schwendinger, 1995), comb. n., transferred here from Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995. The current generic position of Raveniola xizangensis (Hu & Li, 1987) is confirmed. Other Chinese nemesiids referred previously to Raveniola are transferred to Sinopesa: Sinopesa chinensis (Kulczyński, 1901), comb. n., Sinopesa sinensis (Zhu & Mao, 1983), comb. n. and Sinopesa chengbuensis (Xu & Yun, 2002), comb. n. The relationships between these Asian genera and their relations to Afrotropical nemesiids are discussed. PMID:22930649

  11. A review of the genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae in China, with notes on allied genera and description of four new species from Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese representatives of Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 are currently recognized to comprise seven species. Four new species – R. montana sp. n. (♂♀, R. shangrila sp. n. (♂, R. songi sp. n. (♂ and R. yunnanensis sp. n. (♂ – are described from the highlands of Yunnan Province, China. According to some characters (shape of the palpus, palpal tibia and tibia I in males they can be placed together with R. hebeinica Zhu, Zhang & Zhang, 1999 and with R. guangxi (Raven & Schwendinger, 1995 comb. n., transferred here from Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995. The current generic position of R. xizangensis (Hu & Li, 1987 is confirmed. Other Chinese nemesiids referred previously to Raveniola are transferred to Sinopesa: S. chinensis (Kulczyński, 1901 comb. n., S. sinensis (Zhu & Mao, 1983 comb. n. and S. chengbuensis (Xu & Yun, 2002 comb. n. The relationships between these Asian genera and their relations to Afrotropical nemesiids are discussed.

  12. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO2 emission changes during 1997–2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO2 emissions, during 2002–2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO2 emissions, during 2007–2012, the carbon intensity of Yunnan’s economy decreased substantially because the province vigorously developed hydropower and improved energy efficiency in energy-intensive sectors. Construction investments not only carbonized the GDP composition, but also formed a carbon-intensive production structure because of high-carbon supply chains. To further mitigate CO2 emissions in Yunnan, measures should promote the development and application of clean energy and the formation of consumption-based economic growth.

  13. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  14. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic characteristics of natural gases from the Luliang and Baoshan basins in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yongchang; LIU; Wenhui; SHEN; Ping; WANG; Wanchun; WANG; Xiaofeng; Tenger; YAN; Yaomin; LIU; Ruobin

    2006-01-01

    The Luliang and Baoshan basins of Yunnan Province are two small-sized continental oil/gas-bearing sedimentary basins, which were developed at the bases of the Carboniferous and Devonian systems during the Late Tertiary, covering an area of 325 km2 and 254 km2, respectively.Since the 1990s, there have been discovered small-sized natural gas pools in these two basins. The natural gases are composed mainly of hydrocarbon gases, with nonhydrocarbons accounting for less than 2%. Of the hydrocarbon gases, methane accounts for more than 99%, and the components above C2 account for less than 0.2%. On the basis of previous studies of geological background, the composition of natural gases and their carbon isotopic composition, it has been defined that these two gas pools are of bacterial origin. In this work we have comprehensively measured the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of natural gases from these two basins and have gone into the details of the mechanism of gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Luliang Basin are within the range of -72.1‰--73.3‰, and the δDcH4 values, -242‰--234‰, indicating that the bacterial gas generation is dominated by the way of CO2 reduction. It has been evidenced that under continental-facies fresh water conditions there did occur the CO2 reduction as a process of bacterial gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Baoshan Basin are within the range of -62.5‰--63.5‰, and the δDCH4 values, -252‰--260‰. These isotopic characteristics are fallen into transitional phase of acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction as defined by Whiticar et al. (1986).An important discovery in the Luliang Basin is the carbon isotopic composition of ethane of purely biogenetic origin, i.e., its δ13C2 values are within the range of -61.2‰--66.0‰. These carbon isotopic values have been reported for the first time in China. As compared to the δ13C2 values of less than -55‰ for the two cases

  15. Late Triassic paleomagnetic result from the Baoshan Terrane, West Yunnan of China: Implication for orientation of the East Paleotethys suture zone and timing of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Huang, Baochun; Yan, Yonggang; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the paleogeographic position of the Baoshan Terrane in the northernmost part of the Sibumasu Block during formation of the Pangea supercontinent, a paleomagnetic study has been conducted on Late Triassic basaltic lavas from the southern part of the Baoshan Terrane in the West Yunnan region of Southwest China. Following detailed rock magnetic investigations and progressive thermal demagnetization, stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRMs) were successfully isolated from Late Triassic Niuhetang lava flows. The ChRMs are of dual polarity and pass fold and reversal tests with magnetic carriers dominated by magnetite and subordinate oxidation-induced hematite; we thus interpret them as a primary remanence. This new paleomagnetic result indicates that the Baoshan Terrane was located at low paleolatitudes of ∼15°N in the Northern Hemisphere during Late Triassic times. Together with available paleomagnetic data from the Baoshan Terrane and surrounding areas, a wider paleomagnetic comparison supports the view that the East Paleotethys Ocean separated the Sibumasu and Indochina blocks and closed no later than Late Triassic times. We argue that the currently approximately north-to-south directed Changning-Menglian suture zone is very likely to have been oriented nearly east-to-west at the time of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision.

  16. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  17. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  18. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxiang Deng; Wei Li; Yan Hu

    2016-01-01

    As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition an...

  19. Seismic Hazard Matrix of Buildings in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guangquan; Tan Wenhong; Shi Weihua; Fei Minglun; Xie Li

    2008-01-01

    Seismologists have begun to investigate the earthquake damage and assess the economic losses on the spot in the Yunnan area since the earthquakes with Ms6.7 and Ms6.9 that occurred on the boundary between China and Myanmar west of Menglian county, Yunnan Province, on April 23, 1992. From 1992 to 2003, 50 destructive earthquakes occurred in Yunnan, and large amounts of data on seismic hazard have been accumulated. With focus on the major building structures, the paper makes statistical analysis on the earthquake damage ratio, loss ratio and seismic hazard index in the areas with different seismic intensity of the 50 events, and presents the seismic hazard matrix of buildings for the Yunnan area.

  20. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V.; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  1. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp. in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp. abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  2. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  3. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping of Yujiacun Ore Field in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Zhang Shouting

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate information comprehensive processing technique is especially important at present to the digital mineral prospecting. However, the GIS-based weights of evidence have provided us with a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mineral resource potential. In this paper, the mineralization model is established, based on the achievements made by previous researchers, to mend such deficiencies as few references on ore fields in Yujiacun, Yunnan Province and the shortage of quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources. In addition, the weights of evidence are used to make a systematic quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources there, so that 2 mineral prospecting target areas of grade I and 8 mineral prospecting target areas of grade Ⅱ are delineated,providing the further mineral resource exploration with the basis for the selection of mineral deposits.

  6. Relationship between Rice Cultural Diversity and Ecological Environment in Yunnan Province of China%中国云南稻作文化多样性与生态环境的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亚文; 杜娟; 普晓英; 罗曦; 杨树明; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper aims to confirm that Yunnan is one origin center of rice and human in the world.[Method] The complicated and unique ecological environment in Yunnan makes Yunnan Province the largest center of genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being as well as the cradle of human childhood.[Result] The genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being is closely related to the ecosystem diversity.Rice civilization in Yunnan can be divided into four types,including the diversity center region of rice civilization in southwestern Yunnan,diffusion region of rice civilization of Hani-Zhuang in southern Yunnan,rice civilization region of water-drought rotation in central Yunnan and poverty region of rice civilization in northern Yunnan.Southwestern Yunnan is not only the center of genetic ecological diversity and rice cultural diversity,but also the center of origin and diversity of crop genetic diversity.It is not only a transitional region among East Asia continent,South Asian sub-continent and Indo-China Peninsula,but also a core integration area of Chinese culture,Indian culture and Mid-south Peninsula culture which all merge with the local culture.[Conclusion] Yunnan is one common sphere where the origin of human evolution is closely related to the origin of rice evolution.%[目的]探讨云南是世界稻种和人类的起源中心之一。[方法]复杂的而独特的云南生态环境造就了云南成为中国稻种最大的遗传多样性和文化多样性中心及其人类童年的摇篮。[结果]云南稻种和人类遗传多样性及其文化多样性与生态系统多样性息息相关;云南稻作文化可划分为滇西南稻作文化多样性中心区、滇南哈尼壮族稻作文化扩散区、滇中水旱轮作稻作文化区和滇北稻作文化贫乏区四大类型。滇西南既是云南稻种的遗传生态多样中心和稻作文化多样性中心,又是云南作物种质资源起源及其多样化

  7. Concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel brominated flame retardants in tree bark and human hair from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haodong; Jin, Jun; Bai, Yao; Li, Qiuxu; Wang, Ying; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in tree bark and hair samples from the same area in Yunnan Province, China, were determined. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the tree bark samples were 3.8 ng/g lipid weight to 91 ng/g lipid weight and 0.23 ng/g lipid weight to 5.0 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the hair samples were 2.1 ng/g dry weight to 14 ng/g dry weight and 0.083 ng/g dry weight to 0.29 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether had similar distributions in the tree bark and hair samples, but other PBDE congeners and NBFRs had different distributions in the tree bark and hair samples. External exposure was found to be mainly responsible for the total PBDE and pentabromotoluene concentrations in hair, but both external and internal exposure were responsible for the pentabromophenyl and hexabromobenzene concentrations in hair. PMID:27060640

  8. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis growing in a lead-zinc spoil heap, Yunnan, south-western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast-growing alder species native to the eastern Himalayas, Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis, has recently received considerable attention in the restoration of contaminated lands due to its significant economic benefits and ecological functions. The bioaccumulation characteristics and phytoremediation potential of naturally regenerated Nepalese alder were evaluated in a lead-zinc spoil heap located in Lancang county, Yunnan province, south-western China. Results showed that bioaccumulation factors (BFs of A. nepalensis for Zn and Pb were always >1 in slightly contaminated soils (extractable Zn, Pb of 4.2-17.9 and 3.4-13.1 mg kg-1, respectively and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 0.3- 6.8 mg kg-1. By contrast, translocation factors (TFs for Zn were 1 for Pb in soil slightly contaminated by 13.1 mg kg-1 extractable Pb and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 2.6- 6.8 mg kg-1. Significant positive correlations were found between heavy metals (HMs in roots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.01 and between HMs in shoots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.05 except for Cd. Based on the accumulation capacity revealed in this study, we suggest that A.nepalensis is a promising tree species for phytostabilization of zinc and lead in soils slightly contaminated with Zn and Pb and for phytoextraction of cadmium in Cd-polluted soil.

  9. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Dong, Shikui; Peng, Mingchun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world. The basin has been strongly affected by human activities, particularly by dam construction. This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China, where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed. To identify the vegetation composition and structure, we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010. We found that the forest, shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside. In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity. In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley. At high altitude, the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found. As a result of dam construction and operation, the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed. Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats. The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  10. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng LI; Shikui DONG; Mingchun PENG; Xiaoyan LI; Shiliang LIU

    2012-01-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world.The basin has been strongly affected by human activities,particularly by dam construction.This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China,where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed.To identify the vegetation composition and structure,we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010.We found that the forest,shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside.In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity.In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley.At high altitude,the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found.As a result of dam construction and operation,the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed.Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats.The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  11. Morphological diversity of Trichuris spp. eggs observed during an anthelminthic drug trial in Yunnan, China, and relative performance of parasitologic diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Du, Zun-Wei; Marti, Hanspeter; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large Trichuris spp. eggs in human faecal samples is occasionally reported. Such eggs have been described as variant Trichuris trichiura or Trichuris vulpis eggs. Within the frame of a randomised controlled trial, faecal samples collected from 115 Bulang individuals from Yunnan, People's Republic of China were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique (fresh stool samples) and the FLOTAC and ether-concentration techniques (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples). Large Trichuris spp. eggs were noted in faecal samples with a prevalence of 6.1% before and 21.7% after anthelminthic drug administration. The observed prevalence of standard-sized T. trichiura eggs was reduced from 93.0% to 87.0% after treatment. Considerably more cases of large Trichuris spp. eggs and slightly more cases with normal-sized T. trichiura eggs were identified by FLOTAC compared to the ether-concentration technique. No large Trichuris spp. eggs were observed on the Kato-Katz thick smears. PMID:25174679

  12. Reappraisal of Fosbergia shweliensis (Rubiaceae), a species endemic to the Gaoligong Mountains, Western Yunnan, China%瑞丽茜(茜草科)的再确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 刀志灵; 李嵘

    2006-01-01

    Based on collections from the Gaoligong Mountains in 1998-2004, western Yunnan, China, the present paper describes in detail the fruit characters of Fosbergia shweliensis (Anth.) Tirveng. & Sastre (Rubiaceae), a species endemic to the Gaoligong area. The paper also reviews the flower structure and reports on the habit and distribution of the species. Comparing the original description of Randia shweliensis Anth. (the basionym of Fosbergia shweliensis), our collections are the same species as Fosbergia shweliensis.%瑞丽茜Fosbergia shweliensis (Anth.) Tirveng. & Sastre的基名为Randia shweliensis Anth., 是高黎贡山地区的特有种.根据作者1998-2004年从云南西部高黎贡山所采集的标本, 本文补充了瑞丽茜果实的形态描述, 更正了关于本种原描述的若干错误, 报道了本种的生活习性、生境和分布情况.

  13. Diatom response to climate forcing of a deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu, Yunnan, SW China) during the Last Glacial Maximum and its implications for understanding regional monsoon variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Xiangdong; Anderson, N. John; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Yanling

    2014-02-01

    The Yunnan Plateau of southwest China is strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon and is a critical area in terms of determining its development and variability since the Last Glacial Maximum. High-resolution diatom analysis of a 14C-dated sediment core retrieved from Lugu Lake, Yunnan provides a detailed history of palaeoenvironment changes from 30,000 to 10,000 cal. yr BP. A model of climate-diatom interactions (linking thermal stratification, ice cover and catchment-derived nutrients) is proposed to explain the observed changes. Prior to 24,500 cal. yr BP the dominance of the planktonic Cyclotella rhomboideo-elliptica indicates a period of stable stratification and low nutrient levels, with a moderate change of temperature and precipitation in the southwest monsoon region. During the LGM (24,500-14,500 cal. yr BP), the loss of the planktonic diatoms and a switch to small Fragilaria spp. suggest an altered thermal regime in the lake (i.e. weaker stratification and possibly ice cover). From ˜18,000 cal. yr BP, the expansion of planktonic taxa (Stephanodiscus and the Asterionella formosa) and increased %TOC are indicative of increased nutrient availability reflecting altered vegetation and soil processes due to rising regional temperatures. After 14,500 cal. yr BP, a rapid reversal to dominance by planktonic diatoms indicates a further increase in temperature and continued development of catchment vegetation and soils. The abrupt changes in diatom species composition around 24,500 and 14,500 cal. yr BP suggest that the ecological status of the lake exceeded limnological thresholds. Interestingly, however, the Younger Dryas event is not clearly recognizable in either the diatom or pollen records in the Lugu Lake sediment record. In a partial redundancy analysis, 44.2% of the variability in the total diatom assemblages in the period 30,000-10,000 cal. yr BP was accounted for by changes in summer solar radiation. The relationships between the diatom assemblages and

  14. Kant in China : A Study on the Introduction and Interpretation of Immanuel Kant's Philosophy from Late Qing China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the introduction and interpretation of Kant from late Qing China.The thesis is divided into five parts. The first part introduces the historical context in which Kant was introduced and interpreted. The historical context considers both China and Japan, due to the use of Japanese sources by the early authors writing on Kant’s philosophy. The historical analysis also examines some aspects of the reception of Western science and philosophy when these can provide insight int...

  15. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities since the Holocene in Erhai catchment, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ji; YANG Liyuan; YANG Xiangdong; R. Matsumoto; TONG Guobang; ZHU Yuxin; ZHANG Zhenke; WANG Sumin

    2005-01-01

    According to high-resolution analyses on multi-proxy of sediment core from the Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, the sequence of climatic and environmental change since the Holocene has been reconstructed based on accurate dating. The results show that climate had transited from cold-wet to warm-wet during ca. 12950-8399 aBP in this area, and the transition happened in ca. 10329 aBP. Due to the enhancing southwest Asian monsoon and increasing precipitation, the lake-level of the Erhai Lake began to rise after ca. 10329 a BP. Climate in the catchment was warm and wet during the mid-Holocene, and the warmest stage appeared in ca.8399-6371 a BP. The lake-level descended in the mid-Holocene because of the decrease of effective moisture in the basin. Human activities appeared in ca. 6371 a BP, and the initial manner mainly focused on deforestation. Up to ca. 2139 a BP, due to the amount of immigration into this area, the cultivation was developed widely, which was followed by mining (coal mine).

  16. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  17. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  18. Levels,trends and risk assessment of arsenic pollution in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic contamination accident in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan has been of wide concern.In order to investigate the arsenic distribution and concentration trends after the accident,samples including lake water,sediments,soil,aquatic organisms and crops were collected in November 2008,as well as in February,May and September 2009.The average arsenic concentrations (arithmetic average) in lake water in the four sampling events were 176.9,147.3,159.3,and 161.1 μg/L,while those in the sediments were 32.87,62.41,62.99,and 46.96 μg/g,respectively.The highest content of total arsenic in soil in the vicinity of Yangzonghai was 23.33 μg/g,which was below the limits of the relevant national standard.The total arsenic levels in most aquatic plants were in the range of 100-200 μg/g,with Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara having the highest concentration of ~300 μg/g.The arsenic levels of fish and shrimps were in the range of 1.52-11.4 μg/g (dry weight).

  19. Soil Erosion under Different Land Use Types and Zones of Jinsha River Basin in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui

    2004-01-01

    Severe soil erosion in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River has been regarded as a major environmental problem. The on-site impact of soil erosion on agricultural production and the off-site impact on floods and sedimentation in Yangtze Rive are well known. A quantitative assessment of soil erosion intensity is still scanty for developing appropriate soil erosion control measures for different land use types and zones in this region. This article constructs a localized USLE and estimates the average soil loss in the Jinsha River Region in Yunnan Province, one of the priority areas for soil erosion control in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The estimation is done under different land uses and zones in this basin. The estimation shows that while soil erosion in the cultivated land is the most severe, 36~40% of the garden and forest land suffers from soil erosion of various degrees due to lack of ground cover and other factors. Soil erosion in the pasture is modest when the ground cover is well maintained. It also confirmed that terracing can reduce soil erosion intensity significantly on the cultivated land. Research findings suggest that sufficient attention must be paid to regeneration of the ground cover in reforestation programs. In addition to mass reforestation efforts, restoration of grassland and terracing of the cultivated land should also play an important role in erosion control.

  20. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  1. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  2. The Analysis of Currency Scale along Yunnan-Vietnam Railway in the Times of the Republic of China%民国时期滇越铁路沿线货币规模分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚; 马策

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, as the main outlet for the flowing of human resources, commodities, information and capital in Yunnan Province in the times of the Republic of China, pushed the development and expansion of Yunnan's banking system, which influenced remarkably on the transaction, exchanging, transferring and transporting of the monetary capital such as paper currency, coin, gold, silver along the railway. The currency scale along the railway had played the key role in the monetary ecology in Yunnan Province.%民国时期,滇越铁路成为云南人流、物流、信息流、资金流最密集的对外通道,铁路推动了近代云南金融的发展,铁路沿线纸币、现金、黄金、白银的交易、兑换、汇兑、运输繁盛,货币流动性规模对全省金融生态有决定性的影响。

  3. Seed Set and Natural Regeneration of Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro after Mass and Sporadic Flowering in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Chen, Ling-Na; Wong, Khoon-Meng; Cui, Yong-Zhong; Yang, Han-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The flowering periods of woody bamboos, seed set, natural regeneration and death after flowering have been rarely observed and evaluated in the field. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, a tropical woody bamboo mainly distributed in the Yunnan, displayed both sporadic as well as gregarious (mass) flowering and fruited from 2006 to 2013 following severe droughts. The aim of this study is to examine potential differences in seed set and natural regeneration between the two flowering patterns in natural D. membranaceus forests. We investigated and analyzed seed set, seed germination, seedling growth and mortality in both mass and sporadic flowering populations. Observations were made over a period of three years to record changes in bamboo seedling density, height and culm diameter. We observed a low natural seed set ranging from 1.76% to 7.49%, and a relatively high seed germination rate in the nursery from 59.6% to 71.0% for both types of flowering populations. Seeds germinated in 5-7 days after sowing and the germination period lasted 10-15 days. Seed set and germination rates in mass-flowering populations were significantly higher than those of sporadically flowering stands. The seedlings within sporadically flowering populations died within two years. In comparison, seedling mortality in the mass flowering population increased over two periods of observation from 64.92% to 98.89%, yet there was good seedling establishment left over, which showed mean height and mean culm diameter increasing by 1053.25% and 410.71%, respectively, in the second year of observations, and 137.10%, and 217.48%, respectively, in the third year. There are significant differences in seed set, natural regeneration ability and sustainability of bamboo populations between the mass flowering and sporadically flowering populations of D. membranaceus. Sporadic flowering populations failed to produce effective regeneration, while mass flowering populations were able to regenerate successfully

  4. Geochemistry of meta-volcanic rocks from the Longbohe Cu deposit, Yunnan Province, China: Implications for the genesis and tectonic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yinliang; QING Dexian; CHEN Yaoguang

    2007-01-01

    The Longbohe Cu deposit, which is located in the southern part of the Honghe ore-forming zone, Yunnan Province, China, belongs to a typical ore field where volcanic rocks are of wide distribution and are associated with Cu mineralization in time and space. The volcanic rocks in the ore field, which have experienced varying degree of alteration or regional metamorphism, can be divided into three types, i.e., meta-andesite, meta-subvolcanic rock and meta-basic volcanic rock in accordance with their mineral assemblages. These three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field are relatively rich in Na and the main samples plot in the area of alkali basalts in the geochemical classification diagram. With the exception of very few elements, these three types of volcanic rocks are similar in the content of trace elements. In comparison to the basalts of different tectonic settings, the meta-volcanic rocks in the ore field are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Th, Nb, etc. and depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Ba, etc. and their primary mantle-normalized trace element patterns show remarkable negative Th and Nb anomalies and negative Sr and Ba anomalies. These three types of volcanic rocks are similar in REE content range and chondrite-normalized REE patterns with the exception of Eu anomaly. Various lines of evidence show that these three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field have the same source but are the products of different stages of magmatic evolution, their original magma is a product of partial melting of the metasomatically enriched mantle in the tensional tectonic setting within the continent plate, and the crystallization differentiation plays an important role in the process of magmatic evolution.

  5. Contrasting responses of hoverflies and wild bees to habitat structure and land use change in a tropical landscape (southern Yunnan, SW China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Zeng Meng; Konrad Martin; Jing-Xin Liu; Frank Burger; Jin Chen

    2012-01-01

    The response of insects to monoculture plantations has mainly proceeded at the expense of natural forest areas,and is an outstanding and important issue in ecology and conservation biology,with pollination services declined around the world.In this study,species richness and distribution of hoverfly and wild bee communities were investigated in a changing tropical landscape in southern Yunnan,south-west China by Malaise traps periodically from 2008 to 2009.Species were recorded from the traditional land use types (natural forest,grassland,shrubland and rice field fallows),and from recently established rubber plantations of different ages.Hoverflies (total 53 species) were most common in young successional stages of vegetation,including rice field fallow and shrubland.Species richness was highest in rice field fallows and lowest in forests and showed a highly significant relationship with the number of forb species and ground vegetation cover.In contrast,the highest richness of wild bees (total 44 species) was recorded from the natural forest sites,which showed a discrete bee community composition compared to the remaining habitat types.There was no significant relationship between the bee species richness and the environmental variables,including the numbers of different plant life forms,coverage of canopy and ground vegetation,successional age of vegetation and land use type.At the landscape scale,open land use systems,including young rubber plantations,are assumed to increase the species richness ofhoverflies; however,this might decrease wild bee diversity.The present land use change by rubber cultivation can be expected to have negative impacts on the native wild bee communities.

  6. Patterns and relationships of plant traits, community structural attributes, and eco-hydrological functions during a subtropical secondary succession in central Yunnan, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Denggao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes in land use lead to major changes in plant community composition and structure which have strong effects on eco-hydrological processes and functions. We here tested the hypothesis that changes in traits of living plants have resulted in changes in structural attributes of the community that influenced eco-hydrological functions by altering eco-hydrological processes. This was done in the context of a subtropical secondary forest suc­cession following land abandonment in Central Yunnan (Southwest China. During the succession, species with high specific leaf area (SLA, high leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC, high specific root length (SRL, and low leaf dry matter content (LDMC were progressively replaced by species with the opposite characteristics. The obtained results of correlation analyses were as follows: (1 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and the leaf area index (LAI. Significant correlations were detected between LAI, canopy interception and stemflow, and surface runoff and soil erosion. (2 Significant correlations were also found between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, LDMC, and accumulated litter biomass. High accumulated litter biomass strongly increases the maximum water-retaining capac­ity of litter. However, significant correlations were not found between the maximum water-retaining capacity of litter and surface runoff and soil erosion. (3 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was not significantly related to the maximum water-retaining capacity of the soil, but was significantly related to surface runoff and soil erosion. These results suggest that canopy characteristics play a more important role in control of runoff and soil erosion at the studied site. It follows that plant functional traits are closely linked with canopy characteristics, which should be used as a standard for selecting species in

  7. An Interpretation of the Influential Power of China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hailin; Guo Chaoxian

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on China's economic develop- ment, utilization of resource environment and soft power, a basic judgment was made of the influence of "China development". The overall influential power of China development on international community was misunderstood. What we see is the role of "China Factor" in different fields. In the process of economic globalization, what economic system of capitalist market has seen is "China's cheap labor", "China's loose economic system environment", "earlier abuse of unlimited resource environment", "China's broad consumption market" and "demographic dividend". In global or Asian financial crisis, what other countries valued was China's "foreign currency" accumulated over the years. In global gov- ernance or crisis management, what international community expected was "China's obligations and responsibilities" without the right of speech, etc.. All these are the "passive" roles produced by "a single factor" in definite fields. The active and initiative role China will play in international community still needs time and the continuous efforts of several generations. China once was a big country that had significant inftuential power on the world, and China's renaissance is a normal process of development of things. What excessive talks about its influential power reflect may be the lack of China's influence.

  8. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P., reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729―2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid. Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553―0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876―0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This

  9. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO XiaYun; SHEN Ji; WANG SuMin; XIAO HaiFeng; TONG GuoBang

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P.,reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729-2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid.Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553-0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876-0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This change

  10. Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis gen et sp. nov. from Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China and notes on the taxonomic confusion surrounding Dyrithium

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewon, R; L. Cai; Liew, ECY; Zhang, K.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China); Hyde, KD

    2003-01-01

    A new taxon with Dyrithium-like characteristics was collected from Lake Fuxian in China. The taxon is typical of the Amphisphaeriaceae in that it has relatively large, ostiolate, immersed ascomata, unitunicate asci with a J+ subapical ring, and brown ascospores. It is similar to Dyrithium in that it has muriform ascospores, but considerable confusion surrounds this genus. In Dyrithium asci are bitunicate and lack a J+ subapical ring, while this was not true of our species. A new genus, Dyrith...

  11. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  12. Cenozoic evolution of tectono-fluid and metallogenic process in Lanping Basin,western Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from apatite fission track data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoming; SONG Yougui

    2006-01-01

    Since the Mesozoic, abundant metal and salt deposits have been formed in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province, Southwest China, constituting a well-known hydrothermal ore belt in China. Most of the deposits are meso-epithermal hydrothermal deposits. This paper preliminarily deals with the mineralization ages of hydrothermal deposits in the Lanping Basin by using the apatite fission track method, and integrates the spatial distribution of the deposits and their regional geological backgrounds, to give the preliminary viewpoints as follows: (1) the apatite fission track ages acquired range from 19.9 Ma to 52.8 Ma, much younger than those of their host strata, so they may be considered to be mineralization ages, which represent the late mineralization period; (2) the apatite fission track ages tend to become younger from the west to the middle of the basin, indicating that the latest evolution of tectono-fluid and/or metallogenic processes of the middle basin ended later than that in the west; (3) in the Paleogene, most of the Cu deposits were formed in the western part of the basin; (4) the major metallogenic processes occur between the Paleogene and the Neogene, because the eastern and western edges of the basin were subducted into and collided with its bilateral continental blocks, respectively, and the central fault was strongly activated, which led to the processes of large-scale ore-forming fluids, and their differentiation and transport because of the variation of their physical and chemical properties. Having been squeezed and uplifted, the Lanping Basin became an intermontane basin that contains many kinds of fluid traps resulting in the formation of different types of ore deposits (for example, Pb-Zn, Cu, Ag) of different scales in the middle of the basin. Simultaneously, the fluids with volatile elements such as Hg, Sb and As were transported upwards along the central fault system and diffused into its subordinate fractures, thus leading to the

  13. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  14. Aboveground forest biomass estimation using ICESat GLAS in Yunnan, China%基于ICESat GLAS的云南省森林地上生物量反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克标; 庞勇; 舒清态; 付甜

    2013-01-01

    结合机载、星载激光雷达对GLAS(地球科学激光测高系统)光斑范围内的森林地上生物量进行估测,并利用MODIS植被产品以及MERIS土地覆盖产品进行了云南省森林地上生物量的连续制图.机载LiDAR扫描的260个训练样本用于构建星载GLAS的森林地上生物量估测模型,模型的决定系数(R2)为0.52,均方根误差(RMSE)为31 Mg/ha.研究结果显示,云南省总森林地上生物量为12.72亿t,平均森林地上生物量为94 Mg/ha.估测的森林地上生物量空间分布情况与实际情况相符,森林地上生物量总量与基于森林资源清查数据的估测结果相符,表明了利用机载LiDAR与星载ICESatGLAS结合进行大区域森林地上生物量估测的可靠性.%Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) could reduce uncertainties in the characterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provides an accurate measure of canopy height and vertical structure and information for the estimation of aboveground biomass of vegetation. Spaceborne large footprint LiDAR (ICESat GLAS) acquires over 250 million observations over forest regions globally and has been used successfully for forest height and biomass estimation in various sites. In this paper, airborne LiDAR and ICESat GLAS data were used to estimate aboveground biomass of forest at footprint level in Yunnan, China. Vegetation products from EOS MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS were used to expand these discrete estimations from GLAS data to a wall-to-wall map. The R2 between ICESat GLAS waveform parameters and airborne LiDAR estimated forest AGB is 0.52 after training with 260 footprints. Results showed that the total forest AGB in Yunnan Province was 1272 million ton and the average was 94 Mg/ha. The amount and distribution of predicted aboveground biomass were in good agreement with the reference data. The results showed that the predict model using GLAS data could be used to estimate

  15. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    [1]Gillmore, G. K., Grattan, J., Pyatt, F. B. et al., Radon, water and abandoned metalliferous mines in the UK: Environmental and Human Health Implications, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 65-76.[2]GB/T 16146-1995, Standards for Controlling Radon Concentration in Dwellings (in Chinese).[3]Kinze, M., Dose limits and maximum concentration limits (MCL's) for radionuclides--Implication on remediation of uranium mining and milling facilities in Saxony Germany, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 1-7.[4]Xu, L. C., Wang, Y. X., Environmental issues and remedial actions of the abandoned Lincang uranium mine in China, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 709-718.[5]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 70.[6]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 23-26.[7]Xu, L. C., Dai, X., Tan, T. et al., Environment Impact Report on Environmental Treatment Engineering of Decommissioning Lincang Uranium Mine (Feasibility studies stages) ( in Chinese), 1999.[8]Zhang Zhihui, Measurement Methods of Radon and Its Daughters in

  16. El Nino And Forest Fire In Yunnan Province, Southwest China -New Way to Study Three Essential Factors of Forest Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three essential factors of forest fire (fire source, environment, and litter) were taken as the point of view, and has approached the forecast method of forest fire in tropical area of southwest China in a macroscopic scale. This study supported by mathematical method was from a new angle. For example, in the aspect of forest fire forecast, it has been thought over that most forest fire is artificial fire, which has lots of randomness. So it could be studied in a kind of Markov random processes. In the ...

  17. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  18. Soil erosion risk evaluation using GIS in the Yuanmou County,a dry-hot valley of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to sustainable agriculture. Evaluating regional erosion risk is increasingly needed by national and in-ternational environmental agencies. This study elaborates a model (using spatial principal component analysis [SPCA]) method for the evaluation of soil erosion risk in a representative area of dry-hot valley (Yuanmou County) at a scale of 1:100,000 using a spatial database and GIS. The model contains seven factors: elevation, slope, annual precipitation, land use, vegetation, soil, and population density. The evaluation results show that five grades of soil erosion risk: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. These are divided in the study area, and a soil erosion risk evaluation map is created. The model may be applicable to other areas of China because it utilizes spatial data that are generally available.

  19. Sequence variation in three mitochondrial DNA genes among isolates of Ascaridia galli originating from Guangdong, Hunan and Yunnan provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J Y; Liu, G H; Wang, Y; Song, H Q; Lin, R Q; Zou, F C; Liu, W; Xu, M J; Zhu, X Q

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined sequence variation in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), among Ascaridia galli isolates from different geographical localities in China. A portion of cox3 (pcox3), nad1 (pnad1) and nad4 (pnad4) genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult A. galli individuals and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The length of the sequences of pcox3, pnad1 and pnad4 were 408 bp, 471 bp and 333 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations within A. galli were 0-1.7% for pcox3, 0-2.8% for pnad1 and 0-3.4% for pnad4. The A+T contents of the sequences were 67.16-67.65% (pcox3), 67.09-67.94% (pnad1) and 69.91-71.77% (pnad4). The interspecific sequence differences among members of the Ascaridida were significantly higher, being 13.2-30.9%, 12.8-29.0% and 15.1-34.1% for pcox3, pnad1 and pnad4, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of pcox3, pnad1 and pnad4, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony), all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of intraspecific variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences among A. galli isolates from different geographical regions in China, and have implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of A. galli. PMID:23046568

  20. An Awareness-Adoption Matrix for Strategic Decision Making in Agricultural Development Projects:A Case Study in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Subedi; T J Hocking; M A Fullen; A R McCrea; E Milne; WU Bo-zhi; D J Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Significant achievements have been made in generating sustainable agricultural technologies in developing countries.Usually,these new technologies have been more effective in increasing production and productivity than existing technologies.However,many new technologies considered 'effective' have not been successful in alleviating the associated sustainability problems,due to poor adoption by targeted users.Success of any novel technical intervention should be judged on the basis of how widespread adoption is in the target area by targeted users.In this context,a case study identified the factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved technologies extended by an agricultural development project in a rural Village in Yunnan Province,China.Initial adoption/adaptation of project technologies was influenced by farmers' wareness of the technology.Farmers were more aware of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,intercropping and tree planting technologies than others.This led to a comparatively high initial uptake of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,sweet chestnut,and intercropping technologies.Farmers had inadequate knowledge about some Project technologies,the adoption of which was particularly low.This reveals the need for increasing farmers'awareness about the rationale for Project technologies to achieve greater adoption/adaptation of project technologies by farmers over wider areas.Farmers' testing of the technology leads to better adoption/adaptation compared to mere awareness.However,considerable time and resources are required for testing/trying technologies.This justifies the usefulness of comparatively quick and less resource demanding options for awareness creation.Development of effective cropping technologies is important for sustainable agricultural development.The success of any agricultural development project,especially in terms of improving sustainability,depends on how widely those improved technologies are adopted/adapted by farmers in the

  1. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  2. A 22 570 yr record of vegetational and climatic change from Wenhai Lake in the Hengduan Mountains biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y. F.; Song, X. Y.; Wortley, A. H.; Blackmore, S.; Li, C. S.

    2014-09-01

    The Hengduan Mountains, with their strong altitudinal vegetation zonation, form a biodiversity hotspot which offers the potential for comparison between sites in order to understand how this zonation arose and how it has responded to climate change and human impacts through time. This paper is one of the studies covering a range of altitudes within this hotspot, and presents a 22 570 yr pollen record of vegetational and climatic change based on a core 320 cm in depth collected from Wenhai Lake on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, one of the highest peaks in the Hengduan Mountains region of Yunnan, Southwest China. From 22 570 to 21 140 cal. yr BP, the vegetation was dominated by broad-leaved forest (comprising mainly Quercus, Betula and Castanopsis), accompanied by coniferous Pinus and Abies and the drought-tolerant herb Artemisia, indicating a cool and dry climate. In the period between 21 140 and 19 350 cal. yr BP, the vegetation was still dominated by broad-leaved forest but with a notable increase in pollen of aquatic plants, implying a relatively warm and moderately humid climate. The period 19 350 to 17 930 cal. yr BP was a transition stage from broad-leaved forest to needle-leaved forest, reflecting a warm-humid climate at the beginning and a cold-dry one at the end. Between 17 930 and 9250 cal. yr BP, needle-leaved forest and broad-leaved forest alternated in dominance in the early stages, with the former taking the predominant position by the end of the period, suggesting a climate fluctuating between warm-humid and cold-dry. From 9250 cal. yr BP to present, the vegetation has been dominated by needle-leaved forest (comprising mainly Pinus and Abies), coupled with broad-leaved forest (mainly Quercus and Betula), reflecting a transition in climatic conditions from warm-humid to cold-humid. During this period, human activity increased in this region, with impacts on the vegetation which may be evidenced by the distinct decrease in Pinus and Quercus pollen and

  3. Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use Pattern of Rocky-desertified Land in Southwest China's Poverty-stricken Karst Mountainous Areas——A Case Study in Benggu Township, Xichou County, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; BAO Guangjing; LI Zhiguo; HE Yimei

    2006-01-01

    The rocky desert in a karst area directly causes the lack of soil, water and forest, hence leading to the poverty there. In 1990, the villagers from the Muzhe Village in Benggu Township, Xichou County,Yunnan declared a war against rocky desert in an attempt to ask the fields for more yields. They invented a distinctive land rehabilitation and sustainable use pattern called "transforming heaven and earth" that had been practiced in Southwest China's karst areas. The key mechanism of the pattern was to develop terraced fields with well conserved soil,water and fertility by exploding rocks in the fields,building stone walls, gathering more soil, and improving soil quality and productivity for the fields in combination with building of irrigation facilities and roads, as well as with forestation and agriculture structure adjustment. The purpose of the pattern was to alleviate poverty in the karst areas by improving soil productivity and promoting agricultural development. A typical area was studied with the help of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and the pattern was carried out there for fifteen years, have produced excellent ecological benefits and good economic benefits. Its application in the area approved that it was a sustainable land use pattern for rocky desert areas.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Dendrocalamus membranaceus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a Declining Bamboo Species in Yunnan, China, as Based on Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro is a woody bamboo with a high economic and ecological value that often occurs as natural stands, such as in the large-scale forested areas of China’s Yunnan Province. Due to its overexploitation, the habitat of D. membranaceus in Yunnan has been dramatically reduced, and the quality of the stands has declined. As a preliminary analysis in considering the effective protection for these germplasm resources, we assessed the genetic diversity of 12 natural populations in Yunnan, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. From 10 ISSR primers, we generated 155 bands, of which 153 were polymorphic (98.71%. Compared with other species in the genus, this species demonstrated a greater genetic diversity (S = 0.349 and lower genetic differentiation (GST = 0.252. Our analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic differentiation among the populations is significant. A large proportion of the genetic variation (78.95% resides among the individuals within populations, whereas only 21.05% are found among populations. Mantel tests indicated no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the populations. Given the low sexual reproducibility and characteristics of monocarpic plants, we recommend implementing in situ conservation measures for all of the D. membranaceus populations in Yunnan and collecting sufficient samples for ex situ conservation. Furthermore, the conservation area should be extended to its main natural habitats, the Lancang-Mekong River Valley.

  5. A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luculia Sweet contains about five species of small trees or shrubs and is a member of the family Rubiaceae (tribe Cinchoneae. Luculia yunnanensis is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to southwest China. Only two natural populations of L. yunnanensis exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that L. yunnanensis is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-sterptavidin capture method, 24 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 11 displayed polymorphisms and 13 were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.833 and from 0.431 to 0.771, with averages of 0.389 and 0.614, respectively. These markers will be useful for further investigation of conservation of resources, selecting parental types in cross-breeding, evolution of this species at the molecular level and related research in Luculia species.

  6. Winter diet and food selection of the Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis in Dashanbao, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao Yan; Lu, Guang Yi; Zhong, Xing Yao

    2016-01-01

    The Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis is a globally vulnerable species whose food is the factor determining its long-term survival. Understanding dietary habits, food preferences, and related factors will facilitate the development of effective conservation plans for the protection of this vulnerable species. For this purpose, we used video recordings and sampling of food availability to examine the dietary composition and temporal variation in food selection of Black-necked Cranes wintering in the Dashanbao National Nature Reserve, China. The Black-necked Crane’s diet consists primarily of domestic food crops such as grains (74%) and potatoes (8%), in addition to invertebrates (14%). A much smaller proportion of the diet was comprised of turnips and wild herbaceous plants and tubers. There was monthly variation in food selection, partially related to food availability. Grains were most available in November and decreased through the winter, whereas invertebrates were more available in November and February than in December and January. Grain consumption was lowest in November but higher from December through February. Invertebrate consumption was highest in November and February. The cranes preferred to eat grains throughout winter months, while they mainly selected invertebrates in November and February. We suggested invertebrate populations sharply declined in December and January due to the low temperature. In addition, grain consumption was negatively associated with invertebrate availability. In November, when invertebrates were most abundant, and despite a concomitant peak in grain abundance, we suggested cranes exhibited a preference for invertebrates over grains. We recommend that the protection administration provide appropriate supplemental foods for cranes during freezing weather. PMID:27123382

  7. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China.6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT.The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (P<0.001, respectively. There was a decreasing trend of mean CCT with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (P<0.001, male gender (P<0.001, Bai (P<0.001 or Yi (P<0.001 ethnicity, greater body mass index (P<0.001, higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001, greater corneal curvature (P<0.001, deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001, and thicker lens (P<0.001. Ethnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; P< 0.001 compared with other factors. CCT had similar impact on intraocular pressure readings across all ethnic groups.This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  8. Security and Stability Analysis for Yunnan Power Grid with Wind Power Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghui Qiu; Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is sustainable, renewable and clean energy. There are abundant wind resources in Yunnan province, China. In recent years, wind power integration has developed rapidly in Yunnan province. With the first batch of the wind farm being built and a part of them going into production in Yunnan, the wind power resources will be large-scale developed and utilized in the future. Based on the wind power planning of Yunnan, the impacts of security and stability after wind power are studied in ...

  9. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  10. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  11. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  12. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance. PMID:24954235

  13. Pollination Ecology of a Pioneer Species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China%西双版纳先锋植物野芭蕉的传粉生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱忠; 李德铢; 王红

    2001-01-01

    Pollination ecology of Musa itinerans Cheesman (Musaceae), apioneer species in the tropical rain forest, was explored in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China. This research involved flowering phenology, nectar production, visitation patterns of pollinators and bagging experiments. It was found that (1) flowering of M. itinerans occurred a whole year round with a peak at the early dry season (Nov.) and the daily flowering pattern had two obvious peaks in the early morning and in the late evening, respectively; (2) nectar production occurred at two obvious peaks, during the day and in the night-time (from 8 am to 12 pm, and from 8 pm to 12 am, respectively), which allowed the two different foragers to visit at specific times; and (3) long-tongue fruit bats (Macroglossus sobrinus) and sunbirds (Arachnothera longirostris) were both effective pollinators of Musa itinerans.

  14. Analysis on Poliomyelitis Surveillance Reinforce in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China%云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区加强脊髓灰质炎监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芬; 张杰; 罗梅; 汤晶晶; 田炳均; 丁峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objectiv To understand the coverage of oral poliomyelitis attenuated live vaccine among the people who live in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China, surveillance poliovirus ( PV ) prevalence characteristic, and to provide scientific evidences for maintain polio free in border areas. Method Select three districts from six border districts in Yunnan, then choose three counties from each district and conducted coverage survey of OPV among the children by probability proportional to size sampling, sample specimens from healthy children and environmental water to surveillance PV. Result The coverage of OPV routine and supplementary immunization was high in all three counties, we did not find wild PV and vaccine-derived PV among healthy children and in environment water. Conclusion It is still maintain polio free, and it is necessary to strengthen poliomyelitis surveillance and OPV immunization in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China.%目的 了解云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区,人群口服脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)减毒活疫苗(Oral Poliomyelitis Attenuated Live Vaccine,OPV)接种情况,监测脊灰病毒(Poliovirus,PV)流行情况,为维持无脊灰提供参考.方法 在与缅甸接壤的边境6个设区的市(州)中,随机选择保山市、德宏傣族景颇族自治州、临沧市,每个市(州)选择3个县,采用容量比例概率抽样方法,对适龄儿童开展OPV接种率调查,采集健康儿童粪便标本和外环境水样标本,开展PV监测.结果 3个县适龄儿童OPV常规免疫和加强免疫接种率均>95%,在健康人群和外环境中未发现脊灰野病毒和疫苗衍生脊灰病毒.结论 云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区目前仍维持无脊灰状态,应继续加强脊灰监测和OPV免疫.

  15. Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

    2014-05-01

    The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative δCe and δEu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) δ34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological

  16. A 22 570-year record of vegetational and climatic change from Wenhai Lake in the Hengduan Mountains biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y. F.; Song, X. Y.; Wortley, A. H.; Blackmore, S.; Li, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    The Hengduan Mountains, with their strong altitudinal vegetation zonation, form a biodiversity hotspot which offers the potential for comparison between sites in order to understand how this zonation arose and how it has responded to climate change and human impacts through time. This paper presents a 22 570-year pollen record of vegetational and climatic change based on a core 320 cm in depth collected from Wenhai Lake on Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, one of the highest peaks in the Hengduan Mountains region of Yunnan, Southwest China. From 22 570 to 21 140 cal yr BP, the vegetation was dominated by broad-leaved forest (comprising mainly Quercus, Betula and Castanopsis), accompanied by needle-leaved forest (mainly Pinus and Abies), indicating a rather cold and dry climate relative to the present followed by cold and wet conditions. In the period between 21 140 and 19 350 cal yr BP, the vegetation was still dominated by broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest as before but with a notable increase in Betula pollen and a sharp decrease in Quercus pollen, implying a relatively cold and dry climate with several fluctuations in humidity. The period 19 350 to 17 930 cal yr BP was a transition stage from broad-leaved forest to needle-leaved forest, with a dramatic decrease in Quercus pollen and a maximum reading for Abies pollen, reflecting the coldest and driest climate since 22 570 cal yr BP. The expansion in needle-leaved forest dominated by Pinus and Abies (22 570-17 930 cal yr BP) along with an increase of Betula might correspond to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; the start of the LGM perhaps occurred prior to the basal age of the core). Between 17 930 and 9250 cal yr BP, needle-leaved forest declined and broad-leaved forest began to increase at first, suggesting increases in temperature and humidity, while towards the end of the period, needle-leaved forest expanded and broad-leaved forest shrank, indicating a colder and drier climate, possibly corresponding to the

  17. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results were calculated.\tResults:\tPlasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384; that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384 and 17% (67/384 of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384 of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384 false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384 error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384 undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases.\tConclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

  18. Yunnan Gets Set for an Agricultural Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXINGXIANG

    2005-01-01

    HOME to 26 different ethnic nationalities,southwest China's Yunnan Province covers an area of 394,000 square kilometers, on 94 percent of which stand mountains and plateaus. At 6,740 meters above sea level, the province's highest point is the Meili Snow Mountain's Kawagebo Peak. Its lowest, where the Honghe River runs into neighboring Vietnam, is just 76 meters above sea level. Yunnan also has an extremely variable climate. The mountains in the northwestern part are snow-covered all year round, while well-known Xishuangbanna Prefecture enjoys a tropical climate. The weather is most volatile in the mountains, where the four seasons seem to collide and interchange every couple of miles.

  19. Lead isotopic exploration intersecting mineralization zones for the depth forecast of concealed deposits——A case from Longbohe Cu deposit,Jinping, Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉; 邹日

    2000-01-01

    Pb isotopic geochemical exploration intersecting mineralization zones have been well developed in the light of the eigenvalues V1 and V2 of three-dimensional topological projection of Pb isotopic data. The newly developed theoretical model forecasting concealed deposits has been verified in the evaluation of Longbohe copper deposit in Jinping, Yunnan Province, which is consistent with the observed law of depth variation for Pb isotopes. The forecasting results show that the depth of buried major orebody should occur at about -50 to -400 m and deeper within the eastern and western mineralization belts of Longbohe copper deposit.

  20. Crisis-like behavior in China's stock market and its interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangli; Gao, Jianbo; Liang, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    In order for China to play a bigger, more positive role in the world, it is important for China to have a healthy capital market. This perception motivates us to examine the health of China's capital market, especially the severity of the overall loss of the listed companies in China and the effects of accounting irregularities on the losses. We show the overall loss of the listed companies was very severe, in particular, crisis-like behavior emerged in the fourth quarter of 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. We further observe that loss in the fourth quarter was much greater than the average loss of the first three quarters in the same year. The most straightforward interpretation of this loss pattern is that companies underreported losses in the first three quarters, to boost their stock values in most time of the year. However, in the fourth quarter, accounting balance of the whole year dictated that the reported loss in the fourth quarter had to be much greater than the actual loss. Fortunately, such irregularity has been greatly reduced, thanks to the accounting reforms in China in 2007. PMID:25658454

  1. Toward smartphone applications for geoparks information and interpretation systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Tian, Mingzhong; Li, Xingle; Shi, Yihua; Zhou, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Geopark information and interpretation systems are both necessary infrastructure in geopark planning and construction program, and they are also essential for geoeducation and geoconservation in geopark tourism. The current state and development of information and interpretation systems in China's geoparks were presented and analyzed in this paper. Statistics showed that fewer than half of geoparks run websites, and less than that amount maintained database, and less than one percent of all Internet/smartphone applications were used for geopark tourism. The results of our analysis indicated that smartphone applications in geopark information and interpretation systems would provide benefits such as accelerated geopark science popularization and education and facilitated interactive communication between geoparks and tourists.

  2. Security and Stability Analysis for Yunnan Power Grid with Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Qiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is sustainable, renewable and clean energy. There are abundant wind resources in Yunnan province, China. In recent years, wind power integration has developed rapidly in Yunnan province. With the first batch of the wind farm being built and a part of them going into production in Yunnan, the wind power resources will be large-scale developed and utilized in the future. Based on the wind power planning of Yunnan, the impacts of security and stability after wind power are studied in this paper. The major researches are made on the capacity analysis for accessing high-capacity wind farm, the analysis for power system voltage stability and comparison of different wind-generator model structures, thus finding out the most suitable choice for fan selection in Yunnan Power Grid.

  3. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tobacco Field Based on Phenological Characteristics and Time Series Image——A Case Study of Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guangxiong; DENG Lei; CUI Weihong; MING Tao; SHEN Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using three-phase remote sensing images of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS02B) and Landsat-5 TM, tobacco field was extracted by the analysis of time series image based on the different phenological characteristics between tobacco and other crops. The spectral characteristics of tobacco and corn in luxuriant growth stage are very similar, which makes them difficult to be distinguished using a single-phase remote sensing image. Field film after tobacco seedlings transplanting can be used as significant sign to identify tobacco. Remote sensing interpretation map based on the fusion image of TM and CBERS02B's High-Resolution (HR) camera image was used as standard reference material to evaluate the classification accuracy of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) for time series image based on full samples test method. SAM has higher classification accuracy and stability than MLC in dealing with time series image. The accuracy and Kappa of tobacco coverage extracted by SAM are 83.4% and 0.692 respectively, which can achieve the accuracy required by tobacco coverage measurement in a large area.

  4. Exploring that Zhou Bao-zhong Who be a well-educated and trained and legendary---possessed a concept of knowledge about Yunnan ethnic affairs after the founding of China%文武兼备、富于传奇的白子将军--探析建国后周保中对云南民族事务的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳春

    2014-01-01

    Zhou Bao-zhong Who was born in a Wangqiao village of Dali prefecture of Yunnan province on February 7,1902 was a Bai people.Most of his life was spent in a military career and made a great contribution to the cause of China's revolution and nation,so he was be honoured as a Bai son general.After the peaceful liberation of Yunnan province,Zhou Bao-zhong actually presided over the work about daily affairs and military control commission of Yunnan province.As a director position of Yunnan ethnic affairs commission,his understanding of yunnan ethnic affairs mainly reflected his speech in the second conference of southwest ethnic affairs committee on February 2,1951.%周保中,1902年2月7日出生于云南省大理县湾桥村,白族人。他的大部分人生是在戎马生涯中度过的,对中国的革命和民族事业做出了很大贡献,被誉为“白子将军”。云南和平解放后,周保中实际主持着云南省日常事务和军事管制委员会的工作。而身兼云南省民族事务委员会主任职务的周保中,他对云南民族事务的认识主要体现他在1951年2月2日西南民族事务委员会第二次委员会议的讲话上。

  5. 云南省岩溶水地球物理探测实践%Geophysical Prospecting of Karst Water in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the main methods adopted for karst water prospecting in Yunnan province have been resistivity sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, resistivity imaging, etc.. The achievements and problems of the applications of these methods have been discribed in the paper, with valuable experiences summed up and technical parameters specified. And even more important, an optimized procedure for the karst water prospecting has been proposed. That is to adopt resistivity sounding to quickly cover a large area first to outline preliminarily watery sectors, and lay-out boreholes based on the sounding and geological data; then perform nuclear magnetic resonance soundings around each planned borehole location to map out water abundance of an area unit circled by the antenna frame; finally carry out densely-spaced resistivity soundings within the most prospective units to locate water-bearing bodies. The procedure has made the probability of success of drilling greatly increased.

  6. A Study of the Driving Force Model Revealing Changes in Land Utilization Level Based on 3S Technologies--The Example of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin-feng; CHEN Guo-jie; YANG Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the theory and approaches of building driving force models revealing the changes in land utilization level by integrating RS, GPS, and GIS technologies based on the example of Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province. We first created the land utilization type database, natural driving forces for land utilization database, and human driving forces for land utilization database. Then we obtained the dependent and the independent variables of changes in land utilization level by exploring various data. Lastly we screened major factors affecting changes in land utilization level by using the po- werful spatial correlation analysis and main component analysis module of GIS and obtained a multivariable linear regression model of the changes in land utilization level by using GIS spatial regression analysis module.

  7. Historically Interpreting "China Model"%历史性解读“中国模式”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海洋

    2012-01-01

    "China model" has become a major topic of Chinese philosophy and social sciences at present, but some still deny the existence of "China model". So it is necessary to historically interpret it as "real mode" and "desirable model" so that we can dialectically treat China model and neither consider it perfect just because it is an objective reality nor deny its objective existence because of the various problems existing in the reality.%对“中国模式”是否存在,理论界依然存有争议。辩证地、历史性地把中国模式解读为“现实的中国模式”和“愿景的中国模式”,既不会因为中国模式是客观存在的而认为其已尽善尽美,也不会因为现实中存在的种种问题而否认其存在的客观事实。

  8. Differences in the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) by age-sex class at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Li, Dayong; Ren, Baoping; Hu, Jie; Li, Baoguo; Krzton, Ali; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The activity budgets of primates reflect their survival strategy. Despite existing data on the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti), little is known about how activity budgets vary between age-sex classes. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age-sex class, based on observations of the largest habituated group of R. bieti at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8%) than adult males (39.5%), juveniles (39.1%) and infants (14.2%). Females allocated significantly more time to feeding than to any other activity. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5%) than adult females (3.8%). Juveniles allocated less time to grooming than adults. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, the highest proportion among all age-sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons why activity budgets can vary by age-sex class: (1) differential reproductive investment between males and females; (2) developmental differences among the age categories, and (3) social relationships between members of different age-sex classes, particularly dominance. These variations in activity budgets among the different age-sex classes may become a selective pressure in this species. PMID:25591874

  9. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  10. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  11. Lost in translation? A background to action research into teacher education and training in China through interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a background for action research in China. The context is a training programme for Chinese vocational practitioners led by British Teacher Educators, teaching through Chinese interpreters. Teacher education and training in China are outlined, and an author case study provided. Global trends in vocational education have been considered, and reference made to the Chinese government’s plans for reforming and developing education. The Vocational Education and Training (VET programmes have been summarised to set the scene for the action research that will be reported in a further paper, which will consider the ways in which teaching through interpretation affects both learning and teaching on these programmes. In this paper, the following terms apply: the trainer is the United Kingdom (UK Teacher Educator, the interpreter is the member of the Chinese university staff who interprets on the training programme and the teachers are the Chinese teachers attending the training.

  12. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hui; BAI Yu-hua; ZHANG Shu-yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds(VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing(RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVl) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km × 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h.Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 × 1012 gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 × 1011 gCfor isoprene, 2.1 × 1011 gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 × 1011 gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

  13. Research on the Industrial Ecologicalization in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using ecological carrying capacity, ecological footprint method and shift-share analysis and the data from Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook, the status quo of industrial ecologicalization development in Yunnan Province is analyzed from the aspects of consumption of resources and environment, production technology and industrial pollution and industrial structure. The results show that the economic growth in Yunnan Province is based on the huge consumption of resources; the consumption of natural environment has surpassed its carrying capacity; the production technology is relatively backward and the comprehensive use efficiency of the "three wastes" is low; the solid waste emission of the ten thousand GDP far exceeds the average level of the whole county; the total emissions of industrial waste gas and domestic sewage are increasing; the efficiency of industrial structure is bad. On the strength of the analysis, the relevant measures on ecological industrial development in Yunnan Province is put forward, covering strengthening the awareness of saving resources and protecting environment; establishing energy-saving type national economy and social system; actively adjusting industrial structure; strengthening ecological construction of the three major industries.

  14. Recent tectonic stress field zoning in Sichuan-Yunnan region and its dynamic interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; XIE Fu-ren; ZHANG Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we have carefully determined the stress zones in the Sichuan-Yunnan region with reference to the in-situ stress data of hydraulic fracturing and the inverted fault slip data by using the step-by-step convergence method for stress zoning based on focal mechanism solutions. The results indicate that the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region is divided into 3 stress zones by 2 approximately parallel NNW-trending stress transition belts. The area between the 2 belts is the Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone where the maximum principal stress σ1 is just in the NNW direction. The eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the eastern stress transition belt) is basically consistent with the eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the western stress transition belt) is not totally consistent with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The northern segment of the western stress transition belt extends basically along the Jinshajiang fault and accords with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block, while its southern segment does not extend along the southwestern boundary of the rhombic block, i.e., Honghe fault and converge with the eastern stress transition belt, but stretches continuously in the NNW direction and accords with the Yingpanshan fault. We therefore consider that under the combined influence from the northward motion of India Plate, the southeastward shift of east Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the strong obstruction of South China block, the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region might not be totally controlled by the previous tectonic frame and new stress transition belt may have possibly formed.

  15. New Discoveries of Phaeophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian,Haikou, Kunming,Yunnan, Southwest China%云南海口早寒武世褐藻化石新知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2001-01-01

    主要报道了产自云南海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的褐藻化石——拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov.)、简单拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis simplex gen. et sp. nov.)和古文德带藻(Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya) 3种.这些化石丰富了澄江生物群物种的多样性,为研究该群生物爆发性演化提供了新的证据.同时通过对现生褐藻和褐藻化石形态学的比较研究,表明化石属和现代属在系统演化上可能有较密切的亲缘关系,并进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个潮间带和亚潮带的海水环境.%The paper deals with the new phaeophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southwest China. Three new taxa, Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov., P.simplex gen. et sp. nov. and Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. The fossil genus described here is found to have a close relationship with the living Punctaria based on similar morphology. The results suggest that the Chengjiang Biota in Haikou area of Kunming was living in an intertidal and subtidal seawater environment.

  16. 昆明海口早寒武世澄江生物群中叶状红藻化石%Leaf-like Rhodophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian from Haikou,Kunming,Yunnan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the new leaf-like rhodophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Mafang Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southeast China. The new taxa Paradelesseria sanguinea gen. et sp. nov. is found to have a close relationship with the living Delesseria according to detailed morphological study between the fossil and modern Delesseria. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution and its paleoenvironment. The Biota in Haikou district of Kunming was living in subtidal and lower intertidal marine environment, up to 30 m below surface of the water based on the comparative study of extant red algae.%主要报道了采自云南省昆明市海口马房村鞍山早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的叶状红藻-似红叶藻(新属、新种)(Paradelesseria sanguinea Xu,gen.et sp.Nov.).通过比较形态学研究,探讨了该宏观化石藻类的分类归属与亲缘关系,进一步丰富了澄江生物群生物物种多样性的认识,并为研究早寒武世生物演化及其古环境提供了新的化石证据.同时,通过对现生红藻的比较研究,进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个水深在30 m以上的亚潮带和下潮间带的海水环境.

  17. The Occurrence of Longfengshania in the Early Cambrian from Haikou, Yunnan, China%龙凤山藻在澄江早寒武世生物群中的发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2002-01-01

    Well preserved Early Cambrian small individual megascopic carbonaceous algal fossils have been found from the Chengjiang Biota. This paper deals with the new megascopic algal fossils in the Early Cambrian also from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village, Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, southwest China. Two new taxa, Longfengshania cordata sp. nov. and Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov. are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. Moreover, the fossils described here might belong to the megaalgal fossils according to detailed morphological study on the relationships of Longfengshania. Additionally, the occurrence of Longfengshania in the early Cambrian and the Neoproterozoic probably indicates a wide ecological tolerance and flexibility and apparently reflects its evolutionary conservation and a high degree of inherent genetic stability.%主要报道了产自云南昆明海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中可能为自由漂浮生长的宏观藻类化石--心型龙凤山藻(新种)(Longfengshania cordata sp. nov.)和中华豆芽藻(新属、新种)(Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov.).这些化石的发现进一步显示了澄江生物群物种多样性,为揭示该生物群爆发性演化提供了新的证据.通过对龙凤山藻属亲缘关系的深入比较研究,进一步证明该类化石应归属宏观藻类以及它们遗传上的稳定性、演化上的保守性和环境上的适应性.

  18. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China%滇东产(燃)煤区农民肺癌流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继华; 张云生; 李云; 殷国青; 李玥冰; 宁伯福; 国家敏

    2011-01-01

    .37%,主要从事农业生产和做饭、喂养牛猪等室内家务工作,吸烟、职业危害不是女性肺癌的丰要发病因素,但可能是男性肺癌发病比女性严重的影响因素.结论 肺癌高发与室内外烟煤污染、家族易感性有关联,吸烟、采煤、炼焦不是女性肺癌的主要因素.%Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei,and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei.The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province.Methods 382 study units (nature villages) were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China.The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled.AlI the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exp osure history, family and personal medical history, etc.The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination.The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions.Results 5 2, 833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray.604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial

  19. Spatial patterns of dominant species in secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan, Southwest China.%滇中次生常绿阔叶林优势树种的空间格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保双; 付登高; 吴晓妮; 王洪娇; 王琪; 段昌群

    2013-01-01

    By using Ripley' s point pattern analysis, the spatial patterns of the dominant species Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Keteleeria evelyniana in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan of Southwest China as well as the spatial associations among the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were analyzed. Overall, the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were in uniform distribution, indicating that the growth of the two populations was in stable period. The two species and their individuals with different DBH classes had a clumped distribution. With the increase of DBH class, the aggregation degree of C. glaucoides had a decreasing trend, while that of K. evelyniana decreased first, increased then, and decreased at last. A positive or no significant spatial association was observed among the saplings, juvenile trees, and adult trees of the two species. At different spatial scales, the two species of different DBH classes had less association, possibly because of the greater differences in the survival strategies of the two species. It was suggested that in the restoration of the forests in central Yunnan, it would be essential to control the plant population density and attend to the interspecific interaction to build an appropriate structure of the community.%采用Ripley的点格局分析方法对滇中次生常绿阔叶林中优势种滇青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides)和滇油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)的分布格局以及不同径级分株之间的相互关系进行了分析.结果表明:(1)总体来看,两个优势物种各径级株数分布较均匀,二者的增长处于稳定期.(2)两个优势物种在总体上及不同径级阶段主要呈聚集分布.随径级的增加,滇青冈种群的聚集程度逐渐降低,而滇油杉种群的聚集程度呈现降低-增加-降低的趋势.两个优势物种的幼树、中树和大树主要呈空间正相关或无空间关联性.(3)两优势种群不同

  20. 南滚河国家级自然保护区的动物多样性%Animal Diversity in the Nangunhe National-level Nature Reserve of Yunnan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic research on investigation and taxonomy of Botany and Zoology as well as application of the indigenous knowledge to utilization and conservation of biodiversity, the families and species of mammals, distribution types and habitat distribution of birds, and faunas of amphibian and reptiles, types and characteristics of the fish in the area were investigated and analyzed. The terraneous and aquatic animals, the characteristic of animal ecological system, and the characteristic of animal diversity in the nature reserve were discussed. Results indicated that the area is very rich in animal diversity. There are 98 species of mammals in the area belonging to 10 orders, 30 families and 75 genera,which account for 16.14% of 607 species of mammals in China and 32. 23% of Yunnans 304 species of mammals. There are 145 species of birds in the area belonging to 13 orders and 36 families, which account for 17.4% of 824 species of birds in Yunnan. There are 26 species and subspecies of amphibians in the area. There are 39 species and subspecies of reptiles in the area. Fish in the area were divided into 3,2 and 3 types according to the different habitats, the type of water flows and feeding habits respectively and the characteristics of the fish in the area were introduced. The characteristics of the Biogeocenose diversity in the area were analyzed. The main problems of management in the reserve were found. The long-term development targets for the nature reserve were set. Some suggestions for future management were made.%基于系统的植物学和动物学调查和分类学研究,以及乡土知识在生物多样性的利用和保护方面的应用,对分布于保护区的哺乳动物的科和种、鸟类的分布类型和生境分布、两栖和爬行动物的区系、鱼类的类型和特点作了调查分析,讨论了分布于保护区的陆生和水生动物、动物的生态系统和多样性特征.结果表明:保护区的

  1. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Bai ethnic group in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899 took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899 of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control.

  2. Lessons from Participatory Evaluation of Cropping Practices in Yunnan Province, China: Overview of the Effectiveness of Technologies and Issues Related to Technology Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Milne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing crop production, while maintaining sustainability, is a priority for agricultural development projects, particularly in developing countries. This study investigated the factors contributing to the effectiveness of agricultural development projects in improving the sustainability of cropping systems in a small upland watershed in south-west China. This involved a review of recent related projects and detailed evaluation of one project: the SHASEA Project. Farmers’ perceptions of several agricultural technologies are discussed, along with factors contributing to farmers’ adoption of these technologies. Local, national and international institutions need to adopt several strategies to improve project effectiveness and agro-environmental sustainability.

  3. Direct versus indirect climate controls on Holocene diatom assemblages in a sub-tropical deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu, Yunnan, SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Xiangdong; Anderson, Nicholas John; Dong, Xuhui

    2016-07-01

    The reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in lakes on the plateau region of southwest China provides an understanding of how these ecosystems may respond to climate change. Fossil diatom assemblages were investigated from an 11,000-year lake sediment core from a deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu) in southwest China, an area strongly influenced by the southwest (or the Indian) summer monsoon. Changes in diatom assemblage composition, notably the abundance of the two dominant planktonic species, Cyclotella rhomboideo-elliptica and Cyclostephanos dubius, reflect the effects of climate variability on nutrient dynamics, mediated via thermal stratification (internal nutrient cycling) and catchment-vegetation processes. Statistical analyses of the climate-diatom interactions highlight the strong effect of changing orbitally-induced solar radiation during the Holocene, presumably via its effect on the lake's thermal budget. In a partial redundancy analysis, climate (solar insolation) and proxies reflecting catchment process (pollen percentages, C/N ratio) were the most important drivers of diatom ecological change, showing the strong effects of climate-catchment-vegetation interactions on lake functioning. This diatom record reflects long-term ontogeny of the lake-catchment ecosystem and suggests that climatic changes (both temperature and precipitation) impact lake ecology indirectly through shifts in thermal stratification and catchment nutrient exports.

  4. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China%滇东产(燃)煤区农民肺癌流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继华; 张云生; 李云; 殷国青; 李玥冰; 宁伯福; 国家敏

    2011-01-01

    .37%,主要从事农业生产和做饭、喂养牛猪等室内家务工作,吸烟、职业危害不是女性肺癌的丰要发病因素,但可能是男性肺癌发病比女性严重的影响因素.结论 肺癌高发与室内外烟煤污染、家族易感性有关联,吸烟、采煤、炼焦不是女性肺癌的主要因素.%Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei,and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei.The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province.Methods 382 study units (nature villages) were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China.The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled.AlI the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exp osure history, family and personal medical history, etc.The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination.The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions.Results 5 2, 833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray.604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial

  5. Medical professionalism in China and the United States: a transcultural interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter)(1). More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. PMID:25794294

  6. Contributing factors to the failure of an unusually large landslide triggered by the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan, China, Ms = 6.5 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z. F.; Chen, X. L.; An, X. W.; Cui, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    The 3 August 2014 Ludian, China, Ms = 6.5 earthquake caused many large landslides. The biggest occurred at Hongshiyan near the epicenter, had a volume of 1.0 × 107 m3 and dammed the Niulanjiang River, creating a large lake. Post-event field investigations yielded detailed data on the following aspects: rock structure of the landslide, the local lithology and geometry of the area around the landslide dam and composition and grain sizes of the debris avalanche. Based on these data, this work analyzes the geology and topography of the Hongshiyan area, and explores reasons for the occurrence of an unusually large landslide at this location. Our analysis suggests the following conditions are responsible for this catastrophic event. (1) Due to recent crustal deformation, intense incision on the river increased topographic relief with steep slopes and scarps. (2) Combined structures, including unloading fissures, high-angle joints and low-angle beds along the river, as well as an upper-strong and lower-weak interlayer structure on the slope, especially the existence of weak layers in the slope, are important factors that contribute to this large failure. (3) Hongshiyan lies near an active fault, where intense crustal deformation has resulted in rock fractures and weathering, and frequent earthquakes may progressively reduce the strength of the slope. (4) During the Ms = 6.5 earthquake, the terrain and site conditions led to abnormally strong ground shaking. The combined impacts of these factors triggered a very large landslide during a moderate-sized earthquake.

  7. Eclipses and Occultations of Galilean Satellites Observed at Yunnan Observatory in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Peng; Beno(i)t Noyelles

    2007-01-01

    We describe and analyze observations of mutual events of Galilean satellites made at the Yunnan Observatory in February 2003 from CCD imaging for the first time in China.Astrometric positions were deduced from these photometric observations by modelling the relative motion and the photometry of the involved satellites during each event.

  8. Isotope geochemistry of the Huize Zn-Pb ore field, Yunnan province, Southwestern China. Implication for the sources of ore fluid and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huize ore field, which is the most famous high-grade Zn-Pb ore field in China, comprises the Kuangshanchang and Qilinchang deposits. The Zn and Pb reserves of these two deposits are more than 5 Mt with ore grades ranging from 25% to 35% in weight. Lead, sulfur, carbon oxygen, hydrogen and strontium isotope geochemistry is reported to help understand the sources of the ore fluid and metals. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values of the ores range from 18.251-18.530, 15.663-15.855 and 38.487-39.433, respectively. These values are similar to those of the wall rocks. The pyrites disseminated in the wall rocks have indistinguishable Pb isotope composition with the ores. These data indicate that the wall rocks provided metals to the ore fluid. Most δ34S values of the ores range from 13 to 17 per mil. The sulfur of the ores originated by in situ reduction sulfate. Three kinds of gangue calcite from the ores have similar isotope compositions, which have δ13C values in the range of -2.1 to -3.5 per mil with respect to PDB and δ18O values in the range of 16.8 to 18.6 per mil with respect to SMOW. The δDFI values of fluid inclusions in the three kinds of gangue calcites have a narrow range of -50 to -60 per mil and the δ18OH2O values calculated from δ18O values of calcite range from 7.0 to 8.8 per mil at 200degC. These data suggest that the ore fluid was a basinal brine that passed through shale, clastic rocks and mudstone underlying the host rock. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the pyrite, sphalerite and calcite from the ores range from 0.714 to 0.717. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of unaltered host rock (0.7083-0.7093) are lower than that of the altered host rock (0.7106). It suggests that the ore fluids have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr values than the wall rocks. These high initial 87Sr/86Sr values may be due to the reaction between the ore fluid and the shale, clastic rocks and mudstone underlying the host rock or the fluid might have originated from these

  9. Numerical simulation of the influence of lower-crustal flow on the deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; CAO Jian-ling; ZHANG Huai; ZHANG Guo-min; SHI Yao-lin; SHEN Xu-hui

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of distribution of active fault and regional rheological structure, a three-dimensional finite element model of Sichuan-Yunnan region, China, is constructed to simulate contemporary crustal motion and stress distribution and discuss the dynamic mechanism of crustal motion and deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. Linear Maxwell visco-elastic model is applied, which includes the active fault zones, the elastic upper crust and viscous lower crust and upper mantle. Four different models with different boundary conditions and deep structure are calculated. Some conclusions are drawn through comparison. Firstly, the crustal rotation about the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya in the Sicuan-Yunnan region may be controlled by the special dynamic boundary condition. The drag force of the lower-crust on the upper crust is not negligible. At the same time, the main active fault zones play an important role in the contemporary crustal motion and deformation in Sichuan-Yunnan region.

  10. Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015%云南省中缅边境2015年一起登革热暴发的分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 杨明东; 姜进勇; 李华昌; 朱崇革; 桂琴; 卜力群; 周红宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region,Yunnan province,2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention.Methods Semi-nested RT-PCR was conducted to detect the capsid pre-membrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township,Gengma county,Yunnan province in July,2015.Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene.The positive PCR products were directly sequenced.Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program.Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank,including the representative strains from different countries and regions.Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software.Results Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1.Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus.A total of 13 strains with E gene (1 485 bp),including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains,were sequenced,which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype Ⅰ of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage.Conclusions This outbreak was caused by genotype Ⅰ of DENV-1,which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area.Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.%目的 对2015年云南省中缅边境一起登革热暴发查明病因,对流行的登革病毒(DENV)

  11. Geodynamic setting of mineralization of Mississippi Valley-type deposits in world-class Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Zn-Pb triangle, southwest China: Implications from age-dating studies in the past decade and the Sm-Nd age of Jinshachang deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Wu, Yue; Hou, Lin; Mao, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou (S-Y-G) Zn-Pb triangle is a world-class metallogenic belt in southwestern China that contains hundreds of carbonate-hosted giant-to-small epigenetic Zn-Pb deposits. Here, we provide an overview of the ore geology, geochemistry and ore-forming fluids of the major Zn-Pb deposits in this area. These deposits are most likely Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits that formed as a result of the regional migration of basinal brines along large fault systems and more minor secondary structures. The Sm-Nd age (201 ± 6.2 Ma) of ore-stage fluorite from the Jinshachang Zn-Pb deposit, within northeast Yunnan province, China, reveals this deposit formed during the Late Triassic, consistent with the majority of the published isotopic ages for other Zn-Pb deposits in the S-Y-G MVT triangle. These fluorite samples have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.711385-0.711463 and εNd values of -8.4 to -8.7, confirming the basin-related nature of the mineralizing fluids. Published geochronological data combined with basic features of MVT deposits (e.g., geology, geochemistry, and ore-forming fluids) and the geological evolution of the study area has enabled us to develop a model for the Zn-Pb mineralization, where this word-class MVT belt has formed as a result of the regional-scale migration of basinal fluids coincident with tectonic activity along ore-controlling structures (e.g., thrust-fold systems). Both the fluid migration and the tectonic activity were probably triggered by the late Indosinian Orogeny, which in turn was a response to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  12. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  13. 云南鹤庆锰矿碳氧同位素特征分析%Characteristics of Carbon and Oxygen Isotope in Heqing Manganese Deposit,Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 温兴平; 常海亮; 刘灿; 李林强

    2013-01-01

    Heqing manganese deposit is located in the southwestern margin of Yangtze platform in Yunnan Province,China.Carbon and oxygen isotopes indicate that Songgui Formation which is the main ore bearing stratum experienced one transgression and another long-term regression.The paleotemperature derived from oxygen isotopes are higher due to the exchange of oxygen isotope between biological (algae) metabolites and seawater,changes in paleoclimate and sea depth.The paleosalinity show normal marine sediments and there are good correlation between the paleosalinity and the value of δ13 C.δ18O values from cores are higher mainly owing to the variation of paleosalinity,which are good correlation with δ3C value.With the sea level falling,the possibility of buried organic was decreased,which led to negative values of δ13 C.Through a comprehensive analysis of carbon and oxygen isotopes,it is concluded that the depositional environment was at least a semi-enclosed shallow or near continental basin.With uplifting of Yangze platform continuously and climate changing from humid,hot into arid gradually,the manganese ores were formed accompanied by falls in sea level.%云南鹤庆锰矿位于扬子地台西南缘,对其岩石样品的碳氧同位素分析表明,上三叠统松桂组经历了一次海进和一次漫长的海退期.生物(藻类)代谢与海水发生同位素交换、古气候环境的变化和古海水深度的变化都使反演的古温度偏高;古盐度分析显示正常海相沉积特征,略低的盐度与碳同位素偏低有关.钻孔样品的氧同位素主要由盐度变化而产生一个高值范围,且对应碳同位素低值区,由于海平面下降,有机质埋藏率低导致碳同位素向负值漂移.根据以上分析认为,沉积时期的环境至少是一个半局限的浅海近陆源盆地,伴随扬子地台不断抬升,气候由潮湿、炎热转变为干燥的大陆性气候,锰矿的形成也是伴随海退海水变浅而沉积成矿.

  14. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  15. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 王晶; 董文鸽; 张励; 马志敏; 李伟

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.%在对云南省9个县,市,抽样调查的基础上,本文对境内小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构进行了研究.物种多样性用物种丰富度表示,多样性指数及均匀度计算采用Shannon-Wiener方法.所捕获的2745只小兽经分类鉴定隶属啮齿目、食虫目、攀目、兔形目和食肉目5个目中的10科、25属、41种.从各种小兽突主体表共采集到吸虱昆虫18165只,经分类鉴定隶属4科、6属、22种,其种类明显少于突主种类.几科每种小兽突主体表都有固定的吸虱种类寄生,但吸怅是种类数很少(1-4种).动物分类上接近的突主,其体表的优势

  16. New Height in A New Stage Interpretation of the 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    The 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Wujiang) held on Sep. 1st, 2011 discussed in depth the world chemical fiber changes and the predictable development of China's chemical fiber industry during the "12th Five-Year Program" period. In order to help readers fully understand China's chemical fiber industry's development priorities during that period, the article will give an interpretation on the two themes of the conference "Innovation-Driven" and "Green & Low Carbon"

  17. On intemational trade in educational services: an interpretation of the regulations and China's WTO commitments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS)of the World Trade Organization(WTO)covers educational trade services.Hence,all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services.Having acceded to the WTO.China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely respecting international trade,services and intellectual property laws.At the same time,it is also starting to fulfill some of the commitments it made in the GATS,such as expanding activities on trade in educational services.Comprehending the fundamental regulations and China's commitments is significant towards promoting China's international trade in educational services.

  18. Land Use Change During 1960~2000 Period and its Eco-environmental Effects in the Middle and Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River:a Case Study in Yiliang County,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui; LIU Yansui; HE Yimei

    2004-01-01

    Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is a focus of the research of global environmental changes. The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, which are the most ecologically fragile mountainous area in China as well as one of the areas in China with most notable LUCC, have been on the Chinese Government's list of priority areas for ecological restoration. This paper is to reveal the trend of LUCC and the ecological degradation arising from it, and to provide a basis for the future sustainable use of land resources in the region based on a detailed analysis of Yiliang County. Based on the county's land use/cover maps in 1960, 1980 and 2000 drawn with the aid of aerial photograph interpretation, field investigation and GIS based spatial-temporal data analysis, LUCC during 1960~2000 period and the ecological degradation arising from it were analyzed. Using the Markv model, the paper brings out a forecast of what the county's LUCC would be like if the county's current land use continues, as well as the reasons and countermeasures for restoring degraded ecosystems.

  19. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  20. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  1. 云南省马铃薯晚疫病菌交配型及生物学特性研究(英文)%MATING TYPE AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Phytophthora infestans ISOLATES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立耘; 杨艳丽; 罗文富

    2002-01-01

    作者对1998~2000年间采自云南省13个县、23个地点的马铃薯晚疫病菌的交配型、菌落形态、燕麦培养基上生长情况、生长速度和产孢量进行了测定.结果显示,采自云南13个县、23个地点的共157个菌株全部为A1交配型,表明云南马铃薯主产区的晚疫病菌以A1交配型为主,同时,被测的代表菌株在生长速度和产孢量上存在显著差异,表明这一地区的晚疫病菌种群内存在丰富的遗传多样性.此外,结果还显示,晚疫病菌菌株在燕麦培养基上的生长情况与其菌落形态和交配型不相关.%Phytophthora infestans from potatoes collected from Yunnan Province during 1998 to 2000 were investigated for their mating type, colony growth pattern, ability to grow on oatmeal agar, linear growth rate and amount of sporangia produced. A total of 157 isolates from 23 locations in 13 counties in Yunnan were all A1 mating type. Representative isolates showed significant variation in growth rate and amount of sporangia produced, which indicate the existence of genetic diversity among the population of P. infestans in Yunnan. Results also show that colony growth pattern and the growth on oatmeal agar did not relate to the mating type of the isolate.

  2. THE FEATURES AND INVESTIGATION OUTLINE OF KARST WATER SYSTEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%云南省岩溶水系统特征及调查要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    First, the regional karst condition and features of karst drainage basin in Yunnan are delineated. And then, the karst water systems are divided into the different grades according to the differences of hydrogeological condition and features. The first grade is the karst water system. The second grade includes shallow-circulating and deep-circulating karat water systems. The third grade of karst water systems includes five basic types: exposed; exposed-covered; exposed-buried; stratabound and fault zone. Furthermore, the hydrogeological features and investigation outline of each type of karst water are put forward in this paper.

  3. Interpreting seasonal changes of low-tropospheric CO2 over China based on SCIAMACHY observations during 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Xingying, Zhang; Liyang, Zhang; Ling, Gao; Lin, Tian

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration exhibits a strong seasonal variation. Analyzing the regional seasonal cycle could help to improve the interpretation of the sources and sinks of CO2 over certain areas. Based on a long-term (2003-2011) retrieved dataset from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variations of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) over China have been analyzed. The result shows that XCO2 over China increases by about 4.2% from 2003 to 2011, but the seasonal fluctuation keeps the similar pattern with the average peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.35 ppm. The highest concentration appears in spring, and the lowest value always occurs in summer. Based on the multi-year averages, it can be discerned that the seasonal signal of XCO2 increases during colder seasons with a drop during the period from December to February of the following year. The potential affecting factors are also discussed in this manuscript, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), air temperature, and industrial productions in Thermal Power Generation (TPG) and cement that are relative main contributors for the anthropogenic CO2 of China. The seasonal variations of CO2 are highly connected with the changes of NDVI and air temperature. While the increase of the anthropogenic CO2 emission over China since 2003 is probably caused by the rapid growth of coal combustion and cement manufacture.

  4. INTERPRETING OVERALL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL CAPITAL, HUMAN CAPITAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...

  5. Wood-decaying fungi in eastern Himalayas 1.Polypores from Zixishan Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, China%东喜马拉雅山地区木材腐朽菌研究1.云南紫溪山自然保护区的多孔菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成; 周丽伟; STEFFENKari

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven polypore species were identified from materials collected in the Zixishan Nature Reserve,Yunnan Province,China.A checklist of these species is supplied and the host tree or substrate of each species is listed.Most of the species are reported for the first time in Yunnan Province.Wolfiporia castanopsis Y.C.Dai (Polyporales,Basidiomycota) is described as new.It is characterized by resupinate basidiocarps,cream to ash-grey pore surface,ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid spores and by growth on wood of Castanopsis.It is similar to Wolfiporia cocos which,however,has cylindrical basidiospores (8- 11 ×3-4μm) and its basidiocarp is normally on sclerotia.%在云南紫溪山自然保护区的木材腐朽菌研究中发现87种多孔菌,其中多数是云南首次报道,给出了每种的寄主和生长基质.锥沃菲卧孔菌Wolfiporia castanopsis为一新种,其特点为子实体平伏,孔口表面奶油色至浅灰色,担孢子椭圆形至广椭圆形,且生长在元江锥腐朽木上;该种与茯苓沃菲卧孔菌Wolfiporia cocos具有相似的孔口,但后者的担孢子为圆柱形,且通常生长在菌核上.

  6. Thirty years of research: interpretations of the equal sign in China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined students' conceptions about the equal sign in light of historical findings with an international comparison group. Textbooks for preparation of students as mathematics teachers were examined. Participants were sixth-grade students from the USA (n = 105) and China (n = 145). About 98% of the Chinese children correctly answered all items by providing conceptually accurate explanations, but only 28% of the U.S. sample did. Textbooks for education majors who would teach in the USA rarely discussed the equal sign as equivalence while the Chinese texts introduced the "equal sign" in a context of relationships and discussed it as "balance," "sameness," or "equivalence." PMID:18232434

  7. 高黎贡山赧亢东白眉长臂猿春秋季食谱及食物结构%Diet and Dietary Composition of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon at Nankang,Mt.Gaoligong,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 吴建普; 周伟; 艾怀森; 蔺如涛

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the diet and dietary composition of eastern hoolock gibbons (Hoolock leuconedys),to un-derstand how their diet and dietary composition changes seasonally and annually,and to probe the strategies and a-dapting mechanism of eastern hoolock gibbons reply to the food changes,we conducted field observation at Nan-kang,Mt.Gaoligong,Yunnan,China.The feeding habits and behaviors of eastern hoolock gibbons in the spring and the autumn of 2007 and 2008 were observed and recorded using focal animal sampling method.Feeding behav-iors of eastern hoolock gibbons were divided into eating leaves,fruits,worms,flowers and stems,and drinking fruit juice.Their dietary composition was divided into fruits,young leaves,flowers,stems and animal matters.Mean-while,the feeding amount and percentage of each vegetative food source and dietary composition were compared and calculated.The results showed that eastern hoolock gibbons had 16 vegetative food sources in spring and 23 in autumn.Four sources in spring and 5 in autumn accounted for a relatively high proportion among all food sources. The Shannon-Wiener index of the vegetative food sources in autumn was higher than that in spring and 5 vegetative food sources overlapped in springs and autumns between 2007 and 2008.The result of Crosstabsχ2 test showed that the feeding amount of the 5 overlapping vegetative food sources was strikingly different when the same season was compared.Although the results showed that Shannon-Wiener index of the types of the vegetative dietary composition in spring was higher than that in autumn,yet the dietary compositions in spring and autumn were similar,i.e. fruits accounted for the majority,followed by young leaves,flowers and stems in turn;animal food were hunted in both spring and autumn,but this phenomenon only occurred occasionally.The fact that diet of eastern hoolock gib-bons at Nankang,Mt.Gaoligong varied from season to season could be regarded as their adaptation to the changes of

  8. Yunnan province reports hefty growth of foreign investment%云南省吸引外资大幅增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Southwest China's Yunnan Province reported a hefty growth of foreign investment.It approved 181 foreign-invested projects in the first three quarters,with contractual foreign funds amounting to US$1.23 8 billion, and actual use of foreign funds of US8500 million, surging 45.97%, 94.64% and 63.23% year on year respectively.

  9. Modeling and Interpreting CHAMP Magnetic Anomaly Field over China Continent Using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanyuan; Liu Qingsheng; Yang Tao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the CHAMP Magsat data set, spherical cap harmonic analysis was used to model the magnetic fields over China continent. The data set used in the analysis includes the 15′×15′ gridded values of the CHAMP anomaly fields (latitude φ=25°N to 50°N and longitude λ=78°E to 135°E). The pole of the cap is located at φ=35°N and λ=110°E with half-angle of 30°. The maximum index (Kmax) of the model is 30 and the total number of model coefficients is 961, which corresponds to the minimum wavelength at the earth's surface about 400 km. The root mean square (RMS) deviations between the calculated and observed values are ~ 4 nT for ΔX, ~ 3 nT for ΔY and ~ 3.5 nT for ΔZ, respectively. Results show that positive anomalies are found mainly at the Tarim basin with ~6- 8 nT, the Yangtze platform and North China platform with ~4 nT, and the Songliao basin with ~4-6 nT. In contrast, negative anomaly is mainly located in the Tibet orogenic belt with the amplitude ~ (-6)-(-8) nT. Upward continuation of magnetic anomalies was used to semi-quantitatively separate the magnetic anomalies in different depths of crust. The magnetic anomalies at the earth's surface are from -6 to 10 nT for upper crust, middle crust -27 to 42 nT and lower crust -12 to 18 nT, respectively. The strikes of the magnetic anomalies for the upper crust are consistent with those for the middle crust, but not for the lower crust. The high positive magnetic anomalies mainly result from the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block (e.g. middle Sichuan continental nucleus, middle Tarim basin continental nucleus, Junggar diastrophic block and Qaidam diastrophic block). The amplitudes of the magnetic anomalies of the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block are related to evolution of deep crust. These results improve our understanding of the crustal structure over China continent.

  10. Alleviating poverty or reinforcing inequality? Interpreting micro-finance in practice, with illustrations from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Becky Yang

    2014-06-01

    Academic and political discussions about micro-finance have been found lacking in predictive power, because they are based on orthodox economic theory, which does not properly comprehend the social components of credit. I take a better approach, utilizing credit theory--specifically, Ingham's explication of how the nature of money as credit leads to social inequality. I also expound the perspective that morality is not separate from considerations borrowers make in micro-finance programmes on the micro level. I draw upon illustrations from my fieldwork in rural China, where a group-lending micro-finance programme was administered as part of a larger government-initiated effort across the country. PMID:24784017

  11. 对中国梦的三重解读%Interpretations on China Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾林

    2013-01-01

    Chinese dream is the country dream , the national dream and every Chinese person's dream . The dream of China has its unique connotation , value and profound historical background . This is the requirement of China's development since modern times . We should not only be confined to its own understanding on Chinese dream , but also need contrast with the American dream and the European dream so that we can deepen our understanding of the Chinese dream . Chinese dream as a kind of ideal and belief has its theoretical foundation . It takes individual as its starting point with the basic point of realism and idealism in accordance with the Marxism .%中国梦是国家梦,是民族梦,也是每个中国人的梦。中国梦具有自己独特的内涵和价值维度,它的提出具有深刻的历史背景,是中国近代以来发展的必然要求。对中国梦的理解不能仅局限于对其本身的理解,还需要通过与美国梦、欧洲梦的对比,加深对中国梦的理解。中国梦作为一种理想信念有其理论基础,它以现实的个人作为出发点,它所具有的现实性和理想性都符合马克思主义的基本观点。

  12. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  13. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized. PMID:12148068

  14. The coexistence of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia Town, Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Ji; Wu, Fei; HU, Wan-Zhao; FANG, Jian-Ling; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of ecologically similar species sharing sympatric areas is a central issue of community ecology. Niche differentiation is required at least in one dimension to avoid competitive exclusion. From 2012-2014, by adopting the methods of mist-nets and point counts to evaluate spatial niche partitioning and morphological differentiations, we explored the coexistence mechanisms of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia town, Yunnan Province, China. The microhabitats of the...

  15. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    OpenAIRE

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish) language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone sp...

  16. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe. PMID:25685905

  17. Interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu region, eastern China and implications for deep geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Sutao; LIU Qingsheng; QIAO Qingqing; FU Yuanyuan

    2007-01-01

    By using data on the 1:100 000 aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu orogenic belt, we designed three simu-lated geotraverses, in which deep seismic reflection and other geophysical investigations have been completed. Based on the features of magnetism of the three profiles, and under the constraints of deep seismic reflection data, together with the magnetism of the core petrology at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) pilot-hole and areal geology, the three inversions of magnetic anomalies are carried out. The characteristics of terrane structure are presented: the rocks are mostly composed of eclogite, marble, and gneiss at the depth of 5 km. At the depth between 5 and 7 km under the surface,inverse magnetic bodies are mainly the ultra high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rock slices containing a lot of coesite-bearing eclogite. At the depth between 7 km and the bottom of upper crust are the rocks of the gneiss, granite and granite diorite that underwent ultra high pressure metamorphic process. Middle crust (10-19 km) is mostly composed ofUHPM gneiss and granite that intruded later. The rocks ofacid and basic granulite dominate the lower crust. Based on the inversed results of the three simulated geotraverses, we know that the UHPM rock slices of the three profiles are dipping north, stacking each other and being uplifted to the earth's surface, which may be the result of the North China craton's subduction and exhumation in the Triassic.

  18. 基于线粒体控制区的云南澜沧江和海南岛主要水系宽额鳢遗传变异分析%THE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION BASED ON MTDNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCES OFCHANNA GACHUS IN THE LANCANG RIVER IN YUNNAN PROVINCE AND THE MAIN RIVERS IN HAINAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 章群; 郜星晨; 宫亚运; 曹艳

    2015-01-01

    Channa gachus is a tropical and subtropical species of freshwater carnivorous fish, and they have highly or-namental and economic values in original origins.C. gachus usually live in slow-flow rivers, ditches and ponds.As for in China, they mainly inhabit in the Irrawaddy River, the Nujiang River and the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, as well as in some rivers in Hainan Province. Due to the extensive hydraulic construction, river pollution and overfishing, the number of the fish has sharply decreased. To develop effective strategies of protecting its germplasm, it is important to investigate the genetic variance and the structure of the population of this species. Previous studies have focused on the chromosome and the isoenzyme of C. gachus, as well as the phylogenetic relationship betweenC. gachusand other species in the same genus.However, the genetic backgound of this fish remains obsecure. In the present study, we sequenced 411 bp segments of mitochondrial DNA control regions of 74C. gachusindi-viduals collected from 9 populations in the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, and the Nandu River, the Wanquan River and the Changhua River in Hainan Province of China. We observed 52 mutations of nucleotide acids and 20 haplotypes. There were 3 haplotypes shared by 5 populations in Hainan Province, whereas all other haplotypes were unique in each population. We observed 3 distinct lineages in the Kimura2-parameter-based Neighbour-Joining tree. One of them was from Yunnan, and the other 2 were from Hainan—one was the Maoyang population from the Changhua River, another was from the Nandu River and the Wanquan River, and the rest two populations were from the Changhua River. The pairwise fixation indexFstwas 0.786—0.672, the gene flow was 0.153—0.244, and the inter-clade variation accounted for 74.352% of the total variation. These data indicated a significant genetic differentiation between the 3 clades. The differentiation time of the 3 clades was 2.070—0

  19. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  20. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Landraces of Waxy Maize from Yunnan and Guizhou Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-jian; HUANG Yu-bi; RONG Ting-zhao; TIAN Meng-liang; YANG Jun-pin

    2005-01-01

    Waxy maize landraces are abundant in Yunnan and Guizhou of China. Genetic diversity of waxy maize landraces from Yunnan and Guizhou were analyzed using SSR markers. We screened 38 landraces with 50 primers that generated 3 to 6 polymorphic bands, with an average of 4.13 bands. Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan varied from 4.9571 to 42.1138 and averaged 26.5252; Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou varied from 22.0066 to 40.6320 and averaged 32.3156. For the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 45.40% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 54.60% of the total genetic diversity observed. For the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 50.76% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 49.24% of the total observed. Some individual landraces possessed as much as 96.86% of the total genetic diversity occurring among landraces within origins. Differentiation between geographic origins accounted for only 3.14% of the total genetic diversity. Both Yunnan and Guizhou would be the diversity centers and the original centers of waxy maize.

  1. Folk Nomenclature and Management Practices of Rattan in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Southwest China%云南西双版纳棕榈藤的民俗和经营方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Experience shows that sustainable development of natural resources cannot be made without the full support of the local community and participation of indigenous people at the local level. In Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, the indigenous people have established a close relati onship with their natural resources and lively environment, which is based on practices for the sustainable development and conservation of these resources. Genetic diversity of plants like rattan is managed and enhanced among indigenous communities through their agriculture and forestry practices, such as folk classification, Sangpabawa, and Qeiya-aneya, which are discussed in the paper.%经验表明:在当地的水平上,自然资源的可持续发展没有使当地的群落完全投入以及本地人们的参与.云南的西双版纳,在资源的可持续和保护的基础上,当地人与自然资源和生存环境建立了非常紧密的关系.植物的遗传多样性,如棕榈藤的管理是通过农业和林业的方式在当地的群落中实施,如民间传统的桑帕巴哇(村社藤类保护林)和旱谷地-藤园(轮歇地棕榈藤传统栽培体系).

  2. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  3. Multivariate Analysis, Description, and Ecological Interpretation of Weed Vegetation in the Summer Crop Fields of Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng QIANG

    2005-01-01

    Two surveys were conducted to investigate weed vegetation in a 153-hm2 sampling area of summer crop fields from Anhui Province, China, through visual scoring of the level of weed infestation compared with summer crops on a seven-class scale. In total, 155 sampling sites were selected in the field based on crops, tillage, rotation systems, geographical regions, and soil types across the province. Data on weed communities and environmental factors were collected and analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and the output was interpreted ecologically. Results showed that the main factors influencing the structure and distribution of weed communities in summer crop fields were the soil submersion period, latitude, and soil type and pH. The CCA indicated a significant relationship between weed dominance and soil submersion duration, latitude, and soil pH. From the result of the PCA and CCA ordination, the 155 sampling sites could be divided into three groups based on geographic and floristic composition, as well as weed abundance. The southern dry land group, which was characterized by a double-cropping system in the hilly regions of southern and central Anhui Province with a continuous summer crop and an autumn dry land crop, was dominated by Galium aparine Linn. var. tenerum (Gren. et Godr) Robb., Avenafatua L., and Veronica persica Poir. The northern dry land group, which had the same cropping system as the southern dry land group, was dominated by G. aparine var. tenerun, Galium tricorne Stokes, Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur., and Lithospermum arvense L. in the North Anhui Province, China. These two dry land groups could be combined into one large dry land group, in which the Galium weed vegetation type dominated. The third group was the paddy soil group, which was characterized by a continu ous summer crop and double- or triple-cropping systems of rice, and prevailed in the south and central areas of Anhui

  4. Community structure and regeneration characteristics of Taxus yunnanensis in northwest Yunnan Province of Southwest China%滇西北云南红豆杉群落结构与更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万德; 李帅锋; 张志钧; 苏建荣

    2012-01-01

    Taking the Taxus yunnanensis communities in northwest Yunnan Province as test ob-jects and based on the field investigation data at three sites ( Lanping, Xianggelila, and Ninglang counties) of northwest Yunnan, this paper analyzed the species composition, species diversity, stem size class, and regeneration features of the T. yunnanensis communities. The dominant spe-cies in the T. yunnanensis communities were Yushania niitakayamensis, Tsuga dumosa, T. yun-nanensis , Betula albo-sinensis, and Fargesia yunnanensis. Xianggelila had the higher species richness of family, genus, and shrubs than the other two counties, but no significant differences were observed in the species richness of trees and lianas and the total species richness among the three counties. Lanping and Xianggelila had the higher species richness and abundance at smal-ler size classes (DBH < 5 cm) , while Ninglang had the highest species richness and abundance at the second diameter class (1 cm≤DBH < 5 cm) and height class (5 cm≤H<10 m). The wild T. yunnanensis population had weak regeneration ability through seedling, but had stronger sprouting ability. The ratio of the stems through sprouting to through seedling was 1. 314. The major sprouting types at all of the three sites were stem basal sprouting and stem epicormic sprou-ting. Ninglang had the highest sprouting stems, but all the three sites had no significant differ-ences in the mean diameter and height of sprouting stems.%以云南西北部云南红豆杉(Taxus yunnanensis)群落为研究对象,利用在兰坪县、香格里拉县和宁蒗县的野外样地调查数据,分析了云南红豆杉群落物种组成、多样性、结构及云南红豆杉更新特征.结果表明:云南红豆杉群落主要物种包括玉山竹(Yushania niitakayamensis)、云南铁杉(Tsuga dumosa)、云南红豆杉、红桦(Betula albo-sinensis)和云南箭竹(Fargesia yunnanensis).香格里拉县具有较高的科、属、灌木物种丰富度,但乔木、

  5. 云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨种群生态学研究%Study on population ecology of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽琴; 郭宪国; 任天广; 王乔花; 吴滇; 闫毅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical distribution, habitat, dominant hosts and population spatial distribution patterns of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan province. Methods A total of 28 counties in five zoogeographical subregions were chosen as the investigated sites. Each investigated site was divided into two habitats (indoors and outdoors) and then small mammal hosts were randomly captured by mouse traps. All the gamasid mites from the body surface of the hosts were collected and preserved in 70% ethanol. Hoyer's medium was used to mount the mites onto glass slides and each mite specimen was finally identified by microscope. The spatial pattern of the mite was analyzed by K-value of negative binomial distribution,patchiness index, Taylor' s power function and Iwao' s model. Results A total of 3339 O. bacoti were collected from 11 560 captured small mammal hosts which belonged to 3 orders 4 families 8 genera and 15 species. Of the investigated 28 counties,0. bacoti was found in 21 counties and the mites were collected from 15 species of small mammal hosts. O.bacoti mainly distributed in Southwest region (accounted for 90% of the total), and the quantity of O. bacoti in indoors (2914, 87.27%) were obviously higher than that in outdoors (425, 12.73%). 90% mites mainly parasitized on the body surface ofRattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi which were the dominant host of mites. The results showed that the spatial pattern of O. bacoti was an aggregated distribution.Conclusion O. bacoti widely distributes in Yunnan province and mainly parasitizes on the body surface of R, norvegicus and R. tanezumi. It is of aggregated distribution among its main hosts.%目的 了解云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨的地域及生境分布、优势宿主及其种群空间分布格局等.方法 选取云南省5个地理小区中的28个县(市)进行现场调查,每个小区按室内和室外两种生境诱捕小兽并采集体表革螨,70%乙醇固定,Hoyer液封片后于光学

  6. 云南省边境地区埃及伊蚊分布调查%Distribution survey on Aedes aegypti in the border areas of Yunnan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明东; 姜进勇; 郑宇婷; 周红宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解埃及伊蚊在云南省边境地区的分布,为登革热防控提供科学依据。方法在孳生地捕捞幼虫,对4龄幼虫分类鉴定以观察埃及伊蚊的分布;采用伊蚊布雷图指数和容器指数观察伊蚊幼虫种群密度。结果在边境17个县(市)共调查积水容器159924个,其中有伊蚊孳生的阳性容器2388个,布雷图指数为3.97,容器指数为1.46;捕捞幼虫7489条,共3种伊蚊,其中埃及伊蚊幼虫3303条,占捕捞总数的44.10%;白纹伊蚊幼虫4119条,占55.00%;圆斑伊蚊幼虫67条,占0.90%;伊蚊幼虫高峰期为5-10月,其中最高峰为7-8月;景洪、勐腊、勐海、盈江、陇川、瑞丽、泸水7个县发现埃及伊蚊的分布。结论云南省边境地区7个县已有埃及伊蚊分布,结果提示该蚊有向周边地区逐渐扩散趋势,应引起相关部门高度重视。%Objective To investigate the distribution of Aedes aegypti in border area in Yunnan province, providing scientific information for dengue control. Methods The distribution of Ae. aegypti was investigated by collecting mosquito larvae in different breeding sites and identifying fourth instar larvae; Aedes mosquito larva population density was investigated by Aedes Breteau index and container index. Results Total of 159 924 containers were investigated from 17 border counties, of those 2388 containers were positive;the Breteau index was 3.97, the container index was 1.46. There were 7489 individual larvae were collected, belonging to 3 species, of those 3303 individual larvae were Ae. aegypti, accounting for 44.10%of total collected larvae, 4119 individual larvae were Ae. albopictus, accounting for 55.00%of total collected larvae,12 individual larvae were Ae. annandalei, accounting for 0.90% of total collected larvae. Aedes mosquito larva population density peaks were occurred from May to October, its highest peaks were July and August. Ae. aegypti distributed in 7

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Yunnan Outpatient STD Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大成

    2002-01-01

    Epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases havebecome world wide serious problems. The Institute of Dermatology and Veneology of Wenshan AutonomousPrefecture in Yunnan is a center of political, economical,cultural and social activities in the prefecture. It is alsothe location of the Committee of Wenshan and itsgovernment. Wenshan data indicates that STDs havebeen spreading from towns of this prefecture to thecountryside.

  8. Relative Efficacy of CDC and UV Light-traps for Indoor Collection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhychus in Yunnan, P.R.China%云南人房三带喙库蚊CDC和UV诱蚊灯捕捉效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; Sarah Pettifor; Nigel Hill; 肖育江; 杜尊伟; 李鸿宾; 张再兴

    2004-01-01

    目的评估CDC和UV诱蚊灯夜间人房三带喙库蚊捕捉效果.方法根据拉丁方设计方案,把诱蚊灯置于寝室和客厅,每晚轮流置灯.结果共捕获库蚊属蚊虫6种624只.其中三带喙库蚊属于最常见的蚊种(419只);CDC和UV灯捕捉蚊虫效果差异无显著性,但当地降雨量与CDC捕捉效果存在较强的正相关关系,而与UV灯捕蚊效果呈弱的负相关.结论无论是CDC诱蚊灯还是UV诱蚊灯都可以作为云南省三带喙库蚊种群密度监测的有效方法.%Objective The efficacy of CDC and UV traps for the coll ection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus was evaluated in overnight in door c ollection. Method The traps were placed in bedrooms and sittin g rooms and rotated nightly approximately following a Latin square design. Results A total of 624 mosquitoes of the genera Culex were trapped comprising 6 species. Most common was Cx.tritaeniorhynchus with 419 individuals trapped. There was no significant difference in the efficiency of CDC and UV traps although there was a stronger positive correlati on between mosquitoes collected in CDC lamps and rainfall, whereas, there was a weak negative correlation between UV lamps and local rainfall. Conclusio n We suggest that either CDC or UV light traps provide an efficient met hod to monitor the population of Cx.tritaniorhychus in Yunnan province.

  9. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  10. Diversity of Sucking Lice on Small Mammals in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表吸虱多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammals was carried out in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan from 2003 to 2004.From investigation sites, 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured and identified into 7families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 14 635 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 5 families, 6 genera and 21 species in the Order Anoplura. The sites stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas are different landscapes within the same zone where the longitude, latitude, altitude and fauna are homologous but isolated by Erhai Lake as inartificial barrier. The aim of this study was to recognize features of the species diversity,abundance, community structure, similarity and distribution of sucking lice in different landscapes within the same zone. The results showed the species diversity of sucking lice was very low with a very simple community structure. The distribution of sucking lice and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven among different oriented areas and this may imply that ecological environment influences the species composition and distribution of sucking li ce and their corresponding hosts. A certain species of hosts usually have theirfixed louse species. The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. Species of sucking lice on the same small mam mal host in different oriented areas of Erhai Lake are homologous. The results stronglysuggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  11. Three-dimensional Evolutionary Models of the Qiongxi Structures, Southwestern Sichuan Basin, China: Evidence from Seismic Interpretation and Geomorphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Qiupeng; JIA Dong; LUO Liang; CHEN Zhuxin; LI Yiquan; DENG Fei; SUN Shengsi; LI Haibin

    2009-01-01

    Fold terminations are key features in the study of compressional fault-related folds. Such terminations could be due to loss of displacement on the thrust fault or/and forming a lateral or oblique ramp. Thus, high-quality seismic data would help unambiguously define which mechanism should be responsible for the termination of a given fault-related fold. The Qiongxi and Qiongxinan structures in the Sichuan Basin, China are examples of natural fault-propagation folds that possess a northern termination and a structural saddle between them. The folds/fault geometry and along-strike displacement variations are constrained by the industry 3-D seismic volume. We interpret that the plunge of the fold near the northern termination and the structural saddle are due to the loss of displacement along strike. The fault geometry associated with the northern termination changes from a flat-ramp at the crest of the Qiongxinan structure, where displacement is the greatest, to simply a ramp near the northern tip of the Qiongxi structure, without forming a lateral or oblique ramp. In this study, we also use the drainage pattern, embryonic structure preserved in the crest of the Qiongxinan structure and the assumption that displacement along a fault is proportional to the duration of thrusting to propose a model for the lateral propagation of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures. Specifically, we suggest that the structure first initiated as an isolated fault ramp within brittle units. With increased shortening, the fault grows to link with lower detachments in weaker shale units to create a hybridized fault-propagation fold. Our model suggests a possible explanation for the lateral propagation history of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures, and also provides an alternative approach to confirming the activity of the previous Pingluoba structure in the southwestern Sichuan Basin in the late Cenozoic.

  12. The crustal structure under Sanjiang and its dynamic implications: Revealed by seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongjie; BAI Zhiming; WANG Chunyong; TENG Jiwen; L(U) Qingtian; LI Jiliang; LIU Yifeng; LIU Zhenkuan

    2005-01-01

    The fault belts in Sanjiang mainly include Jinshajiang-Honghe fault, Lancangjiang fault and Nujiang fault (called Sanjiang faults) in western Yunnan Province, China. By interpreting the wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, which crosses Tengchong and Baoshan blocks in Dianxi (western Yunnan) tectonic zone, we reconstruct the crustal structure with seismic traveltime tomography for crustal P-wave velocity and the seismic scattering image for crustal seismic reflection structure. In this paper, we firstly present the crustal structure images of P-wave velocity and seismic reflection under the wide-angle seismic profile. These results demonstrate that, the crustal velocity structure and seismic reflection structure along the profile can be divided into 3 segments, and there is an obvious difference of crustal structure among the eastern, the western and the middle segment. Generally, crustal P-wave velocities in the Baoshan segment are 0.1-0.2 km/s slower and seismic reflection amplitudes from Moho discontinuity are stronger than the other 2 segments. In the studied area, crustal thickness is about 40 km, and shows the thickening tendency from west to east along the profile. Additionally, it can be seen that there is one strong-amplitude seismic reflection event as bright points at the depths of 8-10 km, along the segment of 80-115 km of the profile (southward of Tengchong); and seismic reflection wave-field from Moho discontinuity varies obviously along the lateral direction. Finally, we make some discussions on the crustal thickening pattern in the Sanjiang fault belt, structural environment of earthquake development and the contact relationship between the Tengchong block, Banshan block and Luxi trough.

  13. Research on Mining Development in Yunnan under Ecological Environment Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqun Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is rich of mineral resources, and the mining industry is the pillar industry in Yunnan. But with the development of mining economy, the problems of the ecological environmental damage have come out. Under the mechanism of ecological environment compensation, the mining economic development in Yunnan needs to deal well with the problems of environmental protection. According to the natural ecological conditions of mining area in Yunnan Province, and combining with the phenomena on economic, social, and environmental development, the paper will analyze the impact on ecological environment in Yunnan in the process of mineral exploitation and utilization. It will also provide the mining development and environmental protection in Yunnan with reasonable proposal and give decision-making references about development plans for government.

  14. Interactions between nigra scale Parasaissetia nigra and ant in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, Southwest China%西双版纳橡胶盔蚧与蚂蚁的相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖兵; 段波; 周明; 李国华

    2011-01-01

    在云南省植胶区采用2种不同方法对橡胶盔蚧共生蚂蚁种类进行调查.共采集到蚂蚁22种,隶属4个亚科15个属.优势种为黄猄蚁(Oecophylla smaragdina).大田普查发现,有蚂蚁存在的橡胶树,受橡胶盔蚧危害的几率较高.为了解橡胶盔蚧与蚂蚁的相互关系,选择2棵有黄猄蚁和橡胶盔蚧的橡胶树进行调查.结果表明,橡胶盔蚧数量与蚂蚁数量呈正相关,蚂蚁数量越大,橡胶盔蚧危害越严重;同时,离蚁巢的距离也影响着橡胶盔蚧的数量,离蚁巢越近,橡胶盔蚧数量越大.蚂蚁隔离后,橡胶盔蚧第2代死亡率和寄生蜂的寄生率降低,从而增加了橡胶盔蚧的种群数量.结果验证,蚂蚁的存在确能保护橡胶盔蚧,它们之间为共生关系.%An investigation was conducted to study the ant associated with nigra scale ( Parasais-setia nigra) in Yunnan rubber planting area. A total of 22 ant species were collected, belonging to 15 genera and 4 subfamilies, and Oecophylla smaragdina was the dominant species. Field survey found that the rubber trees with ants presented had higher probability damaged by the scale. To understand the interactions between the scale and ant, two rubber trees with ants and scales in a rubber plantation were selected, and the survey showed that there was a positive correlation between the amounts of the scales and ants. The more the ants presented, the more serious damage caused by the scales. The distance from the ant nests also affected the quantity of the scales, I. E. , the nearer the nest, the more the scale individuals presented. After ant isolation, the 2nd generation mortality of the scales and the parasitism rate of chalcids decreased, and accordingly, the scale population increased. These results demonstrated that the existence of ant protected the nigra scale, and their relationship was mutualism.

  15. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  16. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-01-01

    The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers....

  17. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  18. 昆明树木园枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物群落多样性%Diversity of invertebrate community in leaf litters of Kunming Arboretum, Yunnan Province of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 聂晶; 张立敏; 谢永辉; 李正跃; 张宏瑞

    2012-01-01

    litters of the five tree species, a total of 375 adult fungus-feeding thrips were collected, belonging to 4 species, 3 genera, and 1 family, in which, Allothrips was the dominant fungus-feeding thrips group, and also, a newly recorded genus for Yunnan Province.

  19. Seasonal variation in ranging patterns of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt.Fuhe, China%云南富合山地区滇金丝猴游走模式的季节性差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽华; 丁伟; Cyril C.GR(U)TER

    2004-01-01

    From November 2000 to January 2002, data on range patterns and other behaviors were collected for a band of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe (99°20′E, 26°25′N) to describe the seasonal variations of behaviors and their potential adaptations to a temperate environment. Due to the similarities of ranging patterns between following seasons, we pooled data and showed the results in categories of winter-spring and summer-autumn. The monkeys primarily fed on broad leaves and acted around sleeping sites year-round. In winter-spring, the monkeys often stayed at lower altitudes, had shorter daily path distances, and fed more on broadleaves, bamboo leaves and shoots than in summer-autumn, which was characterized by a reverse ranging mode and by incorporating more fruits in their diet. These seasonal ranging patterns and diets suggest that the movements of R. bieti at Mt. Fuhe are results of compromise between food availability and temperature variations and coincide with the ranging patterns of other temperate monkeys. In addition, the distribution of sleeping sites also influenced the pattern of monkeys utilizing different quadrats within home range [Acta Zoologica Sinica 50 (5): 691 - 696, 2004].%从2000年11月至2002年1月,我们在云南富合山(99°20′E,26°25′N)记录了滇金丝猴(Rhinopithecus bieti)的游走以及其他行为,以描述猴群行为模式的季节性变化及其对温带环境的适应.由于季节间行为方式的相似,我们将冬季和春季、夏季和秋季的数据合并表述.猴群终年以取食树叶为主,多在过夜地附近活动.在冬春季,猴群一般在低海拔的南部地区活动,同时缩短日行走距离,花费较多的时间取食树叶、竹叶和竹笋;而在夏-秋季猴群的活动模式与冬-春季相反,并取食大量果实.我们将富合地区猴群的季节性游走模式以及食性看作是食物供给和温度变化之间折中的结果,这些行为特征和其它温带

  20. Sociological Features of the Casualties from the 1996 Ms 7. 0 Lijiang Earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Yang Jieying; Yang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A statistics analysis was conducted on the basic information about fatalities from the Lijiang Ms 7.0 earthquake in 1996. The factors include age, gender, educational background, occupation, cause of death, death place, etc. We found that even though deaths caused by the Lijiang earthquake had some common features with those from earthquakes in other places in China, it also showed some specific features because of the multiracial and economically-underdeveloped situation of Lijiang area. The results reached in the paper can serve as a reference for studying the features of casualties caused by future strong earthquakes in Yunnan, and for the delicate and human-oriented emergency treatment.

  1. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone splits, Lawu shows affinity with other Central Ngwi languages such as Lisu and Lahu and is provisionally classified as a Central Ngwi language.

  2. China's biggest zoological museum opens in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The opening ceremony for the Kunming Museum of Zoology was held at the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) on 31 October, 2006 in the capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province. With nearly10,000 animal specimens that could be put on display,the museum boasts the largest of its kind in China. The Museum opened to the public on 6 November.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI

    2013-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  4. KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF THE FRESHWATER DUGESI4 PLANARIANS FROM YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%中国云南三产地淡水三角涡虫核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 田士瑞; 刘涛; 刘德增

    2011-01-01

    利用空气干燥法,对采自云南省丽江市束河古镇、保山市龙王塘和香格里拉市小中甸3产地淡水三角涡虫(Dugesia sp.)的染色体和核型进行分析,结果表明:丽江市束河古镇淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以16条为主,为二倍体(2n=2x=16=16m);保山市龙王塘淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以24条为主(2n=3x=24=24m),少数为16条(2n=2x=16=16m),为三倍体和为二倍体的混合倍体;值得注意的是:香格里拉市小中甸淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以极少见的26条为主(2n=3x+2=24+2=21m+3st+2m),少数为25条(2n=3x+1=24+1=21m+3st+1m)和24条(2n=3x=24=21m+3st),为三倍性混合倍体.研究根据核型结果对上述三产地淡水三角涡虫的分类和染色体非整倍性进行了分析.%In order to provide evidence for taxonomy, evolutionary biology, biogeography and phylogenetics of the genus Dugesia, the chromosomes and karyotypes of the freshwater planarians, Dugesia sp., collected from Shuhe town in Lijiang City, Longwangtang pond in Baoshan City, and Xiaozhaongdian town in Xianggelila City, Yunnan Province,were studied. The adult planarians, 15-20 mm in length and 1.5-2.0 mm in width, were used. After starving for a week, each planarian was transversally cut into five pieces, the planarian pieces were cultured in distilled water for three or four days to regenerate. For the karyological analysis, the metaphase chromosomes were prepared from regenerating blastemas by an air-drying method. Chromosome numbers of over 100 well-spreaded cells were counted and the chromosomes were photographed using Leica DMLB light microscope. The karyotype parameters of five well-spreaded metaphase plates from five individuals were measured. Relative length (r.l.) was calculated as chromosome length × 100/total length of haploid genome. Centromeric index (c.i.) was calculated as length of the short arm× 100/total length of the chromosome. Arm ratio (a.r.) was calculated

  5. THE STRUCTURAL STYLE AND TIMING OF UPLIFT OF THE AILAOSHAN-DIANCANG RANGE, WEST YUNNAN,CHINA%滇西点苍山—哀牢山隆升构造样式和隆升时限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙; 季建清; 罗清华; 龚俊峰; 庆建春

    2012-01-01

    滇西高原的隆起是新生代晚期青藏高原构造域重要的地质事件.点苍山—哀牢山地区的地层分布、沉积建造等资料表明:该区的区域地层面理产状存在明显的变化,山脉东侧以陡倾角的构造面理发育为主,西侧以缓倾的层状面理发育为主;变质变形程度从东北向西南逐渐减弱,依次为高角闪岩相变质的花岗质片麻岩、低角闪岩相和绿片岩相的片岩-千枚岩-板岩组合以及弱变形的中生界沉积岩系;山脉NE侧发育的断层三角面和正断层面上发育的假玄武玻璃,指示山脉东侧边界是一条快速运动的构造边界.通过40Ar/39Ar和磷灰石裂变径迹测试揭示,点苍山在3~5Ma经历了快速冷却事件.综合研究认为,点苍山—哀牢山的隆升为掀斜式,东部隆升幅度大,西部隆升幅度小;其隆升最新时限为距今3 ~5Ma,为上新世以来隆起形成的山脉.%The uplift of West Yunnan plateau is one of the late Cenozoic great geological events in the Qing-hai-Tibet Plateau tectonic domain,and the Ailaoshan-Diancangshan Range uplift is the key to understanding this tectonic process. In the former researches, many researchers mainly emphasized on the strike-slip movements and times of the Ailaoshan-Red River shear zone. The formation of Ailaoshan-Diancang Range has been widely considered to be the result of the strike-slip movements of the Ailaoshan-red River shear zone. Usually,the formation of geomorphic unit is the result of latest tectonic activity, for the time scale of topography-shaping process is much smaller than that of tectonic movement in the study of tectonic geomorphology. Based on the collection of detailed evidences, the structural style and timing of the uplift of Ailaoshan-Diancangshan Ranges are studied. Detailed evidences are as follows: First of all, the primary structural foliations in the study region have obvious distinctness. On the east side of the Ailaoshan-Diancang Ranges

  6. 云南墨江镍金矿床主要控矿因素分析与研究%RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ON ORE-CONTROLLING FACTORS FOR MOJIANG-YUANJIANG NICKEL-GOLD DEPOSITS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 谢桂青; 漆亮; 苏文超

    2001-01-01

    Based on research and analysis on ore-controlling factors and analysis of tectono-lithostratigraphic units to shed light on Ni-Au metallogenic processes, it is suggested that the main ore-controlling factors for the Mojiang-Yuanjiang Ni-Au deposits in Yunnan Province include strata-controlling and tectonics-controlling. In the Mojiang-Yuanjiang Ni-Au mine, the Upper Devonian Jinchang Formation consists of low-grade metamorphic volcano-sedimentary rocks formed in a deep-water, volcanic-related hydrothermal depositional basin. This Formation is composed of slate, chert, palimpsest siltstone and sandstone interbeded with tuff mudstone, volcanic lava and tuff. Three tectono-lithostratigraphic units (the Lanshan, Sishibaliangshan and Mahudong) can be recognized in the Jinchang Formation. The Lanshan unit (D3jy1) was formed by volcanism and volcanic-related hydrothermal deposition and is referred to as the volcanic-exhalative-genetic unit. Nickel-gold-bearing pyritic cherts in the Mojiang deposit occur in the lower part of the Lanshan rock-unit, ranging in age from 358±8.6 (2σ) Ma (Sm-Nd isochron dating) to 354.7±0.72 (2σ) Ma (Rb-Sr isochron dating). The Sishibaliangshan unit (D3jy2) consisting of slate, chert, palimpsest siltstone and sandstone, volcanic lava rock and tuff, is also referred to as the volcanic-exhalative-genetic unit. The Mahudong unit (D3jy3) is composed mainly of a suite of fine-grained turbidite rocks with acidic volcanic lava and violet-red sandstones at its top.    The ring-like clayized zone and the tectono-lithostratigraphic sequence of hydrothermal deposits are located at hydrothermal-water vents that are one of the main ore-host structures. The Yanshanian brittle-ductile shear zones that are another main type of ore-host structures are typified by the proximately horizontal tension cracks, sinistral shear fractures, close-off brittle-ductile shear zones, and Cr-illite was formed at 178 Ma to 76 Ma. The Himalayan brittle tension cleavages

  7. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  8. Annual Conference of China City Planning 2012 & First Meeting of Second Editorial Board of China City Planning Review Held in Kunmin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Fang

    2012-01-01

    <正>On Oct. 17, 2012, the Annual Conferenceof China City Planning 2012 that was cohosted by Urban Planning Society of China (UPSC) and Kunming Municipal Government, in collaboration with the Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Yunnan, and sponsored by Kunming Planning Bureau was launched in Yunnan Convention Center, with the theme of "Di-versity and Inclusiveness" WANG Guang-tao, Chairman of Environment Protection and Resources Conservation

  9. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  10. Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association Delegation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, the Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA) delegation led by Murshed Chowdhury Manzur, patron of the BCPFA and former Bengali ambassador to China, visited Beijing, Shanghai and Yunnan from May 19 to 28.

  11. Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  12. Checklist of Fishes of Yunnan%云南鱼类名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小勇

    2013-01-01

    Based on extant literatures and taking into accounts updated results of taxonomy and phylogeny,we have updated this checklist of fishes present in Yunnan,including the number of taxa and drainage areas.As of 2013,there were 13 orders,42 families,198 genera and 620 valid species recorded in Yunnan Province,of which 586 were native species,34 alien species,254 species endemic to Yunnan,and 152 species only occuring in Yunnan within China.The number of species in Yunnan accounts for 39.17% of China's total fish species (of which there are 1 583 recorded freshwater fish species according to data present in Fishbase),and of these 6 families and 66 genera only occur in Yunnan.The number of fish species of the six major drainages in Yunnan were as follows:202 in Pearl River,183 in Lancangjiang River (upper Mekong),142 in Jinshajiang River (upper Yangtze),120 in Red River,84 in Irrawaddy Drainage,77 in Nujiang-Salween Drainage.There are also 99 endangered species of fish occurring in Yunnan,among them 23 species protected by the national and/or the provincial govemmnent,including 2 species of national key protected animal class one,4 species of national key protected animal class two,17 species of Yunnan provincial protected animal.Totally,43 species were listed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals,Pisces; 73 species were listed in China Species Red List Vol.1;50 species were listed in endangered categories of IUCN Red List; and 3 species were listed in the Appendix 2 of CITES.The Chinese name,Latin name,synomyns,distribution and literatures of the 620 species of fishes in Yunnan are listed.%该文在《云南鱼类志》等文献基础上,参照最新分类学和分子系统学成果,对云南鱼类名录进行整理,对各分类阶元、水系进行统计,并列出了云南鱼类分布及主要参考文献.至2013年,云南省共记录鱼类13目42科198属620种,占中国淡水鱼类种数(1 583种)的39.17%,居全国各省之首.其中,土著种586

  13. From a Yunnan mountain to a Tibetan highland——the story of a hundred years of cosmic ray research in China%从乌蒙山到念青唐古拉——百年宇宙线研究的中国故事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭有恒

    2013-01-01

    百年前,宇宙线的发现曾极大地开阔了人们对宇观和微观世界的眼界,促成了粒子物理学的诞生.新中国成立之初,早年在国外在此领域业已成果卓著的几位前辈,组织起了中国本土第一支宇宙线研究队伍,在云南乌蒙山中建成了中国第一个宇宙线实验室,十年中收获了一系列高水平的实验成果.不幸,此后近20年的磋跎岁月扩大了中国与日新月异的国际新技术之间的差距,中国的宇宙线研究落到了自我边缘化的境地.幸好国家的改革开放政策为奋起直追提供了机会,中国第二代的宇宙线研究者经过种种摸索,选择了高海拔广延大气簇射观测的路线去实现我国宇宙线研究的复兴.20多年的埋头苦干,在海拔4300m的西藏念青唐古拉山脚下建成了一个现代化、国际化的宇宙线实验基地,完成了中国的宇宙线研究从云雾室、手工化向规模化、信息化的历史性转型,并以其特有的低阈能、高事例率、全天候、宽视场优势和国际合作,开展着多项前沿性的科研项目,迎来了丰收的季节.随着国家的日益富强,中国宇宙线研究的年青一代,必将从更高的起点出发,创造出中国宇宙线研究的更大的辉煌.%The discovery of cosmic rays a hundred years ago opened a new field of view to the universe and the mysterious particle world, leading to the birth of particle physics. Cosmic ray research in China was started in the early 50' s of the last century by several senior scientists who had already distinguished themselves abroad in this subject. The first cosmic ray observatory in China was built on a mountain in Yunnan province, and many high level results were obtained in the ensuing ten years.Then after almost twenty years of political unrest, the national "Reform & Opening up" policy provided a good opportunity to stimulate development and to narrow the wide gap caused by long term stagnation. The second generation

  14. Disaster Overview of Yunnan Earthquakes in 2011%2011年云南地震灾害综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂华; 卢永坤; 刘丽芳

    2012-01-01

    The frequent seismic activity and heavy earthquake disaster in Yunnan cause 25 deaths, 338 wounded and the direct economic loss of 320 billion Yuan in 2011. Combining with the earthquake disaster assessment by Earthquake Administration of Yunnan Province, we sort out the earthquake disaster data of Yunnan in 2011 and get their feature. The results show that the earthquake disaster loss of Yunnan is the highest in China in 2011. The proportion of the economic loss, the number of death and injured people in Yunnan against that of China is 52. 4% , 78. 1% , 66. 8% respectively. The feather of earthquake disaster is that earthquake occurred beneath the city causes serious disaster, earthquake disaster superposition is obvious, and the rural house and middle and primary school buildings in rebuilding are still keep well after the earthquake and take the role of earthquake preparedness and disaster reduction. Finally we list the data of earthquake disaster from 1992 to 2011 in Yunnan, and make the brief comparison of them.%2011年云南地震活动频繁,地震灾情较重,地震共造成25人死亡,338人受伤,直接经济损失32亿元.结合云南省地震局的地震灾害评估资料,对2011年云南地震灾害的主要数据进行统计并总结其特性.结果表明:2011年云南省震害造成的损失位居全国第一位,经济损失、死亡及受伤人数分别占全国同期的52.4%、78.1%、66.8%,其特征表现为城市直下型地震危害严重;震害叠加现象明显;民生工程取得明显防震减灾效益.同时列出1992~2011年云南地震灾害的相应数据,并进行了简要对比.

  15. Exploring that Zhou Bao-zhong Who be a well-educated and trained and legendary possessed a concept of knowledge about Yunnan ethnic affairs after the founding of China%探析建国后周保中对云南民族事务的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳春

    2014-01-01

    Zhou Bao-zhong Who was born in a Wangqiao village of Dali prefecture of Yunnan province on February 7 , 1902 was a Bai people .Most of his life was spent in a military career and made a great contribution to the cause of China’ s revolution and nation ,so he was be honoured as a Bai son general .After the peaceful liberation of Yunnan province ,Zhou Bao-zhong actually presided over the work about daily affairs and military control commission of Yunnan province .As a director position of Yunnan ethnic affairs commission ,his understanding of yunnan ethnic affairs mainly reflected his speech in the second conference of southwest ethnic affairs committee on February 2 ,1951 .%周保中,1902年2月7日出生于云南省大理县湾桥村,白族人。他的大部分人生是在戎马生涯中度过的,对中国的革命和民族事业做出了很大贡献,被誉为“白子将军”。云南和平解放后,周保中实际主持着云南省日常事务和军事管制委员会的工作。而身兼云南省民族事务委员会主任职务的周保中,他对云南民族事务的认识主要体现于他在1951年2月2日西南民族事务委员会第二次委员会议的讲话上。

  16. The observation of exoplanet transit events in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang X.-S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a research project on the exoplanet transit events at Yunnan Observatory. By using CCD cameras attached to 1m telescope of Yunnan Observatory and 85cm telescope of Xinglong station, NAOC, a group of exoplanet systems with transit events have been observed photometrically. By means of MCMC method, the preliminary results of the systems WASP-11 and XO-2 are derived. Finally, we give out the future plan on this research topic in China.

  17. Notes on Michael Schülke’s pselaphine collections from China. – Tyrini. I. genera Labomimus Sharp, Linan Hlaváč and Pselaphodes Westwood (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Yin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first of a series that deals with Dr. Michael Schülke’s collection of Pselaphinae from China. The tyrine genera Labomimus Sharp, Linan Hlaváč and Pselaphodes Westwood are chosen for the first part. The study revealed fourteen new species, all described and illustrated: Labomimus cognatus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Labomimus dabashanus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hubei, Shaanxi, Labomimus mirus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Labomimus paratorus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Shaanxi, Labomimus sarculus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Labomimus schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Shaanxi, Labomimus vespertilio Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Linan tendothorax Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Pselaphodes distincticornis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Pselaphodes erlangshanus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan, Pselaphodes flexus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan, Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan and Pselaphodes zhongdianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan. Pselaphodes jizushanus Yin, Li & Zhao is recorded from a new locality in Yunnan and its aedeagus is newly illustrated; new province records for Pselaphodes nomurai Yin, Li & Zhao is provided. Labomimus torus (Yin, Li & Zhao, comb. n. is moved from Pselaphodes after an examination of the holotype. Species represented only by unassociated females are listed with label data.

  18. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  19. On New Landscape Agriculture in Yunnan Flatland Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; YANG; Wufu; QI; Qun; LIU

    2014-01-01

    With the support of national policy of building Yunnan into a gateway in China’s opening up to the Southwest,Yunnan Province offered the great opportunity for second time of starting an undertaking for tourism,and the landscape agriculture welcomes a new development opportunity. On the basis of regional natural and cultural resources,Yunnan Province has created diversified agricultural operating types and colorful farming culture. Thus,it has significant comparative advantage in developing the landscape agriculture,but it should avoid homogeneous competition in construction methods. The landscape agriculture of Yunnan Province should set foot on special features of rural landscape,stick to its " local characteristics",raise core competitiveness of characteristic landscape,and take the ecological and characteristic development road.

  20. 腾冲新生代火山区温泉CO2气体排放通量研究%CO2 flux estimations of hot springs in the Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field, Yunnan Province, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成智慧; 郭正府; 张茂亮; 张丽红

    2012-01-01

    近期研究表明,不仅火山喷发期会向当时的大气圈输送大量的温室气体,火山间歇期同样会释放大量的温室气体.在火山活动间歇期,火山区主要以喷气孔、温(热)泉以及土壤微渗漏等形式向大气圈释放温室气体.腾冲是我国重要的新生代火山区,同时也是重要的水热活动区,那里出露大量的温泉,然而目前未见腾冲火山区温泉气体排放通量的研究报道.本文利用数字皂膜通量仪测量了腾冲新生代火山区温泉中CO2的排放通量.研究结果表明,腾冲新生代火山区温泉向当今大气圈输送的CO2通量达3.58×103t· a-1,相当于意大利锡耶纳Bassoleto地热区温泉中CO2的排放规模.腾冲火山区温泉的CO2释放通量主要受深部岩浆囊、断裂分布、地下水循环、围岩成分等多方面因素的影响.本文根据温泉中CO2的排放特征,将腾冲温泉分为南北两区,南区温泉CO2通量远高于北区的温泉,热海地热区的通量为腾冲CO2通量的最大值.在北温泉区,CO2通量主要受控于断裂的分布;而在南温泉区,除受到断裂控制外,热海地热区底部的岩浆囊及其与围岩的相互作用成为CO2气体的重要物质来源,同时高温的岩浆囊为温泉及CO2的形成提供了重要热源.%Recent research results have indicated that, beside volcanic eruption periods, dormant periods in the intermittent between the volcanic activities can emit a large amount of the greenhouse gases into atmosphere. In the intermittent between volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases are erupted from the volcanic eruptive fields in the forms of fumaroles, hot springs, soil micro-seepage and so oa Tengchong volcanic and geothermal system is one of the most important Cenozoic volcanic activity fields in China whereas the estimates of the greenhouse gases emitted from Tengchong have been poorly understood. Using a new apparatus named digital bubble flowmeter, we have measured the flux of

  1. Development Prospect of Aromatherapy Industry in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Ziyun; LI, Dantong; Rui CHEN; Qian, Min; Chen, Yiqi; YANG, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced domestic and foreign supply of products processed by aromatherapy plant. On the basis of predicting market demand of aromatherapy plant, it analyzed current development situation of the plant in Yunnan Province. It arrived at the conclusion that the industry has broad market prospect. Then, it analyzed competitive advantages and risk factors of aromatherapy plant in Yunnan Province. There are climate, location and price advantages, but due to lack of product stan...

  2. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; Cui, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  3. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  4. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  5. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers:a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiang-yi; WU Wen-bin; LIU Zhen-huan; Peter H Verburg; XIA Tian; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; YOU Liang-zhi; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers’ personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change) associated with external biophysical-socioeconomic data (presents real-world climate change) were used to develop a farmer-centered framework to explore climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations at a local level. A case study at Bin County (1980s-2010s), Northeast China, suggested that increased annual average temperature (0.6°C per decade) and decreased annual precipitation (46 mm per decade, both from meteorological datasets) were correctly perceived by 76 and 66.9%, respectively, of farmers from the survey, and that a longer growing season was conifrmed by 70%of them. These reasonably correct perceptions enabled local farmers to make appropriate adaptations to cope with climate change:Longer season alternative varieties were found for maize and rice, which led to a signiifcant yield increase for both crops. The longer season also affected crop choice:More farmers selected maize instead of soybean, as implicated from survey results by a large increase in the maize growing area. Comparing warming-related factors, we found that precipitation and agricultural disasters were the least likely causes for farmers’ agricultural decisions. As a result, crop and variety selection, rather than disaster prevention and infrastructure improvement, was the most common ways for farmers to adapt to the notable warming trend in the study region.

  6. Implications of International Manorial Economy for Development of Characteristic Manorial Economy in Yunnan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Lu; FENG; Xiaobo; DONG; Yuan; YUAN; Xuelin; LI; Liangzheng; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized experience of Vietnam and Taiwan in developing modern agricultural manorial economy. The manorial economy of Vietnam is characterized by intensive and specialized operation and high marketization and wide employment of labors,while the experience of Taiwan can be outlined as " government launching,agricultural association promoting,and farmers acting". Then,it analyzed existing problems of modern agricultural manorial economy in China and opportunities and challenges of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area. Finally in line with these problems and combining experience of international manorial economy,it came up with systematic recommendations for healthy and sustainable development of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area:(i) perfecting organization leadership,improving planning guidance,and enhancing standardized management;(ii) putting forth effort on innovation of system and mechanism for land,fund and technology,to break bottleneck of manorial economic development;(iii) increasing input and comprehensively building the service support system to promote long-term development of manorial economy.

  7. Coexistence and Competition between Tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytinae in Yunnan Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig (Coleoptera: Scolytinae were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside.

  8. Researches on Plants from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation in the Qujing District, Eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 郝守刚; 刘振锋

    2002-01-01

    Fossil plants Hedeia sinica Hao et Gensel 1998, Huia gracilis Wang et Hao 2001 andGuangnania cuneata Wang et Hao are described from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation, the Qujingdistrict, eastern Yunnan, China. They contribute to our knowledge of the flora in this district. Based on theoccurrence of common plants (Hedeia, Huia, Guangnania and Zosterophyllum australianum) and their horizons,it is proved for the first time that the mid-lower assemblage of the Xujiachong flora is comparable with theEarly Devonian ((late) Pragian) Posongchong flora of southeastern Yunnan and the upper Baragwanathia floraof Australia. In view of this fact and the stratigraphic sequence, the mid-lower part of the Xujiachong Formationis considered to be of (late) Pragian age. Through comprehensive analyses of plant, bivalve and fishassemblages and the lithology, the upper part of the Xujiachong Formation is dated to be of early Emsian age.The Xujiachong flora belonged to the northeastern Gondwana palaeophytogeographic unit during the EarlyDevonian. The early Emsian assemblage of this flora inherited the characters of the Posongchong flora and alsoexhibited the endemic elements. Belonging to different phytogeographic units, the Xujiachong and Posongchongfloras differ from the coeval flora of the Laurussian palaeocontinent. The Xujiachong flora is comparativelysimple in composition, while the Posongchong flora has abundant and highly diversified endemics. Thedisparity between them has resulted from the different environments.

  9. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南部分小兽体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 董文鸽

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.%应用系统聚类分析方法对云南省境内24种主要小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类进行了研究.研究中将每一种小兽体表的所有吸虱昆虫定义为一个相应的吸虱群落单位.结果表明,小兽体表吸虱群落结构简单,物种多样性很低.多数小兽有固定的吸虱种类寄生,其吸虱的宿主特异性高.在动物分类上隶属同一个属的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似程度高,在系统聚类分析中大多被归为一类.在动物分类上近缘的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似,优势虱种相同或相似,此情形尤其表现在鼠属、白腹鼠属、姬鼠属和绒鼠属.吸虱群落相似性大小与相应小兽宿主在动物分类地位上的近缘性高低呈现高度一致.从生态学角度来看,吸虱昆虫与其所寄生的小兽

  10. New species and records of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 (Odonata, Gomphidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Kosterin, Oleg E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 are described from Southwestern China: B. apricus sp. nov. from Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province; B. magnus sp. nov. from Huayudong, Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, Yunnan Province, B. dentatus sp. nov. from Zhangjiang River in Xiaoqikong scenic spot, altitude 400 m, Libo County, Guizhou Province, and B. latescens sp. nov. from Sifangjing, Mengding Town, Gengma County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. New records of Burmagomphus spp. in China are provided, with B. asahinai and B. williamsoni williamsoni for the first time reported from China. A revised checklist of Burmagomhus spp. of China is provided which includes 14 species. A doubtful record of B. arboreus and relations of the newly described species are discussed. All types are deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. PMID:26250326

  11. Biodiversity and taphonomy of the Early Cambrian Guanshan biota,eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; STEINER

    2010-01-01

    The Guanshan biota from eastern Yunnan(Cambrian Series 2,early Stage 4) is a Burgess Shale-type fossil biota with abundant exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils after the discovery of the well-known Cambrian Chengjiang fauna and Kaili biota in South China.The geological settings,sedimentology,taphonomy,and the fossil assemblage of the Guanshan biota are briefly summarized here.The Guanshan biota consists of about 60 taxa belonging to more than 10 metazoan groups and algae,among which the lobopods,eldonids,hyolithids with helens,and green algae are reported for the first time.The common occurrence of soft-bodied preservation in many groups,notably the trilobites and brachiopods,makes the Guanshan biota a significant fossil lagersttte for understanding the metazoan evolution during Cambrian explosion and taphonomy of the Burgess Shale-type fossils.

  12. Initial Assessment on Large and Medium Sized Terrestrial Mammal Assemblage Using Camera Trapping in Nangunhe Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China%云南南滚河自然保护区大中型陆生哺乳动物初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve BOHNETT; Philip RIORDAN; 时坤

    2015-01-01

    During surveys for wild felids in Nangunhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan province, China, we conducted a wider mammal survey of the core nature reserve area, using camera trapping techniques. Forty motion-triggered digital camera traps had been set in oldest forest tract of protected area to conduct a species inventory. The total camera trapping effort of 2460 camera trap nights yielded 232 digital photographs of mammals represented by 17 species in ifve orders. The species photographed include rare and elusive species and those that are of high conservation value, such as IUCN endangered species Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), and Phayre’s leaf monkey (Trachypit hecus phayrei). In addition, IUCN vulnerable species including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), sambar (Rusa unicolor), northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonine), and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata), and more common species were found. Al mammals were also listed as key protected wild animals by the State Forestry Administration of China. Of particular importance were the carnivores, with 7 different species recorded. Ungulates and other taxa forming a prey base for these predators,such as rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac), sambar, wild boar (Sus scrofa), and Chinese serow (Capricornis milneedwardsi), were found to be the most frequently photographed and most widespread species. Opportunities for local people to develop standardized monitoring designs for targeted species were identiifed by these initial assessment results. Local nature reserve staff lacked technical ability to produce standardized survey designs, yet a by product of this type of non-standardized data collection can be very informative and produce inventory information that gives a species richness analysis, as well as initial estimates for occupancy and detection probability for abundant species to drive future standardized survey designs and efforts.%在云南省南滚河自然保护区进行猫

  13. Blocking the Path of Feral Pigs with Rotten Bamboo : The Role of Upland Peoples in the Crisis of a Tay Polity in Southwest Yunnan, 1792 to 1836

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper challenges James Scott's thesis of state evasion and state prevention as the basic features of lowland-upland relationships. It scrutinizes the validity of Scott's assumptions by examining the case of prolonged violent conflict in a tiny Tay polity feudatory to China during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Civil war broke out in the Mäng2 Khön1 polity (Mangshi, Dehong Autonomous Region in southwest Yunnan, China) due to mismanagement by the monarch of two upland ...

  14. Bucket wheel excavators VABE 550 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In June 1989, China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNM Corp.) and Voest-Alpine Bergtechnik (VA-Bergteknik) signed a contract for the engineering and delivery of 3 bucket wheel excavators type VABE 550 to be used in a large open pit brown coal mine in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. This article provides technical data relating to the excavators and discusses the results of a performance test conducted after completion of erection and commissioning. 2 photos.

  15. 云南省德宏州2011-2013年预防艾滋病、梅毒和乙型肝炎母婴传播效果研究%A study on the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; 王娟; 孙江平; 段松; 郭云松

    2014-01-01

    螺旋体和乙型肝炎病毒的检测率逐年提高,HIV、梅毒螺旋体和乙型肝炎病毒的阳性检出率较低;HIV阳性产妇接受3种疾病母婴阻断的比例逐年提高,估算的母婴传播率保持在较低水平,近年德宏州预防3种疾病母婴传播效果较为明显。%Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture , Yunnan province,China from 2011 to 2013.Methods Data were collected mainly from the continuous HIV surveillance system and prevention of mother-to-child transmission ( PMTCT ) reporting system of Dehong prefecture , and supplemented by annual reported data on HIV , syphilis, and hepatitis B PMTCT to know the general demographic characteristics , HIV testing and counseling service , PMTCT service, and other medical services.Data were presented as absolute numbers and proportions.Results From 2011 to 2013,the number of pregnant women participating in HIV ,syphilis,and hepatitis B testing in Dehong prefecture increased and the HIV testing rates were 99.2%( 18 694/18 854 ) , 99.9%( 22 047/22 060 ) and 99.9%( 21 751/21 756),the syphilis testing rates were 56.0%(10 550/18 854),99.6%(21 980/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756),and the hepatitis B testing rates were 60.2%(11 358/18 854),99.6%(21 974/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756).From 2011 to 2013, the HIV positive rates were 0.87%(327/37 787), 0.82%(319/38 817) and 0.85%(315/37 261),the syphilis positive rates were 0.05%(10/18 520), 0.12%(43/36 817) and 0.11%(40/35 888),the hepatitis B positive rates were 2.46%(456/18 520), 2.23%(794/35 547) and 2.14%(739/34 468),respectively.The rates of HIV-positive pregnant women giving birth in hospitals were 99.2%(128/129),100.0%(141/141) and 100.0%(141/141).From 2011 to 2013,the proportions of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy were 99.2%(128/129),99.3%(140/141) and 99.3%(140/141),respectively

  16. 中国梦视阙下人民内涵的新解读%The New Interpretation of the People f rom the Perspective of China Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云平

    2015-01-01

    In the theory elaboration of China Dream ,the People is its important content .At pres‐ent ,there are some improper phenomena that the expression of the connotation of the people is generalized (expanded) ,solidified(static) and virtual (nihility) .In the process of Marxism sinici‐zation ,the evolution of the people’s subject position results from the constant guarantee of the people’s rights and the continued concern for the people’s interests .Based on the theory elabora‐tion of China Dream ,this paper analyses the essence of the improper expression of the connota‐tion of the people and makes a new interpretation about it so as to offer the people real economic benefits that can be seen and felt ,to give more concern for low income groups and to make sure that the people’s appeal can be effectively solved .%在中国梦的理论阐述中,人民是其重要内容。当前对人民内涵的表述存在将其泛化(扩大化)、固化(静止化)、虚化(虚无化)的不恰当现象。马克思主义中国化进程中人民主体地位的演变,是人民权利不断得到保障,人民利益不断受到重视的结果。文章以中国梦的理论阐述为基础,剖析对人民内涵的不恰当表述的实质,对其进行新的解读,以期给予人民看得见、摸得着的现实经济利益,给予低收入群体更多的关注,确保人民诉求得到有效解决。

  17. 云南省抗疟药品质量状况分析%Quality analysis of anti-malarials drug in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志鑫; 姜典财; 黄志禄; 范兵; 李哲媛; 刘继华; 王幸

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对云南省流通领域抗疟药的抽样、检验和结果分析,考察云南省市场流通的抗疟药品质V状况,探讨我国抗疟药目前存在的主要质量问题,并提出对策和建议.%By analysis of the sampling and testing result of anti - malarials in Yunnan Province, the quality of markted anti - malarials in Yunnan Province were studied, and main quality problems currently existed of anti - malarials in China were discussed, also some suggestions and strategies were presented.

  18. Arthropod trace fossils from the Zhujiaqing Formation (Meishucunian, Yunnan) and their palaeobiological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernd WEBER1; ZHU Maoyan

    2003-01-01

    Along with several non-arthropod ichnotaxa and rather non-specific scratchmarks, the Upper Phosphate of the Zhujiaqing Formation (Early Meishucunian Stage) in Eastern Yunnan yielded well-preserved resting and digging traces of the Rusophycus-type interpreted as resting traces of unknown large arthropods (ca. 3~6 cm in length). The discernible morphological details of these trace fossils enable a rough estimation of the body plan characteristics of the trace originators placing the latter doubtless into the early arthropods, if not euarthropods. The spectrum of the Meishucunian ichnoassemblage, especially the different types of arthropod repichnia point to the existence of a complex benthic ecosystem consisting of animals with different behavioural patterns and life styles already during the earliest Cambrian (Nemakit-Daldyn), and demands the assumption of a longer evolutionary past history of the benthic life on earth before the so-called "Cambrian Explosion" of the metazoans.

  19. Review on studies of Eupatorium adenophorum--an important invasive species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXiao-yu; LUZhao-hua; SANGWei-guo

    2004-01-01

    Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. was introduced in Yunnan Province of China around 1940. Since then it has been spreading rapidly, particularly in the southern and southwestern parts of China and caused serious economic loss. The biological research and integrated control on E. adenophorum were carried out from 1980's in Yunnan Province. Together with other 15 invasive external species, the weed has been listed in the White Paper by The State Environmental Protection Administration of China. This paper briefly reviews thestudies on natural distribution, biological character, ecological character, chemical component, hazard, potential application and the control of E. adenophorum. The research direction for this invasive external species in future was also discussed.

  20. 国家艾滋病支出评估方法在云南德宏州某县艾滋病防治经费支出评估中的应用%The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; Sante Michael; 叶润华; 项丽芬; 杨跃诚; 任达; 孙江平; Yakusik Anna; 陈仲丹; 袁建华; 李涛; 段松; 杨杏; 韦梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010.Methods Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December,2011,and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units.Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0,and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis.Results The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of (¥) 16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010.Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure ( (¥) 15 630 937),followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% ( (¥) 484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% ((¥) 120 432 ).Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas,and expenditure on Care & Treatment was (¥) 12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure),followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% ( (¥) 2 325 707 ),Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% ( (¥) 1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% ( (¥)240 342).The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV),accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure.((¥) 13 753 428),followed by 4.8% for high risk population,including female sex workers and their partners ((¥) 297 333 ),injection drug users and their partners ( (¥) 293 143 ),men having sex with men and their partners ( (¥) 185 136) and 1.5% ( (¥)241 429) for the general population.Conclusion The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient.The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding.Care and treatment was the first spending priorityin the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be

  1. Investigation on dengue fever imported cases of Kunming city, Yunnan province in China and sequence analysis of C/PreM gene of dengue virus%昆明市登革热输入性病例的调查及C/PreM基因序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫红; 黄瑛; 冯云; 陈海云; 章域震; 张海林

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查云南省昆明市登革热输入性病例分布状况及病原分子特征.方法 收集登革热病例资料,采集本病急性期病人血清标本,用ELISA法检测登革病毒(DENV) IgM抗体,RT-PCR法检测DENV核酸,核酸阳性者进行DENV-C/PreM区的基因核苷酸序列测定和分析,采用MEGA5软件的邻接法构建进化树.结果 2010-2013年在昆明市第三人民医院住院病人中采集到登革热临床诊断病例血清标本13份,经检测DENV-IgM抗体均为阳性,DENV核酸阳性2份.根据流行病学史、临床表现和实验室检测结果,这13例病人均被诊断为登革热.获得了两株病毒(YNH8和YNH12)的C/PreM区基因核苷酸序列,进化分析表明YNH8和YNH12株均为登革Ⅰ型病毒.其中YNH8株与南亚地区印度流行株进化关系最为接近,而YNH12株与泰国、缅甸、柬埔寨和越南等东南亚国家流行株具有较近亲缘关系.结论 昆明市登革热患者均为输入性病例.流行病学史和分子流行病学研究证实,YNH8和YNH12病例与印度和缅甸流行株具有较近亲缘关系.%Objective To investigate the distribution pattern and molecular characteristics of the pathogen of imported dengue fever cases from foreign into Kunming city of Yunnan province,China from 2010 to 2013.Methods The data of dengue fever cases in Kunming city were collected from 2010 to 2013.Serum samples from acute stage of these patients were collect to detect the nucleic acid of dengue virus by RT-PCR assay and sequencing.Neighbor-joining assay of MEGA 5 software was used to analyze the phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequence of C/PreM gene fragments of dengue virus using.Results A total of 13 sera were collected from acute stage of illness hospitalization at No.3 hospital of Kunming City.All samples were dengue virus IgM positive and two samples were dengue virus nucleic acid positive.The 13 cases were diagnosed for dengue fever according as medical history and laboratory assay

  2. 2004-2013年云南省德宏州预防艾滋病母婴传播的卫生经济学评价%A study on the health economic evaluations of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2004 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; 王娟; 段松; 郭云松; 唐树萍; 杨跃诚; 叶润华; 薛珲; 张广

    2015-01-01

    目的 对2004-2013年云南省德宏州预防艾滋病母婴传播工作进行卫生经济学评价.方法 根据德宏州实施艾滋病母婴阻断历年资料记录及当地防治艾滋病委员会办公室历年开展预防艾滋病母婴传播的资源投入、物资分配、经费下拨等资料估算成本数据,通过德宏州CDC历年的项目监测数据和预防艾滋病母婴传播工作报表数据计算相关效果指标,运用成本效果和成本效用分析方法,对母婴阻断工作进行卫生经济学评价.结果 2004-2013年期间,共对283 980名孕产妇进行了HIV检测,发现HIV阳性孕产妇2059例,阳性率为0.73%.2004-2013年各年总成本经贴现后为1 422.7万元,每发现1例HIV阳性孕产妇成本为0.42万元.由于实施艾滋病母婴阻断工作,分别有325名婴儿和26名成年人避免了HIV感染,成本效果比(CER)为4.05万元/例;实施该项工作所获得的质量调整生命年(QALY)为8 911.5,每获得1个QALY的成本为0.16万元.将母乳喂养和人工喂养进行比较发现,若全部实施母乳喂养,CER为4.28万元/例,每获得1个QALY所需成本为0.22万元.结论 通过成本效果和成本效用分析,提示德宏州艾滋病母婴阻断工作的实施具有经济学价值,建议持续加大投入,继续加强德宏州预防艾滋病母婴传播工作.%Objective To conduct health economic evaluation of the prevention of mother-to-child HIV among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China from 2004 to 2013.Methods Data on cost were collected mainly from the annual prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) reporting system of Dehong prefecture,and supplemented by HIV PMTCT-related resource allocation data from local health bureau.Effectiveness indexes were from local continuous HIV surveillance system and annual reported data.Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis were used to conduct the health economic evaluation.Results From 2004 to 2013,283 980 pregnant women

  3. 普洱季风常绿阔叶林次生演替中木本植物幼苗更新特征%Woody seedling regeneration in secondary succession of monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest in Puer, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧; 刘庆云

    2012-01-01

    reserve, surrounding the areas of Meizihu and Xinfang reservoir of Puer, in Yunnan Province, the southwest of China. We investigated seedling regeneration characteristics of woody plants of MEBF during secondary succession by looking at species composition, density, height level and the relationship with environmental factors. Overall, we found 2014 individuals of woody seedlings belonging to 101 species (dominated by understory tree species) in the eight plots covering 144-m area. The species richness of tree seedling, shrub seedling and liana seedling were 50, 29 and 22 respectively, and their corresponding individuals were 1499, 299 and 216. Tree seedling was the main component of woody plant seedling, such as Castanopsis echidnocarpa. Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis are dominant species in coniferous and broadJeaved mixed forest, however, their seedlings rarely appeared in the understory. The pine seedling stages need more light than shade-tolerant species which can conserve seedling bank in understory and waited for appropriate chance to regeneration. The woody plant seedling density of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary and mature MEBF was 183±5. 69, 240±20. 31 and 372. 5±4. 5 individuals per 18m2. As succession progresses, the density of total woody seedlings, tree seedlings and liana seedlings all increased, while the density of shrub seedlings did not change significantly. Celastrus virens as a liana was particularly conspicuous in mature MEBF. Species richness of liana seedlings tended to increase, while species richness of tree seedlings and shrub seedlings remained relatively stable along the succession gradient. The Shannon-Wiener index of woody seedlings was significantly lower in primary MEBF than those in mixed forest and secondary MEBF. The abundance of woody seedlings in secondary and primary MEBF decreased with the increase of height level, while in mixed forest, the abundance of woody seedlings form a unimodal pattern with peak at

  4. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  5. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at HMW Glutenin Subunits Loci in Yunnan,Tibetan and Xinjiang Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Xiu-e; CHEN Pei-du; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    Allelic variation and genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1and Glu-D1 were investigated in 64 accessions of three unique wheats of western China using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12" and "null, 7, 2+12") in 34 Yunnan wheat accessions, 3 HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12"; "null, 6+8, 2+12" and "null, 7+8, 2") in 24 Tibetan accessions and 1 HMW glutenin pattern ("null, 7, 2+12") in 6 Xinjiang wheat accessions were found. The Tibetan accession TB18 was found to be with a rare subunit 2 encoded by Glu-D1. A total of 4 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1a), 5 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1d, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1a and Glu-D1) and 3 alleles (i.e.,Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a and Glu-D1a) at Glu-1 locus were identified among Yunnan, Tibetan and Xinjiang unique wheat accessions, respectively. For Yunnan wheat, Tibetan wheat and Xinjiang wheat, the Nei′s mean genetic variation indexes were 0.1574, 0.1366 and 0,respectively, which might indicate the higher genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci of Yunnan and Tibetan wheat accessions as compared to that of Xinjiang wheat accessions. Among the three genomes of hexaploid wheats of western China, the highest Nei′s genetic variation index was appeared in B genome with the mean value of 0.2674,while the indexes for genomes A and D were 0 and 0.0270, respectively. It might be reasonable to indicate that Glu-B1 showed the highest, Glu-D1 the intermediate and GluA1 always the lowest genetic diversity.

  6. Review of the planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae) with descriptions of three new species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The tropiduchid planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber, 1875 is reviewed to include six species in China: O. binotatus Fieber, 1875 (Taiwan), O. chinsanensis Muir, 1913 (Hong Kong, Macao, Guangdong), O. fuscus sp. nov. (Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan), O. lateralis sp. nov. (Yunnan, Guizhou), O. lofouensis Muir, 1913 (Guizhou, Shandong, Shanxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan) and O. trimaculatus sp. nov. (Yunnan). Except O. chinsanensis and O. binotatus, four species are described or redescribed and illustrated. The generic characters are redefined. A checklist and key to all species in the genus are provided.  PMID:25284656

  7. Description of a new species of Pseudomegischus van Achterberg from China (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huayan, Chen; Chun-dan,Hong; van Achterberg, Kees; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pseudomegischus van Achterberg, Pseudomegischus yunnanensis sp. n., is described and illustrated from Yunnan Province, China. This is the second species of the genus reported from China. A modified section of the identification key to species of Pseudomegischus is added to include the new species.

  8. China's First Satellite Tracking of Migration Route of Black-necked Cranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with colleagues at home and abroad, CAS scientists launched China's first ever satellite tracking project on Black-necked Cranes in late February at the National Dashanbao Black-necked Crane Natural Reserve in southwest China's Yunnan Province. Its objective is to understand the migration route of the crane's eastern population so as to better protect this rare species.

  9. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  10. Notes on Reading Rare Books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma%滇缅抗战稀见文献知见录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新民

    2015-01-01

    中国远征军出动对日作战的中缅印战场,既是抗日战争正面战场的重要组成部分,又是世界反法西斯战争亚洲-太平洋战场即东方战线主战场之一。滇缅抗战胜利对世界反法西斯战争取得全面胜利作出了举世瞩目的贡献,是世界反法西斯战争重大战果。中国远征军是滇缅抗战的主力军。笔者就所知所见的稀见滇缅抗战文献单行本逐一概说,共计介绍中美盟国中英文文献十二种和中译日方文献两种,以丰富世界反法西斯战争史和中国抗战史研究史料。%The Chinese Expeditionary Army (CEA) was dispatched from China inland to the west of Yunnan province, Burma, and India for fighting against the Japanese invaders during the Second World War. Not only the battle field which CEA had once experienced and bled was an important component of the frontier battlefields during the period of Anti-Japanese War in China, but also it was one of the oriental main battle fields, the Asia-Pacific, in the International Anti-Fascist War. The victory of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma had made a remarkable contribution towards the finally overall success of the International Anti-Fascism War. CEA was the main force of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which had achieved splendid results on the battle field in West Yunnan and North Burma. The essay is written down to introduce the rare books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which is made of twelve volumes written in Chinese or English, and other two volumes in Japanese. Surely it is worthy of studying for the history of the International Anti-Fascism War and the Anti-Japanese War in China.

  11. Cutting the Costs of Cleanup: The Case for Tradable Discharge Permits in the Upper Nanpan River, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Tao; Weimin Yang; Bo Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution is one of China's most pressing environmental issues, but a recent economic study in Yunnan province has found that in certain cases market forces can be harnessed to effectively drive river clean-up. The study looked at the feasibility of allowing industries along the heavily-polluted upper Nanpan River, Yunnan to trade permits for discharging waste into the watercourse. It found that such a tradable discharge permit (TDP) approach would be an efficient way of controlling pol...

  12. Tourism in China: representing the nation to English speaking tourists: A historical study of the development of tourism and the interpretive media encountered at five Beijing tourist sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koerts

    2015-01-01

    Since 1978, tourism in China has grown rapidly in terms of numbers of tourists and revenues. Although China is set to become the world’s major tourist receiving and tourist generating country, domestic tourism is presently the mainstay with over three billion visits in 2013. Tourism is not only of e

  13. Interpreting Yunnan Memories and Its Influence on Ruan' s Development—— A Case Study of the Third Movement%《云南回忆》解析及其对阮发展的影响——以第三乐章为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓丽

    2012-01-01

    Yuanan Memories is the first zhongruan (one kind of national music instnnnents) concerto in China, which has become a model for the reform of national music creation as it combines the modem composition and orchestration with tender sounds of the instrument. Its appearance ends various tunings and unregulated playing of zhongruan, whose rich styles of playing techniques and unique sound effects have elevated ruan' s position and playing and turned out to be an important landmark in the history of ruan s development.%《云南回忆》作为我国第一首中阮协奏曲,它把现代的作曲、配器法与中阮柔美的声音相结合,成为民族器乐创作改革的典范之作。《云南回忆》的出现结束了阮定弦多样、演奏缺乏规范的局面,其丰富多样的演奏技巧和个性化的音响效果,不但提高了阮的地位和演奏水平,而且成为阮发展史上的一个重要里程碑。

  14. Terrestrial Permian - Triassic boundary sections in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Vajda, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary interval in China comprises a significant record of faunal and floral changes during this important extinction event. Here we discuss the details of palynomorph preservation at the classical Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan sections in an effort to expand the stratigraphy and paleontology from these earlier studies.

  15. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng; ZHANG Kong-lai; SHAN Guang-liang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism.Methods Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project.Results In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P<0.001),and some indices of the villagers' behavior using condoms improved after the intervention. But this improvement was poorer than that in the women group. In the Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P<0.001).Conclusion The results suggested that the Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms,but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  16. Wheat Generation Adding in Xundian County of Yunnan Province in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhi-you; Liu Ye-ju; Qin Peng

    2014-01-01

    Local climate conditions and sowing time are very important to the vernalization and summer reproduction of the wheat. Xundian County is located in Yunnan Province of China, at latitude 25.56° north and longitude 103.25° east. Xundian County is situated 1 873 m above sea level, and is conducive for the summer reproduction of the wheat. To investigate the optimal sowing time, 11 spring wheat cultivars and one semi-winter wheat cultivar were sown 10 times at an interval of five days from May 26, 2012, and the strong winter wheat Suyin 10 was treated in a vernalization room at 2℃ with different concentrations of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine. The results showed that Suyin 10 should be vernalized at 2℃ for 30 days in summer, and the growth periods of strong winter wheat plants could been shortened if treated with a specific concentration of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine at a low temperature. The growth period of the spring wheat in summer reproduction was delayed, and their agronomic traits gradually decreased with the passage of the sowing time. Thus, spring wheat should be sown at the earliest time possible for better yield. June 25 should be the latest date for summer reproduction of the wheat, but the semi-winter wheat cultivars in Xundian County should be added generation in summer after being treated at 2℃ for 10 days. Xundian County is a suitable location for summer reproduction of the wheat in China.

  17. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  18. Analysis of Climatic Factors Influencing Walnut Distribution in the Main Producing Areas of Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Liangjun; Ma, Ting; NING, Delu

    2013-01-01

    Using the data of 11 climatic factors on 40 counties in the main producing areas of walnut of Yunnan Province, we analyze the impact of various climatic factors on the distribution of Yunnan walnut. The results show that Yunnan walnut has a great expectation on temperature and moisture. Temperature, including average temperature in January, average temperature in July, the average annual temperature and accumulated temperature≥10 ℃, has the greatest impact on the distribution of Yunnan wa...

  19. A DISCUSSION ON BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LINES OF THE TROPICAL—SUBTROPICAL YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUHua; YANLi-chun

    2002-01-01

    Based on comparative studies on four regional floras from northwest,west south and southeast of Yunnan respectively,the formerly suggested two biogeographical lines,i.e.the “Tanaka Line”and the “Ecogeographical Diago-nal Line”,both going from northwest to southeast of Yunnan,and their significance are discussed.In family and generic levels,similarity coefficients among the four compared floras are more than 93% and 60% separately,which indicate the close floristic affinities among them.The highest similarity coefficient,i.e.98.7% in family level and 78.6% in gener-ic level separately,is found between the regional flora of northwest Yunnan and the flora of southeast Yunnan although these two regions are the most distant away each other among the compared regional floras.The flora of northwest Yun-nan is also the most similar to the flora of southeast Yunnan in floristic composition.These support the idea of “Ecogeographical Diagonal Line“.In specific level,the relatively high similarity coefficient is between the regional flora of west Yunnan and the one of south Yunnan.The floristic affinities among these regional floras and some distribution patterns could be explained by the geological history and tectonic theory of Yunnan.

  20. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  1. Development Prospect of Aromatherapy Industry in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziyun; PENG; Dantong; LI; Rui; CHEN; Min; QIAN; Yiqi; CHEN; Hongjun; YANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced domestic and foreign supply of products processed by aromatherapy plant. On the basis of predicting market demand of aromatherapy plant,it analyzed current development situation of the plant in Yunnan Province. It arrived at the conclusion that the industry has broad market prospect. Then,it analyzed competitive advantages and risk factors of aromatherapy plant in Yunnan Province. There are climate,location and price advantages,but due to lack of product standard,it is difficult to guarantee quality,and there are certain market risks. Finally,it put forward recommendations for development of aromatherapy industry:( 1) taking full advantage of preferential policies to set up leading enterprises and realize radiated development;( 2) bringing into play of resource advantages and introducing capitals and technologies;( 3) Fostering market and driving the industrial development.

  2. Coal-based 50 kt/a Vinyl Acetate Project Is To Be Constructed in Bashan, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The largest in western Yunnan Chemical projects -the 200 kt/a calcium carbide project and the 50 kt/a vinyl acetate project- will be officially constructed in Baoshan city by the Yunwei Company under Yunnan Coal Chemical Group.

  3. Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Cultivated in Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Liu, Lu; Chen, Ying-ying; Li, Qiong; Li, Dan; Liu, Va-ping; Luo, Xiao-dong

    2015-12-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 15,20-dehydro-3α-(2-oxopropyl) coronaridine (1), along with sixteen analogues (2-17) were isolated from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus cultivated in Yunnan. The new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the known alkaloids were identified by comparison with the reported spectroscopic data. Among them, alkaloid 16 was isolated from Catharanthus for the first time. PMID:26882670

  4. Precursory specialties of apparent stresses in Yunnan earthquake series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-gui; LIU Jie; DING Ye-ling; SUN Ye-jun; YU Xin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the assumption that ω2 model accords with source displacement spectra, we have obtained the mathematical expressions for calculating apparent stresses of moderate-small shocks from low-frequency flat level and comer frequency. By using digital seismic records, apparent stress values are calculated for 823 moderate-small shocks of 4 earthquake series in Yunnan area following corrections for instrument response, propagation influence and site effect. The results show that for the 4 earthquake series in Yunnan area, apparent stress hints precursory information, which means that if a moderate-small shock occurs with apparent stress larger than 1 MPa in an earthquake series, a moderate-strong earthquake will occur afterwards; and if there is not moderate-small shock with apparent stress larger than 1 MPa after a moderate-strong event in an earthquake series, strong aftershock will not occur. The research also indicates that the average apparent stress value is 0.8 MPa in Yunnan area, therefore, apparent stress is not obviously related to seismic magnitude.

  5. An Interpretation of “China Dream”from the Birthright in“Analects of Confucius”%从《论语》“正名”思想解读“中国梦”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 张凤丽

    2014-01-01

    The idea of birthright proposed by Confucius in the "Analects" is to clarify the link between things, and contains a profound dialectics and systematic view, which is helpful for us to interpret"China Dream".%“正名”是孔子在《论语》中提出的思想,阐明了事物之间是联系的,包含着深刻的辩证法与系统观,对我们解读“中国梦”具有借鉴意义。

  6. “中国发展”影响力的一种解读%Interpretation of the Powerful Influence of China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海林; 郭朝先

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of China's economic development, utilization of resources and environment and soft power, the paper draws the following conclusions. The overall influential power of "China development" in the world is misinterpreted. What we see is the role of "China Factor" in different fields. In the process of economic globalization, the market economic system of capitalism sees the cheap labor power of China, the favorable environment of economic system, the misuse of resources and environment without restriction in the early period and the large consumption market and population bonus. In the global financial crisis and Asian financial crisis, the other countries merely pay attention to China's foreign exchange reserves. In the global management and crisis management, the international world requires China to take the obligation and responsibility but does not give China the discourse rights. Those listed above are indeed the influences in particular fields that China is reluctantly recognized. It will take a long time for China to play the active and positive roles by the efforts of several generations. China used to be one of the most influential countries in the world. The rise of China is a normal process. Too much emphasis on China's influences does not mean China's true power.%通过对中国经济发展、资源环境利用以及软实力的分析,对“中国发展”产生的影响作出了基本判断:“中国发展”在国际社会中的整体影响力被误认,我们看到的依然是“中国因素”在不同领域发挥的作用.在经济全球化过程中,资本主义市场经济体系看到的是“中国低廉的劳动力”、“中国宽松的经济制度环境”、“早期没有限制的资源环境滥用”以及“中国广阔的消费市场与人口红利”;在全球或亚洲金融危机中,其他国家看重的是中国多年积累的“外汇”;在全球治理或危机处理中,国际社会期望的是没有话语权

  7. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Su; Peter Wilf; Yongjiang Huang; Shitao Zhang; Zhekun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000–7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, incl...

  8. Tourism in China: representing the nation to English speaking tourists: A historical study of the development of tourism and the interpretive media encountered at five Beijing tourist sites

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberger, S.R.; Koerts, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1978, tourism in China has grown rapidly in terms of numbers of tourists and revenues. Although China is set to become the world’s major tourist receiving and tourist generating country, domestic tourism is presently the mainstay with over three billion visits in 2013. Tourism is not only of economic relevance but is also used as a soft power tool for building a national identity in which patriotism and a "harmonious society" are key ingredients. The idea of travel as a tool for educati...

  9. A DISCUSSION ON BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LINES OF THE TROPICAL-SUBTROPICAL YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on comparative studies on four regional floras from northwest, west, south and southeast of Yunnanrespectively, the formerly suggested two biogeographical lines, i.e. the "Tanaka Line" and the "Ecogeographical Diago-nal Line", both going from northwest to southeast of Yunnan, and their significance are discussed. In family and genericlevels, similarity coefficients among the four compared floras are more than 93% and 60% separately, which indicate theclose floristic affinities among them. The highest similarity coefficient, i.e. 98.7% in family level and 78.6% in gener-ic level separately, is found between the regional flora of northwest Yunnan and the flora of southeast Yunnan althoughthese two regions are the most distant away each other among the compared regional floras. The flora of northwest Yun-nan is also the most similar to the flora of southeast Yunnan in floristic composition. These support the idea of"Ecogeographical Diagonal Line". In specific level, the relatively high similarity coefficient is between the regional floraof west Yunnan and the one of south Yunnan. The floristic affinities among these regional floras and some distributionpatterns could be explained by the geological history and tectonic theory of Yunnan.

  10. Analysis of Climatic Factors Influencing Walnut Distribution in the Main Producing Areas of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangjun; XIAO; Ting; MA; Delu; Ning

    2013-01-01

    Using the data of 11 climatic factors on 40 counties in the main producing areas of walnut of Yunnan Province,we analyze the impact of various climatic factors on the distribution of Yunnan walnut.The results show that Yunnan walnut has a great expectation on temperature and moisture.Temperature,including average temperature in January,average temperature in July,the average annual temperature and accumulated temperature≥10℃,has the greatest impact on the distribution of Yunnan walnut,and is the primary dominant factor;moisture,including annual rainfall and average relative humidity,has a great impact on the distribution of Yunnan walnut,and is the secondary dominant factor.

  11. The Balanced Development of Yunnan Bazi Agriculture and its Resource Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.

  12. A new genus and species of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae from China, living on Isodon eriocalyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aphid genus Nigritergaphis gen. n. is described, and N. crassisetosa sp.n. on Isodon eriocalyx (Dunn Kudô (Lamiaceae from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. The new species curls and distorts the leaves of this important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, and is evidently specific to this host. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

  13. The Interpretation of the History Books from the Perspective of Ancient China-India Cultural Exchanges%从古代中印文化交流角度解读史书著述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙芊良

    2013-01-01

      中国和印度的交往很早以前就开始了,学术界有“商代说”、“西周说”、“战国说”等很多的推测,在中印两国交流的历史长河中,不同的史家对于交流有不同的记载,从搜集、阅读史书中记载中印文化交流史实的角度,探究史书作者的著述意图,解读作者记载的目的,领悟多本史书带给人们不同中印文化交流记述的原因。%The communication between China and India has a long history. There are a lot of speculations such as“theory of Shang Dynasty”, “theory of the western Zhou Dynasty”, and “theory of the Warring States period” in academic world. In the long history of China-India exchanges, historians have their own opinions of the communications. These writers’ intensions of writing are investigated from the perspective of history of China-India exchange in order to interpret the reasons why the records written by the historians are different.

  14. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  15. Study of the Seismicity of Strong Earthquakes in the Yunnan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huangfu Gang; Qin Jiazheng

    2006-01-01

    Yunnan is located in the east margin of the collision zone between the India Plate and the Eurasian Plate on the Chinese Continent, where crustal movement is violent and moderatestrong earthquakes are frequent. In addition, the area features marked active block movement. Therefore, Yunnan is a perfect place for research on strong earthquake activity. Through the study on the temporal and spatial distribution of the M ≥ 6.7 earthquakes and the related earthquake dynamics in Yunnan in the last century, we conclude that the four seismically active periods, which are characterized by alternative activity in the east and the west part of Yunnan, possibly result from a combination of active and quiescent periods in each of the east and west part. And for every 100 years, there may be a period in which strong earthquakes occur in the east and west paris simultaneously. In addition, the seismicity of strong earthquakes in Yunnan corresponds well to that in the peripheral region. The seismicity of the great earthquakes in the Andaman-Myanmar Tectonic Arc belt indicates, to some extent, the beginning of a seismically active period in Yunnan. The seismicity of strong earthquakes in east Yunnan is closely related to that in Sichuan. Strong earthquakes in Sichuan often occur later than those in Yunnan. Furthermore, in the east part of Yunnan, the three procedures including continuous occurrence of moderate-strong earthquake, quiescent period, and the occurrence of the first strong earthquake may be the style of the beginning of the earthquake active period. The above cognition is helpful to the study of earthquake prediction, seismogenic mechanism, and the dynamics of the plate margin in Yunnan.

  16. Pathogenic monitoring and genetic diversity analysis of rabies virus in Yunnan Province%云南省狂犬病病原监测及病毒遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传海; 张文东; 胡挺松; 赵焕云; 张应国; 范泉水; 张富强; 刘勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the pathogenic distribution and virus genetic diversity of rabies in Yunnan Province between 2006 and 2011. Methods Brain tissues or saliva swab samples were collected from suspected dogs with rabies in different areas in Yunnan Province for pathogenic monitoring between 2006 and 2011. The representative positive samples were selected for cloning and sequencing of the G genes and G-L intergenic regions. Comparison and phylogenic analysis were made between the sequence data of those samples and those of the reference strains. Results The positive samples had been found in 30 counties among 11 districts of Yunnan Province. The virus strains from these positive samples belonged to Serotype Ⅰ and Genotype Ⅰ . There were four different lineages or sub-lineages( China Ⅰ -1, China Ⅰ -2, China Ⅰ -3 , and Thailand )and seven types of genetic structures. Conclusion There is genetic diversity in G gene and G-L intergenic region of rabies virus in Yunnan Province. China Ⅰ -1 becomes the dominant epidemic strain.%目的 阐明2006~2011年期间云南省狂犬病病原分布状况和病毒基因结构特征.方法 2006~2011年期间,在云南省不同地点采集疑似狂犬病犬脑组织样品或唾液拭子样品,开展狂犬病病原监测;选择代表性阳性样品,对G基因、G-L间隔区进行克隆、测序,并与参考毒株序列进行比对及系统发育分析.结果 云南省11个地州30个县检出狂犬病病毒阳性样品,云南省狂犬病病毒均属于血清Ⅰ型和基因Ⅰ型毒株,至少存在4个不同遗传(亚)谱系(China Ⅰ-1、China Ⅰ-2、China Ⅰ-3、Thailand)、7种基因结构类型.结论 云南省狂犬病病毒G基因和G-L间隔区具有遗传多样性,China Ⅰ-1毒株已成为当前流行的优势毒株.

  17. Interpretability Logic

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretations are much used in metamathematics. The first application that comes to mind is their use in reductive Hilbert-style programs. Think of the kind of program proposed by Simpson, Feferman or Nelson (see Simpson[1988], Feferman[1988], Nelson[1986]). Here they serve to compare the strength of theories, or better to prove conservation results within a properly weak theory. An advantage of using interpretations is that even if their use should -perhaps- be classified as a prooftheoret...

  18. Altitudinal Variation in Digestive Tract Length in Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangling LOU; Yanhong LI; Long JIN; Zhiping MI; Wenchao LIU; Wenbo LIAO

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays an important role in digestion and the acquisition of food energy. Understanding the impact of abiotic environments on digestive tract morphology is especially important for evolution of digestive tract across different environments. Here, we investigated altitudinal variation in digestive tract length in the Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden) across ifve populations ranging from 1413 m to 1935 m a.s.l. in Ningnan County, Sichuan province in western China. Frogs were collected during the breeding season, from 1-5 June 2012. Our results revealed that females had longer digestive tract and relative digestive tract (i.e. digestive tract length/body size) lengths in com-parison to males, on average, but the differences between them decreased with increasing altitude. Digestive tract and relative digestive tract lengths increased with increasing altitude suggesting that a higher proportion of indigestible ma-terials may be consumed at high-altitude sites and result in a relative increase in digestive tract dimensions.

  19. The coexistence of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia Town, Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ji; Wu, Fei; Hu, Wan-Zhao; Fang, Jian-Ling; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-18

    The coexistence of ecologically similar species sharing sympatric areas is a central issue of community ecology. Niche differentiation is required at least in one dimension to avoid competitive exclusion. From 2012-2014, by adopting the methods of mist-nets and point counts to evaluate spatial niche partitioning and morphological differentiations, we explored the coexistence mechanisms of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia town, Yunnan Province, China. The microhabitats of these seven fulvettas were significantly different in elevation, roost site height and vegetation coverage, indicating a spatial niche segregation in different levels. Approximately, 90.30% of the samples were correctly classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with correct rates at 91.20%-100%, except the White-browed fulvetta (Alcippe vinipectus) (65.4%) and the Streak-throated fulvetta (A. cinereiceps) (74.6%). The seven fulvettas were classified into four guilds based on their specific morphological characters, suggesting that the species in each guild use their unique feeding ways to realize resource partitioning in the overlapped areas. These finding indicate that through multi-dimensional spatial niche segregation and divergence in resource utilizing, the inter-specific competition among these seven fulvettas is minimized, whereas, coexistence is promoted. PMID:25730457

  20. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity in hailstorms over Yunnan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiran; Wu, Jian; Liu, Xuetao; Zhang, Tengfei; Xie, Yinjian; Xu, Yinjie; Zhao, Deming

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning for nine hailstorms in Yunnan province of China are analyzed statistically. It is determined that the hailstorms were found to present dominant negative CG lightning flashes at any given stage. One specific hailstorm occurring on July 16, 2006, is analyzed in detail by using the data from a CG lightning location network and Doppler radar. This severe hailstorm, which exhibited strong vertical development with cloud tops reaching 15.9 km, produced hailstones as large as 15 mm and had a lifespan of 3 h and 12 min. The total CG lightning within the hailstorm showed high levels of activity with flash rates of up to 79 fl/5 min. The analysis of the storm cell's lifecycle shows similar trends between the CG lightning flash rates and radar-derived parameters. Cloud-to-ground flashes tended to initiate within the cloud region with reflectivity of more than 30 dBZ at the -10 °C isotherm height. A distinct increase in CG flash rate is shown during the rapid development stages of hailstorms. The CG lightning jump pattern appears to be an effective tool for short-term forecasting of possible occurrences of severe weather.

  1. Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Yin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan, Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan, L. jizuensis Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan, L. simplicipalpus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan, Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui, P. daii Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan, P. grebennikovi Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan, P. hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan, P. kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou, P. longilobus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan, P. monoceros Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Xizang, P. pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan, P. tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang and P. wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan. Labomimus sichuanicus Hlaváč, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan, and P. venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan, are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n. due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for P. aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, P. maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou, P. tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi and P. pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan, with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

  2. Use RAPD Analysis to Classify Tea Trees in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Wan-fang; PANG Rui-hua; DUAN Hong-xing; WANG Ping-sheng; XU Mei; ZHANG Ya-ping; LI Jia-hua

    2003-01-01

    RAPD assessment on genetic variations of 45 tea trees in Yunnan was carried out. Eight primers selected from 40 random primers were used to amplify 45 tea samples, and a total of 95 DNA bands were amplified, of which 90 (94.7 %) were polymorphism. The average number of DNA bands amplified by each primer was 11.5. Based on the results of UPGMA cluster analysis of 95 DNA bands amplified by 8 primers,all the tested materials could be classified into 7 groups including 5 complex groups and 2 simple groups, which was basically identical with morphological classification. In addition, there were some speciations in 2 simple groups.

  3. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  4. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiayong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Wei Junqi, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa et al., Geochemistry of granitoid from the Yangla ore district, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1997 (4): 50.[2]He Longqing, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Division of sequence stratigraphy and study on ore-bearing beds in the Yangla copper orefield, western Yunnan, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1998 (3): 37.[3]Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Chen Shifang et al., Formation condition and type of the Yangla large scale copper deposit, Western Yunnan, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1998, 17 (supplement): 183.[4]Lu Yuanfa, Chen Kaixu, Zhan Mingguo et al., Geochemical evidence of exhalative-sedimentary ore-bearing skarns in Yangla copper mineralization concentrated Area, Earth Science (in Chinese), 1999, 24(3): 298.[5]Yomamoto, K., Geochemical characteristics and depositional environments of cherts and associated rocks in the Franciscan and Shimanto terranes, Sedimentary Geology, 1987, 52: 65.[6]Zhou, Y. Z., Geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks originated from a fossil hydrothermal system in the upper Devonian strata, Guangxi, southern China, Acta Sedimentologia, 1990, 8 (3): 75.[7]Zhou Yongzhang, Geology and Geochemistry of Hetai Gold Field, Southern China, Guangzhou: South China University of Technology Press, 1993, 53-107.[8]Bostroem, K., Harold, R., Oiva, J., Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Fe, Tl, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in Pacific pelagic sediment, Chem. Geol., 1973, 11: 123.[9]Herzig, P. M., Becker, K. P., Stoffers, P. et al., Hydrothermal silica chimney field in the Galapagos rift center at 81°W, Earth Pla. Sci. Lett., 1987, 52: 65.[10] Douthitt, C. B., The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of the silicon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1982, 16: 129.[11] Ying Hanlong, Cai Xinping, Liu Bingguang, Geochemical features and formation of auriferous cherts in Mojiang Gold Mine, Yunnan, Geochemistry (in Chinese), 1999

  5. Quantum interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed

  6. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  7. Theoretical Interpretation of the Fundamental Question of China Dream%中国梦基本问题的理论阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛明珠; 陈树文

    2014-01-01

    China dream,which is timely put forward by the new generation of Chinese communists,is a distinct summary of its governing ideas.Its fundamental question is to achieve the great rejuvenation of Chinese nation,which is a high integration of i-deality and reality,inheritance and development,practice and science,nationality and the world.The proposal of this concept is beneficial to condensing reform motivation,enhancing“three confidence”,consolidating the national identity and promoting the exchange between China and foreign countries.To realize China dream,we need to develop Chinese banners,hold on Chinese roads,improve Chinese systems,carry forward Chinese spirits and unify Chinese strength.%新一代中国共产党人适时提出中国梦是其执政理念的鲜明总结,贯穿于其中的基本问题是实现中华民族伟大复兴。这一问题具有理想性与现实性相统一、继承性与发展性相统一、实践性与科学性相统一、民族性与世界性相统一等基本特征。它的提出,有助于凝聚改革动力,有助于增强“三个自信”,有助于巩固华夏认同,有助于促进中外交流。实现中国梦,需要发展中国旗帜,坚持中国道路,完善中国制度,弘扬中国精神,凝聚中国力量。

  8. Interpreting Metonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  9. Interpreting the transmissibility of the avian influenza A(H7N9) infection from 2013 to 2015 in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Wang, X; Liu, S; Cai, J; Su, X; Zee, B C; Tam, G; Wang, M H; Chen, E

    2016-06-01

    Three epidemic waves of human influenza A(H7N9) were documented in several different provinces in China between 2013 and 2015. With limited understanding of the potential for human-to-human transmission, it was difficult to implement control measures efficiently or to inform the public adequately about the application of interventions. In this study, the human-to-human transmission rate for the epidemics that occurred between 2013 and 2015 in Zhejiang Province, China, was analysed. The reproduction number (R), a key indicator of transmission intensity, was estimated by fitting the number of infections from poultry to humans and from humans to humans into a mathematical model. The posterior mean R for human-to-human transmission was estimated to be 0·27, with a 95% credible interval of 0·14-0·44 for the first wave, whereas the posterior mean Rs decreased to 0·15 in the second and third waves. Overall, these estimates indicate that a human H7N9 pandemic is unlikely to occur in Zhejiang. The reductions in the viral transmissibility and the number of poultry-transmitted infections after the first epidemic may be attributable to the various intervention measures taken, including changes in the extent of closures of live poultry markets. PMID:26645357

  10. Interpreting Theory and Political Suggestions of the Development of Public Hospitals in China%我国公立医院规模发展的理论解释与政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董四平; 安艳芳; 刘庭芳

    2011-01-01

    In view of the obvious expansion of bed scale in public hospitals in China, the severe phenomenon of supply-induced demand is confirmed by testing Romer's law, developed a theory model of interpreting the expansion, and proposed policy-making suggestions for eliminating induced demand of health service and curbing the expansion of hospitals.%首先针对我国综合医院床位规模扩张较为明显的现状,通过验证罗默法则证实我国医疗服务市场存在较为严重的诱导需求现象;其次构建了我国公立医院规模扩张的理论解释模型;最后提出了消除医疗服务诱导需求、遏制医院规模扩张的政策建议.

  11. Interpretation of the means of realization of China Dream through“existence is rationality”%论以“存在即合理”观点来解读中国梦的实现途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云大清

    2014-01-01

    The view of “existence is rationality” is put forward by a great philosopher Hegel.From the surface, there are seemingly many fallacies, but in essence, the substantive content is undoubted. This essay will firstly analyse the proposition of “existence is rationality” and then interprete the means of realization of China Dream through this proposition.%“存在即合理”是伟大哲学家黑格尔所提出的观点,这个观点从字面上看很容易让人误解,但是从实质内容上看这是一个毋庸置疑的观点。文章先分析黑格尔“存在即合理”的命题,再通过“存在即合理”来解读中国梦的实现途径。

  12. Coevolution between Cancer Activities and Food Structure of Human Being from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan and Tibet are the lowest cancer mortality and the largest producer for anticancer crops (brown rice, barley, buckwheat, tea, walnut, mushrooms, and so forth. Shanghai and Jiangsu province in China have the highest mortality of cancers, which are associated with the sharp decline of barley.

  13. Coevolution between Cancer Activities and Food Structure of Human Being from Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yawen Zeng; Juan Du; Xiaoying Pu; Jiazhen Yang; Tao Yang; Shuming Yang; Xiaomeng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Yunnan and Tibet are the lowest cancer mortality and the largest producer for anticancer crops (brown rice, barley, buckwheat, tea, walnut, mushrooms, and so forth). Shanghai and Jiangsu province in China have the highest mortality of cancers, which are associated with the sharp decline of barley.

  14. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  15. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  16. 云南毛坪铅锌(银、锗)矿床流体包裹体特征及成矿流体来源%Features of fluid inclusions and sources of ore-forming fluid in the Maoping carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-( Ag-Ge) deposit, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩润生; 邹海俊; 胡彬; 胡熠昭; 薛传东

    2007-01-01

    The Maoping Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) deposit is an important representative of the medium-to large-sized carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-(Ag) deposits in northeast Yunnan, occurring in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Zn-Pb Ore-forming Zone. The spatial distribution of ore bodies were controlled by the NE-extending interstratified fault belts and inverted Maomaoshan fold. Generally, fluid inclusions within the major gangue minerals, as ferro-calcite, calcite and dolomite are dominated by two kinds of small inclusions (3~15 μm) including pure-liquid and liquid. The inclusions exist in concentrated groups along the crystal planes of the gangue minerals. The ore-forming fluids belong to the Na+ -K+ -Ca2+ -Cl- -F - type, are characterized by temperatures of 180 ~ 218 ℃, medium salinity in 4. 1 wt% ~ 9.5wt% NaCl, and medium pressure at 406×105~570×105 Pa. The ratios of Na+/K+ (1.54~4.53 ) and Cl-/F- (0.72 ~ 156.33 ) in the fluid inclusions of gangue minerals are relatively high, while those of Na+/K+ (0. 32 ~ 8.36 ) and Cl-/F- (1.06 ~ 16.77) in the inclusions of barite are relatively low. The waters of fluid inclusions have δD values from -23‰ to -64‰. The δ18OV.SMOWvalues of the ore-forming fluids range from 0. 3‰ to 6.2‰ for galena, -9.0‰ to 3.4‰ for sphalerite, and -6.8‰ to -12.7‰ for pyrite. δ13CV-PDBvalues range from -1.1 to -3.7 for gangue minerals. These data better demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were the compositing results of the magma water, metamorphic water and hosted water, and mainly derived from magmatic hot fluid and hosted formation water, in relation to the sedimentation, the metamorphism of the Kunyang Group in the basement and magmatic hydrothermalism. The deposit itself might have resulted from ascending cycles along metallogenic structures of ore-forming fluid, enriched in Pb, Zn and Ag. The deposit is related to carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb sulphides.%云南毛坪铅锌(银、锗)矿床是川滇黔成矿域滇东北地区以碳

  17. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  18. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui

    2015-12-01

    A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (eruptive center of the Permian igneous rocks in the Tarim Basin.

  19. The Cretaceous system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.Q.; Chen, P.J.; Wei, M.J. [Capital Normal University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper provides an outline of Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China, which is based on rich data obtained from recent researches. Cretaceous deposits are widespread in China. Most strata are of nonmarine origin and marine sediments occur only in Tibet, western Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, Taiwan and limited localities of eastern Heilongjiang. All deposits are rich in fossils and well-constrained biostratigraphically. The stratigraphic successions of different regions are illustrated, and general stratigraphic division and correlation have been introduced. The marine deposits are described in the Tibetan Tethys, Kashi-Hotan Region of Xinjiang, eastern Heilongjiang, western Yunnan and Taiwan; the nonmarine deposits are outlined from northeast China, southeast China, southern interior China, southwest China, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, and northwestern China intermontane basins. The sedimentary facies and paleogeography are diversified. In Tibet the basin evolution is largely related to the subduction and collision of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Continent, and shows a tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous. Foraminifera are a dominant biota in the Tibet Tethys. Nonmarine sediments include variegated and red beds, coal- or salt-bearing horizons, and volcanic rocks. These deposits contain diverse and abundant continental faunas and floras, as well as important coal and oil resources. The Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China have presented a foundation for geological studies.

  20. Twenty six cases of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali,Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈木新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic situation,clinical symptom,diagnosis and epidemiological characteristics of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali,Yunnan province. It will also provide a scientific basis for fasciolosis control and prevention. Methods Epidemic

  1. PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION ON METALLOGENESIS OF LANCANGJIANG RIVER TRANSITIONAL FIELD TECTONIC ZONE IN WESTERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin; DAI Tagen; HU Ruizhong; GUO Qun

    2004-01-01

    Applying the crustobody geotectonic theory to geological prospecting at the Lancangjiang river metallogenic belt in western Yunnan province, and on the basis of the basic geological background of western Yunnan and the space-time evolution-movement historical-dynamic features of the Lancangjiang river tectonic belt, the author has discussed firstly the metallogenesis of the Lancangjiang river transitional field tectonic zone, which can provide a new theoretical foundation for exploring the space-time laws of mineralization in this region.

  2. THE BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VECTORS IN THE HUMAN HOUSES IN THE UPPER VALLEY OF THE MEKONG RIVER IN YUNNAN, P.R. CHINA%中国云南湄公河上游乙型脑炎传播媒介生物学及行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 李春富; 吴超; 张再兴; 王丕玉; Nigel Hill

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the seasonal abundance, host preference and patterns of biting activity in houses, and larval biology of Japanese Encephalitis(JE) vectors, so as to develop effective control measures. Methods From June to December 2001, choosing one plantation in the upper valley of the Mekong River in the south of Yunnan, Centres for Disease Control (CDC) light-trap and human landing methods were used to capture mosquitoes, blood meal samples were tested by the precipitin method and biologic habits of immature stages were investigated for their breeding sites. Results A total of 5 726 JE vector mosquitoes of 11 species of 5 genera were collected from a plantation in the upper valley of the Mekong River. Peaks in the population densities of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. fuscocephala and Anopheles sinensis were in the rainy season from June to August, by both light-trap and human landing catches. Biting activity of these three Culex mosquitoes, both in and outside plantation, began after sunset and maintained through the night. But the An. sinensis biting peak was before 21:00 hours. Comparison of the efficacy of mosquito collection by light trap in houses with that out of doors by human landing catches, showed that the indoor catches of JE vectors were higher than that out of doors. Analysis of mosquito blood meals showed that their human blood indices were high. Larvae had characteristic distributions in relation to the plantation. Conclusion All of these finds suggested that in the upper valley of Mekong River, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. fuscocephala and An. sinensis are different on the biologics and behaviours in comparison with those of previous studies in animal sheds.%目的探讨乙型脑炎病毒媒介在人房的季节消长、嗜血习性和叮人行为,以及其幼虫相关的生物学习性, 从而制定出有效的媒介控制措施. 方法 2001年6~12月,在云南南部湄公河上游,选

  3. 滇西北金沙江流域云南红豆杉群落种内与种间竞争%Intra-and interspecific competitions of Taxus yunnanensis population in Jinsha River Basin of northwest Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 郎学东; 张志钧

    2013-01-01

    通过对滇西北金沙江流域云南红豆杉群落45株对象木及205株竞争木的调查,运用Hegyi的单木竞争指数计算了濒危保护植物云南红豆杉的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明:云南红豆杉的种内竞争强度随径级的分布呈偏蜂曲线,径级在5 ~10 cm时最大,然后随径级的增加竞争强度呈减少的趋势;云南红豆杉的种间竞争强度(133.61)显著高于其种内竞争强度(76.88),其竞争压力主要来自于种间竞争;云南红豆杉的物种种内种间竞争强度大于丽江铁杉、亮叶杜鹃、红桦、川杨、川滇高山栲、少毛云南楤木等当地常见乔木物种,它们的竞争强度都在5以上;云南红豆杉与整个林分及伴生树种的竞争指数与对象木的胸径之间呈显著负相关,且均服从幂函数关系(CI=aDb),对象木胸径越大,其竞争压力越小.%Based on the investigations of 45 objective trees and 205 competitive trees of Taxus yunnanensis population in the Jinsha River Basin of northwest Yunnan Province and by using He-gyi' s single-tree competition index model, this paper analyzed the intra- and interspecific compe-tition intensities of endangered plant T. yunnanensis. The intraspecific competition intensity of T. yunnanensis decreased with its increasing diameter at breast height (DBH) , presenting a par-tial peak curve, whereas the intraspecific competition intensity of T. yunnanensis was the highest at its DBH 5-10 cm, and then showed a decreasing trend with the increase of the DBH. The in-terspecific competition intensity (133.61) of T. yunnanensis was significantly higher than the in-traspecific competition intensity (76. 88), indicating that the competitive stress of the T. yun-nanensis population was mainly come from interspecific competition. The intra- and interspecific competition intensities of T. yunnanensis were larger than those of the local common tree species Tsuga forrestii, Betula albo-sinensis, Populus

  4. 退休消费之谜: 方法、 证据与中国解释%Retirement Consumption Puzzle: Approach , Evidence and Interpretation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范叙春

    2015-01-01

    Using the approach of regression discontinuity , this paper analyzes the causal effect of the retirement on consumption in China. It is found that the retirement of male and female reduce the total family consumption of 17.5% and 10.5%respectively. The impact of male's retirement on the family's consumption of foods and durable goods is not significant , but prominent on the consumption of clothing, housing, education, health care, transportation and communication. The female's retirement boast of no effects on the consumption of clothing , durable goods , housing , medical care and health care is not significant , but has significant impacts on the consumption of food , education , transportation and communication. Further discussions are made about the retirement policy, the allocation of home time, the consumptions for working, the gender role difference and retirement order differences by gender in China.%利用断点回归方法, 本文实证分析了退休行为如何影响我国的家庭消费. 研究发现, 我国家庭中男性和女性成员的退休, 分别减少了家庭总消费的17.5%和10.5%; 就各分类消费支出而言, 男性成员退休对家庭的食品和耐用品消费的影响是不显著的, 但对衣着、 居住、 教育、 医疗保健、 交通与通讯等消费支出的影响是显著的, 女性成员退休对衣着、 耐用品、 居住、 医疗保健等消费支出的影响是不显著的, 但对食品、 教育、 交通与通讯等消费支出的影响是显著的. 结合中国实际, 本文从退休制度设计、 家庭时间配置、 与工作相关的消费性支出、 家庭分工的性别差异、 退休次序的性别差异等角度进行了相应解释.

  5. The housing loss assessment of rural villages caused by earthquake disaster in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; SHI Pei-jun; WANG Jing-ai

    2005-01-01

    Based on the assessment report of destructive housings caused by more than 20 earthquakes occurred in Yunnan Province in 1990~2004, the vulnerability models of 4 types housings of rural residents in Yunnan Province are setup. The scenario earthquake disaster loss model is used to simulate the housing loss if the historical earthquakes that occurred since A.D. 886 in Yunnan Province reoccur in 2002. The analyses show the simulation deviation of the usual earthquakes is less than 30% and the method is of high practicality. Meanwhile, the simulation result of 398 historical earthquakes in Yunnan Province shows that the annual economic loss caused by the earthquakes is about RMB 410 million Yuan that accounts for 0.18% of GDP of Yunnan Province for the year. Because the per capita living area and the price of the housing increases year by year, if the historical destructive earthquake reoccurs today, the loss of Yunnan Province will be greater than in those years.

  6. A review of water resources utilization and protection in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiFang Wu; Steve Dry; WanCai Wu; XueBin Liu; JinHui Xiong; WenQi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Yunnan and Guizhou are two provinces in Southwest China where in recent years drought disasters have occurred due to natural and human factors. This paper reviewed literature and summarized the related achievements of water resources utilization and protection in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. This included characters and utilization of precipitation, rivers, and karst ground water in the two provinces, and also the various explanations of drought (climate and human factors) and strategies for coping with droughts. Our concluding remarks highlight three lines of future studies: inequalities and equitable use of water distribution, better evaluation systems, and raising awareness through conservation practices.

  7. Comparison and Interpretation of Taxonomical Structure of Bacterial Communities in Two Types of Lakes on Yun-Gui plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maozhen; Gong, Yanhai; Zhou, Chunyu; Zhang, Junqian; Wang, Zhi; Ning, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial communities from freshwater lakes are shaped by various factors such as nutrients, pH value, temperature, etc. Their compositions and relative abundances would undergo changes to adapt the changing environments, and in turn could affect the environments of freshwater lakes. Analyses of the freshwater lake's bacterial communities under different environments would be of pivotal importance to monitor the condition of waterbody. In this study, we have collected freshwater samples from two lakes on Yun-Gui plateau of China, Lake Dianchi and Lake Haixihai, and analyzed the bacterial community structures from these samples based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Results have shown that: Firstly, the bacterial community of these samples have very different taxonomical structures, not only between two lakes but also among the intra-groups for samples collected from Dianchi. Secondly, the differences between samples from two lakes are highly associated with the chemical-geographical properties of the two lakes. Thirdly, for samples of Dianchi and Haixihai, analytical results of physicochemical, taxonomical structure and relative abundance of community revealed that extreme physicochemical factors caused by human activities have strongly affected the bacterial ecosystem in Dianchi. These results have clearly indicated the importance of combining biological profiling and chemical-geographical properties for monitoring Chinese plateau freshwater bacterial ecosystem, which could provide clues for Chinese freshwater ecosystem remediation on plateau. PMID:27461070

  8. Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To moreeffectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1 at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2 at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1 first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2 second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3 third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

  9. Is the New Marriage Law Interpretation Right?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Supreme People’s Court of China recently made public the latest interpretation on applying the Marriage Law, which is meant to provide a judicial basis for courts.The interpretation consists of 19 new itemsand is valid from August 13 this year.

  10. Is the New Marriage Law Interpretation Right?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Supreme People's Court of China recently made public the latest interpretation on applying the Marriage Law,which is meant to provide a judicial basis for courts.The interpretation consists of 19 new items and is valid from August 13 this year.

  11. Interpretation of Forest Resources at the Individual Tree Level at Purple Mountain, Nanjing City, China, Using WorldView-2 Imagery by Combining GPS, RS and GIS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqiu Deng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to measure forest resources at the individual tree level using high-resolution images by combining GPS, RS, and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies. The images were acquired by the WorldView-2 satellite with a resolution of 0.5 m in the panchromatic band and 2.0 m in the multispectral bands. Field data of 90 plots were used to verify the interpreted accuracy. The tops of trees in three groups, namely ≥10 cm, ≥15 cm, and ≥20 cm DBH (diameter at breast height, were extracted by the individual tree crown (ITC approach using filters with moving windows of 3 × 3 pixels, 5 × 5 pixels and 7 × 7 pixels, respectively. In the study area, there were 1,203,970 trees of DBH over 10 cm, and the interpreted accuracy was 73.68 ± 15.14% averaged over the 90 plots. The numbers of the trees that were ≥15 cm and ≥20 cm DBH were 727,887 and 548,919, with an average accuracy of 68.74 ± 17.21% and 71.92 ± 18.03%, respectively. The pixel-based classification showed that the classified accuracies of the 16 classes obtained using the eight multispectral bands were higher than those obtained using only the four standard bands. The increments ranged from 0.1% for the water class to 17.0% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 4.8% for the 16 classes. In addition, to overcome the “mixed pixels” problem, a crown-based supervised classification, which can improve the classified accuracy of both dominant species and smaller classes, was used for generating a thematic map of tree species. The improvements of the crown- to pixel-based classification ranged from −1.6% for the open forest class to 34.3% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 20.3% for the 10 classes. All tree tops were then annotated with the species attributes from the map, and a tree count of different species indicated that the forest of Purple Mountain is mainly dominated by Quercus acutissima, Liquidambar formosana

  12. Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust in Chinainterpretations of atmospheric measurements during EAST-AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Huebert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon, brown carbon, and mineral dust are three of the most important light absorbing aerosols. Their optical properties differ greatly and are distinctive functions of the wavelength of light. Most optical instruments that quantify light absorption, however, are unable to distinguish one type of absorbing aerosol from another. It is thus instructive to separate total absorption from these different light absorbers to gain a better understanding of the optical characteristics of each aerosol type. During the EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment campaign near Beijing, we measured light scattering using a nephelometer, and light absorption using an aethalometer and a particulate soot absorption photometer. We also measured the total mass concentrations of carbonaceous (elemental and organic carbon and inorganic particulates, as well as aerosol number and mass distributions. We were able to identify periods during the campaign that were dominated by dust, biomass burning, fresh (industrial chimney plumes, other coal burning pollution, and relatively clean (background air for Northern China. Each of these air masses possessed distinct intensive optical properties, including the single scatter albedo and Ångstrom exponents. Based on the wavelength-dependence and particle size distribution, we apportioned total light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust; their mass absorption efficiencies at 550 nm were estimated to be 9.5, 0.5, and 0.03 m2/g, respectively. While agreeing with the common consensus that BC is the most important light absorber in the mid-visible, we demonstrated that brown carbon and dust could also cause significant absorption, especially at shorter wavelengths.

  13. PetroChina Inks Bio-Fuel Deal with the State Forestry Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yunqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 11 January 2007, Beijing - PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina) signed a framework agreement with the State Forestry Administration (SFA) on the development of forest bio-fuel and officially kicked off the construction of the first batch of forest bio-fuel tree breeding bases in Yunnan and Sichuan, marking a substantial step forward in the cooperation of forest bio-fuel development between the two parties.

  14. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. The Jianchuan Basin, Yunnan: Implications on the Evolution of SE Tibet During the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbet, L.; Mahéo, G.; Leloup, P. H.; Jean-Louis, P.; Sorrel, P.; Eymard, I.; Antoine, P. O.; Sterb, M.; Wang, G.; Cao, K.; Chevalier, M. L.; Lu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Jianchuan basin, Yunnan Province, China, is the widest continental Cenozoic sedimentary basin in the southeastern Tibetan plateau. It is located ~10 km east of the Red River fault zone. Climatic simulations and palaeoenvironment studies suggest that SE Asia has experienced a variable intensity monsoon system for 40 Ma. Because sediments can record deformation, climate and environment changes, the Jianchuan basin provides the opportunity to assess the relative role of climate and tectonics on the Tibetan plateau formation. Sediments consist of floodplain siltites, massive fluvial sandstone, few carbonate levels, coal and volcanosedimentary deposits. U/Pb dating of zircons from dykes, volcanodetrital deposits and lava flows respectively cutting and interbedded within the sediments was performed by in-situ LA-ICPMS. All ages range from 38 to 35 Ma. Such absolute dating is confirmed by palaeontological evidence. Dental remains of Zaisanamynodonwere found in coal deposits. This giant Rhino lived in Asia during the Ergilian (late Eocene). Our data allow us to propose a revised stratigraphy for the Jianchuan basin: contrary to what was suggested by previous studies, i.e. a continuous sedimentation from the Paleocene to the Miocene, nearly no sedimentation occurred after 34 Ma. Combined with a sedimentological analysis, the data indicate that during the late Eocene, the Jianchuan area was covered by a large (>15 km) braided river system that coexisted with local transient lakes, in a moderate-slope and semi-arid environment. This major sedimentation event was followed by a period of more humid conditions that may be related to an intensification of the monsoon. The end of the sedimentation seems to be contemporaneous with the Ailao Shan-Red River fault activation. The new stratigraphy has also implications for regional studies that need robust age constraints, for example for reconstructing palaeoelevation or provenance of sediments.

  16. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  17. Simulated Spatial Distribution of the Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey’s Potential Habitat using SPOT5 image in Laojun Mountain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is one of the world’s 25 most endangered primate species and it is endemic to China. The Laojun Mountain Area (LMA provides significant habitat for the monkey and “corridor” in the whole distribution area, but it is suffering from loss of habitat and shrinking population size. The spatial distribution pattern of the potential habitat distribution is very important for designing biological corridors. Despite the fact that it has been existence for many years, little is know about the potential habitat distribution in the study site. To get the distribution pattern of the potential habitat, this study is based on the “3S” (GIS-Geography Information System, RS-Remote Sensing, GPS-Global Positioning Systemtechniques and multiple group discriminant analysis(MGDA in SAS to develop a spatial model in the Laojun Mountain Area (about 7,231 km2 to simulate the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey’s potential habitat situation. The study results indicated that a significant difference was found when comparing the predicated potential suitable habitat with existing. The predicated area was 6,226 km2, accounting for 86.59% of the total area, was much greater than the existing one of 2,802 km2, accounting for 38.74% of the total area, and the connectivity of the predicated one was also much stronger.

  18. Phylogenetic support for the Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis despite the absence of a clear latitudinal species richness gradient in Yunnan's woody flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis (TCH tries to explain the generally observed latitudinal gradient of increasing species diversity towards the tropics. To date, few studies have used phylogenetic approaches to assess its validity, even though such methods are especially suited to detect changes in niche structure. We test the TCH using modeled distributions of 1898 woody species in Yunnan Province (southwest China in combination with a family level phylogeny. Unlike predicted, species richness and phylogenetic diversity did not show a latitudinal gradient, but identified two high diversity zones, one in Northwest and one in South Yunnan. Despite this, the underlying residual phylogenetic diversity showed a clear decline away from the tropics, while the species composition became progressingly more phylogenetically clustered towards the North. These latitudinal changes were strongly associated with more extreme temperature variability and declining precipitation and soil water availability, especially during the dry season. Our results suggests that the climatically more extreme conditions outside the tropics require adaptations for successful colonization, most likely related to the plant hydraulic system, that have been acquired by only a limited number of phylogenetically closely related plant lineages. We emphasize the importance of phylogenetic approaches for testing the TCH.

  19. Yunnan Copper Industry Group Invested Nearly 8 billion Yuan in Diqing, Capable of Annual Production of 80,000 tons of Copper Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,six provincial level enterprise group corporations including Yunnan Copper Industry Group,Kunming Steel Group,and Yunnan Tin Minerals Group together signed "Strategic Cooperation Agreement" with the Government of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Kunming.

  20. Main Diseases and Pests of Coffee and Their Prevention and Control in Yunnan%云南咖啡主要病虫害及防治调查研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树芳; 金桂梅; 杨艳鲜; 许叁卫

    2014-01-01

    对云南保山、德宏、普洱等地咖啡病虫害开展调查研究,结果表明院咖啡锈病(Hemileia vastatrix Berk et Br.)、炭疽病(Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack)、褐斑病(Cercospora coffeicola Berk. et Cooke)、幼苗立枯病(Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.)、旋皮天牛(Acalolepta cervina Hope)、灭字虎天牛(Xylotrechus quadripes Chevr)和根粉蚧(Planococus lilacinus Cockrell)是云南咖啡主要病虫害,其危害较重。根据调查研究结果,提出相应防治方法,为云南咖啡主要病虫害的防治提供依据。%As increasing in cultivated area of coffee and its occurrence of diseases and insects in Yunnan, the study on diseases and insects of coffee and their prevention and control has important significance on sustainable production of coffee. The diseases and insects of coffee were investigated in Baoshan, Dehong, Puer cities in Yunnan of China from 2012-2013. The results showed that Hemileia vastatrix Berk et Br., Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, Cercospora coffeicola Berk. et Cooke, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Acalolepta cervina Hope, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevr, Planococus lilacinus Cockrell were the main insects and diseases and resulted into higher damage for coffee in Yunnan. According to occurrence and damage of coffee diseases and insects, some corresponding prevention and control methods have been proposed. All these will provide scientific basis for Yunnan coffee production.

  1. 中国近现代史视角下中国梦的内涵解读%Connotation Interpretation of China Dream under the Perspective of Conspectus of Modern Chinese History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简爱; 孙莹娟

    2014-01-01

    中国近现代史作为一门具有历史属性的公共必修政治课,是对当代大学生宣传中国精神,凝聚中国力量,坚定中国特色社会主义道路信念,实现中国梦的主渠道。从中国近现代史的角度阐述中国梦的内涵、实现途径和保障,并结合中国梦的主题实施专题教学,创新教学内容,有助于我们在“以史育人,以史资政”的基础上,更好地理解践行中国梦,凝聚全民意志,复兴中华民族。%As a compulsory public political course with historical properties , the Chinese modern contemporary history is the main channel for propaganda Chinese spirit , consolidating Chinese power;firming the belief of socialist road with Chinese characteristics .From the connotations in-terpretation of China dream under the perspective of Chinese modern and contemporary history , the thesis explored ways combined with China dream to implement thematic teaching , innovate the teaching content on the basis of supporting politics and educating people by drawing on experience of history , practicing Chinese dream for a better understanding way , unite all the Chinese to a-chieve the Chinese nation's bright prospect on the road to revival .

  2. Population Structure and Distribution Pattern of Dominant Tree Species in Ancient Tea Tree Community in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, China%云南哀牢山古茶树群落优势树种的种群结构与分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴勇; 朱华; 孟广涛; 施济普; 杨国平

    2011-01-01

    The size structure, survival curve, dispersion coefficient, index of nearest neighbor and Ripley' s K function were used to analyze the population structure and distribution pattern of dominant tree species in the ancient tea tree community in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province. The results showed that there were 2 894 free-standing individuals with DBH≥1. 0 cm recorded in the 1.2 hm2 plot, belonging to 48 species, 38 genera and 22 families. Camellia sinensis var.assamica was ranked the first in terms of importance value with the highest abundance and Lithocarpus xylocarpus was ranked the second, although it had the largest relative dominancy. Then the community should be defined as mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest with Camellia sinensis var. assamica, L. xylocarpus, etc. being the dominant tree species. Now it is in the climax of succession series. Among 10 dominant tree species, L. xylocarpus, Manglietia insignis,Castanopsis wattii were of declining populations since their seedlings and saplings were scarce and the big trees were numerous. These three species tended to be in random distribution at most of scales, but clump intensity increased as population grew. Camellia sinensis var. assamica, Lithocarpus hancei and Myrsine semiserrata were of stable populations since theirs saplings, middle-sized trees were numerous and the big trees were scarce. Litsea honghoensis, Actinodaphne forrestii,Neolitsea polycarpa and Camellia pitardii were of growing populations since their seedlings and saplings were numerous and the big trees were scarce. These seven species tended to be in clumped distribution at most of scales, but clump intensity decreased as population grew. The spatiotemporal variations of population structure and distribution pattern reflected the competition between these species and the trends of succession of community.%用种群结构、存活曲线、扩散系数、最近邻体指数及Ripley's K函数等分析了云南哀牢山野生

  3. Soil respiration and its affecting factors in young and mature forests of Pinus yunnanensis in middle Yunnan plateau, China%滇中高原云南松幼林和成熟林土壤呼吸及主要影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吉霞; 王邵军; 陈奇伯; 王艳霞; 熊好琴

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of soil respiration ( Rs) and its controlling factors in the young and mature forests of pine ( Pinus yunnanensis) in Mopan Mountain National Forest Park of Yunnan province, we measured seasonal variations of Rs with Li-6400-09 chamber. The results were shown as follows: Rs fluctuated distinctly with seasonal patterns in the two sites. The rate of Rs in the mature forest (1.09-3.69μmol/(m2·s)) was significantly high-er than that in the young forest (0.88-3.08μmol/(m2·s)). The contribution of soil moisture to Rs was significantly higher than that of soil temperature, which could be responsible for seasonal variation of Rs about 49.3%-79.4% in the young forest, and 63.3% -76.0% in the mature forest, respectively. The pH and soil nutrients had significant influences on Rs. The significant impacts of total P and pH on Rs were positive, and that of C/N was negative in two sites. Soil moisture had significantly positive relationship with total N and negative relationship with C/N in two sites, while the sig-nificant relationship between moisture content and soil total P as well as pH was only found in the mature pine forest. The results suggested that the severe drought in the southwest region led to the significant decrease of soil moisture, which may exert strong influence on Rs in the two sites. Moreover, soil moisture could have significant control on the spatial and tem-poral variation of Rs through its influence on soil permeability and soil nutrient in the young and mature pine forests.%为探明云南磨盘山国家森林公园云南松林幼林与成熟林土壤呼吸特征及其主要调控因子,采用Li-6400-09土壤呼吸室测定土壤呼吸速率的季节动态。结果表明:云南松幼林和成熟林土壤CO2流动速率呈明显的季节波动,且成熟林土壤呼吸(1.09~3.69μmol/(m2·s))显著高于幼龄林(0�88~3.08μmol/(m2·s))。土壤水分是影响土壤呼吸

  4. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  5. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  6. 不同生境对蚂蚁功能群的影响——以云南省绿春县为例%Effects of habitat on ant functional groups: A case study of Lüchun County, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志兴; 陈又清

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of habitat change driven by land use change on functional groups of ant, ant co- mmunities in secondary natural forests, eucalyptus plantations, lac insect plantations, rubber plantations, lac insect-corn agroforests, drylands and farmlands were investigated by pitfall traps and Winkler in Lüchun County, Yunnan Province. A total of 37891 individual ants were collected, belonging to 137 species, 52 genera and 8 sub-families of Formicidae. The 52 ant genera were divided into 7 functional groups based on competitive interactions, habitat requirements, behavioral dominance, and response to environment stress and disturbance. They were Dominant Dolichoderinae, Subordinate Camponotini, Generalised Myrmicinae, Opportunities, Cryptic Species, Climate Specialists and Specialist Predators. Species richness of different functional groups was in the order of Opportunists (10 genera 32 species) > Climate Specialists (15 genera 29 species) > Generalized Myrmicinae (3 genera 24 species) > Cryptic Species (14 genera 21 species) > Subordinate Camponotini (2 genera 16 species) > Specialist Predators (6 genera 14 species) > Dominant Dolichoderinae (2 genera 2 species). Subordinate Camponotini, Climate Specialists and Cryptic Species had higher abundance in secondary natural forests, eucalyptus plantations and lac insect plantations. Dominant Dolichoderinae had higher abundance in farmlands with high disturbances. Dominant Dolichoderinae had only 2 genera 2 species while most other functional groups had higher species richness in secondary natural forests, eucalyptus plantations, lac insect plantations and lac insect-corn agroforests. There was less difference in species richness of specialist predators among different habitats. Community structures of ant functional groups in eucalyptus plantations and lac insect plantations had high similarities with those in secondary natural forests. The community structures of ant functional groups in rubber

  7. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  8. In vitro effects of Yunnan Baiyao on canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K A; Kow, K; Salute, M E; Bacon, N J; Milner, R J

    2014-06-29

    Yunnan Baiyao is a Chinese herbal medicine that has been utilized for its anti-inflammatory, haemostatic, wound healing and pain relieving properties in people. It has been utilized in the veterinary profession to control bleeding in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and has been anecdotally reported to prolong survival times in dogs with this neoplasm. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of Yunnan Baiyao against three canine HSA cell lines after treatment with increasing concentrations of Yunnan Baiyao (50, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 µg mL(-1) ) at 24, 48 and 72 h. Mean half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) at 72 h for DEN, Fitz, SB was 369.9, 275.9 and 325.3 µg mL(-1) , respectively. Caspase-3/7 activity increased in correlation with the IC50 in each cell line which was confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL, APO-BRDU Kit; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) assay. VEGF in cell supernatant was also quantified. Overall, the study found that Yunnan Baiyao causes dose and time dependent HSA cell death through initiation of caspase-mediated apoptosis, which supports future studies involving Yunnan Baiyao. PMID:24976212

  9. A study on population genetic structure of Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill. from Yunnan and its in situ conservation significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立志; 葛颂; 洪德元; 张炯伟; 罗庆延; 陶国达; 许再富

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine genetic diversity of Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. et Mor. ex Steud. ) Baill., 12 enzyme systems encoded by 17 loci were electrophoretically analyzed in 164 individuals of seven populations from Simao Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. In comparison with those seed plants with the same life history and breeding systems, as well as the other species in the genus Oryza, the species shows rather low levels of genetic diversity (A = 1.1, P = 8.0%, Ho = 0.004 and He = 0. 015) within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations. FST was up to 0. 649, suggesting that 64. 9% of total genetic variability exists among populations. Considering high genetic differentiation among populations from a limited geographic region, most of the populations of the species are worth being protected, and therefore, great natural protection regions should theoretically be established in which a great deal of populations should be involved for developing in situ conservation management. Meanwhile

  10. Relationship between the Diversity and Species Abundance Mosquito of in Residential Area along Jinsha River in the Natural Protected Territory,"Three Parallel River Region" of Yunnan Province, China%“三江并流”自然遗产地金沙江流域居民区蚊类物种多样性与多度空间分布格局及其关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋; 龚正达; 李四全; 连宏宇; 边长玲; 臧颖惠; 琚俊科; 张丽云; 孙少华

    2011-01-01

    性的变化趋势和分布格局;其次,常见种希氏库蚊多度对当地蚊类密度、生态优势度和物种多样性的格局和变化具有重要作用.%order to probe and investigate the relationship between species diversity and temper spatial distribution pattern of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in mountainous residential area in Southwest China, an investigation on mosquito was carried out along Jinsha River in the natural protected territory, "Three Parallel River Region" of Yunnan Province. Adult mosquito samples were trapped using UV light traps at 16 sampling sites (latitude; 26°00'-28°30'N, altitude; 1 500-3 500 m). A total of 63 036 mosquitoes were collected and identified as 37 species of 6 genera in 2 subfamilies. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was dominant species. Cx. theileri, Cx. pipiensquingue fasciatus and An. sinensis were common species. Species richness and diversity index of mosquitoes along latitude and altitude gradients generally appeared highest at middle value, and lowest in lower as well as higher latitude and altitude gradients. The results showed; 1) Cx. tritaeniorhynchus has very significantly positive correlation with mosquitoes density and ecological dominance, however, it was very significantly negative correlation with species diversity; 2) Mosquitoes density and species diversity had very significantly negative correlation with Pielou index E, significantly positive correlation with ecological dominance; 3 ) Cx. theileri abundance had very significantly positive correlation with species diversity, however, there was a negative correlation between ecological dominance, density and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus abundance; 4) Cx. pipiensquingue fasciatus and An. sinensis abundance had a negative correlation with Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Otherwise, they were not relevant to species diversity (H', E) , ecological dominance, density and Cx. theileri abundance; 5 ) The relationship between mosquitoes density, main mosquitoes abundance and richness were not obvious

  11. Review of the genus Scythropiodes Matsumura, 1931 (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae, Oditinae) from China, with a checklist of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Li, Houhun

    2016-01-01

    The genus Scythropiodes Matsumura, 1931 in China is reviewed. Fifteen species are treated, including four new species: Scythropiodes aculeiformus sp. nov. from Sichuan, S. dorsoprocessus sp. nov. from Guangxi, S. asymmetricus sp. nov. from Guangxi and Yunnan, and S. taedus sp. nov. from Yunnan. The females of S. barbellatus and S. elasmatus are described for the first time. Images of adults and genitalia are provided. A key to all the involved species and three maps showing the distribution of these species are included. A checklist of Scythropiodes on a worldwide basis is given. PMID:27395674

  12. Problems and Countermeasures in the Supply Chain Management of Flower Industry in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis the elementary theory of supply chain management,the features and problems in the supply-chain management of flowers in Yunnan Province are analyzed.The problems include poor image of flowers caused by low-end package,imperfect supply-chain structure,and weak processing section after harvesting flowers,hard to launch the cold chain transportation and inadequate awareness of enterprises on consumers.The countermeasures are put forward,which include perfecting various kinds of supply chain structure;intensifying the information system management of flowers in Yunnan Province;developing the cold chain logistics and cultivating and supporting the third-party logistics of flower industry in Yunnan Province.

  13. The Anopheles community and the role of Anopheles minimus on malaria transmission on the China-Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guo; Yan, Guiyun; Zhang, Naixin; Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); He, Zhengbo; Yan, Zhentian; Fu, Wenbo; Yang, Feilong; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria around the China-Myanmar border is a serious health problem in the countries of South-East Asia. An. minimus is a principle malaria vector with a wide geographic distribution in this area. Malaria is endemic along the boundary between Yunnan province in China and the Kachin State of Myanmar where the local Anopheles community (species composition) and the malaria transmission vectors have never been clarified. ...

  14. 侵染云南白肋烟的中国番茄黄化曲叶病毒及伴随卫星DNA分子的基因组特征%Genomic Characterization of DNA-A and Associated Satellite DNA Molecule of an Isolate of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Infecting Nicotiana tabacum White Burley in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂新; 范三微; 李正和; 谢艳; 周雪平

    2003-01-01

    从中国云南省大理地区表现曲叶症状的白肋烟(Nicotina tabacum White Burley)上分离到病毒分离物Y43,该病毒可经烟粉虱(Bemisia tabaci)及嫁接传播.用15种粉虱传双生病毒的单抗对病样进行TAS-ELISA检测,结果表明,该病毒属菜豆金色花叶病毒属(Begomovirus)病毒.对DNA-A1.7kb基因组序列测定和分析表明,Y43与中国广西报道的中国番茄黄化曲叶病毒(Tomata yellow leaf curl China virus,TYLCCNV)同源性达89%,其中外壳蛋白(CP)氨基酸同源性达96%,因此Y43应为TYLCCNV的一个新分离物.进一步研究发现,Y43还伴随着一个长1 349 nt的卫星DNA分子(DNAβ).Y43DNAβ与AYVVDNAβ、BYVMVDNAβ和CLCuVDNAβ的同源性较低,而与中国分离的烟草曲叶病毒Y5 DNAβ和Y8 DNA β的亲缘关系较近.DNAβ可能编码7个分子量超过3.5kD的ORF,其中C1推测为有功能的ORF.

  15. Adopting Deverbalization in Interpreting Chinese Political Neologisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计霄雯

    2014-01-01

    Uniqueness of our political systems and tremendous changes brought about by reform and opening up are reflected in language use, so a boom of Chinese political neologisms is witnessed. Deverbalization, as the core concept of the Interpretive Theory should be adopted in interpreting such neologisms so as to convey the intended meaning of the speaker in a faithful and interpretive manner. This paper makes a tentative attempt at classifying those neologisms and elaborates through exemplification on adopting deverbalization in interpreting political neologisms, with a view to producing China English rather than Chinese English and facilitating political communication among countries.

  16. Blocking the Path of Feral Pigs with Rotten Bamboo: The Role of Upland Peoples in the Crisis of a Tay Polity in Southwest Yunnan, 1792 to 1836

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Daniels

    2013-01-01

    This paper challenges James Scott’s thesis of state evasion and state prevention as the basic features of lowland-upland relationships. It scrutinizes the validity of Scott’s assumptions by examining the case of prolonged violent conflict in a tiny Tay polity feudatory to China during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Civil war broke out in the Mäng2 Khön1 polity (Mangshi, Dehong Autonomous Region in southwest Yunnan, China) due to mismanagement by the monarch of two upland ...

  17. Preliminary study on coseismic step-like changes of water-level in the Dazhai well, Simao city, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhu-zhuan; DENG Zhi-hui; ZHAO Yun-xu; ZHU Pei-yao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The study on coseismic step-like changes of water-level is of theoretical and practical significance to the mitigation of secondary hazards, identification of earthquake precursors, tracking of the subsequent shocks, and the research of crustal activity (Nur and Booker, 1972; WANG et al, 1988). A lot of researches have been done by previous geoscientists. Among them, ZHANG et al (1994) inverted stress variation in the aquifers through the analysis of coseismic step-like changes of well water level. LI (1995), WANG (2000), and FU et al (2002) studied the relationship between coseismic step-like changes of water level and future seismic activity. HUANG et al (2000) investigated the water-level changes in many wells after the occurrence of one great earthquake. However,the analysis of the quantitative relation between the coseismic step-like changes of water level and earthquakes in China has not been reported so far. This paper describes the coseismic step-like changes of water level in the Dazhai well, Simao city, Yunnan Province, and tries to discuss the possible mechanism of these changes.

  18. Risk Assessment of Malaria Prevalence in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu Counties, Yunnan Province, after 2014 Earthquake Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Siyuan; Wang, Rubo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence after the 2014 earthquakes in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu counties, Yunnan Province, China. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data and made a risk assessment of transmission probability. From January 2005 to July 2015, 87 malaria cases were reported in the three counties, most of which (81.6%) occurred between 2005 and 2009, with five cases reported in Jinggu County between January 2014 and July 2015, of which one case was reported after the earthquake. In addition, no local transmission occurred in the three counties from 2010, and 95.5% of imported malaria occurred in patients who had returned from Myanmar. The townships of Lehong, Qingsheng, and Weiyuan were the main endemic areas in the three counties. The probability of malaria transmission in the three counties was low, but Jinggu County had a higher risk due to the existence of infected patients and an appropriate vector. With sporadic cases reported annually, close monitoring should continue to enhance early detection of a possible malaria outbreak. PMID:26711514

  19. N Mineralization and Nitrification in a Primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus Forest and Degraded Vegetation in the Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGui-Cai; HANXing-Guo; HUANGJian-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Using the closed-top tube incubation method, we examined the soil nitrogen (N) mineralizationand nitrification in the primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest, a secondary oak forest and a tea plantationin the Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province, China. This study was conducted in the dry season fromNovember 20, 1998 to May 15, 1999. Results showed that there were significant differences among thethree vegetation types in both net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and they also demonstratedtemporal variation. The net ammonification rate (RA) was much higher than net nitrification rate (RN), andthe latter was about 0.5%-10% of the former. Our results indicated that incubation period, vegetation typeand the location of plot all interactively affected RA, RN and net mineralization rate (RM). We providedevidence that anthropogenic disturbances could result in changes of ecosystems processes such as Nmineralization and nitrification rates. It is obvious that tea plantation and secondary growth forest havemore physically (mainly temperature and moisture) controlled N transformation processes than thewell-preserved primary L. xylocarpus forest, implying that the conservation of primary forest ecosystemsin the Ailao Mountain region should be emphasized.

  20. Risk Assessment of Malaria Prevalence in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu Counties, Yunnan Province, After 2014 Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Siyuan; Wang, Rubo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence after the 2014 earthquakes in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu counties, Yunnan Province, China. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data and made a risk assessment of transmission probability. From January 2005 to July 2015, 87 malaria cases were reported in the three counties, most of which (81.6%) occurred between 2005 and 2009, with five cases reported in Jinggu County between January 2014 and July 2015, of which one case was reported after the earthquake. In addition, no local transmission occurred in the three counties from 2010, and 95.5% of imported malaria occurred in patients who had returned from Myanmar. The townships of Lehong, Qingsheng, and Weiyuan were the main endemic areas in the three counties. The probability of malaria transmission in the three counties was low, but Jinggu County had a higher risk due to the existence of infected patients and an appropriate vector. With sporadic cases reported annually, close monitoring should continue to enhance early detection of a possible malaria outbreak. PMID:26711514

  1. Geochemistry of Alkaline—Ultrabasic Rocks in the Jijie Complex,Lufeng,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智龙; 颜以彬; 等

    1996-01-01

    is paper is concerned with the geochemical features of major elements,transition metal elements,large ion lithophile elements,rare-earth elements and Sr isotopes in alkaline-ul-trabasic rocks in the Jijie complex of Lufeng,Yunnan Province,which is located in southern Sichuan-Yunnan rift zone,one of Luoci alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in central Ynnnan,Moreover,its origin pertaining primary magma,magma soure region,fractional crystallization,etc.are also discussed in the present paper.

  2. Simple Analysis of Syntactic Linearity in Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, various activities like international conference are becoming more and more frequently. Simultaneous interpreting is one of the usual interpreting forms in these cases. In the practice of simultaneous interpreting, syntactic linearity is a method which is easy to be ignored. It is necessary to introduce this skill, analysis its advantages and discuss its theory support, which is language universal.

  3. Analysis of factors influencing high seas fisheries development in China based on Interpretative Structural Modeling%基于ISM模型的中国大洋性渔业发展影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 韩立民

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of factors affecting high seas fisheries development in China has very important meaning to the exploration of development pathways.The influences on high seas fisheries development in China are diverse and complex.On the basis of a great deal of relevant materials and expert-level discussion,17 factors affecting the development of Chinese high seas fisheries are detailed here and include aspects of the resource,market,technology,policy and extemal security.By building interpretative structural modeling (ISM),the factors above were analyzed and the structure and inherent links among factors were determined using a hierarchical structure diagram.The results showed that these 17 factors were correlative and they established interpretative structural modeling along four layers.In the hierarchical structure,the surface direct influencing factors were the market distribution and the demand of catches,the market prices of catches and the improvement level of fish market circulation system.The middle indirect influencing factors were the technical level of fishing vessels and supporting facilities,the professional technical standard and abilities of fishermen,capability of product processing and development,working environment of fishing grounds,and exploring potential of new fish species.The root and basic influencing factors were high seas fishery resources,capacity of ocean fisheries resources investigation and evaluation,intemational system of high seas fishery resources management,national and local support policies of pelagic fisheries and the degree and level of high seas fisheries management countries' participation.%中国大洋性渔业发展的影响因素复杂多样.本文在查阅文献和组织专家讨论的基础上,从资源环境、市场、技术、政策和外部保障5个层面,详细识别出影响中国大洋性渔业发展的17个具体因素.在此基础上,建立ISM模型分析影响中国大洋性渔业发展的因素

  4. InSAR measurements for the 2014 Mw 6.0 Jinggu, Yunnan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Feng, Wanpeng; Sergey, Samsonov; Mahdi, Motagh; Li, Zhenhong; Clarke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake occurred in the southwest of Yunnan, China on 7 October 2014 at 21:49 local time, measured as Mw 6.0 by the United States Geological Survey and Mw 6.1 by the European Alert System. Strong earthquakes are common in this region because of the continental collision between the India and Eurasia plates with a relative convergence rate of 40-50 mm/yr. A detailed study of this earthquake will therefore allow better understanding of regional fault properties. For the first time, Radarsat-2 (RS2) data was employed to investigate co-seismic surface movements of this event. Two ascending RS2 images acquired on 2 October 2014 and 19 November 2014 were used to generate an interferogram, revealing line-of-sight (LOS) displacements with a maximum value of 0.13 m (towards the satellite) in the NW sector. We use PSOKINV to determine fault geometric parameters and slip distribution. First, fault parameters are determined using improved particle swarm optimization. Second, slip distribution over the fault plane is retrieved using an iterative strategy for estimating optimal dip angle and smoothing factors [Feng et al., 2013]. The comparison between the modelled LOS changes and the measured ones shows a good fit, with residuals smaller than 0.02 m. The best-fitting model suggests that the rupture occurred on a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a strike of 323°. The total released moment is equivalent to Mw 6.1 and the main slip zone is confined between depths of 2-8 km. A maximum slip of 1.1 m appears at a depth of 4.3 km, with a rupture length of about 10km. Reference: Feng, W., Z. Li, J. R. Elliott, Y. Fukushima, T. Hoey, A. Singleton, R. Cook, and Z. Xu (2013), The 2011 MW 6.8 Burma earthquake: fault constraints provided by multiple SAR techniques, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt254.

  5. Characteristics of the Regional Meteorological Drought Events in Southwest China During 1960-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunjie; REN Fumin; LI Yiping; WANG Pengling; YAN Hongming

    2014-01-01

    An objective identifi cation technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily composite-drought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identifi ed, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into fi ve types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a signifi cant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.

  6. 基于马克思主义问题观的中国梦解析%An Interpretation ofthe China Dream from the Perspective of Marxist View on Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏星鸿

    2014-01-01

    The Marxist view on problems is an important theoretical foundation for studying the China Dream. We should distinguish the China dream as an issue from the problems of the China Dream. The China Dream is brought forward in solving China’s problems,and to solve China’s problems is the historical mission of the Chi-na Dream. To deepen the study of the China Dream,it is necessary to strengthen the philosophical foundation of China Dream studies,and the focus of China Dream studies should be exploring the path of actualizing the China Dream under the guidance of Marxist view on problems.%马克思主义问题观是研究中国梦的重要理论基础,我们应该区分问题中的中国梦和中国梦中的问题。中国梦是在解决中国问题中提出的,破解中国问题是中国梦的历史使命。为了深化中国梦的研究,有必要夯实中国梦研究的哲学基础,在马克思主义问题观的指导下来探索中国梦的实现路径,应当成为中国梦研究的重心所在。

  7. The boundary of palaearctic and oriental realms in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Chen; Yanling Song; Shufang Xu

    2008-01-01

    In the world-wide zoogeographic division, there has been no consentaneous understanding about the delimitation between palaearctic and oriental realms in western China. In this study, we will discuss the division based on amphibian distribution in Shaanxi, Gansu,Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet according to species coefficient similarity between each zoogeographic province. The results show that the northern border lies from Qinling Mountains-Feng Xian (Shaanxi)-Debu (Gansu)-Aba (Sichuan)-Batang-Bomi (Tibet), to Linzhi districts, and the southern border is from Taibai-Feng Xian in Shaanxi-Wen Xian (Gansu)-Songpan-Kangding-Daocheng (Sichuan),to Zhongdian-Gongshan in Yunnan, and westward to Motuo and Bomi district in Tibet.

  8. More than 100 Million Tons of Bauxite Discovered in Dianxi,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is reported that the large bauxite mine is lo- cated in the mid part of the Sanjiang mining belt’s Yunnan section,a region with a complex geological structure that has been on the top list of China’s plan to exploit nonferrous and pre- cious metal.

  9. Yunnan Border Environmental Problems%云南边疆环境问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    百永铎; 马亚辉

    2011-01-01

    Yunnan frontier beautiful scenery,rich resources,but due to various factors,Yunnan frontier environment has been severely damaged.In this paper,cited the fact that damage to the environment of Yunnan frontier status and extent of a detailed description and analysis with examples outspoken environmental damage because the border to try to put forward the protection of the environment of Yunnan frontier,to achieve sustainable economic development in border areas feasibility proposal.%云南边疆风景秀丽,资源富饶,但由于各种因素,云南边疆的环境受到了严重破坏。本文通过列举事实,对云南边疆环境破坏的现状与程度进行了详细阐述,并结合实例直言不讳地分析了边疆环境破坏的原因,尝试性地提出了保护云南边疆环境,实现边疆经济可持续发展的可行性建议。

  10. On Teaching of Interpreting from Interpretive Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗蔷薇; 赵保成

    2013-01-01

      This paper aims to explore teaching of interpreting nowadays by starting from the interpretive theory and its characteristics. The author believes that the theory is mainly based on the study of interpretation practice, whose core content, namely,“deverbalization”has made great strides and breakthroughs in the theory of translation;when we examine translation, or rather interpretation once again from the bi-perspective of language and culture, we will have come across new thoughts in terms of translation as well as teaching of interpreting.

  11. Risk assessment of drought disaster in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Drought has become an increasing concern in southern China, but the drought risk has not been adequately studied. This study presents a method for the spatial assessment of drought risk in southern China using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the combined role of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure.A drought hazard map was retrieved with a compound index of meteorological drought method in a GIS environment. Normally, a large variation in the disaster-inducing factor implies a high probability of economic/social losses caused by a drought disaster. The map indicated that areas with a higher risk of drought hazard were mainly distributed in mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The vulnerability indices were based on climate factors as well as land use, geomorphological types, soil properties, and drainage density. The water preserving capability of purple calcareous soil in the basins in Sichuan and mid-east Yunnan, and the lateritic red soil in northeastern Guangdong is relatively weak. The main geomorphological features in Guangxi and Guangdong are hills, which leads to a serious expectation of soil and water losses. Thus, the main areas with a high risk of drought vulnerability are mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The exposure indices were based on population density and agricultural production because population and agriculture experience the main impacts of a drought disaster. Higher exposure indices mean higher economic/social losses due to drought disasters. Areas with high exposure indices were mainly distributed in Guangdong and southern Guangxi.The overall risk was then calculated as the product of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The results indicated a higher risk of drought disaster in the basins in eastern Sichuan,, northeastern Yunnan, and northeastern Guangdong. The main factor influencing the risk of a drought disaster was the hazard, but the vulnerability and exposure also played important roles.

  12. Prediction on the Farmland Demand of Yunnan Province in 2020 Based on Food Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the cultivated area and grain yield during 1996-2008 and adopting the prediction method of farmland demand based on food security,five indexes,including the cultivated area,grain sown area,yearly food yield per unit area,total population and per capita grain yield,are selected to analyze and predict the farmland demand in Yunnan Province in 2020.As the prediction results of each index show,the total population of Yunnan Province in 2020 will reach 51 464 000,significantly higher than the upper bound(50 million);the per capita food demand of Yunnan Province in 2020 will be 400 kg below the bottom line of the well-off type;food self-sufficient ratio will be respectively given the value of 100%,95% and 90% in three schemes;the prediction will be conducted with the yearly food yield per unit area at an average annual growth rate of 2.5% and 3.0% in two schemes;the rate of grain sowing in 2010 is determined to be 66%.As the prediction results of farmland demand show,there are totally 6 schemes about farmland demand in Yunnan Province obtained through analysis,among them,scheme Ⅰ is difficult to achieve,the prediction results of scheme Ⅳ,Ⅴ and Ⅵ are relatively low,which do not conform to the state policies and regulations to protect farmland and are also not conductive for ensuring the food security;scheme Ⅱ and Ⅲ are close to each other,but scheme Ⅲ obtains better prediction results and determines the farmland demand of Yunnan Province in 2020 based on food security to be 5.9 million so as to ensure the provincial food security and realize the "red line" of basic provincial food self-sufficiency.

  13. Frenchglen Interpretive Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this interpretive plan is to provide guidance for the development of the interpretive exhibits for the Frenchglen Interpretive Center, as well as the...

  14. The Potential Geographic Distribution of Radopholus similis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-sheng; XIE Bing-yan; WAN Fang-hao; XIAO Qi-ming; DAI Liang-ying

    2007-01-01

    The burrowing nematode(Radopholus similis)is one of the main quarantine pests in China,and the risk of invasion posed by this nematode is becoming more and more serious with regard to the international trade being intensified day by day.It is urgent to analyse the potential geographic distribution of R.similis in China.Genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction modeling system(GARP)and maximum entropy(MAXENT),the two niche models which have been widely used to predict the potential geographic distribution of alien species,were used to predict the distribution of R.similis in China.We also presented a model comparison of the results by both threshold-dependent and threshold-independent evaluations.It has been shown that the two niche models could be used to predict the potential distribution of R.similis reliably.The potential distribution of R.similis should be constricted within the south of China,such as Hainan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian,Yunnan provinces,and Taiwan of China.The MAXENT gives a better prediction than that of GARP.R.similis can be introduced to China by flowers and nursery stock's international shipping.The predicted results indicate that R.similis can occur in south coastal area of China and Yunnan Province,which are the main flower and nursery stock's import-export areas in China.Consequently,a strong quarantine program is needed at the ports of such areas to prevent the pest from being introduced to China.

  15. Development and Wellbeing: The Relationship between Hydropower Development in the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in China and the Wellbeing of the Local Population

    OpenAIRE

    Parshina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies the relationship between the ecosystem services of the Nujiang Valley in Yunnan province in south-west China and the wellbeing of the local population, and how this relationship will be influenced by hydropower development on the Nujiang (Salween River). The Nujiang Valley is a culturally and biologically diverse border region between China and Myanmar of great natural beauty. The steep gorges and steadily dropping Nujiang make the area extremely attractive for hydropower ...

  16. Building an integrated modeling framework for assessing land-use change and its consequences for areal water balance in mountainous Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wahren; Berkhoff, K.; Herrmann, S.; K.-H. Feger

    2010-01-01

    The opening up of China's industry towards market orientation has a distinct impact on natural resources as well as on social structures. The example of rubber introduction in Yunnan province (SW China) shows the mutual interdependencies between economy, natural resources, and social structures. We assess the impacts of rubber introduction and possible development paths in the study area. An integrated modeling framework (NabanFrame) is developed for the catchment of the Nab...

  17. Phosphorus speciation in sediments of Lake Hongfeng, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cuihong; HU Jiwei; HUANG Xianfei; LI Cunxiong; DENG Jiajun; ZHANG Jie; LIU Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution characteristics of phosphorus and its species in 14 sediments samples collected from Lake Hongfeng based on sequential extraction. Lake Hongfeng, a major drinking-water source for Guiyang City in southwestern China, is one of the largest artificial reservoirs located in a typical karstic area of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The results of this study indicate that the average percentages of DP, Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P and OP in the lake sediments were 0.52, 6.59, 6.09, 42.85 and 40.27, respectively. The concentrations of organic phosphorus (OP) were lower than those of inorganic phosphorus (IP), which consisted mainly of calcium-bound phosphorus (Ca-P). The high concentrations of Ca-P may temporarily control the release of phosphorus from the sediments because it is a relatively stable, inert, and non-bioavailable phosphorus fraction. However, a large number of phosphate solubilizing bacteria can transform insoluble phosphate into bioavailable forms. Moreover, the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in the lake sediments were high; thus, the potential for the release of phosphorus from the sediments to the water column and phosphorus bioavailability were still significant. Further statistical analyses of the results revealed significant correlations between phosphorus species in sediments from the lake with two extractable principal component species (PCs) and five selectable cluster levels allowing interpretation of possible origins of phosphorus loading and the release of phosphorus. Furthermore, available remediation measures were briefly assessed for the lake with consideration of its distinctive environmental features.

  18. The progress of the study of Yunnan lake sediments and Environmental evolution%云南湖泊沉积与环境演变研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚生

    2015-01-01

    云南湖泊因地理位置独特,所处地区气候类型多样,历来都是中国乃至世界湖泊研究的热点区。本文主要回顾了云南地区20世纪90年代以来湖泊沉积与环境演变方面所进行的相关研究,并着重对湖泊沉积研究中的新技术新方法应用、湖泊沉积对人类活动的响应、高分辨率的不同时间尺度的钻探研究、湖泊沉积与生物地球化学作用的关系等方面进行扼要综述,以了解其所取得的新进展,存在的问题和不足以及今后研究的主要内容和努力的方向。%Yunnan lakes due to the unique geographical location,climate diversity,has always been a hot re-search area in lakes of China and the world.This paper reviews the Yunnan region lake sediments and envi-ronmental studies conducted since evolved aspects 1990s and focuses on the study of lake sediments in new methods and new technology applications ,lake sediments in response to human activities ,different resolution aspects of drilling study time scales ,lake sediments relationship with biogeochemical effects like briefly re-viewed in order to understand the progress they made in the new direction of the problems and shortcomings as well as the main content and future research efforts.

  19. Variation of Seismic Frequency in the Yunnan Region After the Indonesia Earthquake With Ms 8.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tieshuan; Liu Jie; Zheng Dalin; Peng Keyin

    2007-01-01

    The seismic frequency increased significantly in the Yunnan region after the Indonesia earthquake with MS 8.7 on December 26,2004.This was estimated by analyzing the seismic frequency ratio between the influenced and normal times, the spatial distribution characteristics of the increased seismic frequency, the temporal-spatial distribution and types of seismic swarms.Seismic frequency increased at 71.3% of the statistical sites in the Yunnan area.The maximal increase ratio is 18.2.

  20. 鸦片对近代云南沿边少数民族地区的影响%Effect of Opium on the Modern Ethnic Minority Areas in Yunnan Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艺

    2011-01-01

    In modem Yunnan, the spread of opium shocked the world. At that time, its production was known throughout the country because of its "strong and pure taste", and Yunnan then became known as a "cloud land under heaven". Its annual output reached up to 2.5 million kilograms. In border areas, due to various reasons, the drug problem was particularly acute. Today, the situation is still very serious. The repeated drug problems have brought a profound effect on this region. Researching the opium problem of the minority areas in Yunnan Province along the border in modem history could provide useful historical references for China and the global fight against drugs today.%在近代云南,鸦片的泛滥令世人震惊。当时,其所产鸦片因“劲大”、“味醇”而有“云土甲天下”之美名,其年产量高达5000万两之巨。在沿边的少数民族地区,由于多方面的原因,毒品问题尤为突出,时到今日,禁毒情势仍较为严峻。屡禁不止的毒品问题给这个地区带来了深刻影响,毒害深远。研究近代云南沿边少数民族地区历史上的鸦片问题,可以为当今我国以及全球范围内严峻的禁毒斗争提供有益的历史借鉴。