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Sample records for china yunnan interpreted

  1. Improved Geological Interpretation Using Landsat TM Data in Lancang-Jinghong Area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Landsat TM digital spectral data of Lancang-Jinghong area (Yunnan Province) has been used for the purple of geological interpretation. To neet this object, different image processing techniques including selected band color composites, principal component analysis and IHS decorrelation stretching are used to improve the discrimination of different lithological and structural features in the area. It was found that IHS decorrelation stretching images obtained from the transformation of false color composite 741 (in red, green and blue) provided the best results based on the original data. By combining the characteristics of images produced by different approaches and other canonically transformed images with available geological data and surface observations, the geological interpretation could be done with satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  2. Wavelet analysis and interpretation of gravity data in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

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    LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong

    2005-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly data of Sichuan-Yunnan region and its vicinity were analyzed with wavelet transformation method. In the process, complete orthogonal wavelet function system with good symmetry and higher vanishing moment was selected to decompose the gravity anomaly into two parts. With the power spectral analysis on the decomposed anomalies, we interpreted that the two parts of anomalies represent the density variation in upper and middle crust, and in deep crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. The two parts of anomalies indicate the difference between shallow and deep tectonics. The results of shallow-layer apparent density mapping reveal that: a) the crustal density in Sichuan basin is higher than that in Songpan-Garze orogenic zone; b) the density of Kangdian rhombic block is heterogeneous; c) the boundary faults of Kangdian block are of different density features, suggesting different tectonic signification. The results of deep-layer apparent density mapping show a similar,but not the same, density distribution pattern as the shallow results, and indicate that the tectonics of shallow and deep crust are different, they may be in a status of incomplete coupling. Our results also show that the earthquakes in this area are controlled not only by the fracture zones but also by the deep density distribution.

  3. Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian of Canada (British Columbia and China (Yunnan interpreted as primitive deuterostomes.

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    Jean-Bernard Caron

    Full Text Available Molecular and morphological evidence unite the hemichordates and echinoderms as the Ambulacraria, but their earliest history remains almost entirely conjectural. This is on account of the morphological disparity of the ambulacrarians and a paucity of obvious stem-groups. We describe here a new taxon Herpetogaster collinsi gen. et sp. nov. from the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian Lagerstätte. This soft-bodied vermiform animal has a pair of elongate dendritic oral tentacles, a flexible stolon with an attachment disc, and a re-curved trunk with at least 13 segments that is directed dextrally. A differentiated but un-looped gut is enclosed in a sac suspended by mesenteries. It consists of a short pharynx, a conspicuous lenticular stomach, followed by a narrow intestine sub-equal in length. This new taxon, together with the Lower Cambrian Phlogites and more intriguingly the hitherto enigmatic discoidal eldoniids (Cambrian-Devonian, form a distinctive clade (herein the cambroernids. Although one hypothesis of their relationships would look to the lophotrochozoans (specifically the entoprocts, we suggest that the evidence is more consistent with their being primitive deuterostomes, with specific comparisons being made to the pterobranch hemichordates and pre-radial echinoderms. On this basis some of the earliest ambulacrarians are interpreted as soft-bodied animals with a muscular stalk, and possessing prominent tentacles.

  4. Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian of Canada (British Columbia) and China (Yunnan) interpreted as primitive deuterostomes.

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    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Conway Morris, Simon; Shu, Degan

    2010-03-08

    Molecular and morphological evidence unite the hemichordates and echinoderms as the Ambulacraria, but their earliest history remains almost entirely conjectural. This is on account of the morphological disparity of the ambulacrarians and a paucity of obvious stem-groups. We describe here a new taxon Herpetogaster collinsi gen. et sp. nov. from the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) Lagerstätte. This soft-bodied vermiform animal has a pair of elongate dendritic oral tentacles, a flexible stolon with an attachment disc, and a re-curved trunk with at least 13 segments that is directed dextrally. A differentiated but un-looped gut is enclosed in a sac suspended by mesenteries. It consists of a short pharynx, a conspicuous lenticular stomach, followed by a narrow intestine sub-equal in length. This new taxon, together with the Lower Cambrian Phlogites and more intriguingly the hitherto enigmatic discoidal eldoniids (Cambrian-Devonian), form a distinctive clade (herein the cambroernids). Although one hypothesis of their relationships would look to the lophotrochozoans (specifically the entoprocts), we suggest that the evidence is more consistent with their being primitive deuterostomes, with specific comparisons being made to the pterobranch hemichordates and pre-radial echinoderms. On this basis some of the earliest ambulacrarians are interpreted as soft-bodied animals with a muscular stalk, and possessing prominent tentacles.

  5. A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province is a hotspot for the research of early hominid evolution and its environmental background. During the implementation of the Program "Research of the Origin and Evolution of Early Man and Its Environmental Background" from 1998 to 2001, a huge quantity of hominoid and mammal fossils were collected. The present report systematically describes an Euprox robustus sp. nov. identified during the recent laboratory work on the collected material. Euprox is a group of earliest cervids with true antlers. The new species is the third one of the genus discovered in China. Judged by its morphologic characteristics, the new species feed on juicy and tender leaves of dicotyledon. It implies that the vegetation of its epoch in the Yuanmou Basin is a kind of southern subtropical evergreen forest and the climate is humid and temperate with evident seasonality. The latter is mostly influenced by the monsoon and secondly by the latitude.

  6. Highland macrolichen flora of Northwestern Yunnan, China.

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    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Wang, Li-Song; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2005-06-01

    Fifty-six species in 36 genera of macrolichens are reported from the Zhongdian area, northwest Yunnan, China during the lichenological expedition for highland macrolichen survey in June, 2004. More than 60% of these species have not been reported in South Korea. All of the 182 collected specimens are deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and some of them are duplicated in the lichen herbarium, Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (KUN-L) in China. This is the first report on the macrolichen flora in the visited areas.

  7. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

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    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  8. Poverty and malaria in the Yunnan province, China.

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    Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and malaria appear to have an intertwined link. This paper aims to define the relationship between poverty and malaria in Yunnan, China, and to make recommendations for future research in this important area. Data on malaria prevalence and the population's income in each county between 2005 and 2010 were obtained from the Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yunnan Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Geographic mapping shows an apparent spatial convergence of poverty and the incidence of malaria at a county level, and suggests that poverty may be one of the drivers of malaria transmission in Yunnan. Future research should focus on: 1. measuring and quantifying the relationship between poverty and the malaria burden at the individual, community, county and regional level in Yunnan; and 2. developing the GIS-based spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework in malaria endemic areas, particularly along the border areas in Yunnan.

  9. Severe dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China, 2013

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    Fu-Chun Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the impact of dengue has increased both geographically and in intensity, and this disease is now a threat to approximately half of the world's population. An unexpected large outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, in 2013. This was the first autochthonous outbreak with a significant proportion of severe dengue cases in mainland China in a decade. According to the 2009 World Health Organization guidelines, half of the 136 laboratory confirmed cases during the epidemic were severe dengue. The clinical presentation included severe haemorrhage (such as massive vaginal and gastrointestinal bleeding, severe plasma leakage (such as pleural effusion, ascites, or hypoproteinaemia, and organ involvement (such as myocarditis and lung impairment; 21 cases eventually deteriorated to shock. During this outbreak, all severe cases occurred in adults, among whom about 43% had co-morbid conditions. Nucleic acid detection and virus isolation confirmed dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3 to be the pathogenic agent of this outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of envelope gene sequences showed that these DENV-3 isolates belonged to genotype II. This finding is of great importance to understand the circulation of DENV and predict the risk of severe disease in mainland China. Here, we provide a brief report of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and aetiology of this dengue fever outbreak, and characterize DENV strains isolated from clinical specimens.

  10. Diversity and distribution of higher plants in Yunnan, China

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    Li Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan Province is a biodiversity hotspot in China that has global significance. In order to further recognize and protect the biodiversity of Yunnan, we examined the basic distributional pattern of its plant diversity based on Flora Yunnanica. According to our analysis, Northwest Yunnan had the highest plant diversity, with Yulong County the most diverse, containing 4,358 species of higher plants, followed by Gongshan County and Xianggelila County, which had 3,981 and 3,874 higher plants respectively. The tropical edge region of southern Yunnan, represented by Xishuangbanna, had the second highest level of diversity, with Mengla County and Jinghong County containing more than 3,000 higher plant species. In contrast, the plant diversity of Eastern and Central Yunnan, comprising mainly the Yunnan Plateau, was deemed relatively poor, possibly reflecting lower attention and field surveys by botanists. Both the distribution patterns of endemic and narrow-ranging species were similar to that for all plants. Yunnan contains 4,008 endemic and 4,509 narrow-ranging species with Gongshan County being most diverse, having more than 500 narrow-ranging species. Most species (64.1% were distributed in less than five counties in Yunnan, and 46.0% could only be found in one. Our analysis reveals that previous field surveys of Yunnan’s plant diversity did not fully reflect the natural zonal regularity and consequently further investigation is warranted. Some narrow-ranging species will be endangered without protection.

  11. Ordovician paleomagnetism of eastern Yunnan, China

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    Fang, Wu; Van der Voo, R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Liang, Qizhong (Yunnan Institute of Geological Sciences, Kunming (China))

    1990-06-01

    Three magnetic components have been isolated in Ordovician formations of the Yangtze Paraplatform (South China Block). Two of these (Daqing A and Hongshiya B components) yield paleopoles that conform to the Carboniferous to Triassic segment of the apparent polar wander path for South China, and are therefore interpreted as remagnetizations. The third component (declination/inclination = 301{degree}/+66{degree}, N = 5 sites, k = 21.4, {alpha}{sub 95} = 17{degree}) passes the fold test and is interpreted as primary (late Early Ordovician). The paleopole, at 39{degree}S, 236{degree}E, and the paleolatitude of 48{degree}S support an Ordovician position of South China adjacent to Gondwana.

  12. Development and countermeasures of flower industry in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yunan has attracted great attention from the world for its ideal location, advantaged climatic condition, rich biological resources and cheap labor forces. All these advantaged conditions make Yunnan become one of the most potential places in the world for flower production and trade. In recent wars, more and more foreign companies from different countries have forestalled their facilities in Yunnan, joining in the development process of Yunnan floriculture industry. The flower industry in Yunnan Province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Flower was only planted one hectare output totaled 35,000 yuan, and the planting area of the flower had 17,000ha and the sales volume of the flowers had 6 billion yuan in 2006. Yunnan Province accounts for 50% of the nation's total cut flower production. Yunnan's. flower industry, has become Asia's largest fresh, cut flower production and export base and sprout breeding and production base. And it has stepped into one of the major flesh-cut flower production areas in the world and a modern flower trading center that is leading in China.

  13. A Phylogenetic Perspective on Biogeographical Divergence of the Flora in Yunnan, Southwestern China

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    Liu, Shuiyin; Zhu, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies incorporated biogeography with phylogenetic analyses to reveal the origin and evolutionary history of specific floras. In this study, we constructed the mega-phylogeny of the floras of three representative regions across Yunnan, southwestern China. We analyzed the phylogenetic structure and beta diversity based on the presence/absence of species (genus or family) data to investigate the phylogenetic patterns of regional floras. We found conspicuous divergence at the genus and species level in the pattern of phylogenetic structures, which most likely related to historical biogeography. The flora of southern Yunnan was shaped by the strike-slip extrusion of Indochina and the regional climatic stability, while the flora of northwestern Yunnan was shaped by the uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau and the oscillations of the glacial-interglacial periods. The flora of central Yunnan had nearly equal proportions of the northern and southern floras that may be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical flora. Geological events fit well with the floristic and phylogenetic patterns across Yunnan. This study highlighted the importance of linking phylogenetic analyses to biogeographic interpretations to improve our understanding of the origin, evolution and divergence of regional floras. PMID:28220864

  14. A Phylogenetic Perspective on Biogeographical Divergence of the Flora in Yunnan, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyin; Zhu, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2017-02-21

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies incorporated biogeography with phylogenetic analyses to reveal the origin and evolutionary history of specific floras. In this study, we constructed the mega-phylogeny of the floras of three representative regions across Yunnan, southwestern China. We analyzed the phylogenetic structure and beta diversity based on the presence/absence of species (genus or family) data to investigate the phylogenetic patterns of regional floras. We found conspicuous divergence at the genus and species level in the pattern of phylogenetic structures, which most likely related to historical biogeography. The flora of southern Yunnan was shaped by the strike-slip extrusion of Indochina and the regional climatic stability, while the flora of northwestern Yunnan was shaped by the uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau and the oscillations of the glacial-interglacial periods. The flora of central Yunnan had nearly equal proportions of the northern and southern floras that may be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical flora. Geological events fit well with the floristic and phylogenetic patterns across Yunnan. This study highlighted the importance of linking phylogenetic analyses to biogeographic interpretations to improve our understanding of the origin, evolution and divergence of regional floras.

  15. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

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    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  16. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao

    2007-01-01

    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  17. Description of Atrocalopteryx fasciata spec. nov. from Yunnan, China (Odonata: Calopterygidae).

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    Yang, Guo-Hui; Hämäläinen, Matti; Zhang, Hao-Miao

    2014-03-17

    Atrocalopteryx fasciata Yang, Hämäläinen & Zhang, spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from China, Yunnan, Dehong, Yingjiang, deposited at Odonata Collection of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan, China) is described and illustrated from the male sex. It is compared with Atrocalopteryx laosica (Fraser, 1933).

  18. Conifer Woods of the Pliocene Age from Yunnan, China

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    Tie-Mei YI; Cheng-Sen LI; Xiao-Mei JIANG

    2005-01-01

    The Tertiary floras play an integral role in understanding the biodiversity and interactions between climate and vegetation in Yunnan, China. The fossil spores, pollen grains, and leaves in this region have been investiagedintensively. In comparison, the woods have been studied relatively little. A large number of Pliocene wood specimens was collected from the opencast lignite coal mine of Hongxing situated in Changning County of Yunnan Province. Among the collection, Tsuga cf. dumosa (D. Don) Eichler and Pinus cf. armandii Franchet were identified based on wood structures. The subtle feature of tori extensions is reported in the wood of T. cf. dumosa. Considering the climatic requirements of modern T. dumosa and P.armandii, the two species of conifer described from Pliocene sediments probably grew in mountainous terrain at an elevation of approximately 2 300 m, in a cool and humid environment.

  19. Alphonsea glandulosa (Annonaceae), a New Species from Yunnan, China

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    Shao, Yun-Yun; Saunders, Richard M. K.; Tan, Yun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Alphonsea glandulosa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan Province in south-west China. It is easily distinguished from all previously described Alphonsea species by the possession of glandular tissue at the base of the adaxial surface of the inner petals. Nectar was observed throughout the flowering period, including the pistillate phase and subsequent staminate phase. Small curculionid beetles were observed as floral visitors and are inferred to be effective pollinators since they carry pollen grains. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the placement of this new species within Alphonsea and the evolution of the inner petal glands and specialized pollinator reward tissues throughout the family. PMID:28146564

  20. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

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    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-07

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters.

  1. Terrestrial events across the Permian Triassic boundary along the Yunnan Guizhou border, SW China

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    Jianxin, Yu; Yuanqiao, Peng; Suxin, Zhang; Fengqing, Yang; Quanming, Zhao; Qisheng, Huang

    2007-01-01

    The border area between western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan Provinces in SW China is an ideal place to undertake research considering the terrestrial-ecological system evolution across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). The study of plant and palynomorph fossils, clay minerals, inorganic geochemistry and sedimentary facies in this area enable us to interpret the events occurring at that time. The extinction pattern of the flora interpreted from megafloral and palynomorph data is demonstrated by a sudden decline of species numbers at the PTB after a long-term of gradual changes, followed by a delayed extinction in the basal Triassic. The two boundary claybeds (Beds 66 and 68 in the Chahe Section, beds 47 and 49 in the Zhejue Section) are considered to be volcanogenic. The inorganic geochemical anomalies occurred between Beds 63 and 69, Chahe Section and Beds 45 and 50, Zhejue Section. Sedimentary facies changed from channels of braided rivers, into flood plains of braided rivers, then to shallow lakes, reflecting a gradual transgression by lakes across the area. Our conclusions are that the mass extinction across the PTB in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan was probably caused by the Siberian basaltic eruption episode and the siliceous volcanism in South China. These lithospheric events represented by volcanisms heralded a series of climatic and environmental events, giving rise to a catastrophe for the biosphere.

  2. The scorpions of Yunnan (China: updated identification key, new record, and distributions (Arachnida: Scorpiones

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    Zhiyong Di

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an identification key to the Scorpiones species of Yunnan (China with notes on the distribution and habitats of these species. E. kubani is one new record species to China. The number of known species of Scorpiones from Yunnan is raised to nine. The redescriptions of E. shidian and E. kubani are provided. Features and distribution of these species provided as additional information for identification.

  3. The distinct distribution and phylogenetic characteristics of dengue virus serotypes/genotypes during the 2013 outbreak in Yunnan, China: Phylogenetic characteristics of 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China.

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    Wang, Binghui; Yang, Henglin; Feng, Yue; Zhou, Hongning; Dai, Jiejie; Hu, Yunzhang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Baloch, Zulqarnain; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, sporadic imported cases of dengue fever were documented almost every year in Yunnan Province, China. Unexpectedly, a large-scale outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection occurred from August to December 2013, with 1538 documented cases. In the current study, 81 dengue-positive patient samples were collected from Xishuangbanna, the southernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province, and 23 from Dehong, the westernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province. The full-length envelope genes were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine strains (39.1%) and 14 strains (60.9%) from the Dehong prefecture were classified as genotype I of DENV-1 and Asian I genotype of DENV-2, respectively. All strains from Xishuangbanna were identified as genotype II of DENV-3. Bayesian coalescent analysis indicates that the outbreak originated from bordering southeastern Asian countries. These three epidemic genotypes were predicted to originate in Thailand and then migrate into Yunnan through different routes.

  4. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  5. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

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    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  6. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini

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    Boris M. Kataev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: C. fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province, C. gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet], C. hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet], C. asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province, and C. baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on eleven other species occurring in Xizang and Yunnan are also provided. Chydaeus shunichii Ito, 2006 is re-described, based on specimens from Lushui County, Yunnan. Chydaeus kumei Ito, 1992 is treated as a subspecies of C. andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 [NEW STATUS]. The taxonomic status of C. guangxiensis Ito, 2006 is discussed. The following taxa are recorded from China for the first time: C. obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan, C. malaisei Kataev & Schmidt, 2006 (Yunnan, C. semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899 (Xizang and Yunnan, C. andrewesi andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan, C. andrewesi kumei Ito (Yunnan, C. bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Xizang, and C. bedeli vietnamensis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Yunnan.

  7. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

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    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  8. Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengfei; Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Yunbing; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    How a nonhuman primate mother responds to her dead infant is an indication of maternal behavior and perspectives on death. Here we describe three cases of a mother's response toward her dead infant in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. The mother, whose infant died at 1 month of age, showed strong maternal affection to the corpse and carried it for 4 days. A mother with a stillborn infant showed similar maternal behavior to her dead offspring, but only held it for 1 day. The mother of an aborted infant abandoned the carcass without carrying it or displaying other forms of maternal behavior. Our results suggest that the mother-infant bond in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is strongly influenced by the infants' age. Postdeath infant-carrying behavior could be affected by the combined action of reproductive hormones and the emotional response of the mother. This manuscript represents the first detailed report of a mother carrying her dead infant in this endangered monkey species.

  9. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties) from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  10. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hua

    Full Text Available The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  11. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  12. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  13. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QiYue; ZHOU ChangYong; LU Tao; XIE Tao; LOU XiongYing; LIU Wei; SUN YuanYuan; HUANG JinYuan; ZHAO LaiShi

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, Invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  14. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  15. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province.

  16. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rong Zeng,1–3 Tao Shou,3 Kun-xian Yang,4 Tao Shen,5 Jin-ping Zhang,5 Rong-xia Zuo,5 Yong-qing Zheng,5 Xin-ming Yan5 1Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 3Medical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 4Surgical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 5Institute of Clinical and Basic Medicine Research, The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China Objective: This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods: Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578 and control subjects (n=620 with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD] in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females

  17. Distribution of gamasid mites on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PU LUO; XIAN-GUO GUO; TI-JUN QIAN; DIAN WU; XING-YUAN MEN; WEN-GE DONG

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gamasid mites on the body surface of small mammals wascarried outin Yunnan Province of China from 1990 to 2004. The small mammal hosts werecaptured from 25 counties which represent five geographical subregions, namely MiddleSubregion of Hengduan Mountains, Southern Subregion of Hengduan Mountains, EasternPlateau Subregion of Yunnan, Western Plateau Subregion of Yunnan and Southern Moun-tainous Subregion of Yunnan. The captured 10803 small mammal hosts belong to ninefamilies, 29 genera and 52 species in four orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia andLagomorpha). A total of 68 571 gamasid mites were collected from the body surface of thecaptured small mammal hosts and all the gamasid mites were identified to 10 families, 33genera and 112 species. This paper lists all the mite species, together with their taxonomicposition (genera and families) and their corresponding hosts. Much more mite species werefound in the Middle Subregion of Hengduan Mountains than in other geographical subregions.The total individuals of mites and small mammals in the Middle Subregion of HengduanMountains are also the most plentiful in the five geographical subregions. Three dominantmite species and three dominant small mammal hosts were determined as the dominant. species in the investigated areas of Yunnan Province. The dominant hosts are Rattusflavipectus (which accounts for 34.85 % of the total individuals), Apodemus chevrieri (13.43 %)and Rattus norvegicus (10.40%) while the dominant gamasid mite species are Laelapsnuttalli (Hirst, 1915) (27.84%), Laelaps echidninus (Berlese, 1887) (18.38%) and Laelapsguizhouensis (Gu et Wang, 1981) (14.79%). The results showed the high species diversityof gamasid mites in Yunnan Province and the uneven distribution feature in differentsubregions.

  18. A New Theropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-chun; Philip J.CURRIE; DONG Zhiming; PAN Shigang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    A new theropod dinosaur,Shidaisaurusjinae gen.et sp.nov.,has been described on the basis of an incomplete skeleton.The specimen was found near the base of the Upper Lufeng Formation(early Middle Jurassic)in Yunnan,China.It is the first theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yunnan.Shidaisaurus jinae is distinguishable from other Jurassic theropods by certain features from the braincase,axis,and pelvic girdle.The absence of any pleurocoels in the axis or in any anterior dorsal vertebrae suggests that the new Lufeng theropod is relatively primitive and more plesiomorphic than most of the Middle to Late Jurassic theropods from China.Most Chinese taxa of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs have not been well described;a further detailed study will be necessary for us to determine their phylogenetic relationships with Shidaisaurus jinae.

  19. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  20. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

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    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  1. Poverty Alleviation through Ecotourism in the Three Parallel Rivers World Heritage Site, Yunnan China

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, (Jenny) Juhyung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the material gathered from two months of fieldwork, this thesis explores the relations between ecotourism and poverty alleviation in the villages within the Three Parallel Rivers of the Yangtze (Jinsha), the Mekong (Lancang) and the Salween (Nu) rivers (henceforth TPR) in north-west Yunnan, China. The purpose of this research is to examine the mechanism of community-based ecotourism activities (horseback riding, nongjiale) and the dynamics of collaboration in maintaining these ecotou...

  2. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feiling Yang; Jinming Hu; Ruidong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that end...

  3. Modern tectonic stress field in Southwest Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢富仁; 苏刚; 崔效锋; 舒赛兵; 赵建涛

    2001-01-01

    By means of inversion of fault slip data, the parameters of 20 tectonic stress tensors in Southwest Yunnan region are determined. Compared with the average stress field of the region obtained from focal mechanism solutions, the following characteristics of modern tectonic stress field in this region are obtained. From the west of Zhenyuan- Yingpanshan fault to the south of Longling fault zone, the maximum compressional stress is in NNE direction and the stress regime is mainly of strike-slip type. In Longling fault zone and the area north to it, the direction of maximum compressional stress is near-NS or NNW, the stress regime is of strike-slip type.

  4. Prediction of Drought Risk Based on the WRF Model in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is the core region of the drought in the Southwest China, which makes the region become the hot spot in the meteorological research. However, among the various influencing factors of the drought in Yunnan province, the influence of the land use/cover change (LUCC on the drought has not been quantitatively analyzed. The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study. Given the fact that severe drought in Yunnan province is mainly due to much-less-than-normal precipitation and much-warmer-than-normal surface temperature, this study focused on the future spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation, which have great impacts on the drought. Finally, the influencing factors of drought in Yunnan province were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, and the risk of drought was spatially analyzed with the meteorological drought composite index. The results indicate that the large-area forest plays a more important role in alleviating the risk of drought than other vegetation types do. Besides, the changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying the risk of drought.

  5. Typical Geo-Hazards and Countermeasures of Mines in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Huang, Qianrui; Zhao, Xueqiong; Fang, Rong; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Mining-induced geo-hazards have caused enormous destruction and threat to mines. Known as the "kingdom of nonferrous metals" and located in Southwest China, Yunnan Province developed mining-induced geo-hazards well with characteristics of multiple types, widespread distribution and serious damage. Landslides and debris flows are two common sub-types of geohazards causing most serious damage in Yunnan, and some of them were very representative in the world. Two landslides and two debris flows were chosen to analyze deeply. Both Laojinshan Landslide and Sunjiaqing Landslide possess the characteristic of rock avalanches. The high sliding speed and long distance made the landslides translate into clastic flows with impact force and caused enormous destruction. Rainstorm and mining waste rock were two main factors to induce debris flows in Yunnan mines. Heishan valley debris flow of Dongchuan copper mine was a super large rainstorm type viscose debris flow with very low frequency, which brought a good caution to utilize valleys which looked an unlikely debris flow. Nandagou Valley of Jinding lead-zinc mine in Lanping County was a rainstorm stimulating, gully-type, high frequency and large scale debris flow, which was induced by mining activities. Many countermeasures have been used for Yunnan mines, including engineering treatment technology and ecological remediation, monitoring and forecasting, relocation and public administration.

  6. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yang, Zushun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yongming; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    Previously, the prevalence of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan was high; and recently Yunnan was the predominant endemic province in China. To identify the molecular epidemiology, antibiotic resistance profile and genotypic diversity of the S. Paratyphi A isolates from 1995 to 2013 in Yunnan, we performed the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to identify the characteristics of the bacterial isolates. The results showed from 1995 to 2013, 366 S. Paratyphi A were isolated: 295 isolates (80.6%) from Yuxi and 68 isolates (18.58%) from Honghe. All of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and some were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in different years. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Identical PFGE with two enzyme digestion patterns were found for 339 isolates. Some environmental isolates in different years were homologous with the strains isolated from food and patients. MLST showed 349 strains were ST85, only 17 isolates were ST129. S. Paratyphi A isolates from Yunnan showed a high similarity, and we found the pathogen isolated from patients, the environment and food had the close epidemiological relationship, forming a transmission circulation. These findings have important implications for paratyphoid-control strategies.

  7. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  8. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  9. Distribution and diversity of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binghui; Feng, Yue; Li, Zheng; Duan, Haiping; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Amei; Liu, Li; Baloch, Zulqarnain; Xia, Xueshan

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prevalent pathogens in the world, and infection with this virus is a serious threat for public health. Yunnan is considered as an important endemic center for blood-borne viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus, in China. However, the distribution and diversity of HBV subgenotypes remain unclear in Yunnan province. In the current study, HBV positive samples were collected from different prefectures of Yunnan province and their molecular epidemiological characters were determined. Phylogenetic analysis on the pre-S/S gene (865 bps) showed the prevalence of four HBV genotypes, including genotype B (24 cases, 33.3%), genotype C (45 cases, 62.5%), genotype I (two cases, 2.78%) and C/D recombinants (one case, 1.39%). The most prevalent genotypes B and C could be sub classified into subgenotype B2 and C1, C2, C5, and C7, respectively. Clusters of subgenotype B2 and C2 consisted of strains from China and other East Asian countries, while subgenotype C1, C5, and C7 and genotype I formed a cluster together with strains from Southeast Asia. Using Bayesian inference from phylogenetic, HBV genotypes B and C were estimated to have originated in 1860s and 1910s with an evolutionary rate of 3.26 and 8.01 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, respectively. These findings indicate that the distribution of HBV genotypes in Yunnan was influenced by strains from the rest of China and the neighboring countries.

  10. The geographic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus among 25 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石宏; 董永利; 李卫翔; 杨洁; 李开源; 昝瑞光; 肖春杰

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus in 25 ethnic groups (33 populations) of China were analyzed in a total of 1294 samples. The average YAP+ frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations. Primi has the highest YAP+ frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP+ among all the eastern Asian populations studied. The YAP+ occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). The other 15 populations are YAP? including Lahu (2 populations), Hani, Achang, Drung, Lisu, Sui, Bouyei, Va, Bulang, Deang, Man and Hui and Mongol of Yunnan and Bai of Hunan. The YAP+ frequencies varied among the different ethnic groups studied, and even different among the same ethnic group living in different geographic locations. Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed.

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection and genotype in asymptomatic people from 10 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334

  12. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan Province, southwest China bordering Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an important infectious pathogen causing serious human diarrhea. We analyzed 568 V. cholerae strains isolated from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan province, southwest China bordering Myanmar. Polymerase chain reactions for detecting virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility tests and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. The results showed all the strains were El Tor biotype from 1986. The ctxB subunit sequence analysis for all strains have shown that cholera between 1986 and 1995 was associated with mixed infections with El Tor and El Tor variants, while infections after 1996 were all caused by El Tor variant strains. All of the strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides and quinolone antibiotics while resistant to β-lactamase and carbapenem antibiotics increased gradually. 568 V. cholerae were divided into 218 PFGE-NotI patterns, and the isolates before 2001 and after 2011 were separated into two groups according to PFGE results. The strains isolated before 2001 were mainly referred to native cholera in Yunnan, and after 2011 were primarily referred to as imported strains from Myanmar, which showed the variation of V. cholerae in this area. The molecular characteristics of V. cholerae indicated regularity in bacterial variation and evolution in Yunnan province.

  13. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Shou, Tao; Yang, Kun-xian; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Jin-ping; Zuo, Rong-xia; Zheng, Yong-qing; Yan, Xin-ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578) and control subjects (n=620) with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD]) in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females. Conclusion HT was not an independent risk factor for but was associated with PTC. TRAb is a risk factor for PTC in individuals living in the Yunnan plateau, but not for those in the plains region. PMID:27418831

  14. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zai-quan; HUANG Xing-qi; YING Fu-you; LI Ding-qing; YU Teng-qiong; FU Jian; YAN Hui-jun; ZHONG Qiao-fang; ZHANG Dun-yu; LI Wei-jiao

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide.Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice.Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice.However,many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years.Therefore,the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preservation and utilization.Our investigations showed that the number of natural wild rice populations declined sharply in Yunnan Province during the past few years due to various reasons.Fortunately,one population of Oryza rufipogon,three of O.officinalis and ten of O.granulata have been newly found in different ecological sites,which were confirmed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker analysis in this study.ISSR analysis and investigation of some important traits of nutritional values indicated that the genetic diversity of the currently existing wild rice resources in Yunnan is still rich.The demonstration of genetic diversity of wild rice by a combined use of geographical distribution,morphological traits,nutrition contents and ISSR markers would be helpful for the conservation and exploration of these important wild rice resources.

  15. Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-jian LIU; Fu-ming GONG; Xiao-ran LI; Hai-yan LI; Zhong-hua ZHANG; Yue FENG; Hiroko NAGANO

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food,douchi,from Yunnan,China.The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods.Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan,and those strains were divided into twelve groups by their morphological and biochemical characteristics.Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and analysis,56 representative strains were identified as belonging to 6 genera and 14 species:Lactobacillus (4 spp.),Weissella (3 spp.),Pediococcus (2 spp.),Staphylococcus (2 spp.),Enterococcus (1 sp.),and Bacillus (2 spp.).The results show that douchi contains a large natural population of LAB of diverse composition from which some strains could be selected as starters for functional fermented foods.This is the first study on the original douchi from Yunnan,and the results suggest that it may be a useful source for the isolation of LAB.This study has also laid a foundation for further research on developing functional douchi products.

  16. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

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    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  17. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

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    Shi-Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE, species-area relationship (SAR, water-energy dynamics (WED, Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP, with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  18. The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Youping; ZHANG Jie; SONG Linhua; BAO Haosheng

    2004-01-01

    Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County,Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms.These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ("algal shape-controlling role") of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10-3m) and minor-scale (10-3-10-1m) erosional forms. The algal shape-controlling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms,while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the "promoting role" of algae in the formation of karst forms,which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms.

  19. New Record of Palaeoscolecids from the Early Cambrian of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shixue; LI Yong; LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; YOU Ting; PANG Jiyuan; LIU Qi; Michael STEINER

    2008-01-01

    A new palaeoscolecid, Guanduscolex minor Hu, Luo et Fu gen. et sp. nov., with preserved soft parts of introvert and intestines comes from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan fauna of Yunnan,South China. Microstructural details of the cuticle revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)show that each annulation bears three rows of plates and each plate bears 9-10 marginal and 4-5 central nodes. This discovery sheds new light on the relationships and evolutionary pathway of the palaeoscolecids and other early priapulids.

  20. SLC Analysis on Earthquake Activity in the Regions of Sichuan and Yunnan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Zhou Huilan; Ma Yanlu

    2000-01-01

    Using the method of Single-link Cluster (SLC), analyzing the pattern of time sliding of SLCparameters, the earthquake activity in the western Sichuan-Yunnan of China is studiedcombining with the regional earthquake catalogue since 1970 and the tectonic background.Comparing with the high level of earthquake activity in 1970's and the low in 1980's, theearthquake activity is in general at the middle level in 1990's. This paper suggests that SLCmethod, which considers the temporal and spatial relationship among earthquake events,could be adopted to analyze the trend of regional earthquake activity, it is very useful forstudying seismic activity.

  1. An investigation of the mathematical elements of the Dai culture south - west Yunnan province, China

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    Zhou Chang - jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cultura matemática de la etnia Dai es una parte impor tante de la cultura Dai. Los elementos matemáticos están presentes en su vida diaria. A través de un proyecto de investigación en la Etn i a Dai de Yunnan al suroccidente de China, se recolectó información de primera mano, que puede ser usada como recursos para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de las matemáticas por estudiantes de primaria y secundaria en esta población minoritaria.

  2. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

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    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of the β-globin gene in various geographic populations of Yunnan in southwestern China.

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    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of β-globin gene mutations in different ethnic groups in Yunnan province.From 2004 to 2014, 1,441 subjects with hemoglobin disorders, identified by PCR-reverse dot blot and DNA sequencing, were studied according to ethnicity and geographic origin. Haplotypes were examined among 41 unrelated thalassemia chromosomes.Eighteen β-thalassemia mutations and seven hemoglobin variants were identified for 1,616 alleles in 22 different ethnic groups from all 16 prefecture-level divisions of Yunnan. The prevalence of β-thalassemia was heterogeneous and regionally specific. CD 41-42 (-TCTT was the most prevalent mutation in the populations of northeastern Yunnan. CD 17 (A>T was the most common mutation in the populations of southeastern Yunnan, especially for the Zhuang minority, whereas Hb E (CD 26, G>A was the most prevalent mutation in populations of southwestern Yunnan, especially for the Dai minority. Among the seven types of haplotypes identified, CD 17 (A>T was mainly linked to haplotype VII (+ - - - - - + and IVS-II-654 (C>T was only linked to haplotype I (+ - - - - + +.Our data underline the heterogeneity of β-globin gene mutations in Yunnan. This distribution of β-globin mutations in the geographic regions and ethnic populations provided a detailed ethnic basis and evolutionary view of humans in southern China, which will be beneficial for genetic counseling and prevention strategies.

  4. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

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    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  5. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Calcite from the World-class Huize Pb-Zn Deposits, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-long; ZHOU Mei-fu; LI Xiao-biao; LI Wen-bo; JIN Zhong-guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ The world-class Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan province, China, is located in the center of the Sichuan-Yun-nan-Guizhou Pb-Zn polymetallic metallogenic province, has Pb+Zn reserves of more than 5 million tons at Pb+Zn grade of higher than 25% and contains abundant metals, such as Ag, Ge, Cd, and Ga.

  6. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  7. The world-class Jinding Zn-Pb deposit: ore formation in an evaporite dome, Lanping Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Song, Yu-Cai; Hou, Zeng-Qian

    2017-03-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb sediment-hosted deposit in western Yunnan, China, is the fourth largest Zn deposit in Asia. Based on field observations of the ore textures, breccias, and the sandstone host rocks, the ores formed in a dome that was created by the diapiric migration of evaporites in the Lanping Basin during Paleogene deformation and thrust loading. Most of the ore occurs in sandstones that are interpreted to be a former evaporite glacier containing a mélange of extruded diapiric material, including breccias, fluidized sand, and evaporites that mixed with sediment from a fluvial sandstone system. A pre-ore hydrocarbon and reduced sulfur reservoir formed in the evaporite glacier that became the chemical sink for Zn and Pb in a crustal-derived metalliferous fluid. In stark contrast to previous models, the Jinding deposit does not define a unique class of ore deposits; rather, it should be classified as MVT sub-type hosted in a diapiric environment. Given that Jinding is a world-class ore body, this new interpretation elevates the exploration potential for Zn-Pb deposit in other diapir regions in the world.

  8. The world-class Jinding Zn-Pb deposit: ore formation in an evaporite dome, Lanping Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Song, Yu-Cai; Hou, Zeng-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb sediment-hosted deposit in western Yunnan, China, is the fourth largest Zn deposit in Asia. Based on field observations of the ore textures, breccias, and the sandstone host rocks, the ores formed in a dome that was created by the diapiric migration of evaporites in the Lanping Basin during Paleogene deformation and thrust loading. Most of the ore occurs in sandstones that are interpreted to be a former evaporite glacier containing a mélange of extruded diapiric material, including breccias, fluidized sand, and evaporites that mixed with sediment from a fluvial sandstone system. A pre-ore hydrocarbon and reduced sulfur reservoir formed in the evaporite glacier that became the chemical sink for Zn and Pb in a crustal-derived metalliferous fluid. In stark contrast to previous models, the Jinding deposit does not define a unique class of ore deposits; rather, it should be classified as MVT sub-type hosted in a diapiric environment. Given that Jinding is a world-class ore body, this new interpretation elevates the exploration potential for Zn-Pb deposit in other diapir regions in the world.

  9. Strategic studies on the biodiversity sustainability in Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ying-shan; Zhang Zhi-yi; Pu Li-na

    2007-01-01

    With an area of 394,000 km2 (4.1% of China's total area) and specific diversified geographical environments, Yunnan houses over 18,000 species of higher plants (51.6% of China's total), 1,836 vertebrate species (54.8% of China's total) and multitudinous species of rare, endemic and epibiotic wildlife, ranking first in species richness value and endemicity rate of China's biodiversity, thus becoming a rare gene bank of wildlife species with the most concentrated distribution of important wildlife taxa and a key terrestrial biodiversity region of global significance. Despite its evident abundance and endemism, however, the biodiversity is faced with threats of ecological fragility and human disturbances in socioeconomic development resulting in attenuation of biodiversity,degradation of ecosystems and serious loss of species, thus, it needs to be carefully studied for its sustainability. Based on the analyses of the geographical diversity, the macro material bases of Yunnan's biodiversity were reviewed and six characteristics of the provincial biodiversity were described in the ecosystems, forest types, species compositions, endemic species, genetic resources, etc. By appraising the present status of the provincial biodiversity conservation, the facts that the biodiversity coexisted with fragility were revealed so that eight key disadvantageous factors in the provincial ecological fragility causing serious biodiversity loss were summarized and described in this paper. In order to satisfy the two-fold needs of biodiversity sustainability and socioeconomic development, eight strategies for the sustainable development were intensively elaborated by borrowing certain theories in modem conservation biology, recycling economics and some successful innovations, and by giving comprehensive consideration to the ecological fragility mechanism, nature reserve construction, environmental protection and the exploitability of resources for biodiversity sustainability and

  10. Musa chunii Hakkinen, a new species (Musaceae) from Yunnan,China and taxonomic identity of Musa rubra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku H(A)KKINEN

    2009-01-01

    The center of diversity of the genus Musa (Musaceae) is in Southeast Asia, a region not studied in detail and where new species and varieties continue to be reported. A new wild banana species, M. chunii Hakki-nen from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated based on observed morphological characteristics in the field. This extremely rare new species was only found in Tongbiguan Nature Reserve, Dehong District, West Yunnan. A key to M. chunii and related taxa is provided. In addition, critical notes regarding M. rubra Kurz identity are given.

  11. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  12. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs.

  13. Long Term Atmospheric and Erosional Pollution As Recorded in Lake Sediments from Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.; Bain, D.; Chiou-Peng, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities including agriculture, metallurgy (e.g. mining, processing, smelting), and deforestation have altered cycles of erosion and sedimentation in lake environments for thousands of years. In the Yunnan province of southwestern China, where written records are incomplete, it is unclear when, where, and how much disturbance occurred. Lake sediments offer a means to investigate a wide variety of human activities. Here, we present a lake sediment record from Erhai (25°43'N, 100°12'E) based on trace metal concentrations that reveals substantial atmospheric and erosional pollution to the lake environment over the last 4,000 years. Sediments indicate the initiation of copper-based metallurgy at 3,600 years BP, the existence of which has been debated amongst archaeologists. Beginning 2,000 years BP, sedimentation rates increase and concentrations of metals such as aluminum, titanium, lead, and zinc increase. This is likely linked to increased sediment flux to the lake associated with the initiation of terraced agriculture according to historical documents. The most prominent feature of the record is an abrupt and intense increase in lead, silver, cadmium, and zinc beginning at 700 years BP. The peak of this increase occurs at 600 years BP and is consistent with historical records that the Mongols established the first government operated silver mine in Yunnan. Notably, the concentrations of lead during this time are an order of magnitude greater than modern day levels of pollution.

  14. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

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    Chunhua Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed.

  15. From House Structure to Gender Relations: Exploring the Na (Mosuo of Yunnan Province, China

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    Wu Yunchuan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Architectural features of houses are frequently loaded with meanings expressing fundamental values embedded in social relations. The symbolism of such features is a convenient starting point for exploring the organization of social life. Among the Na of Yunnan province house symbolism raises a range of questions relating to the character of gender relations and the universality of marriage. The qualitative cultural factors structuring gender interactions are analyzed by drawing on perspectives from role analysis. Finally the quantitative behavioral consequences of these interactions are documented. Key words: Na (Mosuo; China; matrilineality; gender relations; house symbolism. DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2780 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 19-40

  16. Extraction of Mineral Alteration Zone from ETM+ Data in Northwestern Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhifang; Zhang Yujun; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Alteration is regarded as significant information for mineral exploration. In this study, ETM+ remote sensing data are used for recognizing and extracting alteration zones in northwestern Yunnan (云南), China. The principal component analysis (PCA) of ETM+ bands 1, 4, 5, and 7 was employed for OH- alteration extractions. The PCA of ETM+ bands 1, 3, 4, and 5 was used for extracting Fe2+ (Fe3+) alterations. Interfering factors, such as vegetation, snow, and shadows, were masked. Alteration components were defined in the principal components (PCs) by the contributions of their diagnostic spectral bands. The zones of alteration identified from remote sensing were analyzed in detail along with geological surveys and field verification. The results show that the OH" alteration is a main indicator of K-feldspar, phyllic, and prophilized alterations. These alterations are closely related to porphyry copper deposits. The Fe2+ (Fe3+) alteration indicates pyritization, which is mainly related to hydrothermal or skarn type polymetallic deposits.

  17. Eocrinoid echinoderms from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Fauna in Wuding, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShiXue; LUO HuiLin; HOU ShuGuang; Bernd-Dietrich ERDTMANN

    2007-01-01

    This is a brief report of a new occurrence of eocrinoids from the Early Cambrian Wulongqing Formation in Yunnan, China. The eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna are among the earliest known eocrinoids. Different from many other Early and Middle Cambrian eocrinoids, the Guanshan eocrinoids are characterized by the absence of sutural pores and epispires, the long and spiral brachioles, the extremely long stalk, and the ratio of the length of the stalk versus that of the calyx. The discovery of the eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna not only provides new information to the investigation of the early evolution of this animal group, but also shed new light on the occurrence and migration of early eocrinoids.

  18. Statistical Interpretation of Natural and Technological Hazards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Alistair, ,, Prof.; Ni, Jinren, ,, Prof.

    2010-05-01

    University on the production of zonation maps of certain natural hazards in China. Data at city and county level have been interpreted using a hierarchical system of indices, which are then ranked according to severity. Zonation maps will be presented for debris flows, landslide and rockfall hazards, flood risk in mainland China, and for soil erosion processes in the Yellow River basin. The worst debris flow hazards are to be found in southwest China as the land begins to become mountainous. Just over 20% of the land area is at high or very high risk of landslide and rockfall hazards, especially Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Shannxi provinces. Flood risk is concentrated towards the eastern part of China, where the major rivers meet the sea. The paper will also consider data on technological disasters in China from 1900 to 2010, using data supplied by CRED. In terms of fatalities, industrial accidents appear to be dominated by explosion events. However, gas leaks have affected the largest number of people. Transport accidents are ranked in terms of fatalities as follows: water - road - rail - air. Fire is a major cause of loss of life, whereas chemical spills and poisoning seem to lead to fewer deaths.

  19. Yummy Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ People everywhere remember food that was made for them by loved ones,a friend once told. "Often the meal is simple,served without pretense.I discovered this caf6 one day because,as I walked by,it smelled like my grandmother's kitchen:an aroma of lime,garlic,and ginger tantalized my nose,"sald Mei Mei,my Chinese friend from southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  20. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  1. Permian oolitic carbonates from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, and their paleoclimatic and paleogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Jin, Xiaochi; Li, Fei; Shen, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Marine carbonate ooids are environment—sensitive and hence valuable for paleoclimatic and paleogeographic reconstructions. This paper describes Permian ooids from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, in order to offer a new means to refine the uncertain paleogeographic details of this Gondwana-derived block. Four major types of ooids (micritic ooids, compound ooids, leached ooids and half-moon ooids) are documented from the Hewanjie Formation in the northern and the Shazipo Formation in the southern Baoshan Block. These ooids are dated via biostratigraphic analysis to be Wordian-early Wuchiapingian and signify an ameliorated shallow-marine temperature for the Guadalupian strata of the Baoshan Block. Results of this study, coupled with literature data, reveal diachronous debut of Permian ooids among the Gondwana-derived blocks: mostly Sakmarian in Central Taurides of Turkey, Central Iran, Central Pamir and Karakorum Block versus Wordian-Capitanian in Baoshan Block, Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang. In contrast, Asselian-Sakmarian strata of Baoshan Block as well as Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang are characterized by glaciomarine diamictites. These observations suggest that the Baoshan Block was probably situated at a considerably higher paleolatitude under distinct influence of Gondwana glaciation during the Asselian-Sakmarian than those blocks yielding Sakmarian ooids. Moreover, marine ooids are virtually absent nearby the equator within the Permian Tethys, similar to the modern situation. The Baoshan Block is accordingly interpreted to drift to warm-water southern mid-latitudes during the Wordian-Capitanian and remain to the south of Central Iran, Karakorum Block and South China, which were equatorially located in the Capitanian.

  2. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-01-01

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking “Golden triangle” and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong. PMID:27657722

  3. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ganlin Huang; Saleem Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social developme...

  4. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  5. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  6. Genetic analysis of 24 Y-STR loci in the Miao ethnic minority from Yunnan Province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Gu, Tao; Yao, Jinyong; Yang, Canming; Du, Lei; Pang, Jing Bo; Rao, Min; Nie, Aiting; Hu, Liping; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-02-14

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 252 unrelated Miao male individuals from Pingbian county, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, southwestern China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.2683 (DYS391) to 0.9312 (DYS527a/b). According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 214 different haplotypes were obtained, 186 of which were unique. The overall haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated to be 0.9983 and 0.8492, respectively. In addition, three different triplications were observed at the DYS527a/b marker, and 1 intermediate allele and six single off-ladder alleles were observed at four markers. We analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Yunnan Miao ethnic minority and 18 other ethnic groups. The results obtained using pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that Yunnan Miao had a closer genetic relationship with Yunnan Han and Hunan Miao individuals. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationship between Miao individuals and other groups.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of 24 Y-STR loci in Hani ethnic minority from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liping; Gu, Tao; Fan, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaokun; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Nie, Aiting; Du, Lei; Zhang, Xiufeng; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-01-27

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 250 unrelated Hani male individuals from Lvchun county, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Hani group ranged from 0.2683 (DYS437) to 0.8837 (DYS447). According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 204 different haplotypes were obtained, 174 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Hani group were 0.9977 and 0.8160 at 24 STR loci, respectively. Six single non-fraction off-ladder alleles were observed at DYS447 in 103 samples, in addition to the alleles 19 to 28 included in the allelic ladder, alleles 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 were also observed at DYS447. One intermediate allele 20.2 was observed in one individual at DYS527a/b. We analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between Yunnan Hani group and other 17 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that Yunnan Hani group had the closer genetic relationships with Yunnan Han group. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Hani and other groups.

  8. The Distribution of DEN Infected People in Dushan and Xingyi Area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu; Li Zuo; Yongbing Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DEN, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) are mosquito borne and have caused 100 million cases of dengue fever each year in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. However, in the Southwest area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China, the previous work demonstrated that different geographic strains of Aedes albopictus were susceptible to dengue virus. In this study, we collected 456 sera samples from patients with fever and 994 sera samples from healthy population in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. All sera samples were tested for dengue IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients' sera samples were tested for dengue IgM and DEN antigen was checked in the sera of 6 from 456 samples with which C6/36 cell in culated by IFA. The results indicate that these patients with fever were infected with DEN-2 and suggest that DEN infection had existed in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

  9. Two Zosterophyll Plants from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovian)Xitun Formation of Northeastern Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinzhuang

    2009-01-01

    Two zosterophyll plants are described from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovianl Xitun Formation of Qujing,Yunnan,China.Xitunia spinitheca gen.et sp.nov.has stalked sporangia laterally attached on the axis in a helical arrangement.Sporangia are dorsoventrally flattened and composed of two unequal valves;the adaxial valve is round in face view,while the abaxial valve is larger than the former,triangular or wedge-shaped,and radially bears long spiny appendages along the distal margin.Xitunia shows new variation of sporangial morphology within the zosterophylls.Zosterophyllum minorstachynm sp.nov.has K-shaped branchings at the basal parts and small-sized terminal spikes,which consist of round to elliptical sporangia arranged helically.This paper provides new data on the diversity of plant types during Lochkovian when rare vascular plants were reported.As for various species of Zosterophyllum in South China,their apparent evolutionary trend of features from the Late Silurian to Early Devonian (Emsian) is discussed.

  10. Temporal changes in the characteristics of algae in Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixia SHEN,Chunyan TIAN,Zhidan LIU,Yuanhui ZHANG,Baoming LI,Haifeng LU,Na DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have become a worldwide environmental concern due to water eutrophication. Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China is suffering from severe eutrophication and is listed in the Three Important Lakes Restoration Act of China. Hydrothermal liquefaction allows a promising and direct conversion of algal biomass into biocrude oil. In this study, algal samples were collected from Dianchi Lake after a separation procedure including dissolved air flotation with polyaluminum chloride and centrifugation during four months, April, June, August and October. The algal biochemical components varied over the period; lipids from 0.7% to 2.1% ash-free dry weight (afdw, protein from 20.9% to 33.4% afdw and ash from 36.6% to 45.2% dry weight. The algae in June had the highest lipid and protein concentrations, leading to a maximum biocrude oil yield of 24.3% afdw. Biodiversity analysis using pyrosequencing revealed different distributions of microbial communities, specifically Microcystis in April (89.0%, June (63.7% and August (84.0%, and Synechococcus in April (2.2%, June (12.0% and August (1.0%. This study demonstrated remarkable temporal changes in the biochemical composition and biodiversity of algae harvested from Dianchi Lake and changes in biocrude oil production potential.

  11. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  12. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  13. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  14. On Geodynamic Evolution of Simao Region (Southwestern Yunnan, China) during Late Paleozoic and Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over the last years, the Simao region, southwestern Yunnan, China, turned out to be a very promising target to elucidate plate-tectonic processes around the Permian-Triassic boundary within the Tethyan domain of Asia. New data from this area reveal that Upper Paleozoic compressional deformations occurred along the Lancangjiang and in areas to the east. Along Lancangjiang, an angular unconformity is exposed, which separates quartz-phyllites-formed during a Carboniferous tectono-metamorphic event-from Triassic red beds to roofing rhyolites. The acidic volcanics were often said to be remnants of a volcanic arc that was active during the Triassic subduction and closure of an oceanic realm along the Lancangjiang zone. According to our new data, however, these volcanics indicate most probably an Upper Triassic stage of rifting. In the Yunxian anticline (NW of Simao), an angular unconformity of intra-Permian age is exposed where Carboniferous to lower Middle Permian strata, which were deposited in a rather deep basin, are unconformably overlain by a shallow marine sequence of upper Middle to Upper Permian sediments. The angular unconformity is of the same age as the syn-orogenous sediments filst described and dated from the Phetchabun region in Thailand and hence a convincing argument for a Late Variscan orogeny forming an extensive zone of mountain-building that can be traced through the central parts of mainland Southeast-Asia.``

  15. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  16. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  17. Platinum and Palladium in Coal Rock and Geochemical Anomaly in Eastern Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Yongqing; Zhang Shengyuan

    2008-01-01

    A series of geochemical anomalies of Pt and Pd were found in 1 358 recombined samples from a geochemical stream sediment survey in eastern Yunnan (云南) Province, China. Chemical optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and inductively coupled plasmas atomic emission spectrometry analyses of 22 elements and chemical compositions of 21 samples from coal-bearing strata from the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic show Pt and Pd concentrated to some extent in coal rocks, with Pd/Pt

  18. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology.

  19. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  20. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

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    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  1. Special Xenoliths in an Aegirine--Augite Syenite Porphyry in Liuhe, Yunnan, China: Discovery and Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; SONG Xiangfeng; LU Qiuxia; TAO Zhuan; LONG Xunrong; ZHAO Fufeng

    2009-01-01

    Three special types of xenoliths have recently been found in an aegirine-augite syenite porphyry in Liuhe, Yunnan, China. Petrographical, petrochemical, electron microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy studies indicate that pure calcite xenocrysts and quartz-bearing topaz pegmatite xenoliths result from the degassing of mantle fluids during their migration, and that black microcrystalline iron-rich silicate-melt xenoliths are the product of the extraction of mantle fluids accompanying degassing and are composed dominantly of quartz, chlorite, and iron-rich columnar and sheet silicate minerals with characteristic minerals, such as native iron, apatite, and zircon. According to the bulk-rock chemical and mineral compositions and crystallization states, the microcrystalline melt xenoliths are not the product of conventional magmatism, and especially the existence of native iron further proves that the xenoliths were mantle fluid materials under reduction or anoxic conditions. The study of the special xenoliths furnishes an important deep-process geochemical background of polymetalUc mineralization in different rocks and strata in the study area.

  2. Factors Influencing Runoff P Losses from Farmlands of the Dianchi Lake Watershed in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai-Ming; YU Yang; HONG Bo; CHEN Jian-Jun; ZHANG Yu-Juan

    2004-01-01

    Effects of factors such as slope,surface soil texture,fertilization and crop cover with different rainfall intensities on phosphorus (P) losses in farmland runoff of the Dianchi Lake Watershed in Yunnan Province of China were studied through a rainfall simulation test using a red soil,one of the most widely distributed soils of the study area. Results showed that the runoff concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and P losses differed with the slope,being highest when the slope was 18°. At two different rainfall intensities,the runoff TP and P losses had a similar decreasing trend as the surface soil texture became coarser,therefore applying the grit would decrease P in runoff from soils of farmland on slopes with heavier textures. With wheat as a crop cover the runoff TP concentrations and P losses were significantly lower than those of the bare soil. This showed that plant cover would greatly decrease P in runoff from the farmland of the study area. The TP concentration in runoff from the soil two days after fertilization doubled when compared with that from the non-fertilized soil,indicating that fertilization could mean a dramatic rise in P runoff if irrigation or heavy rainfall occurred immediately after application and that no fertilization before a rain and no irrigation immediately after fertilization would reduce runoff P loss from the farmland of the study area.

  3. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  4. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

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    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  5. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

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    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  6. Novel hepatitis B virus subgenotype in the southern Yunnan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Gao, Jian-mei; Zou, Yun-Lian; Dong, Hong; Yan, Xin-Min

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent in China. To identify the genotypes of HBV in the southern Yunnan Province of China, full-length HBV genomes were extracted from 1 Dai and 4 Hani HBV carriers and linked with the pMD T-18 vector. For each patient, 3-10 clones were sequenced directly and a consensus sequence was created. Genotypic and serotypic analysis revealed 4 HBV/B (2 B2 with adw2 and 2 new subgenotypes with ayw1) and 1 HBV/C (C1 with adrq+) genotypes. The divergences of the entire genome sequences of the new subgenotype were 0-0.9% and 2.99-6.48% between other known HBV/B. Divergences in other coding regions revealed that it was more similar to B3 and B4 in the precore/core gene (2.02 and 2.09%, respectively), and similar to B3 and B5 in the preS1/S2/S gene (2.24 and 2.78%, respectively). Phylogenetic trees using the precore/core and X genes both revealed a new clad separating from the major trunk of genotype B with a 99% bootstrap value. These results show that the 2 consensus isolates are a mosaic of B3-B5, which we designated to subgenotype B6. Considering the geographical distances, the relationship between B6 and other HBV/B subgenotypes (B3-B5) and HBV evolution needs to be further studied.

  7. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-02-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  8. The Full-length Genome Analysis of a Street Rabies Virus Strain Isolated in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Hai-lin Zhang; Xiao-yan Tao; Hao Li; Qing Tang; Xiu-yun Jiang; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of rabies has rapidly increased and expanded in Yunnan province in recent years.In order to further analyze and understand the etiological reasons for the rapid expansion of rabies in Yunnan,a strain of rabies virus CYN1009D in Yunnan was isolated,and the complete genomic sequencing was carried out,and the bioimfomative analysis on genes/encoded proteins and phylogeny with reference to sequences in GenBank was performed.The complete genome of CYN1009D was 11923 nt in length and belonged to genotype I.The genes encoding different structural proteins were all conserved in their lengths,in comparison to other strains in China.The amino acid sequence was conserved at different antigen sites of NP,but the variation was detected at the secondary phosphorylation site of position 375; variations were also detected in the phosphorylation sites at positions 63-63 and 162 of PP; the sites playing important roles in virus synthesis,budding and viral morphology in MP were conserved; two glycosylation sites were detected at Asn37 and Asn319in GP,the neutralizing antigen sites in GP were conserved; the initial amino acid of LP (ML) was different from that of most of the strains in China (MM); the variations in G-L region in the intergenic region were significant.The phylogenic tree showed that CYN1009D has a closer genetic relationship to the strains in Southeast Asia,indicating that prevention and control on rabies in borderland areas should be reinforced meanwhile efforts are made to control rabies in China.

  9. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  10. Association of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet with the Southwest Asian summer monsoon: A diagnostic analysis on heavy rain events in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Yunnan province, China is a typical area that is influenced by Southwest Asian summer monsoon (SASM) during boreal summer. Although the interannual variation of summer precipitation in Yunnan Province is closely related to that of the SASM, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) may have an important role in heavy rainfall events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. By using daily observations and the NACAR/NCEP data during 1960-2011, a diagnostic analysis is performed to investigate the association of the EASWJ with the SASM on heavy rain events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. The analysis shows an anomalous divergence circulation pattern at upper level (200 hPa) over Eurasian continent that corresponds well to the negative anomaly of EASWJ during heavy rain events in boreal summer in Yunnan Province. At the same time, a low-level jet stream with abundant water vapor originated from the Arabian Sea and Bengal gulf provides necessarily dynamic and water conditions for heavy rain mechanism. The study further shows that the weakening of the EASWJ during heavy rain events in Yunnan Province is associated with the decrease in the meridional temperature gradient in northern mid-latitude (30o-40o N).

  11. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

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    Jun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART eligibility. In China, flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas. In an attempt to address this issue, we conducted a study to validate the performance of Alere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer. Methods: Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province. Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer. Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference. Results: Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis. CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood. Compared to FACSCalibur, the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of − 47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement, [LOA]: −204-110 cells/μl for venous blood and −71.0 cells/μl (LOA: −295-153 cells/μl for finger-prick blood. For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl, the positive predictive value (PPV of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood, respectively. For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl, the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%, respectively. Conclusions: CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  12. Common and Privatized: Conditions for Wise Management of Matsutake Mushrooms in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

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    Feng Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hardin's (1968 paper on the "Tragedy of the Commons," property rights of common-pool resources have been a central concern for natural resource management scholars. Matsutake, a common-pool resource, is an economically important mushroom in several locations around the world. Driven by growing international demand over the last few decades, matsutake management is a relatively new practice both for local communities and government agencies. In Northwest Yunnan, China, one of the most productive areas for matsutake globally, numerous local practices and systems have emerged in the last two to three decades. In this study, we investigate the differences between management systems in eight communities and the factors associated with them. The methods used for field research included key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires. Three main management patterns were identified through use of statistical clustering based on indicators such as physical environment, resource characteristics, tenure arrangements, regulations and implementation, harvesting behavior, income, and market regulation. It was found that private access—the principal characteristic of which is the exclusive use of resources—results in more income at lower labor cost per household than either of the other open-access management patterns. Even though under the context of ongoing Second Forest Tenure Reform in China—in which collective forest privatization is the key task—application of private-access regimes is limited because of site conditions including physical, institutional, and market environments. Common-access management systems have advantages in terms of managing conflict and balancing equity needs. No matter the type of access right, the key issue for wise matsutake management is institutional. Locally rooted innovative strategies should be encouraged, and institutional capacity building should be carried out to support innovations in

  13. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  14. Evaluation for sustainable land use in mountain areas of Northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin; Wu, Jiansheng; Chang, Qing; Zhang, Yuan

    2007-10-01

    As an important component of sustainable development in mountain areas, evaluation for sustainable land use is always one of the hotpots of researches on sustainable development. Traditional evaluation for sustainable land use mainly focuses on the sustainability of land use model and biological production on temporal scale, and overlooks the effects of land use patterns on the sustainability, while landscape ecology can be a good help to realize the spatial analysis of sustainable land use. In this study, a synthetic evaluation indexes system for sustainable land use was constructed through the application of landscape metrics. Taking Yongsheng County of Yunnan Province, China as a case study, a series of quantitative evaluation were conducted in 1996, 1999 and 2001, to monitor the temporal dynamics of regional land use sustainability. Two indicators, contributing amount of indexes, and obstacle amount of indexes, were also set up to ascertain the significance of all the evaluation indexes to the evaluation results. The results showed that, in the study phases, the land use sustainability of the whole county had been low with a stable but great spatial difference, and great changes took place in regional land use system in 1999 with the deviation from the aim of sustainable land use. It also showed that, the most important indexes contributing for the land use sustainability in the study period, were the indexes of population density and land use degree, followed by the index of landscape diversity and cropping index. And the most important indexes counteracting the land use sustainability were the indexes of per unit area total production value of industry and agriculture, per unit area yield of cereal crops, landscape fragmentation, followed by the indexes of per unit area yield of economic crops and fertilizer consume per unit area.

  15. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  16. Human impacts on functional and taxonomic homogenization of plateau fish assemblages in Yunnan, China

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    Guohuan Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and the consequent extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. However, much of the research effort to date has focused on changes in taxonomic dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for species composition whether assessments of functional dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for the diversity of biological traits are much more scarce, despite revealing important complimentary information by accounting for changes in the diversity of biological traits. Here, we assess the temporal (1950s against 2000s changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of freshwater fish assemblages across lakes from the Yunnan Plateau in China. The Jaccard index to quantify the changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarity. We then partitioned dissimilarity to extract its turnover component and measured the changes in the contribution of turnover to dissimilarity. We found that functional and taxonomic homogenization occurred simultaneously. However, patterns between these two processes differed for some lakes. Taxonomic and functional homogenizations were stronger when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. The impact of extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species on homogenization was otherwise complex to disentangle with no significant effect of any of the studied environmental factors. In agreement with other studies, our study proved that change in taxonomic dissimilarity cannot be used to predict changes in functional dissimilarity and, as an indicator of ecosystem functioning, functional dissimilarity should be used together with taxonomic dissimilarity to attain a more holistic understanding of human impacts on natural ecosystems.

  17. Investment Guide to Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile I.Geographic situation and administrative area division Yunnan Province is located on the southwest boundary of the People's Republic of China, spanning approximately 394,000 square kilometers, which accounts for 4.1% of the total area of China.

  18. Mosaics of Change: Cross-Scale Forest Cover Dynamics and Drivers in Tibetan Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon

    In reaction to devastating floods on the Yangtze River in the summer of 1998, the Chinese Central Government introduced a logging ban as part of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) with the goal of dramatically increasing national forest cover. Since then, over 11 billion USD has been allocated to the program, but the NFPP's success at promoting reforestation is unclear as neither the extent of forest cover change, nor the potential factors influencing the spatial variability of change have been examined. This research employs a case study in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China, to evaluate the spatial variability of forest cover change under the NFPP and investigate drivers that have influenced recent patterns of change. I employ a mixed methods, cross-scale research framework that includes the analysis of areal trajectories and spatial variability of Landsat-5 imagery-derived forest cover change at three administrative levels before and after the NFPP's introduction; landscape ecology-based metrics to measure the shifting patterns of forest cover change at the patch level; and household interview data on village-level forest resource use patterns and processes in three neighboring villages. Prefecture- and county-level analyses suggest rather stable forest cover across the three-county study area since the introduction of the ban, though township-level measures of forest cover change show a degree of spatial variability as well as a temporal delay in policy implementation effectiveness. Village-level remote sensing analysis shows comparable amounts of forest cover change between study villages but disparate forest resource use patterns in terms of location and amount. Though all research villages continue to exploit local forests for firewood and timber relatively unfettered by policy restrictions, villagers with tourism-derived income are able to buy forest products collected in outside forests much more often; this redistributes local

  19. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkarlaouni, C.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Wen, Xue–Ze; Jin, Xue–Shen; Kilias, A.; Pan, Hua

    2009-04-01

    Strong seismicity in China and adjacent regions is distributed over specific zones that configure rigid lithospheric subplates often bounded by active faults. Sichuan and Yunnan provinces correspond to a so-called rhombic shaped subplate that experiences the strongest intraplate seismicity in the territory of China. The region exhibits a complicated tectonic regime that consists of various rupture zones and different faulting types with strike slip prevailing, consistent with the regional stress field and geological background. During the 20th century, 35 devastating earthquakes with magnitude Ms≥6.5 occurred nearby densely populated areas causing a majority of casualties and deaths. The fact that Sichuan and Yunnan provinces are densely populated and industrially developed urges the necessity for investigating the occurrence pattern of the region's stronger events through the stress evolutionary model and also identifying the structures that are apt to produce a potential strong seismic event in the future. The tectonic complexity reveals a real challenge for our investigation, since the interaction is sought among different faulting types. Stress transfer seems not to be restricted in a single however segmented fault but also expands over the adjacent faults or conjugate zones often bringing them toward rupture. The characteristic of the tectonic setting is that various long strike slip, normal and some thrust faults exist within the same area, interacting with each other. Such interaction of strong earthquakes has been proved by previous investigation concerning the Xianshuihe fault zone (Papadimitriou et al., 2004) and the stress evolution for the northeast Tibetan Plateau from 1920 till present for a viscoelastic model (Wan et al., 2007). A feature characterizing long fault zones is that they are found segmented and distinct parts of faults rupture each time until they complete a seismic cycle. Although fault surfaces are irregular and ruptures are more

  20. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, and Trichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of hyperlipidemia in moderate altitude areas of the Yunnan-Kweichow plateau in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bingjun; Luo, Tingguang; Huang, Yanfei; Shen, Tianhang; Ma, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hyperlipidemia among the populations living at moderate altitude on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau in Southwestern China. We randomly recruited 1415 people for this study. These subjects underwent a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire regarding their daily habits and diets. Furthermore, blood samples from the participants were collected for assessing the lipid profile. We found that 49.3% of participants (95% CI: 46.7-51.9%) suffered from hyperlipidemia. The prevalence in men was significantly higher than that in women (53.6% vs. 44.7%, pdine out often and consume more animal-based foods and alcohol. In addition, the hyperlipidemic men in our cohort consumed more salted food then their normolipidemic counterparts (pdining out, and BMI were found to be the main determinants of hyperlipidemia in women, whereas a prevalence of salted food was observed to be related to hyperlipidemia in men from the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau subpopulation under study (p<0.05). The average daily energy, and protein and fat intakes of the sampled subjects were also higher than the levels set by the Chinese Recommendation Nutrient Intakes (RNI), while hyperlipidemic subjects had an even higher average daily intake of total fat, cholesterol, and lower dietary fiber compared with the normolipidemic subjects in the study group (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals a higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased BMI and WHR values in men, as well as a slightly higher prevalence of low HDL-C and high LDL-C in women from Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau. The incidence of hyperlipidemia also increased with age, as did the prevalence of an abnormal TC, TG, LDL-C, and WHR in our study cohort. A high BMI, and less healthy living habits and dietary preferences thus play significant roles in the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  2. Growth and development of spring towers at Shiqiang, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the world, high artesian pressures in hydrothermal areas have led to the growth of tall spring towers that have their vents at their summits. The factors that control their development and formative precipitates are poorly understood because these springs, irrespective of location, are mostly inactive. Spring towers found at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China), which are up to 4 m high and 3 m in diameter, are formed largely of calcite and aragonite crystal bushes, euhedral calcite crystals and coated grains with alternating Fe-poor and Fe-rich zones, calcite rafts, and cements formed of various combinations of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, Mg-Si reticulate, needle fiber calcite, calcified and non-calcified microbes, diatoms, and insects. Collectively, the limestones that form the towers can be divided into (1) Group A that are friable, porous and form the cores of the towers and have δ18OSMOW values of + 15.7 to + 19.7‰ (average 17.8‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 5.1 to + 6.9‰ (average 5.9‰), and (2) Group B that are hard and well lithified and found largely around the vents and the tower sides, and have δ18OSMOW values of + 13.0 to + 22.0‰ (average 17.6‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 1.4 to + 3.6‰ (average 2.6‰). The precipitates and the isotopic values indicate that these were thermogene springs. Growth of the Shiqiang spring towers involved (1) Phase IA when precipitation of calcite and aragonite bushes formed the core of the tower and Phase IB when calcite, commonly Fe-rich, was precipitated locally, (2) Phase II that involved the precipitation of white cements, formed of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, and Mg-Si reticulate coatings in cavities amid the Phase I precipitates, and (3) Phase III, which formed probably after spring activity ceased, when needle-fiber calcite was precipitated and the mounds were invaded by microbes (some now calcified), diatoms, and insects. At various times during this complex history, pore waters mediated

  3. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang; Song Duan; Yan-Ling Ma; Ji-Bao Wang; Ying-Zhen Su; Hui Zhang; Chin-Yih Qu

    2015-01-01

    Background:CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility.In China,flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas.In an attempt to address this issue,we conducted a study to validate the performance ofAlere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer.Methods:Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province.Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer.Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference.Results:Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis.CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood.Compared to FACSCalibur,the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of-47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement,[LOA]:-204-110 cells/μl) for venous blood and-71.0 cells/μl (LOA:-295-153 cells/μ1) for finger-prick blood.For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl,the positive predictive value (PPV) of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood,respectively.For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl,the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%,respectively.Conclusions:CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  4. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  5. Vertical characteristics of the Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoshan CUI; Zheyuan YOU; Min YAO

    2008-01-01

    The Hani terrace paddyfield in Yunnan Province,China is categorized as a 'constructed wetland' under the Lamsar Convention classification.The Hani terrace paddyfield ranges from an altitude of 144 to 2000 m above sea level (ASL) in the southern slopes of the Ailao Mountains,angling down at a range of 15°to 75°.In this study,we investigated the ecosystem of the terrace paddyfields in the Mengpin and Quanfuzhuang administrative villages located at the center of the cultural heritage conservation district in the Hani terrace paddy-field.The Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem structure is "forest-village-terrace paddyfield-river" in the order of descending altitude.Soil and water samples were sequen-tially taken from forests,villages and the terrace paddy-fields to be able to study the vertical characteristics of Hani's terrace paddyfields.PO4-P and NH3-N in water were measured to test for water contamination.Seven soil nutrient factors were tested,including organic material (OM),char and nitrogen ratio (C/N),pH,total nitrogen (TN),total phosphorus (TP),available phosphorus (AP),and available potassium (AK).Soil quality was also eval-uated using the characteristics of the soil nutrient factors.Vertical changes in the landscape,wetland types,wetland plants,hydrology and soil nutrients were characterized.Results showed that:(1) Hani's terrace paddyfield can be divided into five types of wetlands; the rice varieties and cultivation patterns vary in each type of wetland.(2) Hani's terrace paddyfield has a great capacity for water conservation and a strong ability to purify contaminants.The impoundage of Hani's terrace paddyfield is about 5050 m3/hm2.Contaminants in the terrace paddyfield soils decrease exponentially with the decline in altitude.(3) Comparison of soil quality in five different land use types indicates decreasing soil quality from forest to ter-race land to terrace paddyfield to water source.Except for headwater soil,single factors such as OM,TN and TP

  6. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  7. Method for Evaluating the Degrees of Land Use Sustainability of Mountainous County and its Application in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; TAO Wenxing; XU Jingjing; ZHAO Qiaogui

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of sustainable land use is the key issue in the field of studying the sustainable land utilization. In general analysis, the sustainable land use is evaluated respectively from its ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability in China and other countries in recent years. Although this evaluation is an important work, it seems insufficient and hard to comprehensively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability. Thus, to make up this deficiency, this paper brings forward the evaluation indexes, which make it possible to quantitatively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability, namely, the concept of "degrees of overall land use sustainability" (Dos), and research and development of the method of measurement and calculation in Dos. Taking the evaluation of the degree of land use sustainability in county regions of Yunnan Province as the actual example for analysis, results are basically as follows: 1) The degree of land use sustainability (Dos) is the ration index to organically and systematically integrate the degree of ecological friendliness (DEF), the degree of economic viability (DEV) and the degree of social acceptability (DSA), able to comprehensively reflect the whole sustainability degree of regional land use. 2) Based on the value of Dos, the grading system and standard for the sustainability of land use may be established and totally divided into five grades, namely, the high-degree sustainability, middle-degree sustainability, low-degree sustainabflity, conditional sustainability and non-sustainability. Meanwhile, the standard for distinguishing sustainability grades has also been confirmed so as to determine the nature of sustainability degrees in different grades. This makes the possibility for the combination of nature determination with ration in research result and provides with the scientific guideline and decision-making gist for better implementation of sustainable land use strategy.3

  8. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  9. Taxonomic updates and descriptions of four new Lophopini planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Lophopidae from Yunnan province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic updates and descriptions of four new species from Yunnan, China are provided: three new species in the genus Pitambara Distant, 1906: P. triremiprocta Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov., P. impudica Wang & Bourgoin, sp. nov., P. tricorne Wang & Wang, sp. nov., and one new species in the genus Serida Walker, 1857: Serida parenthesisflexuosa Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov. A new identification key to Pitambara species is provided, as well as to the species of the genus Lacusa Stål, 1862. Lacusa yunnanensis Chou & Huang, 1985 stat. rev. is not considered as a synonym of the species L. fuscofasciata (Stål, 1854 anymore and Lacusa orientalis (Liang, 2000 is transferred to the genus Acothrura Melichar, 1915 as Acothrura orientalis (Liang, 2000 comb. nov.

  10. Genetic analysis of 20 autosomal STR loci in the Miao ethnic group from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Hu, Liping; Du, Lei; Nie, Aiting; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Xiran, Zeng; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-02-06

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex(®) 21 kit were evaluated from 748 unrelated healthy individuals of the Miao ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province in southwestern China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Miao population and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 991 26 and 0.999 999 975, respectively. The results suggested that the 20 STR loci were highly polymorphic, which makes them suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing.

  11. Planar Velocity Distribution of Viscous Debris Flow at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China: A Field Measurement Using Two Radar Velocimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xudong; WANG Guangqian; KANG Zhicheng; FEI Xiangjun

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow were analyzed using the measured data at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China. The velocity data were measured through using two radar velocimeters. The cross-sectional mean velocities were calculated and used to examine Kang et al's (2004) relationship, which was established for converting the flow velocity at river centerline measured by a radar velocimeter into the mean velocity based on the stop-watch method. The velocity coefficient, K, defined by the ratio of the mean velocity to the maximum velocity, ranges from 0.2 to 0.6. Kang et al's (2004) relationship was found being inapplicable to flows with K smaller than 0.43. This paper contributes to show the complexity of the planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flows and the applicability of Kang et al's relationship.

  12. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei

    2007-01-01

    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  13. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  14. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  15. Isotopic dating of the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon in Central Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty black shale samples, which are free from the influence of weathering, were collected from the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon, central Yunnan Province, yielding a Pb-Pb isochron age of 534±60 Ma. Although this age is younger than both the Rb-Sr isochron age and 40Ar-39Ar age, it should represent the lower isotopic age limit of the Chengjiang Fauna.

  16. An Evaluation of the Introduction of Modified Cropping Practices in Yunnan Province, China, Using Surveys of Farmers' Households

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Subedi; T J Hocking; M A Fullen; A R McCrea; E Milne; D J Mitchell; WU go-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with land degradation are serious in China. Sloping land in South China has experienced a decline in crop productivity by 30-60% due to soil erosion and it has been predicted that most topsoil will be lost within the next 100 years if current erosion rates continue. Considering these situations, an agro-environmental research and development project (Sustainable Highland Agriculture in South-East Asia - SHASEA) was conducted in a catchment in Yunnan Province, China, to address the objectives of increasing crop productivity in sustainable and environmentally-friendly ways. A range of cropping practices was developed and implemented in a rural upland catchment (Wang Jia). At the end of the project, farmers were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. All farmers from Wang Jia Catchment, who were involved in project implementation, were surveyed. A sample of farmers working in an adjacent catchment (not associated with the project) was surveyed for comparative purposes. Farmers had different perceptions of the cropping practices employed. Contour cultivation was preferred and likely to be adopted. Others practices such as straw mulching and intercropping were seen as less appropriate and unlikely to be adopted. Polythene mulch was recognized as effective, but likely to be adopted only if financial returns were favourable. The availability of relevant information had an important impact on the extent of technology testing by farmers and their willingness to adopt the practices in the future.

  17. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  18. Predictors for Abundance of Host Flea and Floor Flea in Households of Villages with Endemic Commensal Rodent Plague, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Xiang Yin; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Xing-Qi Dong; Chun-Hong Du; You-Hong Zhong

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From 1990 to 2006, fifty-five natural villages experienced at least one plague epidemic in Lianghe County, Yunnan Province, China. This study is aimed to document flea abundance and identify predictors in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague in Lianghe County. METHODS: Trappings were used to collect fleas and interviews were conducted to gather demography, environmental factors, and other relevant information. Multivariate hurdle negative binomial model was ...

  19. Micro-textures and in situ sulfur isotopic analysis of spheroidal and zonal sulfides in the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China: Implications for biogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunji; Chi, Guoxiang; Fayek, Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    The Jinding deposit in Yunnan, southwest China, is the largest sandstone- and conglomerate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the world. In this paper, we report various micro-textures of spheroidal and zonal sulfides, such as pellet-shaped and colloform aggregates of pyrite and sphalerite, from the deposit and interpret them to be possibly related to micro-colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria, probably supporting an in situ BSR hypothesis. Micro-scale sulfur isotope analysis in different parts of the spheroidal and zonal sulfide aggregates, using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), revealed δ34S (VCDT) values as low as -48.4‰ for sulfides formed in the early-main stage disseminated ores in the western part of the deposit, possibly suggesting maximum sulfur isotopic fractionation through BSR. Relatively elevated δ34S (VCDT) values (-7.7‰ to -34.8‰, mainly from -10‰ to -20‰) for the late-stage, cavity-filling ores in the eastern part of the deposit, are interpreted to be possibly related to elevated temperatures close to the hydrothermal conduit and elevated δ34S values of the remaining sulfates resulting from the preceding BSR processes. The apparent discrepancy between the low temperatures required for BSR and the high temperatures indicated by fluid inclusions (>120 °C) may be reconciled through invoking episodic influx of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids into a shallow, relatively cool environment. It is proposed that the host rocks of the Jinding deposit have not been buried to great depths (⩽1 km), which, combined with the availability of hydrocarbons in the Jinding dome (a paleo-oil and gas reservoir), provides an ideal environment for BSR. Episodic influx of metal-carrying hydrothermal fluids temporarily and locally suppressed BSR and promoted thermo-chemical sulfate reduction (TSR), resulting in deposit- and micro-scale variations of δ34S.

  20. Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province,south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; MA Qinyan; DU Fan; YANG Yuming

    2007-01-01

    Altitudinal gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients,which vary continuously in different fashions.It is important to study the mountain floristic patterns along altitudinal gradients which reveal the regular pattern of the flora along the environmental gradients,the changing trend of biodiversity patterns along the altitudinal gradient,and relevance of biological fitness.To explore the compositional characteristics and ecological significance of floristic patterns along altitudinal gradient in China National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain in the southeast of Yunnan Province,field investigations have been made to the flora along the two routes of the southwest slope and the northeast slope of the said reserve,including a vertical vegetation transect.Meanwhile,further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain,which has been accounted for in the literature,as Flora Yunnan,The Seed Plant in Yunnan,and so on.The structural characteristics of the flora and the altitudinal distribution pattern of its floristic components were analyzed.By applying systematic cluster analysis,the altitudinal position of the dividing line of floristic changes along altitudinal gradient was detected,and the effects of the montane climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition were studied.Conclusions were put forward.This paper can be summarized as follows:(1) The obvious boundary that differentiates tropical floristic elements is located at the altitude of approximately 1,500 m;it is reasonable to stipulate the boundary line between tropical rain forests and the evergreen broad-leaved forests.(2) The vertical vegetation spectrum made by cluster analysis shows that humid rain forests are below 700 m a.s.1,montane rain forests are between 700 and 1,500 m,monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests are between 1,300 and 1,800 m,and montane mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests are above 1,800 m a.s.1.Nonrepresentative montane mossy dwarf forests (above

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of LUCC from 2001 to 2010 in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Chen, X.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    LUCC (Land use and land cover change) is increasingly regarded as an important component of global environmental change and sustainable development. In this study, regional land cover type maps were drawn using the MODIS products from 2001 and 2010 based on the modified classification scheme embodied by the characteristics of land cover in Yunnan. Dynamic change in each type of land cover was investigated by classification statistics, dynamic transfer matrices, and landscape pattern metrics. In addition, the driving factors of LUCC were discussed. The results showed that the land cover types of the Yunnan province, especially woodland (WL), cropland (CL) and grassland (GL), had experienced noticeable changes with an area of about 30% of land during the study period. And there was an obvious vertical distribution pattern for land cover types. The average altitude of different land cover types from the highest to the lowest were unused land (UUT), WL, GL, water (WT), urban and built-up areas (UB) and CL. The average slope for most of the land-cover types did not vary over the past 10 years. Stabilization and homogenization will be the direction of land cover in the future according to landscape metrics analysis. The regional differences of land use structure in the area are strongly influenced by such factors as the geographical position, level of economic development and land use policy. The new policy of land use, Construction of Mountainous Town, would be provided to achieve the economical and intensive utilization of land resources during the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in Yunnan.

  2. Relationship between ethnic landscape and environment in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Each nationality has formed unique ethnic culture in the long history. Ethnic culture is spatially reflected by ethnic distribution. The distribution of nationalities is influenced by ethnic history, culture, society and religion, also affected by regional physical setting. This paper analyzes the relationship between ethnic distribution pattern and natural setting with contrast analytical method. The digital elevation model (DEM) is established on basis of contour map on a scale of 1:250,000 in the Nujiang River basin, Yunnan Province by ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Based on DEM, the spatial analysis and statistical function of GIS, the landscape patterns of population distribution of the selected minorities is described, and 4 sub-regions are divided in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province while the features and disparity of landscape pattern and its forming mechanism are discussed, along with historical and archaeological data. The conclusions are as follow: (1) The ethnic distribution is mosaic in the matrix of other racial distribution, and have a distinct spatial correlation. (2) For the difference in cultivation between different nationalities, certain nationality lived in the area suitable for production mode of its own and coincident with appropriate geographical setting. (3) The spatial distribution of settlement spots of the minorities is controlled by the convenience of water supply. The landscape pattern of ethnic distribution is closely relative to natural environment.

  3. The impact of precipitation regimes on forest fires in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Niu, Shukui; Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982-1988 and 1989-2008) in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I-III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change.

  4. The Impact of Precipitation Regimes on Forest Fires in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982–1988 and 1989–2008 in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I–III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change.

  5. Seismic anisotropy of the crust in Yunnan,China: Polarizations of fast shear-waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yu-tao; GAO Yuan; WU Jing; LUO Yan; SU You-jin

    2006-01-01

    Using seismic data recorded by Yunnan Telemetry Seismic Network from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003,the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves are obtained at l0 digital seismic stations by SAM technique, a systematic analysis method on shear-wave splitting, in this study. The results show that dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most stations are mainly at nearly N-S or NNW direction in Yunnan.The dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at stations located on the active faults are consistent with the strike of active faults, directions of regional principal compressive strains measured from GPS data, and basically consistent with regional principal compressive stress. Only a few of stations show complicated polarization pattern of fast shear-waves, or are not consistent with the strike of active faults and the directions of principal GPS compressive strains, which are always located at junction of several faults. The result reflects complicated fault distribution and stress field. The dominant polarization direction of fast shear-wave indicates the direction of the in-situ maximum principal compressive stress is controlled by multiple tectonic aspects such as the regional stress field and faults.

  6. Variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on the 2001 Shidian earthquakes in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 梁维; 丁香; 薛艳; 蔡明军; 刘希强; 苏有锦; 彭立国

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 three earthquakes occurred in Shidian in Yunnan Province, which were the MS=5.2 on April 10, the MS=5.9 on April 12 and the MS=5.3 on June 8. Based on the data from the station Baoshan of Yunnan Telemetry Digital Seismograph Network, the variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on these series of strong earthquakes has been studied by using the systematic analysis method (SAM) of shear-wave splitting. The result shows the time delays of shear-wave splitting basically increase with earthquake activity intensifying. However the time delays abruptly decrease immediately before strong aftershocks. It accords with the stress relaxation before earthquakes, which was found recently in study on shear-wave splitting. The result suggests it is significant for reducing the harm degree of earthquakes to develop the stress-forecasting on earthquake in strong active tectonic zones and economic developed regions or big cities under the danger of strong earthquakes.

  7. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  8. Identification and Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Primeval Forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces and Northeast Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were screened from 683 soil samples collected from tropical and semitropical primeval forests in Yunnan and Hainan provinces of China. Several shapes of crystals, including bipyramidal, square,ovoid, spherical, and amorphous, were observed in the B. thuringiensis isolates. Twenty-six pairs of primers were used to identify 31 holotype cry genes at primary rank of the B. thuringiensis cry gene nomenclature system. The cry gene-types of 92 B. thuringiensis isolates and 33 B. thuringiensis isolates screened from Northeast region of China were identified by PCR-RFLP and SDS-PAGE methods. Fifty-eight isolates harbored cryl genes, 32 isolates cry2 genes, 12 isolates cry8 genes, 3 isolates cry9 genes, 12 isolates cry11 genes, and 13 isolates cry30 genes. Of the tested isolates, 42 produced no reaction product with 26 pairs of primers and also exhibited no toxicity against 8 insect species tested. The isolate Z2-34 harbored a novel cry30 gene, exhibited insecticidal activity against Aedes albopictus of Dipterans. The accession number of the novel genes in this study is AY916046. Isolation and identification of B. thuringiensis and cry gene are important for investigating the diversity of B. thuringiensis resources and cloning new cry gene.

  9. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  10. A model to determine the lake nutrient standards for drinking water sources in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Ecoregion, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danfeng Ji; Beidou Xi; Jing Su; Shouliang Huo; Li He; Hongliang Liu; Queping Yang

    2013-01-01

    Lake eutrophication (LE) has become an increasingly severe environmental problem recently.However,there has been no nutrient standard established for LE control in many developing countries such as China.This study proposes a structural equation model to assist in the establishment of a lake nutrient standard for drinking water sources in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Ecoregion (Yungui Ecoregion),China.The modeling results indicate that the most predictive indicator for designated use-attainment is total phosphorus (TP) (total effect =-0.43),and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) is recommended as the second important indicator (total effect =-0.41).The model is further used for estimating the probability of use-attainment associated with lake water as a drinking water source and various levels of candidate criteria (based on the reference conditions and the current environmental quality standards for surface water).It is found that these candidate criteria cannot satisfy the designated 100% use-attainment.To achieve the short-term target (85% attainment of the designated use),TP and Chl-a values ought to be less than 0.02 mg/L and 1.4 tg/L,respectively.When used as a long-term target (90% or greater attainment of the designated use),the TP and Chl-a values are suggested to be less than 0.018 mg/L and 1 μg/L,respectively.

  11. GPS-constrained inversion of present-day slip rates along major faults of the Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YanZhao; YANG YongLin; CHENG Jia; LI Peng; WANG EnNing; SHEN ZhengKang; WANG Min; GAN WeiJun; QIAO XueJun; MENG GuoJie; LI TieMing; TAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    A linked-fault-element model is employed to invert for contemporary slip rates along major active faults in the Sichuan-Yunnan region (96°-108°E, 21°-35°N) using the least squares method.The model is based on known fault geometry, and constrained by a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field.Our results support a model attributing the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau driven mainly by the north-northeastward indentation of the Indian plate into Tibet and the gravitational collapse of the plateau.Resisted by a relatively stable south China block, materials of the Sichuan-Yunnan region rotate clockwise around the eastern Himalayan tectonic syntaxis.During the process the Garze-Yushu, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, Zemuhe, Daliangshan, and Xiaojiang faults, the southwest extension of the Xiaojiang fault, and the Daluo-Jinghong and Mae Chan faults constitute the northeast and east boundaries of the eastward extrusion, with their left slip rates being 0.3-14.7, 8.9-17.1, 5.1 ±2.5, 2.8± 2.3, 7.1 ±2.1, 9.4 ±1.2, 10.1 ±2.0, 7.3 ±2.6, and 4.9 ±3.0 mm/a respectively.The southwestern boundary consists of a widely distributed dextral transpressional zone other than a single fault.Right slip rates of 4.2 ±1.3, 4.3 ±1.1, and 8.5 ±1.7 mm/a are detected across the Nanhua-Chuxiong-Jianshui, Wuliangshan, and Longling-Lancang faults.Crustal deformation across the Longmenshan fault is weak, with shortening rates of 1.4 ±1.0 and 1.6 ±1.3 mm/a across the Baoxing-Beichuan and Beichuan-Qingchuan segments.Northwest of the Longmenshan fault lies an active deformation zone (the Longriba fault) with 5.1 ±1.2 mm/a right slip across.Relatively large slip rates are detected across a few faults within the Sichuan-Yunnan block: 4.4±1.3 mm/a left slip and 2.7±1.1 mm/a shortening across the Litang fault, and 2.7±2.3 mm/a right-lateral shearing and 6.7±2.3 mm/a shortening across the Yunongxi fault and its surrounding regions.In conclusion, we find that the Sichuan-Yunnan region is

  12. GPS-constrained inversion of present-day slip rates along major faults of the Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A linked-fault-element model is employed to invert for contemporary slip rates along major active faults in the Sichuan-Yunnan region (96°-108°E, 21°-35°N) using the least squares method. The model is based on known fault geometry, and constrained by a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field. Our results support a model attributing the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau driven mainly by the north-northeastward indentation of the Indian plate into Tibet and the gravitational collapse of the plateau. Resisted by a relatively stable south China block, materials of the Sichuan-Yunnan region rotate clockwise around the eastern Himalayan tectonic syntaxis. During the process the Garzê-Yushu, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, Zemuhe, Daliangshan, and Xiaojiang faults, the southwest extension of the Xiaojiang fault, and the Daluo-Jinghong and Mae Chan faults constitute the northeast and east boundaries of the eastward extrusion, with their left slip rates being 0.3-14.7, 8.9-17.1, 5.1 ± 2.5, 2.8 ± 2.3, 7.1 ± 2.1, 9.4 ± 1.2, 10.1 ± 2.0, 7.3 ± 2.6, and 4.9 ± 3.0 mm/a respectively. The southwestern boundary consists of a widely distributed dextral transpressional zone other than a single fault. Right slip rates of 4.2 ± 1.3, 4.3 ± 1.1, and 8.5 ± 1.7 mm/a are detected across the Nanhua-Chuxiong-Jianshui, Wuliangshan, and Longling-Lancang faults. Crustal deformation across the Longmenshan fault is weak, with short-ening rates of 1.4 ± 1.0 and 1.6 ± 1.3 mm/a across the Baoxing-Beichuan and Beichuan-Qingchuan segments. Northwest of the Longmenshan fault lies an active deformation zone (the Longriba fault) with 5.1±1.2 mm/a right slip across. Relatively large slip rates are detected across a few faults within the Sichuan-Yunnan block: 4.4±1.3 mm/a left slip and 2.7±1.1 mm/a shortening across the Litang fault, and 2.7±2.3 mm/a right-lateral shearing and 6.7±2.3 mm/a shortening across the Yunongxi fault and its surrounding regions. In conclusion, we find that the

  13. Dominance of HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE in sexually acquired cases leads to a new epidemic in Yunnan province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dating back to the first epidemic among injection drug users in 1989, the Yunnan province has had the highest number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infections in China. However, the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Yunnan has not been fully characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using immunoassays, we identified 103,015 accumulated cases of HIV-1 infections in Yunnan between 1989 and 2004. We studied 321 patients representing Yunnan's 16 prefectures from four risk groups, 11 ethnic populations, and ten occupations. We identified three major circulating subtypes: C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC (53%, CRF01_AE (40.5%, and B (6.5% by analyzing the sequence of p17, which is part of the gag gene. For patients with known risk factors, 90.9% of injection drug users had C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses, whereas 85.4% of CRF01_AE infections were acquired through sexual transmission. No distinct segregation of CRF01_AE viruses was found among the Dai ethnic group. Geographically, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC was found throughout the province, while CRF01_AE was largely confined to the prefectures bordering Myanmar. Furthermore, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses were found to consist of a group of viruses, including C, CRF08_BC, CRF07_BC, and new BC recombinants, based on the characterization of their reverse transcriptase genes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a province-wide HIV-1 molecular epidemiological study in Yunnan. While C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE are codominant, the discovery of many sexually transmitted CRF01_AE cases is new and suggests that this subtype may lead to a new epidemic in the general Chinese population. We discuss implications of our results for understanding the evolution of the HIV-1 pandemic and for vaccine development.

  14. Notes on the scorpions (Arachnida, Scorpiones from Xizang with the redescription of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae from Yunnan (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Di

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now, there are 26 scorpion species of 7 genera of 5 families recorded in Xizang (China. Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet is the scorpion biodiversity richest area in China (53 scorpion species of 12 genera of 5 families, also the highest altitude habitat of scorpions in the world. We present information of type specimens, an identification key of the scorpion species from Xizang, the distribution, updated feature pictures, and discussion on the disputed species. The redescriptions of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Yunnan and S. tibetanus Hirst, 1911 (Xizang, comments and feature figures of species of genus Scorpiops are provided for identification.

  15. Characterization of Fasciola samples by ITS of rDNA sequences revealed the existence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fan-Fan; Lv, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Duan, Gang; Wu, Ding-Yu; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-08-01

    On mainland China, liver flukes of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. The objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of Fasciola species in Yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS rDNA was amplified from 10 samples representing Fasciola species in cattle from 2 geographical locations in Yunnan Province, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were sequenced directly. The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 422 and 361-362 base pairs, respectively, for all samples sequenced. Using ITS sequences, 2 Fasciola species were revealed, namely Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This is the first demonstration of F. gigantica in cattle in Yunnan Province, China using a molecular approach; our findings have implications for studying the population genetic characterization of the Chinese Fasciola species and for the prevention and control of Fasciola spp. in this province.

  16. Petrotectonic Evolution of Paleo-Tethys in Western Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从柏林; 吴根耀; 张旗; 张儒媛; 翟明国; 赵大升; 张雯华

    1994-01-01

    The Western Yunnan is just situated in juncture area of the Yangtze,Indosinia and Shan-Thai Microcontinents,with the geosuture zones among them marked by ophiolite suites and blue schists.Agreat number of petrological data support systematic evidences for Paleo-Tethys occurring in the area,andaccording to them,the tectonic evolution is reconstructed.Paleo-Tethys might be a poly-island ocean duringthe Late Paleozoic,and relic oceanic basins developed in Triassic1 Neo-Tethys immigrated westwards intoBurma.The area is an orogenic belt experiencing complicated subduction and violent continent-continent col-lision,and reformed by the younger structures,specially the Himalayan movement.

  17. Mantle-derived magmatic gas releasing features at the Rehai area, Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官志冠; 白春华; 孙明良

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of escaped gases from the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong county of Yunnan Province. Results indicate that there is the mantle-derived magmatic intrusion in shallow crust at this area. Modern mantle-derived mag-matic volatiles are being released currently in a steady stream by way of active faults. The escaped gases are mostly composed of CO2, together with subordinate amounts of H2S, N2, H2, CH4, SO2, CO and He. At the studied area, the north-south directed fault is the deepest, and it may be interlinked with the deep-seated thermal reservoir that would be directly recharged by the mantle-derived magmatic volatile. The He, C isotopic evidence reveals that the modern active magma beneath Rehai area may originate from the historical mantle-derived magma which caused the latest eruptive activity of volcanoes in that region.

  18. Climatic and ecological implications of Late Pliocene palynoflora from Longling, Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.X.; Ferguson, D.K.; Li, C.S.; Wang, Y.F.; Du, N.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany

    2004-07-01

    The Longling Coal Mine (W. Yunnan) is situated in an area of substantial geotectonic activity. Its Late Pliocene palynollora is of considerable interest, since the area represents a centre of biodiversity.Eighty-two palynomorphs belonging to 61 families were recovered from the lignite. The palynoflora is dominated by angiosperms (68.3%), with ferns (24.4%), gymnosperms (4.9%) and algae (2.4%). Comparisons indicate that most of the palynoflora was derived from the Montane Humid Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest, with lesser contributions from the Tsuga dumosa Forest and Evergreen Coniferous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest, as well as the Montane Mossy Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest. This indicates that the Late Pliocene climate was cooler than that of the present. In the course of the accumulation of the lignite, the climate underwent five major phases of warming and cooling.

  19. The Most Complete Pistosauroid Skeleton from the Triassic of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lijun; Tamaki SATO; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    A new specimen discovered from the Falang Formation in northeastern Yunnan represents the most complete skeleton of Triassic pistosauroids. The new specimen is referred to Yunguisaurus Cheng et al., 2006 on the basis of the skull features, such as the presence of a separated nasal entering the external naris, a large pineal foramen located at the frontal/parietal suture and an interpterygoid vacuity with a narrow anterior extension. The new specimen differs from the type species of Yunguisaurus liae Cheng et al., 2006 in some aspects. Most of these differences can be attributed to ontogenetic variations. The new specimen is provisionally considered as Yunguisaurus cf. liae although its relatively short snout of the skull and slenderer hyoid may not be explained ontogenetically. Whether or not the new specimen represents a different taxon has to wait for a detailed study of the whole skeleton.

  20. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXian-qi; YUMin; LINLi-fei; WANGYang; YUSheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  1. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; YU Min; LIN Li-fei; WANG Yang; YU Sheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  2. A New Mamenchisaurid Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; LI Tianguang; ZHONG Shimin; JI Qiang; LI Shaoxue

    2008-01-01

    A new mamenchisaurid dinosaur, Eomamenchisaurus yuanmouensis gen et sp. nov. Is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Zhanghe Formation, the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province. The new taxon is characterized by absence of pleurocoels in dorsal vertebrae and the dorsal verterbrae with slightly convex anterior articular surfaces, moderately concave posterior articular surfaces; the fourth trochanter is developed posteromedially on the femur; length ratio of the tibia to the femur is approximately 0.64; and the shaft of the ischium is rod-like. Two fused centra of the posterior dorsal vertebrae (the presumed 9th and the 10th dorsal vertebrae) are similar to those in other mamenchisaurid dinosaurs, including Mamenchisaurus hochuanesis, M. youngi and Chuanjiesaurus anaensis. Therefore, fusion of centra of the ninth and the tenth dorsal vertebrae can be recognized as a synapomorphic character of the Mamenchisauridae.

  3. Study on the sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Tian, J.; Qin, Y. [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China). Institute of Sedimentary Geology

    2007-03-15

    The sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Zhaotong of Yunnan Province has been studied using ion selective electrode (ISE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results show that the main workable channel coal seams contain an average fluorine content of 67.8 x 10{sup -6}, which is much lower than that of Chinese and American common coals. The contents in the clay and the mixture of coal and clay reach to 2239 x 10{sup -6} and 863.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. (The mixture of clay and coal is the primary fuel in the local families.) The volatile yield of the mixture of coal and clay during combustion is about 89%. The fluorine in the clay is the main source of the endemic fluorosis. The high content of fluorine is closely related to the mixed-layer minerals of illite and smectite, apatite, hornblende, and K-feldspar. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Alpine Ecosystems of Northwest Yunnan, China: an Initial Assessment for Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Implementing conservation actions on-the-ground is not a straightforward process,especially when faced with high scientific uncertainty due to limited available information. This is especially acute in regions of the world that harbor many unique species that have not been well studied, such as the alpine zone of the Hengduan Mountains of Northwest Yunnan (NWY), a global biodiversity hotspot and site of The Nature Conservancy's Yunnan Great Rivers Project. We conducted a quantitative, but rapid regional-level assessment of the alpine flora across NWY to provide a broad-based understanding of local and regional patterns of the alpine flora, the first large-scale analysis of alpine biodiversity patterns in this region. Multivariate analyses were used to classify the major plant community types and link community patterns to habitat variables. Our analysis indicated that most species had small distributions and/or small population sizes. Strong patterns emerged with higher diversity in the more northern mountains, but beta diversity was high, averaging only 10% among sites. The ordinations indicated that elevation and geographic location were the dominant environmental gradients underlying the differences in the species composition among communities. The high beta diversity across the alpine of these mountains implies that conservation strategies ultimately will require the protection of large numbers of species over a large geographical area. However, prioritization should be given to areas where potential payoffs are greatest. Sites with high species richness also have a greater number of endemic species, and, by focusing efforts on these sites, conservation investments would be maximized by protecting the greatest number of unique species.

  5. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Zhan, Jinyan; Lin, Yingzhi; Zhao, Chunhong

    2014-09-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  6. Retention and HIV seroconversion among drug users on methadone maintenance treatment in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y-P; Duo, L; Kumar, A M V; Achanta, S; Xue, H-M; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Srivastava, S; Qi, W; Hu, S-Y

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Treize centres de traitement par méthadone (MMT) dans le Yunnan, la province la plus touchée par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) en Chine.Objectifs : Déterminer, parmi les participants VIH négatifs, la proportion de perdus de vue (ceux qui ont manqué l'examen de suivi à 6 mois), les facteurs associés à cet abandon du suivi, le taux de séroconversion VIH et les facteurs associés.Schéma : Etude prospective de cohorte d'octobre 2008 à avril 2011. Tous les participants ont rempli un questionnaire structuré prétesté afin d'identifier ces facteurs et on leur a proposé un test VIH tous les 6 mois. L'analyse des données a été réalisée à l'aide du test χ(2) et de la régression logarithmique binomiale.Résultats : Sur 1146 patients, 541 (47%) ont été perdus de vue en 2 ans et demi. Les facteurs associé à cet abandon comprenaient : VIH avec un RR ajusté de 3,6 (IC95% 1,0–12,8).Conclusion : Le taux de rétention des participants à un traitement en centre MMT au Yunnan n'était pas satisfaisant. Une prestation de services décentralisée au niveau communautaire avec observation directe du traitement serait plus pratique et pourrait améliorer cette rétention.

  7. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  8. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  9. Reengineering Model of Supply Chain of Tea Industry in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Yunnan University of finance and Trade recording to t he statistics of chain's output of tea, Yunnan province has entered the ranks of the larger ones of the production in China. Yunnan's tea industry has the natur al resources and the economic effects envied, on the orther hand, Yunnan's tea m arket has gradually become less and the economic effects have been poor. Through our comprehensive investigation and study, we consider that because the supply chain has seriously been disjointed among production...

  10. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-1, 23.76 (11.10–37.10 Bq· kg-1, 96.84 (30.60–229.30 Bq· kg-1 and 28.09 Bq·kg-1 (3.10–61.80 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Both 238U and 232Th have high correlations with ash yield of coals, suggesting their inorganic origins. The overall environmental effect of natural radionuclides in studied coals is considered to be negligible, as assessed by related indexes (i.e., radium equivalent activity, air-adsorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index. However, the absorbed dose rates values are higher than the average value of global primordial radiation and the Chinese natural gamma radiation dose rate.

  11. Re-Os Dating of Galena and Sphalerite from Lead-Zinc Sulfide Deposits in Yunnan Province, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Liu; Liang Qi; Jianfeng Gao; Lin Ye; Zhilong Huang; Jiaxi Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Dating of lead-zinc deposits is of critical importance for better understanding of ore ge-nesis, but has long been a big challenge due to the lack of suitable minerals that can be unequivocally linked to the ore genesis and that can be used for tradition radiometric methods. This kind of deposits have simple mineralogy dominated by galena and sphalerite commonly associated with calcite and oth-er gangue minerals. Both galena and sphalerite have low and high variable Re concentrations and thus Re-Os dating of these minerals have been less promising. In addition, the recovery of Re is extremely low for galena when conventional method was applied, lending additional difficulty in precisely dating galena. In this study, we investigate the recovery of Re using different media for anion exchange sepa-ration and reporte a revised preparation method for Re-Os dating of galena and sphalerite. By using the new protocol, two reliable Re-Os isochron ages of galena and sphalerite from the Fule (20.4±3.2 Ma) and Laochang (308±25 Ma) Pb-Zn deposits in Yunnan Province, SW China, are achieved.

  12. A new euphyllophyte Kunia venusta gen.et sp.nov.from the Middle Devonian of Yunnan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Hui XIONG; De-Ming WANG; Qi WANG; Mei-Cen MENG

    2012-01-01

    Kunia venusta gen.et sp.nov.is reported from the late Middle Devonian (Givetian) Haikou Formation near Kunming City,Yunnan Province,China.This plant has three orders of naked axes that divide pseudomonopodially.The second- and third-order axes occur in a helix.Fertile appendages are distantly spaced and helically inserted to the third-order axis; they comprise equally dichotomous branches terminated by two clusters of paired and fusiform sporangia.Sterile appendages are dichotomous and distally recurved.A comparison is made with the basal euphyllophytes including the trimerophytes,cladoxylopsids,zygopterids,stauropterids,and some relevant genera of uncertain affinity.The new plant resembles them in dichotomous appendages with terminal elongated sporangia,but differs mainly in the three orders of pseudomonopodial axes bearing helical laterals.It is thus placed in the Euphyllophytina as incertae sedis.It is suggested that an evolutionary divergence in the branching pattern and appendage morphology might have occurred in the Middle Devonian euphyllophytes,that is,maintaining three dimensions versus yielding more or less planation.

  13. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-12-01

    China's small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2-5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms earn high income from rubber and fatten cross-bred pigs, often using purchased feeds. PB farms own similar-sized rubber plantations and raise pigs, with fodder mainly being cultivated and collected in the forest. LB farms grow corn, rice, and tea while also raising pigs, fed with collected and cultivated fodder as well. About one third of pigs were marketed (LB, 20 %; RB, 42 %; PB, 25 %), and local pig meat is highly appreciated in the nearby town. High mortality, low reproductive performance, and widespread malnourishment are the systems' main constraints. Basic training in hygiene and reproduction management could significantly increase production; most effective measures would be counterbalancing seasonal malnourishment and exploration of locally available protein feeds. Through support by external expertise, farmers could more effectively trade their pigs at lucrative town markets.

  14. Greater temporal changes of sediment microbial community than its waterborne counterpart in Tengchong hot springs, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Huang, Liuqin

    2014-12-19

    Temporal variation in geochemistry can cause changes in microbial community structure and diversity. Here we studied temporal changes of microbial communities in Tengchong hot springs of Yunnan Province, China in response to geochemical variations by using microbial and geochemical data collected in January, June and August of 2011. Greater temporal variations were observed in individual taxa than at the whole community structure level. Water and sediment communities exhibited different temporal variation patterns. Water communities were largely stable across three sampling times and dominated by similar microbial lineages: Hydrogenobaculum in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Sulfolobus in high-temperature acidic springs, and Hydrogenobacter in high-temperature circumneutral to alkaline springs. Sediment communities were more diverse and responsive to changing physicochemical conditions. Most of the sediment communities in January and June were similar to those in waters. However, the August sediment community was more diverse and contained more anaerobic heterotrophs than the January and June: Desulfurella and Acidicaldus in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Ignisphaera and Desulfurococcus in high-temperature acidic springs, the candidate division OP1 and Fervidobacterium in alkaline springs, and Thermus and GAL35 in neutral springs. Temporal variations in physicochemical parameters including temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon may have triggered the observed microbial community shifts.

  15. Impacts of temperature and pH on the distribution of archaeal lipids in Yunnan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiyan; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Huanye; He, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2013-01-01

    In culture experiments and many low temperature environments, the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) commonly shows a strong correlation with temperature; however, this is often not the case in hot springs. We studied 26 hot springs in Yunnan, China, in order to determine whether temperature or other factors control the distribution of GDGTs in these environments. The hot springs ranged in temperature from 39.0 to 94.0°C, and in pH from 2.35 to 9.11. Water chemistry including nitrogen-, sulfur-, and iron species was also determined. Lipids from the samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Distributions of GDGTs in these hot springs were examined using cluster analysis, which resulted in two major groups. Group 1 was characterized by the lack of dominance of any individual GDGTs, while Group 2 was defined by the dominance of GDGT-0 or thaumarchaeol. Temperature was the main control on GDGT distribution in Group 1, whereas pH played an important role in the distribution of GDGTs in Group 2. However, no correlations were found between the distribution of GDGTs and any of the nitrogen-, sulfur-, or iron species. Results of this study indicate the dominance of temperature or pH control on archaeal lipid distribution, which can be better evaluated in the context of lipid classification.

  16. Impacts of temperature and pH on the distribution of archaeal lipids in Yunnan hot springs, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan eWu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In culture experiments and many low temperature environments, the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs commonly shows a strong correlation with temperature; however, this is often not the case in hot springs. We studied 26 hot springs in Yunnan, China, in order to determine whether temperature or other factors control the distribution of GDGTs in these environments. The hot springs ranged in temperature from 39°C to 94°C, and in pH from 2.35 to 9.11. Water chemistry including nitrogen-, sulfur- and iron species was also determined. Lipids from the samples were analyzed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Distributions of GDGTs in these hot springs were examined using cluster analysis, which resulted in two major groups. Group 1 was characterized by the lack of dominance of any individual GDGTs, while Group 2 was defined by the dominance of GDGT-0 or thaumarchaeol. Temperature was the main control on GDGT distribution in Group 1, whereas pH played an important role in the distribution of GDGTs in Group 2. However, no correlations were found between the distribution of GDGTs and any of the nitrogen-, sulfur- or iron species. Results of this study indicate the predominance of temperature or pH control on archaeal lipid distribution, which can be better evaluated in the context of lipid classification.

  17. A Continuous Record of Indian Summer Monsoon Variability through the Holocene from Lake Sediments in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous terrestrial archives of the Indian Summer Monsoon through the Holocene are lacking, yet critical to providing a long-term perspective of hydroclimate variability. Here we present an 8,000 year sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in Yunnan, China that provides a semi-quantitative estimate of lake level change using stable isotopes of authigenic calcite as well as within-lake productivity using stable isotopes of organic matter. Substantial drops in lake level occur at 6,600 years BP, consistent with previous studies of a weaker monsoon system in the mid-Holocene due to declining summer insolation. Lake levels stabilize at 4,700 years BP and remain steady due to the topography surrounding the lake. From 5,600 to 5,100 and from 4,600 to 4,000 years BP, primary productivity decreases and is coincident with significant regional aridity as well as cooler Western Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Variability in the stable isotopes of both calcite and organic matter after 1,500 years BP is primarily controlled by human activities. This study shows broad agreement with previous work on the Tibetan Plateau and provides one of the first continuous records of lake hydrologic balance from a crucial region affected by the Indian Summer Monsoon.

  18. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Qiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were interviewed before start of treatment and during the fifth month of treatment using structured questionnaires. Information on treatment outcome was extracted from patient records. Patients cured at the end of treatment were compared to patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (failure, default, and death. Results A total of 841 patients were registered between January-June 2007 of which 792 (94% were cured. Independent risk factors for non-cure were having a low income (30 days, a positive smear test result two months after start of treatment, not being aware of the need to go to the CDC for medical follow up during treatment, and not seeing the need for treatment observation. Conclusion Reducing the financial burden of TB disease and providing health education to improve compliance with treatment could increase the proportion of patients with successful treatment outcomes.

  19. HIV-infected Female Sex Workers High Risk Behavior and Attitude Changes in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo Wei; WANG Ning; HSI Jenny H; LIU Hui Xin; SU Ying Ying; WANG Jun Jie; BAI Jun; WANG Gui Xiang; WANG Hai Bo; DONG Rui Ling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the attitude and sexual behavior status and change among HIV positive female workers in entertainment sites in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China. The key information should be applied in the integrated intervention program in future. Methods A cohort survey among HIV positive female workers was conducted during 12 months, between 2010 and 2012. All the risk sexual behavior and attitude were collected for assessment for the potential secondary transmission to sexual partners. Results Of 99 HIV positive women who sell sex in Kaiyuan city, 99 participated in the survey at baseline, 80, 80, 75, and 75 at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. The percentage of participants who reported consistently used condoms in the last one month ranged between 94.5%and 95.5%. The client volume in the last one month, income per sex and age group were significant related with non-insistent condom use with their clients. Conclusion It was suggested that integrated intervention program package should include 100 percent condom use promotion for the HIV positive FSW with all sexual partners, and also, include socially support involved.

  20. Characteristics and origin of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths in trachyandesite lavas from Heikongshan volcano,Tengchong,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The trachyandesite lavas from Heikongshan volcano of the Tengchong volcanic cluster, Yunnan Province contain relatively abundant mafic and ultramafic small xenoliths comprising mainly gabbro, pyroxenite and rare lherzolites, all less than 2.5 cm in size. Gabbro xenoliths are characterized by "open" texture represented by relatively abundant vesicles and ground-mass fillings, while pyroxenite xenoliths are characterized by equigranular and poikilitic texture. Their mineral compositions (clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± plagioclase) are similar to those of phenocrysts in lavas, and their equilibration temperature (1000-1125°C) is consistent with the crystallization temperature of the phenocrysts (998-1108°C). Thus, the textures and compositions of these xenoliths are different from those of lower crustal and mantle xenoliths, and were derived from the magma chamber. Among them, the gabbroic xenoliths come from the crystal-bubble-liquid zone at the top of the magma reservoir, while the pyroxenite xenoliths come from the cumulates in the bottom of magma reservoir. The studied single lherzolite xenolith with porphyroclastic texture has similar mineral compositions to the mantle xenoliths from eastern China, and is considered to be of upper mantle origin. It was brought into magma reservoir by replenishment magma, and might have experienced a cooling event before eruption. The formation of xenoliths in trachyandesite flows largely reflects the ascent, storage, evolution and eruption processes of magma.

  1. Composition and mode of occurrence of minerals in Late Permian coals from Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Shi-Feng Dai; Jian-Hua Zou; Sen Zhang; He-Hing Tian; Li-Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Minerals in the Late Permian coals from the Niuchang-Yigu mining area, Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China, were investigated using optical microscopy and low temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction (LTA ? XRD). The results showed that minerals in the coal LTAs are mainly quartz, kaolinite, chamosite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), pyrite, and calcite, with trace amounts of marcasite, dolomite, and bassanite. The authigenic quartz generally occurs in collodetrinite or as a filling in cleats or cell cavities. This silica was mainly derived from aqueous solutions produced by the weathering of basaltic rocks in the Kangdian Upland and from hydrothermal fluids. The presence of b-quartz paramorph grains in collodetrinite probably indicates that these grains were detrital and came from a volcanic ash. Clay minerals are generally embedded in collodetrinite and occur as cell-fillings. Pyrite occurs as framboidal, anhedral, and euhedral grains and a cell-filling. The coals are high in pyrite and the high pyrite content probably results from seawater invading during the stage of peat accumulation. Calcite generally occurs as vein-fillings, indicating an epigenetic origin.

  2. Geological Controls on Mineralogy and Geochemistry of an Early Permian Coal from the Songshao Mine, Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

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    Ruixue Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the content, distribution, modes of occurrence, and enrichment mechanism of mineral matter and trace elements of an Early Permian coal from Songshao (Yunnan Province, China by means of coal-petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques. The results show that the Songshao coal is characterized by high total and organic sulfur contents (3.61% and 3.87%, respectively. Lithium (170.39 μg/g and Zr (184.55 μg/g are significantly enriched in the Songshao coal, and, to a lesser extent, elements such as Hg, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Sr, Nb, Sn, Hf, V, and Cr are also enriched. In addition to Hg and Se that are enriched in the roof and floor strata of the coal seam, Li, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Y, Cd, and Sb are slightly enriched in these host rocks. Compared to the upper continental crust, rare earth elements and yttrium in the host rocks and coal samples are characterized by a light-REE enrichment type and have negative Eu, positive Ce and Gd anomalies. Major minerals in the samples of coal, roof, and floor are boehmite, clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, and mixed layer illite-smectite, pyrite, and anatase. Geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the Songshao coal are attributed to hydrothermal fluids, seawater, and sediment-source rocks.

  3. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  4. FUYUANPERLEIDUS DENGI GENG ET AL., 2012 (OSTEICHTHYES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUOYU SUN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two well preserved specimens of Fuyuanperleidus dengi Geng et al., 2012 are described from the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation (Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic in Luoping County, Yunnan Province, South China. The attribution  to Perleidiformes is confirmed according to a combination of features such as the general skull pattern, with the large preoperculum showing a prominent infraorbital process, the maxilla with deep posterior region and a dentition made of  long and stout peg-like teeth with an acuminate apex, the deep mid-lateral flank scales and the caudal fin with epaxial fin rays. However, this taxon shows an unique arrangement of the squamation (here considered as autapomorphy given by the insertion of several scales in each vertical row posterior to the pelvic fin, just below the scales carrying the lateral line, when their depth decreases abruptly. Owing to this unique character, and  in spite of the very recent description of this genus, the authors considered necessary the erection of a new family, Fuyuanperleididae offering also new insights on the evolutionary trends and morphological specializations of the “subholosteans”. A cladistic analysis of the well known perleidiformes, with this taxon included, supports a possible monophyly of the order, and matches well the paleobiogeographic relationships of the Gondwana fresh-water taxa. The specialized deep-bodied Gondwana and Tethyan perleidiformes are independently evolved, ascertained by the parsimony analysis. 

  5. My Days in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    1999-01-01

    In July 21st I started the last trip of my year-long stay in China. AnAmerican friend, Moira, had agreed to meet me in Shanghai and accompany me.Our goals were Yunnan Province, including Kunming, Lijiang, Dali, and thecountryside, and then on to the long-dreamed-of "top of the world" and spiritualbeacon-Tibet (the topic of next month’s article).

  6. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  7. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  8. Molecular epidemic survey on co-prevalence of scrub typhus and marine typhus in Yuxi city, Yunnan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; LI Xue-mei; ZHANG De-rong; ZHANG Jing-shan; DI Ying; LUAN Ming-chun; FU Xiu-ping

    2007-01-01

    and their corresponding nucleotide sequences exhibited 100%, 100%, 99%, 99% and 99% similarity to R. mossori Wilmington and the analyses of predicted amino acid sequences indicated 100%, 100%,98%, 98% and 98% identity with the heat shock protein of R. mossoriWilmington strain. Of the 8 PCR positive patients, 3 showed a co-infection of scrub typhus with murine typhus. All the 13 serum samples from febrile patients were positive against O. tsutsugamushi and 8 of them were positive against R. mossori. All of the 8 paired specimens had four-fold elevation of antibody against O. tsutsugamushi, and seroconversion for typhus was demonstrated in 3 paired serum samples. Another finding in the study was that a high seropositive prevalence (76.9%) of Q fever was detected.Conclusion It's confirmed that co-prevalence of scrub typhus with murine typhus are occurring in Yuxi city of Yunnan province, China. Other rickettsial diseases also need to be investigated in these areas.

  9. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  10. Strontium isotope geochemistry of the Lemachang independent silver ore deposit, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sr isotope geochemical studies (the 87Sr/86Sr and ?18O-87Sr/86Sr systems) on the wall rocks and ores from the Lemachang independent Ag deposit in northeastern Yunnan provide strong evidence that the ore-forming fluids had flown through radiogenetically Sr-enriched rocks or strata prior to their entry into the locus of ore precipitation, and water-rock interaction is the main mechanism of Ag ore precipitation. The radiogenetically Sr-enriched source region may be the Proterozoic basement (the Kunyang and Hekou groups). Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the Sr isotopic system indicates that the ore-forming fluids contain as much as 3×10?6 Sr with isotopic composition of Sr being 0.750 and that of oxygen 7.0‰. The ore-forming temperatures were estimated at 150-250℃ for the carbonate rock-type ores and at 200-260℃ for the clastic rock-type.

  11. Strontium isotope geochemistry of the Lemachang independent silver ore deposit, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海琳; 李朝阳; 涂光炽; 周云满; 王崇武

    2000-01-01

    Sr isotope geochemical studies (the 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O-87Sr/86Sr systems) on the wall rocks and ores from the Lemachang independent Ag deposit in northeastern Yunnan provide strong evidence that the ore-forming fluids had flown through radiogenetically Sr-enriched rocks or strata prior to their entry into the locus of ore precipitation, and water-rock interaction is the main mechanism of Ag ore precipitation. The radiogenetically Sr-enriched source region may be the Proterozoic basement (the Kunyang and Hekou groups). Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the Sr isotopic system indicates that the ore-forming fluids contain as much as 3×10-6 Sr with isotopic composition of Sr being 0.750 and that of oxygen 7.0‰. The ore-forming temperatures were estimated at 150-250℃ for the carbonate rock-type ores and at 200-260℃ for the clastic rock-type.

  12. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2016-10-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  13. East flank of the Sibumasu block in NW Thailand and Myanmar and its possible northward continuation into Yunnan: a review and suggested tectono-stratigraphic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, Michael F.

    2015-05-01

    The east flank of the Sibumasu block was a passive continental margin, and in NW Thailand is marked by the absence of the autochthonous Middle Permian-Triassic platform carbonates which are widespread across the rest of Sibumasu further west. Instead, the carbonates are represented by hemipelagic cherts, mudstones and sandstones including turbidites. During the northward drift of Sibumasu, following its Early Permian rifting from Gondwana, an accretionary complex was present where Palaeotethyan pelagic rocks as old as Devonian were subducted beneath the Sukhothai volcanic arc. At the time of Sibumasu's collision with the Sukhothai arc, beginning in the Middle Triassic, the accretionary complex was thrust westwards across the east flank of Sibumasu. It is suggested that in the Late Triassic the thrust pile which had been the accretionary complex underwent erosion and was the source of terrigenous clastic rocks deposited further west in a foredeep basin. The boundary of Sibumasu's east flank with the Permo-Triassic carbonate platform further west is the arcuate Mae Ping-Nam Teng Fault system. Notwithstanding later Cenozoic strike-slip displacement, those faults (as well as the Mae Yuam Fault) are interpreted to have had an earlier history of westward-directed Indosinian thrusting. Northwards in Myanmar and Yunnan the Sibumasu Permo-Triassic carbonate shelf continues as the Shan Plateau and Baoshan Block. The east flank is represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt, and the Palaeotethys 'cryptic suture' in Thailand possibly joins with the Lancangjiang Suture.

  14. First evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China: discovery of chytridiomycosis in introduced American bullfrogs and native amphibians in the Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Changming; Garner, Trenton W J; Li, Yiming

    2010-08-01

    Although the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the etiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in mass mortality and population declines on several continents around the world, there have been no reports on the presence of Bd infections in amphibians in China. We employed quantitative PCR and histological techniques to investigate the presence of Bd in introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) (referred to hereafter as bullfrog) and native amphibians in bullfrog-invaded areas of the Yunnan Province, China. A total of 259 samples at five wild sites were collected between June and September in 2007 and 2008, including bullfrogs and four native amphibian species (Rana pleuraden, Rana chaochiaoensis, Odorrana andersonii, and Bombina maxima). In addition, 37 samples of adult bullfrogs were obtained from a food market. Bd infections were discovered in bullfrogs and three native amphibian species from all of the surveyed sites. Of the 39 Bd-positive samples, 35 were from wild-caught bullfrog tadpoles, postmetamorphic bullfrogs, R. pleuraden, R. chaochiaoensis, and O. andersonii, and four were from adult bullfrogs from the market. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of Bd in Chinese amphibians, suggesting that native amphibian diversity in China is at risk from Bd. There is an urgent need to monitor the distribution of Bd in amphibians in China and understand the susceptibility of native amphibian species to chytridiomycosis. Strict regulations on the transportation of bullfrogs and the breeding of bullfrogs in markets and farms should be drafted in order to stop the spread of Bd by bullfrogs.

  15. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  16. Cold Tolerance of Core Collection at Booting Stage Associated with Eco-geographic Distribution in Yunnan Rice Landrace (Oryza sativa),China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shen-chong; LIU Jia-fu; ZENG Ya-wen; WANG Lu-xiang; SHEN Shi-quan; PU Xiao-ying; LI Zi-chao; WANG Xiangkun; WEN Guo-song; YANG Zhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-seven accessions of the second core collection of rice landrace from five rice cropping regions (16 prefectures) of Yunnan Province, China, were evaluated for cold tolerance at booting stage. The results showed as follows: 1) there was a significant positive correlation (0.588**) between anther length and seed setting rate under natural low temperature conditions but was not significant in greenhouse (0.080). 2) there were significant differences in cold tolerance among cora collections from different cropping regions under natural low temperature conditions while a negligible cold damage in greenhouse (with a seed setting rate approaching or exceeding 70%) for cold tolerance evaluation. Cold tolerance of core collection from Northwest Yunnan cold highland japonica region was the strongest, and that from south marginal paddy-upland rice region was the most sensitive, suggesting that the breeding goals for cold tolerance should be different in various rice cropping regions. 3) there were remarkable differences in cold tolerance of core collections from different prefectures of Yunnan Province under natural low temperature conditions. Based on the reduction of seed setting rate and characteristics of natural climate, the 16prefectures could be divided into three categories, i.e. serious cold damage, cold damage and slight cold damage regions. 4)Difference of cold tolerance between different rice cropping regions and prefectures revealed further that temperature change caused by elevation and latitude was not only a dominant factor for differentiation of japonica and indica but also the basic reason that the genetic diversity and six ecological group of indica and japonica were being developed and, even the critical factor leading to the formation of the cold tolerance gene as well. The cold tolerance at booting stage could be believed to be resulted from the long term co-evolution between Yunnan rice landrce and cold stress in rice cropping

  17. Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juan; Ma Qin-yan; Du Fan; Yang Yu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of floristic patterns along the vertical gradients of the National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain, located in the southeast of Yunnan Province. We analyzed the structural characteristics of the flora and the distribution patterns of its floristic components as a function of elevation on the basis of our field investigations along vertical vegetation transects. We carried out a systematic cluster analysis in order to determine the dividing line of floristic changes by elevation along gradients and studied the effects of mountain climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition. The study shows: 1)that the obvious boundary, which differentiates tropical distribution, is located at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m, which separates the tropical rain forests from the evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2) that humid rain forests are found below 700 m elevation,mountain rain forests between 700 and 1,500 m, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests between 1,300 and 1,800 m and mountain mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests above 1,800 m. Non-representative mountain mossy dwarf forests (above 2,100 m) in the area are found on the windward sides and barren lands on mountain slopes; 3) that Hopea mollissima is one of the major component species of mountain rain forests, but it should not be considered as the major indicator species in humid rain forests as is generally accepted.

  18. Study on the Basic Plague Pattern of Jianchuan Plague Natural Focus, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jie

    2001-01-01

    Since the plague natural focus of Jianchuan was found in 1974, it had broken the disputation whether Yunnan has plague natural focus among Chinese and foreign scholars for long. Because the focus locates the middle part of transversal mountains with higher biological diversity and complex landscape, many problems raised at beginning in distinguishing the major hosts and vectors, modeling the structure of the focus, and resolving the contradiction between theory and excitation. In review of that, according to the principle of unified of biological structure and function, the basic plague pattern has been systematically studied on through the generalized information concept in this paper. It suggests that the focus takes the community of Apodemus chevrieri + Rattus norvegicus : Neopsylla specialis + Frontopsylla. spadix + Menopsyllus anisus + Loptopsylla segnis as maintenance subsystem, the community of E. miletus:Ctenophthalmus quadratus + Neopsylla specialis as epidematic (amplifying) subsystem, the communities of squirrel rodent-flea as alternate subsystem. The relationship between subsystems is nonlinear. No human plague case is determined by the systematicness of the plague ecosystem. The possibility of human plague will remain in systemic changing or coming into chaos. Although most researches try to analysis of plague as system by means of experiments with many quantitative criterion, these measures are difficult to comprehension the systemic essence without application of the concept of systemic theory. They are often direct, discursive and paradoxical description of appearance rather than the analysis and generalization of interaction relationship between elements, thus reversing the basic ecological concept of Y.pestis as a living thing and agent of plague.

  19. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  20. Sequence analyses of ITS2 and CO1 genes of Paragonimus proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China and their similarities with those of P. hokuoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Yang, Bin-Bin; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Cui-Ying; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2008-05-01

    Among about 50 Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is a rare species characterized by extremely large metacercariae, most of which are present excysted in the crab hosts. Recently, this species was discovered by us in northern Vietnam as the first record outside of China. DNA sequences of both second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) genes of the metacercariae and adult worms of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates were identical with those of Paragonimus hokuoensis in the DNA database of the GenBank. To confirm those observations and to clarify the molecular phylogenetic status of P. proliferus, we determined the ITS2 and CO1 sequences of the metacercariae of P. proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China where the original specimen was discovered. The results show that both ITS2 and CO1 sequences of P. proliferus of the Chinese isolates are identical with those of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates and are also identical with those of P. hokuoensis that appeared in the DNA database (obtained in Yunnan province), suggesting the synonymy of P. hokuoensis with P. proliferus. By phylogenetic tree analyses, all samples of P. proliferus from China and Vietnam together with P. hokuoensis constructed a distinct group within, or very close to, Paragonimus skrjabini complex in both trees.

  1. Assessment of the Cadmium Exposure in the Blood, Diet, and Water of the Pumi People in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Feng, Yue-Mei; Wang, Song-Mei; Du, Yu-Qian; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metals. Accumulation of Cd in the human body can cause multiorgan dysfunction. Long-term irrational mining activities have led to serious Cd pollution in soil, water, and even agricultural products. Therefore, evaluating the Cd exposure levels of people living in mining areas is of great importance. In the current study, we chose the Pumi people who lived in Jinding and Tongdian towns of Lanping county in Yunnan province, China, to do the on-site nutritional epidemiology investigation and laboratory detection. We analyzed the content of the Cd in peripheral blood and mixed dietary, as well as water samples in the Pumi residents of the two towns. Results showed that the blood Cd levels of people in Jinding town, which is nearer the mining district, were statistically significantly higher than those in Tongdian town. The P 50 of blood Cd level of the two towns was 0.64 ng/mL. In addition, the P 50 of the mixed diet of the two towns was 8.32 μg/kg. There was a weak correlation between blood Cd levels and Cd exposure in the mixed diet, PTDI, and PTWI of the Pumi people. In addition, higher concentrations of Cd were observed in the water of Jinding town, indicating people in Jinding town risking more Cd exposure. These results indicated that diet and water are critical factors of Cd exposure for the residents and the nearer people living to mining district risking the more Cd exposure.

  2. Isotopic Ages of the Carbonatitic Volcanic Rocks in the Kunyang Rift Zone in Central Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbei; WANG Guilan; NIE Jianfeng; ZHAO Chongshun; XU Chengyan; QIU Jiaxiang; Wang Hao

    2003-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kunyang rift, which is located on the western margin of the Yangtze platform and the southern section of the Kangdian axis, is a rare massive Precambrian iron-copper polymetallic mineralization zone in China. The Mesoproterozoic Wulu (Wuding(Lufeng) basin in the middle of the rift is an elliptic basin controlled by a ring fracture system. Moreover, volcanic activities in the basin display zonation of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner ring with carbonatitic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic dykes discovered in the outer and middle rings. The Sm-Nd isochron ages have been determined for the outer-ring carbonatitic lavas (1685 Ma) and basaltic porphyrite of the radiating dyke swarm (1645 Ma) and the Rb-Sr isochron ages for the out-ring carbonatitic lavas (893 Ma) and the middle-ring dykes (1048 Ma). In combination of the U-Pb concordant ages of zircon (1743 Ma) in trachy-andesite of the corresponding period and stratum (1569 Ma) of the Etouchang Formation, as well as the Rb-Sr isochron age (1024 Ma) and K-Ar age (1186 Ma) of the dykes in the middle ring, the age of carbonatites in the basin is preliminarily determined. It is ensured that all of these carbonatites were formed in the Mesoproterozoic period, whereby two stages could be identified as follows: in the first stage, carbonatitic volcanic groups, such as lavas, pyroclastic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, were formed in the outer ring; in the second stage, carbonatitic breccias and dykes appeared in the middle ring. The metamorphic age of the carbonatitic lavas in the outer ring was determined to be concurrent with the end of the first stage of the Neoproterozoic period, corresponding to the Jinning movement in central Yunnan.

  3. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  4. The spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall erosivity in Yunnan Province, southwest China: An analysis of empirical orthogonal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xingwu; Gu, Zhijia; Li, Yungang; Xu, Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Rainfall erosivity (R) influences the formation mechanisms and succession processes of soil erosion. Knowing of the R factor facilitates the prediction of soil erosion and of the impact of climate change on erosion. However, defining of the R factor is challenging because its spatiotemporal variation can be complex. We combined the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), North criteria, and Mann-Kendall test (M-K) to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of the R factor for a study area in a typical mountain plateau region of Yunnan Province (YP), China. Daily rainfall records from 1960 to 2012 were collected from 115 national meteorological observation stations in YP. Based on the daily rainfall erosivity estimating model, we determined that the average annual R factor was 4383.85 MJ·mm·ha- 1·h- 1, the seasonal R factor exhibited an order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and the summer R was significantly higher than winter R. The spatiotemporal variation of the R factor was complex and did not reveal a uniform pattern. The spatial distribution revealed that the annual and seasonal R factors in the west were higher than those in the east, and R in the south were higher than those in the north. The temporal trends of annual, summer, and autumn R factors had decreasing trends from 1960 to 2012. On the contrary, the spring and winter R factors showed an increasing trend. The EOF analysis identified two typical spatiotemporal patterns of the annual R factor in YP, and three for spring, summer, autumn, and winter R factors. These patterns represented the influence of the monsoon, circulation systems, and complex terrain conditions on the rainfall in the YP.

  5. Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkali geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Duan, Yan-Yan; Zhou, En-Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Feng, Hui-Geng; Liu, Lan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant and Gram-stain negative bacterium, designated strain YIM 78007(T), was isolated from an alkaline geothermal soil sample from Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of strain YIM 78007(T) were observed to be aerobic and short rod-shaped. The colonies were observed to be orange-red, convex and circular. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 78007(T) clustered with members of the genus Roseomonas (with similarities from 97.2 to 92.2 %). Optimal growth of strain YIM 78007 occurs at 40-50 °C and pH 8.0-10.0. The predominant ubiquinone was identified as Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63 mol %. The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain YIM 78007(T) and its closet neighbours (Roseomonas lacus JCM 13283(T) and Roseomonas terrae JCM 14592(T)) were well below the threshold required for the proposal of a novel species. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the phylogenetic analysis, as well as low DNA-DNA hybridization values, allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78007(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain YIM 78007(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78007(T) (=BCRC 80644(T) = JCM 19656(T)).

  6. Partial AZFc duplications not deletions are associated with male infertility in the Yi population of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-jie YE; Li MA; Li-juan YANG; Jin-huan WANG; Yue-li WANG; Hai GUO; Ning GONG

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however,results are conflicting,possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background.The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population,residents within Yunnan Province,China.Methods:A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population.The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gone copy definition analysis.Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology.Results:The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups.The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs.8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs.8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences.Similarly,single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls.However,the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%).Further,we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes.Conclusions:Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications,but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions,suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.

  7. Irrigation system and land use effect on surface water quality in river, at lake Dianchi, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Tanaka; Takahiro Sato; Kazuo Watanabe; Ying Wang; Dan Yang; Hiromo Inoue; Kunzhi Li

    2013-01-01

    The surface water samples were collected in river Dahe and its tributaries,which flow into severely eutrophic lake Dianchi,Yunnan Province,China,in order to elucidate factors controlling water quality fluctuations.The temporal and spatial distribution of water quality tendency was observed.The water quality of each river is dependent on the hydrology effect such water gate and circulating irrigation system.We must consider the hydrology effect to accurately understand water quality variations of river in this study field.In river without highly circulating irrigation system or water gate effect,the downstream nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration increase occurred in area dominated by open field cultivation,whereas the NO3-N concentration was constant or decreased in area dominated by greenhouse land use.This result suggests that greenhouse covers the soil from precipitation,and nitrate load of greenhouse could be less than that of open field cultivation while the rainfall event.In the upper reaches of river,where is dominated by open field cultivation,there were no sharp increase dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus concentration,but P load was accumulated in the lower reaches of river,whose predominant land use is greenhouse.Although the P sources is unclear in this study,greenhouse area may have potential of P loads due to its high P content in greenhouse soil.Considering hydrology effect is necessary to determine what the major factor is influencing the water quality variation,especially in area with highly complicated irrigation system in this studying site.

  8. Permian fusulinid biostratigraphy of the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China with constraints on paleogeography and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Jin, Xiaochi

    2015-05-01

    Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south.

  9. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  10. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.. The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23 were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C → G at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  11. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suli Sun; Yuhua He; Cheng Dai; Canxing Duan; Zhendong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.). The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23) were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C→G) at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155-and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  12. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  13. FOUR NEW SPECIES OF COENOSIA MEIGEN (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE) FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qiXue; Yan-fengTong

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes four new species of Coenosia Meigen, 1826, namely C. angustifolia sp.nov., C. obscuriabdominis sp. nov. C. sparagmocerca sp. nov. and C. sponsa sp.nov. Type specimens are deposited in Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, China.

  14. CBERS-2B Monitored Forest Fires In Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rain.L

    2008-01-01

    @@ Several forest fires hit Yunnan Province,in the southwest of China from April 6 to 9.Two disastrous fires happened near Shangri-La County,Yunnan Province.According to the requirement of the Land and Surveying Department of Yunnan Province,the China Center for Resources Satellite Data & Application (CRESDA) provided satellite monitoring images to detect the events.The processed CBERS-2B images were delivered to the related departments for decision making and disaster relief.

  15. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU

    2005-01-01

    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  16. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  17. Proifle, spectrum and signiifcance of hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic HBV-infected patients in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing You; Bao-Zhang Tang; Hutcha Sriplung; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Alan Geater; Lin Zhuang; Jun-Hua Huang; Hong-Ying Chen; Lan Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There are signiifcant variations in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes throughout the world, and some genotypes are associated with different clinical outcomes. Eight genotypes of human HBV (designated A-H) have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the distribution of HBV genotypes among patients at various stages of chronic type B liver disease in Yunnan Province, China, and to explore its signiifcance and the relationship of HBV genotype with gender and age, clinical spectrum of chronic HBV infection, and viral replicative activity. METHODS:Serum samples from 126 patients with chronic HBV infection from Yunnan Province, including 26 chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC), 61 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (21 mild, 30 moderate and 10 severe), 20 patients with chronic fulminant hepatic failure (CFHF), 12 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) and 7 patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were analyzed using reverse dot blot (RDB) methodology, which is based on the reverse hybridization principle for HBV genotyping. The relations of HBV genotype with gender and age, clinical patterns, and serological data of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: In this series, genotypes A, B, C, and D were found. 38.1%patients (48/126) belonged to B, 54.8%(69/126) to C, 0.8%(1/126) to D, 1.6%(2/126) to a mixture of B and C, and 1.6%(2/126) to a mixture of A and C. 3.2%patients (4/126) had unknown genotypes. No other genotypes (E, F, G, and H) were found. Genotypes B and C were predominant. There was a statistically signiifcant difference in the distributions of genotypes C and B (χ2=7.04, P=0.008), and C was the dominant genotype in all patient categories. The rate of genotype B in the mild CHB group was signiifcantly higher than that in the moderate and severe groups (χ2=12.16, P=0.0001; χ2=11.98, P=0.001, respectively), the ASC group (χ2=5.46, P=0.02), the CFHF group (χ2

  18. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VISCOUS DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE JIANGJIA RAVINE, YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyi WANG; Chyandeng JAN; Changzhi LI; Wenliang HAN

    2001-01-01

    The rheological properties of natural debris flow are studied using experimental data obtained from a rheometer built by the authors. The present study is aimed to address the rheological properties of viscous debris flow at low shear rate. It is found that overstress effect and shear-rate-thinning phenomenon characterize the viscous debris flow in the Jiangjia Ravine, China. Results obtained from this study are believed to lay the foundation for further study on the theory of debris flow rheology.

  19. A re-interpretation of the exotic event observed in the cosmic ray at Yunnan Cosmic Ray Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆承瑞; 何祚庥; 高崇寿; 阮图南

    1995-01-01

    The exotic event observed in 1972 at Yunan Cosmic Ray Station (YCRS) has been re-interpreted as a collision between a high energy heavy particle with a nucleon. with three charged particles identified as the final products. If no other missing neutral particles were produced in this collision, then one of the three particles C- could be assigned with mass Mcd>45 GeV. and life-time . If C- is unstable it can decay via weak interaction to C0 and a pair of lepions. the mass difference between C- and C is estimated as less than 0.270GeV The relevance of this event to the dark matter problem in the Universe is also discussed.

  20. Fine-tuning of age integrating magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and carbonate cyclicity: Example of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin (Yunnan, China) covering the past 1 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shouyun; Goddu, Srinivasa Rao; Appel, Erwin; Verosub, Ken

    2007-05-01

    High-resolution magnetostratigraphy, wavelength spectra of carbonate cyclicities, and AMS radiocarbon dating are integrated to establish an optimum age model for a 168 m long drill core of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A 14C age of 51.62 +2.42/-1.85 kyr BP is obtained at a depth of 7.3 m. Remanent magnetization is carried by maghemite and partly in addition by magnetite, both showing the same direction. The polarity sequence clearly reveals the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary at 141.5 m. Blake Event is found between 16.3 and 17.5 m, and the upper boundary of Jaramillo is indicated at 167.0 m. Carbonate content and magnetic susceptibility were used for spectral analysis. Fourier analysis was done on the depth section for sliding windows with different window lengths. The spectra within the range of window centers (30-140 m) show a dominant long wavelength, which changes from about 18.5 m in the lower part (>65 m depth) to about 14.5 m in the upper part (B/M boundary and Blake Event match very well with this model, but the age of Jaramillo is strongly underestimated. Fourier spectra of sliding windows slightly indicate a drop of the sedimentation rate at the lowermost part of the core. An optimum age model is calculated by cubic spline interpolation using tie points from 14C dating, magnetostratigraphy ('true' ages of Blake Event, B/M boundary, and Jaramillo), and wavelengths of carbonate (change in sedimentation rate at 65 m). Alternative depth-to-age transfer functions were tested, i.e. a wavelength age model (using sedimentation rates with 14C as a tie point), a cyclostratigraphic model (using bandpass-filtered carbonate data corresponding to 95 kyr eccentricity cycles) and correlation of carbonate variations to the marine oxygen isotope curve. However, none of the approaches lead to a convincing Milankovitch spectrum of whole-core carbonate data. The Fourier spectra of whole-core carbonate and susceptibility time

  1. Social Factors to Aggravate Disasters in Yunnan in Late Imperial China%清末民初云南灾荒加剧的社会因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立文

    2012-01-01

    云南的自然环境极具灾害性。明清以降至清末民初,由于人口急速膨胀、农田过度开垦和山林矿藏的掠夺式开发,云南生态环境迅速恶化,进而加速加剧了各类自然灾害的发生;农业与家庭手工业相结合的自然经济又从根本上限制了社会抗灾减荒能力的生成与提高。封建剥削、战乱兵祸及列强的经济掠夺、迷信赌毒等造成社会环境的全面恶化,各族民众极度贫困,加重了灾后饥荒疾疫的蔓延与流行。中央与地方政府的荒政长久缺失,导致云南赈灾救荒活动严重乏力。总之,清末民初的云南已完全陷入人为破坏生态环境加剧自然灾害频发、逢灾必荒的结果加速了社会环境的恶化、社会环境恶化又加重了饥荒的蔓延这一恶性循环过程。%Yunnan is prone to natural disasters due to its environment. From the Ming and Qing dynasties to late imperial China, population explosion, over-farming, predatory exploitation of forests and minerals, and ecological damages aggravated all kinds of natural disasters in Yunnan on one hand, and on the other hand, natural economy of agriculture and household handicrafts weakened the power of society to prevent and reduce disasters. Feudal exploitation, government's taxes, wars, bandits, economic plunder of imperialists, superstition, gambling and drugs deteriorated social environment, and extreme poverty of ethnic people speeded.up the wide spread of famine and epidemic after disasters. Neither the central government nor the local governments made policies to deal with natural disasters. As a result, disaster relief in Yunnan was seriously weak. All in all, Yunnan in late imperial China was ecological damages leading to frequent natural disasters which totally stuck into a vicious circle of man-made then would deteriorate social environment, and which in turn would result in prolonged famines.

  2. The floras of southern and tropical southeastern Yunnan have been shaped by divergent geological histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The southern and tropical southeastern regions of the Yunnan Province in southwestern China have similar monsoonal climates and lowland tropical rain forest vegetations. The floras of both regions are dominated by tropical floristic elements (78.3% in southern Yunnan and 68.83% in southeastern Yunnan), and both belong to the Indo-Malaysian flora at the northern margin of tropical Asia. However, some temperate East Asian characteristic families are well represented in the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan, while families characteristic of tropical Asia are well represented in the flora of southern Yunnan. Additionally, there are 14 mainly east Asian families in tropical southeastern Yunnan that are not found in southern Yunnan. Although the two regions share 80% of their genera, 237 genera are restricted to southern Yunnan, and 349 genera to tropical southeastern Yunnan. Furthermore, 57 genera with an East Asian distribution, 53 genera with a North temperate distribution, 22 genera endemic to China, and 17 genera with an East Asia and North America disjunct distribution are found only in tropical southeastern Yunnan. The flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan is more closely related to Eastern Asian flora, while the flora of southern Yunnan is more closely related to Indo-Malaysian flora. The divergence of the flora is well supported by the geological history of the region; the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan was mainly derived from the South China Geoblock, while the southern Yunnan flora derived from the Shan-Thai Geoblock.

  3. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  4. PGE geochemistry and Re Os dating of massive sulfide ores from the Baimazhai Cu Ni deposit, Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengwei; Sun, Weidong; Shi, Guiyong; Sun, Yali; Xiong, Dexin; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2008-09-01

    The Baimazhai deposit in Yunnan Province is one of the largest Cu-Ni sulfide deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions in China. Concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) in massive sulfide ores and host rocks from Baimazhai were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following nickel sulfide fire assay pre-concentration. The results show that the total PGE (ΣPGE) are quite low, decreasing gradually from central massive ores (78.2-556 ppb) to olivine pyroxenite (0.472-67.0 ppb), gabbro (0.847 ppb) and, websterite (0.76-0.809). The intruded lamprophyre dykes also show low ΣPGE (2.98-4.07 ppb). The ΣPGE exhibit obvious positive correlations with Au, Ni and Cu contents. Primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns of the massive Cu-Ni ores are of the Pt-Pd type with relatively steep and trough-like patterns, which are similar to those of the host rocks. In addition, the Pt/Pd and Cu/Pd ratios of the massive sulfide ores are similar to those of olivine pyroxenite, gabbro and websterite. These characteristics suggest that sulfides in the massive ores are of magmatic origin, co-genetic with their host rocks. The relatively high Pt/Pd ratios of the Baimazhai massive sulfide ores (averaging 0.83) and their host rocks imply that the Baimazhai sulfides formed in a single sulfide saturation event, but not through multiple sulfide injections. High Ir contents (0.77-5.52 ppb, averaging 2.35 ppb) and dramatically variable Pd/Ir ratios (4.76-296, averaging 138) of the massive sulfide ores suggest that the Baimazhai sulfide ores might have suffered significant late stage hydrothermal alteration. The Baimazhai massive sulfide ores yield a Re-Os isochron age of 259 ± 20 Ma (MSWD = 0.025), which is the same as the major eruption stage of the Emeishan large igneous province and the Baimazhai intrusion, further supporting their magmatic origin. The initial 187Os/ 188Os value of 0.456 ± 0.026 indicates that crustal contamination has played

  5. Telescoping ore targets by geochemical exploration at multiple scales in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Platinum has been one of the highly needed mineral resources in China.The geochemical exploration at two survey scales was applied in telescoping ore targets for the first time in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province that was delineated using Pt data from flood plain sediments with extra-low sampling density.Our study was based on the delineations and assessments of both regional and local Pt anomalies using the Pt data by analyzing with C-OES the composite samples with two sampling densities.The composite samples were obtained by recomposing at two sampling densities the original stream sediment samples collected by the National Geochemical Mapping Project.Semivariograms were used to quantitatively describe the variability of Pt anomalies and further analyze the factors controlling the variability.Pt resource potentials of both the regional Pt anomalies and the local Pt anomalies in the study area were estimated based on the geochemical block methods,respectively.It comes to the conclusions as follows.(1) From the regional to local Pt anomaly,the factors controlling their variability from the deep seated faults-basalts turn into the basalts-branch faults,which suggest that Semivariograms could identify the geological factors controlling the variability of the Pt anomalies identified by the Pt data from the stream sediments with different sampling densities.(2) There exist two types of Pt anomalies in the study area.One is those displaying at sampling densities,and its average Pt concentration significantly increases with sampling density increasing.The other is getting weaker and/or disappears with sampling density increasing.This shows that TOTGEMS could gradu-ally eliminate non-ore anomalies and keep ore anomalies.(3) The average Pt concentration of the local Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from stream sediments with sampling density of one composite per 16 km2 is twice as much as that of the regional Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from

  6. Establishing Priorities for Sustainable Environmental Design in the Rural Villages of Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pitts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses sustainable rural village development in China. Rural development is unlike the process of urbanization in Chinese cities and reflects different land ownership rules and different organizational structures. Even though there are an increasing number of Chinese residents in cities, there are still more than 600 million people living in the countryside. The attention lavished on city development has been, in part, now refocused to rural villages. Since 2006, the support for large-scale investment in the countryside has created much change; however, not all of this change is well organized, with potential for less than optimum impacts on the environment and sustainability. The paper identifies the key influences and drivers from historic and contemporary points of view. The sustainability of the villages will derive from long-term self-sufficiency, and this must include the understanding of environmental design principles, which enable suitable dwelling design. Two villages are taken as contrasting examples, and information derived from other sources is discussed. Technologies and techniques that can help determine environmental design priorities are evaluated and directions for future development suggested. This includes development of a design support aid with key drivers of: orientation and site location, window design and key construction features.

  7. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  8. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  9. Multi-system geochronological and isotopic constraints on age and evolution of the Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt and shear zone system in western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroğlu, Sümeyya; Siebel, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Chen, Fukun

    2013-09-01

    The Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt, located east of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) in the Yunnan province, southwestern China, is a compelling region in which to determine temporal constrains on crustal dynamic processes related to the Himalayan orogeny. We applied multi-system geo- and thermochronology (900 °C to extrusion of Tibet and crustal movement around the EHS. The final stage of exhumation of the Gaoligongshan occurred between 8 and 5 Ma at an average exhumation rate of ∼3 km/Ma as documented by apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He data. This rapid exhumation was triggered by crustal root delamination and opening of the Andaman sea. Our results clearly show that the complex tectonothermal evolution of the Gaoligongshan was influenced by Tibetan extrusion and escape tectonics associated with lower crustal flow around the EHS and the southeastward movement of Indochina and back-arc extension in response to Andaman seafloor spreading.

  10. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  11. Contents of Fixed-Ammonium (NH4+) in Lamprophyres in the Zhenyuan Gold Orefield, Yunnan Province, China:Implications for Its Characteristics of the Source Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 黄智龙; 罗泰义

    2004-01-01

    This paper determined the fixed-ammonium (NH+4) contents of lamprophyres in the Zhenyuan gold orefield, Yunnan Province, China. The results show that the NH+4 contents of minettes in the orefield range from 120×10 -6 to 469×10 -6 and those of kersantites from 74.3 ×10 -6 to 136×10 -6 . These values are higher than those of other mantle-derived rocks (less than 50×10 -6 ), but lower than those of carbonaceous wall rocks in the orefield (from 1200×10 -6 to 1343×10 -6 ). Combining with the Sr isotopic composition, this paper suggested that lamprophyres in the orefield with high NH+4 contents relative to other mantle-derived rocks would not have resulted from the primary magma contaminated by crustal materials in the process of rising or in the magma chamber, but from mantle metasomatism.

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of tuff from the Kunyang Group in central Yunnan: Evidence for Grenvillian orogeny in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ChuanHeng; GAO LinZhi; WU ZhenJie; SHI XiaoYing; YAN QuanRen; LI DaJian

    2007-01-01

    Whether or not Grenvillian orogeny occurred in South China still remains highly controversial because high-quality, discriminating data are lacking, and therefore, the key to resolve this matter is to find datable volcanic and/or sedimentary rocks related to Grenvillian orogeny. Such rocks are apparently present in the Fuliangpeng Member from the lower-middle part of Kunyang Group in central Yunnan;here the unit is more than 100 m thick and consists of andesitic ignimbrite, tuffite, terrigeous clastic rocks and carbonates. These volcanic rocks, developed south of the Sibao fold-thrust belts, represent the earliest calc-alkaline volcanic activity in late Precambrian time from central Yunnan and are coeval with both a change in sedimentary facies from detritus to carbonates and the beginning of seismite development elsewhere. Two samples for SHRIMP analysis were collected from this volcanic unit.Sample G3-29-2, from the bottom of Fuliangpeng Member, is an ignimbrite, and about 100 zircon crystals recovered from it have euhedral shapes and display relatively simple sector zonation under cathodoluminescent (CL) imaging, suggesting a magmatogenic origin. Twenty-five of the zircons were analyzed and a weighed-mean U-Pb age of 1032±9 Ma was obtained. Sample G3-29-3 from uppermost part of Fuliangpeng Member is a tuffite, and many rounded, evidently detrital zircons were recovered.Nine of these zircons were analyzed, and the oldest single-grain U-Pb zircon age is 1938±26 Ma, implying that Paleoproterozoic basement developed in Cathaysia. The dating result, combined with the geotectonic research on the Fuliangpeng Member, leads us to conclude that late Mesoproterozoic orogenic volcanic activity occurred in the western part of South China, and that the related collision of Yangtze and Cathaysian cratons was an integral part of the assembly of Rodinia.

  13. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  14. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO2 emission changes during 1997–2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO2 emissions, during 2002–2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO2 emissions, during 2007–2012, the carbon intensity of Yunnan’s economy decreased substantially because the province vigorously developed hydropower and improved energy efficiency in energy-intensive sectors. Construction investments not only carbonized the GDP composition, but also formed a carbon-intensive production structure because of high-carbon supply chains. To further mitigate CO2 emissions in Yunnan, measures should promote the development and application of clean energy and the formation of consumption-based economic growth.

  15. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic characteristics of natural gases from the Luliang and Baoshan basins in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yongchang; LIU Wenhui; SHEN Ping; WANG Wanchun; WANG Xiaofeng; Tenger; YAN Yaomin; LIU Ruobin

    2006-01-01

    The Luliang and Baoshan basins of Yunnan Province are two small-sized continental oil/gas-bearing sedimentary basins, which were developed at the bases of the Carboniferous and Devonian systems during the Late Tertiary, covering an area of 325 km2 and 254 km2, respectively.Since the 1990s, there have been discovered small-sized natural gas pools in these two basins. The natural gases are composed mainly of hydrocarbon gases, with nonhydrocarbons accounting for less than 2%. Of the hydrocarbon gases, methane accounts for more than 99%, and the components above C2 account for less than 0.2%. On the basis of previous studies of geological background, the composition of natural gases and their carbon isotopic composition, it has been defined that these two gas pools are of bacterial origin. In this work we have comprehensively measured the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of natural gases from these two basins and have gone into the details of the mechanism of gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Luliang Basin are within the range of -72.1‰--73.3‰, and the δDcH4 values, -242‰--234‰, indicating that the bacterial gas generation is dominated by the way of CO2 reduction. It has been evidenced that under continental-facies fresh water conditions there did occur the CO2 reduction as a process of bacterial gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Baoshan Basin are within the range of -62.5‰--63.5‰, and the δDCH4 values, -252‰--260‰. These isotopic characteristics are fallen into transitional phase of acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction as defined by Whiticar et al. (1986).An important discovery in the Luliang Basin is the carbon isotopic composition of ethane of purely biogenetic origin, i.e., its δ13C2 values are within the range of -61.2‰--66.0‰. These carbon isotopic values have been reported for the first time in China. As compared to the δ13C2 values of less than -55‰ for the two cases

  16. Genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Tao; ZHANG HanBo; DING HuaSun; LI ZongJu; CHENG LiZhong; ZHAO ZhiWei; ZHANG YaPing

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake, we studied ITS and IGS1 sequences and PCR polymorphism of a retrotransposon in 56 fruit bodies collected from 13 counties of 9 regions in Yunnan Province. We found one and three haplotypes based on ITS and IGS1 sequences, respectively.Moreover, there was no significant difference in PCR polymorphism of the retrotransposon among different populations. Compared with Jilin Province (China) and Japanese populations, although Yunnan was highly homogenous to Japanese populations, Iow genetic diversity of T. matsutake in Yunnan did not support the view that this species originated from Yunnan.

  17. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  18. REE geochemistry of lamprophyres in Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, China: implication for the mantle source region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Tao; HUANG Zhilong; XU Cheng; ZHANG Zhenliang; YAN Zaifei; SHEN Baojian

    2005-01-01

    Based on the REE geochemistry data from the Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, the authors modeled the composition of the mantle source region by way of petrological mixing calculation, and further discussed the genesis of this type of rocks. Both element geochemistry data and mixing calculation showed that lamprophyres in the Baimazhai nickel deposit were derived from a metasomatism-enrichment mantle and the fluids resulted from dehydration of a subducted slab which is comprised of ALK-, LREE- and incompatible element-rich sediments.

  19. Mineralogical, crystallographic, and isotopic constraints on the precipitation of aragonite and calcite at Shiqiang and other hot springs in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2016-11-01

    Two active spring vent pools at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China) are characterized by a complex array of precipitates that coat the wall around the pool and the narrow ledges that surround the vent pool. These precipitates include arrays of aragonite crystals, calcite cone-dendrites, red spar calcite, unattached dodecahedral and rhombohedral calcite crystals, and late stage calcite that commonly coats and disguises the earlier formed precipitates. Some of the microbial mats that grow on the ledges around the pools have been partly mineralized by microspheres that are formed of Si and minor amounts of Fe. The calcite and aragonite that are interspersed with each other at all scales are both primary precipitates. Some laminae, for example, change laterally from aragonite to calcite over distances of only a few millimetres. The precipitates at Shiqiang are similar to precipitates found in and around the vent pools of other springs found in Yunnan Province, including those at Gongxiaoshe, Zhuyuan, Eryuan, and Jifei. In all cases, the δDwater and δ18Owater indicate that the spring water is of meteoric origin. These are thermogene springs with the carrier CO2 being derived largely from the mantle and reaction of the waters with bedrock. Variations in the δ13Ctravertine values indicate that the waters in these springs were mixed, to varying degrees, with cold groundwater and its soil-derived CO2. Calcite and aragonite precipitation took place once the spring waters had become supersaturated with respect to CaCO3, probably as a result of rapid CO2 degassing. These precipitates, which were not in isotopic equilibrium with the spring water, are characterized by their unusual crystal morphologies. The precipitation of calcite and aragonite, seemingly together, can probably be attributed to microscale variations in the saturation levels that are, in turn, attributable to microscale variations in the rate of CO2 degassing.

  20. Late Miocene Woods of Taxodiaceae from Yunnan, China%云南中新世杉科化石木研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扆铁梅; 李承森; 徐景先

    2003-01-01

    利用光学显微镜和扫描电镜首次对云南省楚雄州晚中新世石灰坝组石鼓村层的钙化木材进行了解剖学研究.鉴定出两种类型的木材:柳杉型落羽杉型木(Taxodioxylon cryptomeripsoides Schonfeld)和杉木型落羽杉型木(Taxodioxylon cunninghamioides Watari).二者分别与现代柳杉属和杉木属具有最接近的亲缘关系.根据这两种杉科化石木现存最近亲缘种的生态环境,并综合其他资料,推测该地区在晚中新世为温暖湿润的亚热带气候环境.%Late Miocene woods were investigated from the Lühe Basin in Chuxiong Borough, central Yunnan, China. The calcified woods preserved in the Shigucun member of the Shihuiba Formation, are represented by fallen logs and stumps. Two species of fossil wood, Taxodioxylon cryptomeripsoides Schonfeld 1953 and T. cunninghamioides Watari 1948, are described. Their anatomical structure shows striking similarities to the woods of Cryptomeria and Cunninghamia respectively. That the two fossil woods are classed in the Taxodiaceae suggest a subtropical, humid, and warm environment in Lühe during Late Miocene. They compare favorably to other fossil specimens and species reported from localities ranging from Cretaceous to Pliocene. This is the first record of the presence of the species T. cryptomeripsoides and T. cunninghamioides in Late Miocene of Yunnan.

  1. Population-based study on the prevalence of and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-lu Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix. Prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes vary among different regions. However there is no data on the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes from southwest China. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for HR-HPV infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China to provide comprehensive baseline data for future screening strategies. Methods A sample of 5936 women was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS. An epidemiological questionnaire was conducted via a face-to-face interview and cervical specimens were taken for HPV DNA testing by Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test. HPV Genotyping Reverse Hybridization Test was used for HPV genotyping. Proportions were compared by Chi-squared tests, and logistic regression was utilized to evaluate risk factors. Results The median age was 38 years and the inter-quartile range was from 31 years to 47 years. 97.3% of the study population was Han nationality. Overall prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 8.3% (494/5936 and bimodal age distribution of HPV infection was observed. The five most prevalent HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16(3.4%, HPV-56(1.7%, HPV-58(1.4%, HPV-33(1.2% and HPV-52(0.88%. Multiple HPV infections were identified in 50.5% (208/412 of the positive genotyping specimens. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated that parity (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.53, p  Conclusions This study provided baseline data on HR-HPV prevalence in the general female population in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China. The finding of multiple HPV infections and bimodal age distribution revealed that HPV screening is necessary for perimenopausal women in future.

  2. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi in roots of nine Holcoglossum plants (Orchidaceae) collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Chun-Lan; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Cui, Jin-Long; Chen, Juan; Guo, Shun-Xing; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2012-02-01

    Holcoglossum is one of the smaller genera of Orchidaceae, mainly distributed in southwest China. Some members of this genus as well as H. rupestre and H. flavescens are endemic and rare Chinese orchids. As far as we know, little work has been done concerning the relationships between the Holcoglossum plants and endophytic microorganisms. In this study, 46 culturable fungal endophytes were isolated and identified from roots of nine Holcoglossum plants collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan provinces of China based on molecular techniques. The results showed that all strains belonged to four classes, i.e., Sordariomycetes (41.30%), Dothideomycetes (36.96%), Agaricomycetes (17.39%), Leotiomycetes (4.35%). Thirty-six strains were identified at the genus level, including Alternaria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Colletotrichum, Cosmospora, Cryptosporiopsis, Cylindrocarpon, Didymella, Epulorhiza (Anamorphic Tulasnella), Fusarium, Myrmecridium, Leptosphaeria, Paraconiothyrium, Phomopsis, Pyrenochaeta, and Stephanonectria. Fusarium and Epulorhiza (Anamorphic Tulasnella) were the dominant fungal endophytes. Some orchids mycorrhizal fungi as well as Tulasnella calospora and Epulorhiza sp. were found in roots. This is the first report concerning endophytic fungi from Holcoglossum plants (Orchidaceae), suggesting that endophytic fungi in Holcoglossum plants are very abundant.

  3. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp. in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp. abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions.

  5. A Study on the Standardization of Court Interpretation and Suggestions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2016-01-01

    In order to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of all parties, ensure the justice of legal proceedings and main-tain the Chinese judicial system's positive international image, high quality interpretation of legal proceedings is extremely im-portant. This paper will analyze the nature of court interpreting and draw lessons from successful foreign practices. Moreover, some thoughts and suggestions will be presented for the establishment of national court interpreting standards in China.

  6. An Interpretation of the Influential Power of China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hailin; Guo Chaoxian

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on China's economic develop- ment, utilization of resource environment and soft power, a basic judgment was made of the influence of "China development". The overall influential power of China development on international community was misunderstood. What we see is the role of "China Factor" in different fields. In the process of economic globalization, what economic system of capitalist market has seen is "China's cheap labor", "China's loose economic system environment", "earlier abuse of unlimited resource environment", "China's broad consumption market" and "demographic dividend". In global or Asian financial crisis, what other countries valued was China's "foreign currency" accumulated over the years. In global gov- ernance or crisis management, what international community expected was "China's obligations and responsibilities" without the right of speech, etc.. All these are the "passive" roles produced by "a single factor" in definite fields. The active and initiative role China will play in international community still needs time and the continuous efforts of several generations. China once was a big country that had significant inftuential power on the world, and China's renaissance is a normal process of development of things. What excessive talks about its influential power reflect may be the lack of China's influence.

  7. Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping of Yujiacun Ore Field in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Zhang Shouting

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate information comprehensive processing technique is especially important at present to the digital mineral prospecting. However, the GIS-based weights of evidence have provided us with a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mineral resource potential. In this paper, the mineralization model is established, based on the achievements made by previous researchers, to mend such deficiencies as few references on ore fields in Yujiacun, Yunnan Province and the shortage of quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources. In addition, the weights of evidence are used to make a systematic quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources there, so that 2 mineral prospecting target areas of grade I and 8 mineral prospecting target areas of grade Ⅱ are delineated,providing the further mineral resource exploration with the basis for the selection of mineral deposits.

  8. Investigation of methanogenic community structures in rural biogas digesters from different climatic regions in Yunnan, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Li, Qiumin; Tian, Guangliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yingjuan; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Zhang, Wudi; Cui, Xiaolong

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of the microbial community structures of the biogas digesters in different climatic regions can help improve the methane production in the fermentation process. The methanogenic archaeal diversity in four rural biogas digesters (BNA, JSA, LJA, and XGA) was investigated by a culture-independent rRNA approach in different climatic regions in Yunnan. Community structure composed of 711 clones in the all libraries. A total of 33 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, and major groups of methanogens were the orders Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales. 63.2 % of all archaeal OTUs belong to the order Methanosarcinales which mostly contain acetotrophic methanogens. Methanomicrobiales (19.5 % in all OTUs) were detected in considerable number. Additionally, there were minor rates of uncultured archaea. The principal component analysis indicated that the genus Methanosaeta was mainly affected by the fermentation temperatures.

  9. New species of Saurichthys(Actinopterygii:Saurichthyidae)from Middle Triassic(Anisian)of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feixiang; SUN Yuanlin; HAO Weicheng; JIANG Dayong; XU Guanghui; SUN Zuoyu; Andrea TINTORI

    2009-01-01

    Saurichthys dawaziensis sp.nov.,from the third member of the Gejiu Formation (Anisian of Middle Triassic)in the vicinity of Luoping,Yunnan Province,is a small to medium-sized saurichthyid fish.It is characterized by the efferent pseudobranchial arteries penetrating on the parasphenoid and the mandible sensory canal with a branch in the angular.The new species is more derived than the Lower Triassic species in having a relatively narrow postorbitai region,short preopercular,single ossification of the sclerotic ring,small haemal arches between the pelvic fins and the anal fin without ossified spines,and in the absence of quadratujugal.It is more primitive than the Middle and Upper Triassic Saurichthys in having fringing fulcra and numerous segments in the unpaired fins,and the the vertebral column and unpaired fins of the genus are also discussed.

  10. Relationship between Rice Cultural Diversity and Ecological Environment in Yunnan Province of China%中国云南稻作文化多样性与生态环境的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亚文; 杜娟; 普晓英; 罗曦; 杨树明; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper aims to confirm that Yunnan is one origin center of rice and human in the world.[Method] The complicated and unique ecological environment in Yunnan makes Yunnan Province the largest center of genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being as well as the cradle of human childhood.[Result] The genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being is closely related to the ecosystem diversity.Rice civilization in Yunnan can be divided into four types,including the diversity center region of rice civilization in southwestern Yunnan,diffusion region of rice civilization of Hani-Zhuang in southern Yunnan,rice civilization region of water-drought rotation in central Yunnan and poverty region of rice civilization in northern Yunnan.Southwestern Yunnan is not only the center of genetic ecological diversity and rice cultural diversity,but also the center of origin and diversity of crop genetic diversity.It is not only a transitional region among East Asia continent,South Asian sub-continent and Indo-China Peninsula,but also a core integration area of Chinese culture,Indian culture and Mid-south Peninsula culture which all merge with the local culture.[Conclusion] Yunnan is one common sphere where the origin of human evolution is closely related to the origin of rice evolution.%[目的]探讨云南是世界稻种和人类的起源中心之一。[方法]复杂的而独特的云南生态环境造就了云南成为中国稻种最大的遗传多样性和文化多样性中心及其人类童年的摇篮。[结果]云南稻种和人类遗传多样性及其文化多样性与生态系统多样性息息相关;云南稻作文化可划分为滇西南稻作文化多样性中心区、滇南哈尼壮族稻作文化扩散区、滇中水旱轮作稻作文化区和滇北稻作文化贫乏区四大类型。滇西南既是云南稻种的遗传生态多样中心和稻作文化多样性中心,又是云南作物种质资源起源及其多样化

  11. Morphological diversity of Trichuris spp. eggs observed during an anthelminthic drug trial in Yunnan, China, and relative performance of parasitologic diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Du, Zun-Wei; Marti, Hanspeter; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large Trichuris spp. eggs in human faecal samples is occasionally reported. Such eggs have been described as variant Trichuris trichiura or Trichuris vulpis eggs. Within the frame of a randomised controlled trial, faecal samples collected from 115 Bulang individuals from Yunnan, People's Republic of China were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique (fresh stool samples) and the FLOTAC and ether-concentration techniques (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples). Large Trichuris spp. eggs were noted in faecal samples with a prevalence of 6.1% before and 21.7% after anthelminthic drug administration. The observed prevalence of standard-sized T. trichiura eggs was reduced from 93.0% to 87.0% after treatment. Considerably more cases of large Trichuris spp. eggs and slightly more cases with normal-sized T. trichiura eggs were identified by FLOTAC compared to the ether-concentration technique. No large Trichuris spp. eggs were observed on the Kato-Katz thick smears.

  12. A New Lycopsid, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation of Southeastern Yunnan, China,and Its Evolutionary Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new plant, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Posongchong Formation (Early Devonian, Pragian age) of the Wenshan District of southeastern Yunnan Province, China is a small herbaceous lycopsid. The aerial branches divide into foliar and fertile stems. The arrangement of the leaf bases on the stem shows lepidodendroid-like phyllotaxy. Possibly the leaf base bears a ligulate pit.The microphyll consists of a swollen, decurrent base, and an entire, linear lamina. The fertile axis is composed of sporophylls arranged helically, forming a compact area similar to cone-like structure.Each sporophyll consists of a widened lateral extension and a distal lamina. The ovoid-elongate sporangia are attached adaxially on the surface of sporophylls. Based on morphological similarities,especially the undivided microphylls, the style of phyllotaxy, the form of the cone-like structures and sporangia, the new lycopsid Zhenglia radiata is placed in the order Protolepidodendrales and a possible evolutionary relationship with the arborescent lycopsids of the Late Devonian and Carboniferous is considered.

  13. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乐昌; 王焰新; 吕俊文; 卢学实; 刘耀驰; 刘晓阳

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of radioactive pollutants, such as 222Rn, U, Th and 226Ra in the air, surface waters, soils and crops around the Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China, is studied. The mechanical, geochemical and biogeochemical processes responsible for the transport and fate of the radioactive elements are discussed based on the monitoring data. The pollutants concentrations of effluents from the mine tunnels were dependent on pH and which were controlled by biochemical oxidation of sulfide in the ore/host rocks. Radon anomalies in air reached 4 km from the tailings pile depending on radon release from the site, topography and climate. 238U and 226Ra abnormities in stream sediments and soil were 40-90 cm deep and 790-800 m away downstream. Anomalies of radioactive contaminants of surface watercourses extended 7.5-13 km from the discharge of effluents of the site mainly depending on mechanical and chemical processes. There were about 2.86 ha rice fields and 1.59 km stream sediments contaminated. Erosion of tailings and mining debris with little or no containment or control accelerated the contamination processes.

  14. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  15. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kavanaugh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan Plateau.

  16. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  17. Soil Erosion under Different Land Use Types and Zones of Jinsha River Basin in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui

    2004-01-01

    Severe soil erosion in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River has been regarded as a major environmental problem. The on-site impact of soil erosion on agricultural production and the off-site impact on floods and sedimentation in Yangtze Rive are well known. A quantitative assessment of soil erosion intensity is still scanty for developing appropriate soil erosion control measures for different land use types and zones in this region. This article constructs a localized USLE and estimates the average soil loss in the Jinsha River Region in Yunnan Province, one of the priority areas for soil erosion control in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The estimation is done under different land uses and zones in this basin. The estimation shows that while soil erosion in the cultivated land is the most severe, 36~40% of the garden and forest land suffers from soil erosion of various degrees due to lack of ground cover and other factors. Soil erosion in the pasture is modest when the ground cover is well maintained. It also confirmed that terracing can reduce soil erosion intensity significantly on the cultivated land. Research findings suggest that sufficient attention must be paid to regeneration of the ground cover in reforestation programs. In addition to mass reforestation efforts, restoration of grassland and terracing of the cultivated land should also play an important role in erosion control.

  18. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  19. Levels,trends and risk assessment of arsenic pollution in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic contamination accident in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan has been of wide concern.In order to investigate the arsenic distribution and concentration trends after the accident,samples including lake water,sediments,soil,aquatic organisms and crops were collected in November 2008,as well as in February,May and September 2009.The average arsenic concentrations (arithmetic average) in lake water in the four sampling events were 176.9,147.3,159.3,and 161.1 μg/L,while those in the sediments were 32.87,62.41,62.99,and 46.96 μg/g,respectively.The highest content of total arsenic in soil in the vicinity of Yangzonghai was 23.33 μg/g,which was below the limits of the relevant national standard.The total arsenic levels in most aquatic plants were in the range of 100-200 μg/g,with Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara having the highest concentration of ~300 μg/g.The arsenic levels of fish and shrimps were in the range of 1.52-11.4 μg/g (dry weight).

  20. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities since the Holocene in Erhai catchment, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ji; YANG Liyuan; YANG Xiangdong; R. Matsumoto; TONG Guobang; ZHU Yuxin; ZHANG Zhenke; WANG Sumin

    2005-01-01

    According to high-resolution analyses on multi-proxy of sediment core from the Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, the sequence of climatic and environmental change since the Holocene has been reconstructed based on accurate dating. The results show that climate had transited from cold-wet to warm-wet during ca. 12950-8399 aBP in this area, and the transition happened in ca. 10329 aBP. Due to the enhancing southwest Asian monsoon and increasing precipitation, the lake-level of the Erhai Lake began to rise after ca. 10329 a BP. Climate in the catchment was warm and wet during the mid-Holocene, and the warmest stage appeared in ca.8399-6371 a BP. The lake-level descended in the mid-Holocene because of the decrease of effective moisture in the basin. Human activities appeared in ca. 6371 a BP, and the initial manner mainly focused on deforestation. Up to ca. 2139 a BP, due to the amount of immigration into this area, the cultivation was developed widely, which was followed by mining (coal mine).

  1. [Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics under tourism disturbance in lakeside wetland of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Yan; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of vegetation and soil were investigated in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands in northwest Yunnan Plateau under tourism disturbance. The 22 typical plots in the wetlands were classified into 4 types by TWINSPAN, including primary wetland, light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation. Along the degradation gradient, the plant community density, coverage, species number and Shannon diversity index increased and the plant height decreased in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands, and Whittaker diversity index increased in Bita Lake wetland. Plant species number, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents were higher in Shudu Lake wetland than in Bita Lake wetland, but the plant density, height, soil total potassium and pH were opposite. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by importance values of 42 plants and 11 soil variables showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium were the key factors on plant species distribution in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands under tourism disturbance. TWINSPAN classification and analysis of vegetation-soil characteristics indicated the effects of tourism disturbance in Bita Lake wetland were larger than in Shudu Lake wetland.

  2. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  3. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  4. Isolation of Totivirus from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Yunnan province, China%云南省三带喙库蚊中分离到Toti病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 卢云兰; 曾旭灿; 陶娅琳; 周红宁; 张久松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the isolated virus (ML-13) from mosquitoes in Yunnan province, China by molecular biology techniques. Methods The new virus isolate (ML-13) was amplified by C6/36 cells. The viral gene was amplified and sequenced using several sets of arbovirus primers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 based on deduced amino acid sequences. Results ML-13 virus could be amplified in C6/36 cells. Target products were obtained by amplification using specific primers for Omono River virus (0MRV) and Tianjin Totivirus (ToV-TJ). ML-13 virus showed the highest sequence similarities (76%, 75%, 72%, 67%, and 67%) with 0MRV-AK4, ToV-TJ, 0MRV-Y61, DTV, and AsTV with regard to capsid protein (CP) and RNA - dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The phylogenetic analysis showed that ML-13 was in the same branch as 0MRV, ToV-TJ, and DTV in Totiviridae family. Conclusion ML-13 strain isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Yunnan province, China belongs to the Totiviridae family and is the first isolate of Totivirus from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in China.%目的 对云南省蚊虫病毒分离物进行分子生物学鉴定,以明确其分类地位.方法 采用C6/36细胞对病毒分离物ML-13做病毒扩增,使用多种虫媒病毒基因扩增引物进行病毒基因扩增和基因序列测定.采用推导的氨基酸序列用Mega 5.0软件构建种系发生树.结果 ML-13病毒可以在蚊虫细胞增殖,用OMRV和ToV-TJ病毒特异引物扩增出目的产物,序列分析显示,ML-13病毒与OMRV-AK4、ToV -TJ、OMRV-Y61、DTV、AsTV病毒衣壳蛋白和RNA依赖RNA聚合酶基因株相似性最高,分别为76%、75%、72%、67%和67%;与Toti病毒科中的DTV、ToV-TJ病毒和OMRV处于同一进化分支.结论 云南省三带喙库蚊中分离的ML-13病毒为Toti病毒,这是我国首次从三带喙库蚊中分离到Toti病毒.

  5. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  6. A STUDY ON THE BRYOPHYTES OF KARST CAVE THRESHOLD AT KUNMING AREA IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, P.R.CHINA%中国昆明地区岩溶洞穴洞口带苔藓植物研究(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 彭涛; 李晓娜; 赵传海

    2004-01-01

    164 bryophyte specimens were collected from 12 karst caves in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. We found 25 species in 18 genera and 10 families which were listed with site, substrate, altitude, date, collectors . Fieldwork indicated the bryophytes grew within 0~26 m at the cave entrance. The cave luminous liverwort Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze was recorded in 6 caves. Two turf species, Gymnostomum aurantiacum (Mitt) Jaeg and G. recurvirostre Hedw. were associated with travertine deposition such as stalactite or wet stalagmite at thresholds.

  7. Early-Cretaceous highly fractionated I-type granites from the northern Tengchong block, western Yunnan, SW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Western Yunnan, an important constituent of the southeastern segment of the East Tethyan tectonic domain, lies along a transformed orientation from the NWW trending Himalayan-Tethyan segment to the northerly trending Southeast Asian segment. However, the geodynamical setting of the Early Cretaceous tectonothermal magmatism along the Bangong-Nujiang-Lushui-Luxi-Ruili belt as the Tethyan branch in western Yunnan (SW China) remains controversial. The Donghe granitoid, which is located between the Gaoligong and Tengliang belts in the northern Tengchong block, reveals its petrogenesis and its tectonics, both of which play a vital role in resolving previous disputes. Our zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating of granites from the Donghe batholith yields ages of 119.9 ± 0.9-130.6 ± 2.5 Ma. These granites display features typical of highly fractionated I-type granites: high SiO2 contents (>71 wt.%), high K contents (K2O = 3.88-5.66 wt.%), calc-alkaline character, slight peraluminosity (A/CNK = 1.02-1.16), and a highly differentiated index ranging from 83.6 to 95.6. In addition, as SiO2 contents increase, the rare earth element (REE) abundances, especially heavy REE abundances, and REE pattern slopes change gradually, but the negative Eu anomalies increase sharply, while the degree of enrichment in Rb, Th, U, and Pb and depletion in Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti are enhanced. These features indicate that K-feldspar, ±plagioclase, ±biotite, ±amphibole, ±apatite, ±sphene/garnet, and ±Fe-Ti oxides such as ilmenite play the major role in the fractional crystallization process. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067 and 0.7079) and negative εNd(t) values (-8.6 to -10.1), with T2DM ranging from 1.39 to 1.49 Ga, indicate that the sources were mainly derived from the mature ancient middle to lower crust and minor mantle-derived materials. The initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.462-18.646, 15.717-15.735, and 38

  8. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  9. Geochemistry of meta-volcanic rocks from the Longbohe Cu deposit, Yunnan Province, China: Implications for the genesis and tectonic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yinliang; QING Dexian; CHEN Yaoguang

    2007-01-01

    The Longbohe Cu deposit, which is located in the southern part of the Honghe ore-forming zone, Yunnan Province, China, belongs to a typical ore field where volcanic rocks are of wide distribution and are associated with Cu mineralization in time and space. The volcanic rocks in the ore field, which have experienced varying degree of alteration or regional metamorphism, can be divided into three types, i.e., meta-andesite, meta-subvolcanic rock and meta-basic volcanic rock in accordance with their mineral assemblages. These three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field are relatively rich in Na and the main samples plot in the area of alkali basalts in the geochemical classification diagram. With the exception of very few elements, these three types of volcanic rocks are similar in the content of trace elements. In comparison to the basalts of different tectonic settings, the meta-volcanic rocks in the ore field are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Th, Nb, etc. and depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Ba, etc. and their primary mantle-normalized trace element patterns show remarkable negative Th and Nb anomalies and negative Sr and Ba anomalies. These three types of volcanic rocks are similar in REE content range and chondrite-normalized REE patterns with the exception of Eu anomaly. Various lines of evidence show that these three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field have the same source but are the products of different stages of magmatic evolution, their original magma is a product of partial melting of the metasomatically enriched mantle in the tensional tectonic setting within the continent plate, and the crystallization differentiation plays an important role in the process of magmatic evolution.

  10. Contrasting responses of hoverflies and wild bees to habitat structure and land use change in a tropical landscape (southern Yunnan, SW China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Zeng Meng; Konrad Martin; Jing-Xin Liu; Frank Burger; Jin Chen

    2012-01-01

    The response of insects to monoculture plantations has mainly proceeded at the expense of natural forest areas,and is an outstanding and important issue in ecology and conservation biology,with pollination services declined around the world.In this study,species richness and distribution of hoverfly and wild bee communities were investigated in a changing tropical landscape in southern Yunnan,south-west China by Malaise traps periodically from 2008 to 2009.Species were recorded from the traditional land use types (natural forest,grassland,shrubland and rice field fallows),and from recently established rubber plantations of different ages.Hoverflies (total 53 species) were most common in young successional stages of vegetation,including rice field fallow and shrubland.Species richness was highest in rice field fallows and lowest in forests and showed a highly significant relationship with the number of forb species and ground vegetation cover.In contrast,the highest richness of wild bees (total 44 species) was recorded from the natural forest sites,which showed a discrete bee community composition compared to the remaining habitat types.There was no significant relationship between the bee species richness and the environmental variables,including the numbers of different plant life forms,coverage of canopy and ground vegetation,successional age of vegetation and land use type.At the landscape scale,open land use systems,including young rubber plantations,are assumed to increase the species richness ofhoverflies; however,this might decrease wild bee diversity.The present land use change by rubber cultivation can be expected to have negative impacts on the native wild bee communities.

  11. Predictors for abundance of host flea and floor flea in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague, Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xiang Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 1990 to 2006, fifty-five natural villages experienced at least one plague epidemic in Lianghe County, Yunnan Province, China. This study is aimed to document flea abundance and identify predictors in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague in Lianghe County. METHODS: Trappings were used to collect fleas and interviews were conducted to gather demography, environmental factors, and other relevant information. Multivariate hurdle negative binomial model was applied to identify predictors for flea abundance. RESULTS: A total of 344 fleas were collected on 101 small mammals (94 Rattus flavipectus and 7 Suncus murinus. R. flavipectus had higher flea prevalence and abundance than S. murinus, but the flea intensities did not differ significantly. A total of 315 floor fleas were captured in 104 households. Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were the predominant flea species on the host and the floor flea, respectively. The presence of small mammal faeces and R. flavipectus increased host flea prevalence odds 2.9- and 10-fold, respectively. Keeping a dog in the house increased floor flea prevalence odds 2-fold. Keeping cattle increased floor flea intensity by 153%. Villages with over 80% of houses raising chickens had increased prevalence odds and intensity of floor flea about 2.9- and 11.6-fold, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of floor flea in brick and wood houses were decreased by 60% and 90%, respectively. Flea prevalences of host and floor flea in the households that were adjacent to other houses were increased 7.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively. Houses with a paddy nearby decreased host flea intensity by 53%, while houses with an outside toilet increased host flea intensity by 125%. CONCLUSION: Rodent control alone may not be sufficient to control plague risk in these areas. In order to have successful results, plague control programs should pay attention to ecological and hygiene factors

  12. Geochronology of the Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn Cu deposit, northwestern Yunnan province, China: Implications for mineralization of the Zhongdian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Mao, Jing-wen; Pei, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chang-qing; Tian, Guang; Zhou, Yunman; Li, Jianxin; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn copper deposit is located in the Triassic Zhongdian island arc, northwestern Yunnan province, China. Single-zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating suggests that the diorite porphyry and the quartz monzonite porphyry in the deposit area formed at 200 Ma and 77 Ma, respectively. A Re-Os isotopic date of molybdenite from the ore is 78.9 Ma, which indicates that in addition to the known Triassic Cu-(Au) porphyry systems, a Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization event also exists in the Zhongdian arc. The quartz monzonite porphyry shows characteristics of a magnetite series intrusion, with a high concentration of Al, K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, low amount of Ta, Ti, Y, and Yb, and a high ratio of Sr/Y (average 26.42). The Cretaceous porphyry also shows a strong fractionation between light and heavy rare earth elements (average (La/Yb)N 37.9), which is similar to those of the Triassic subduction-related diorite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit and the porphyry hosting the Pulang copper deposit. However, in contrast to the older intrusions, the quartz monzonite porphyry contains higher concentrations of large ion lithophile elements and Co, and lesser Sr and Zr. Therefore, whereas the Triassic porphyry Cu-(Au) mineralization is related to slab subduction slab in an arc setting, the quartz monzonite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit formed by the remelting of the residual oceanic slab combined with contributions from subduction-modified arc lithosphere and continental crust, which provided the metals for the Late Cretaceous mineralization.

  13. Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to investigate socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 5532 Na Xi, Li Su, Dai and Jing Po ethnic minorities. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for diabetes prevalence, as well as the other outcomes. Results: Higher individual educational level was associated with a higher rate of awareness, treatment, adherence to medicines and monitoring of blood glucose (OR = 1.87, 4.89, 4.83, 6.45; 95% CI: 1.26–2.77, 1.87–12.7, 1.95–11.9, 2.23–18.6, respectively. Diabetic respondents with better household assets tended to receive more treatment (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.12 and to monitor their blood glucose (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.48–7.30. Diabetic patients with better access to medical services were more likely to treat (OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 2.46–20.4 and adhere to medication (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.46–11.7. Income at the contextual level was significantly correlated with diabetes prevalence, treatment and blood glucose monitoring (OR = 1.84, 3.04, 4.34; 95% CI: 1.20–2.83, 1.20–7.73, 1.45–13.0, respectively. Conclusions: Future diabetes prevention and intervention programs should take both individual and township-level socioeconomic factors into account in the study regions.

  14. Patterns and relationships of plant traits, community structural attributes, and eco-hydrological functions during a subtropical secondary succession in central Yunnan, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Denggao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes in land use lead to major changes in plant community composition and structure which have strong effects on eco-hydrological processes and functions. We here tested the hypothesis that changes in traits of living plants have resulted in changes in structural attributes of the community that influenced eco-hydrological functions by altering eco-hydrological processes. This was done in the context of a subtropical secondary forest suc­cession following land abandonment in Central Yunnan (Southwest China. During the succession, species with high specific leaf area (SLA, high leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC, high specific root length (SRL, and low leaf dry matter content (LDMC were progressively replaced by species with the opposite characteristics. The obtained results of correlation analyses were as follows: (1 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and the leaf area index (LAI. Significant correlations were detected between LAI, canopy interception and stemflow, and surface runoff and soil erosion. (2 Significant correlations were also found between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, LDMC, and accumulated litter biomass. High accumulated litter biomass strongly increases the maximum water-retaining capac­ity of litter. However, significant correlations were not found between the maximum water-retaining capacity of litter and surface runoff and soil erosion. (3 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was not significantly related to the maximum water-retaining capacity of the soil, but was significantly related to surface runoff and soil erosion. These results suggest that canopy characteristics play a more important role in control of runoff and soil erosion at the studied site. It follows that plant functional traits are closely linked with canopy characteristics, which should be used as a standard for selecting species in

  15. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  16. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  17. Cenozoic evolution of tectono-fluid and metallogenic process in Lanping Basin,western Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from apatite fission track data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoming; SONG Yougui

    2006-01-01

    Since the Mesozoic, abundant metal and salt deposits have been formed in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province, Southwest China, constituting a well-known hydrothermal ore belt in China. Most of the deposits are meso-epithermal hydrothermal deposits. This paper preliminarily deals with the mineralization ages of hydrothermal deposits in the Lanping Basin by using the apatite fission track method, and integrates the spatial distribution of the deposits and their regional geological backgrounds, to give the preliminary viewpoints as follows: (1) the apatite fission track ages acquired range from 19.9 Ma to 52.8 Ma, much younger than those of their host strata, so they may be considered to be mineralization ages, which represent the late mineralization period; (2) the apatite fission track ages tend to become younger from the west to the middle of the basin, indicating that the latest evolution of tectono-fluid and/or metallogenic processes of the middle basin ended later than that in the west; (3) in the Paleogene, most of the Cu deposits were formed in the western part of the basin; (4) the major metallogenic processes occur between the Paleogene and the Neogene, because the eastern and western edges of the basin were subducted into and collided with its bilateral continental blocks, respectively, and the central fault was strongly activated, which led to the processes of large-scale ore-forming fluids, and their differentiation and transport because of the variation of their physical and chemical properties. Having been squeezed and uplifted, the Lanping Basin became an intermontane basin that contains many kinds of fluid traps resulting in the formation of different types of ore deposits (for example, Pb-Zn, Cu, Ag) of different scales in the middle of the basin. Simultaneously, the fluids with volatile elements such as Hg, Sb and As were transported upwards along the central fault system and diffused into its subordinate fractures, thus leading to the

  18. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  19. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  20. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P., reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729―2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid. Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553―0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876―0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This

  1. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO XiaYun; SHEN Ji; WANG SuMin; XIAO HaiFeng; TONG GuoBang

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P.,reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729-2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid.Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553-0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876-0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This change

  2. Aboveground forest biomass estimation using ICESat GLAS in Yunnan, China%基于ICESat GLAS的云南省森林地上生物量反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克标; 庞勇; 舒清态; 付甜

    2013-01-01

    结合机载、星载激光雷达对GLAS(地球科学激光测高系统)光斑范围内的森林地上生物量进行估测,并利用MODIS植被产品以及MERIS土地覆盖产品进行了云南省森林地上生物量的连续制图.机载LiDAR扫描的260个训练样本用于构建星载GLAS的森林地上生物量估测模型,模型的决定系数(R2)为0.52,均方根误差(RMSE)为31 Mg/ha.研究结果显示,云南省总森林地上生物量为12.72亿t,平均森林地上生物量为94 Mg/ha.估测的森林地上生物量空间分布情况与实际情况相符,森林地上生物量总量与基于森林资源清查数据的估测结果相符,表明了利用机载LiDAR与星载ICESatGLAS结合进行大区域森林地上生物量估测的可靠性.%Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) could reduce uncertainties in the characterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provides an accurate measure of canopy height and vertical structure and information for the estimation of aboveground biomass of vegetation. Spaceborne large footprint LiDAR (ICESat GLAS) acquires over 250 million observations over forest regions globally and has been used successfully for forest height and biomass estimation in various sites. In this paper, airborne LiDAR and ICESat GLAS data were used to estimate aboveground biomass of forest at footprint level in Yunnan, China. Vegetation products from EOS MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS were used to expand these discrete estimations from GLAS data to a wall-to-wall map. The R2 between ICESat GLAS waveform parameters and airborne LiDAR estimated forest AGB is 0.52 after training with 260 footprints. Results showed that the total forest AGB in Yunnan Province was 1272 million ton and the average was 94 Mg/ha. The amount and distribution of predicted aboveground biomass were in good agreement with the reference data. The results showed that the predict model using GLAS data could be used to estimate

  3. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    [1]Gillmore, G. K., Grattan, J., Pyatt, F. B. et al., Radon, water and abandoned metalliferous mines in the UK: Environmental and Human Health Implications, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 65-76.[2]GB/T 16146-1995, Standards for Controlling Radon Concentration in Dwellings (in Chinese).[3]Kinze, M., Dose limits and maximum concentration limits (MCL's) for radionuclides--Implication on remediation of uranium mining and milling facilities in Saxony Germany, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 1-7.[4]Xu, L. C., Wang, Y. X., Environmental issues and remedial actions of the abandoned Lincang uranium mine in China, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 709-718.[5]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 70.[6]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 23-26.[7]Xu, L. C., Dai, X., Tan, T. et al., Environment Impact Report on Environmental Treatment Engineering of Decommissioning Lincang Uranium Mine (Feasibility studies stages) ( in Chinese), 1999.[8]Zhang Zhihui, Measurement Methods of Radon and Its Daughters in

  4. El Nino And Forest Fire In Yunnan Province, Southwest China -New Way to Study Three Essential Factors of Forest Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three essential factors of forest fire (fire source, environment, and litter) were taken as the point of view, and has approached the forecast method of forest fire in tropical area of southwest China in a macroscopic scale. This study supported by mathematical method was from a new angle. For example, in the aspect of forest fire forecast, it has been thought over that most forest fire is artificial fire, which has lots of randomness. So it could be studied in a kind of Markov random processes. In the ...

  5. Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use Pattern of Rocky-desertified Land in Southwest China's Poverty-stricken Karst Mountainous Areas——A Case Study in Benggu Township, Xichou County, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; BAO Guangjing; LI Zhiguo; HE Yimei

    2006-01-01

    The rocky desert in a karst area directly causes the lack of soil, water and forest, hence leading to the poverty there. In 1990, the villagers from the Muzhe Village in Benggu Township, Xichou County,Yunnan declared a war against rocky desert in an attempt to ask the fields for more yields. They invented a distinctive land rehabilitation and sustainable use pattern called "transforming heaven and earth" that had been practiced in Southwest China's karst areas. The key mechanism of the pattern was to develop terraced fields with well conserved soil,water and fertility by exploding rocks in the fields,building stone walls, gathering more soil, and improving soil quality and productivity for the fields in combination with building of irrigation facilities and roads, as well as with forestation and agriculture structure adjustment. The purpose of the pattern was to alleviate poverty in the karst areas by improving soil productivity and promoting agricultural development. A typical area was studied with the help of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and the pattern was carried out there for fifteen years, have produced excellent ecological benefits and good economic benefits. Its application in the area approved that it was a sustainable land use pattern for rocky desert areas.

  6. Soil erosion risk evaluation using GIS in the Yuanmou County,a dry-hot valley of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to sustainable agriculture. Evaluating regional erosion risk is increasingly needed by national and in-ternational environmental agencies. This study elaborates a model (using spatial principal component analysis [SPCA]) method for the evaluation of soil erosion risk in a representative area of dry-hot valley (Yuanmou County) at a scale of 1:100,000 using a spatial database and GIS. The model contains seven factors: elevation, slope, annual precipitation, land use, vegetation, soil, and population density. The evaluation results show that five grades of soil erosion risk: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. These are divided in the study area, and a soil erosion risk evaluation map is created. The model may be applicable to other areas of China because it utilizes spatial data that are generally available.

  7. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  8. Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Yap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic.The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9-12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes.Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1 (P = 0.02 less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04 fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9-2.1 ml kg(-1 min(-1; all P<0.05.We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and anthropometric indicators due to deworming over a 6-month follow-up period

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Awareness-Adoption Matrix for Strategic Decision Making in Agricultural Development Projects:A Case Study in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Subedi; T J Hocking; M A Fullen; A R McCrea; E Milne; WU Bo-zhi; D J Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Significant achievements have been made in generating sustainable agricultural technologies in developing countries.Usually,these new technologies have been more effective in increasing production and productivity than existing technologies.However,many new technologies considered 'effective' have not been successful in alleviating the associated sustainability problems,due to poor adoption by targeted users.Success of any novel technical intervention should be judged on the basis of how widespread adoption is in the target area by targeted users.In this context,a case study identified the factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved technologies extended by an agricultural development project in a rural Village in Yunnan Province,China.Initial adoption/adaptation of project technologies was influenced by farmers' wareness of the technology.Farmers were more aware of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,intercropping and tree planting technologies than others.This led to a comparatively high initial uptake of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,sweet chestnut,and intercropping technologies.Farmers had inadequate knowledge about some Project technologies,the adoption of which was particularly low.This reveals the need for increasing farmers'awareness about the rationale for Project technologies to achieve greater adoption/adaptation of project technologies by farmers over wider areas.Farmers' testing of the technology leads to better adoption/adaptation compared to mere awareness.However,considerable time and resources are required for testing/trying technologies.This justifies the usefulness of comparatively quick and less resource demanding options for awareness creation.Development of effective cropping technologies is important for sustainable agricultural development.The success of any agricultural development project,especially in terms of improving sustainability,depends on how widely those improved technologies are adopted/adapted by farmers in the

  11. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Peacock, Joseph P; Huang, Qiuyuan; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenjun; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of

  12. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  13. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  14. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (p<0.001). All three control approaches significantly reduced the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the highest reductions achieved when chemotherapy was combined with sanitation and health education. The prevalence of T. trichiura remained at 30% and above regardless of the intervention. Only bi-annual treatment combined with latrine construction and health education significantly impacted on the prevalence of Taenia spp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas

  15. Toward smartphone applications for geoparks information and interpretation systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Tian, Mingzhong; Li, Xingle; Shi, Yihua; Zhou, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Geopark information and interpretation systems are both necessary infrastructure in geopark planning and construction program, and they are also essential for geoeducation and geoconservation in geopark tourism. The current state and development of information and interpretation systems in China's geoparks were presented and analyzed in this paper. Statistics showed that fewer than half of geoparks run websites, and less than that amount maintained database, and less than one percent of all Internet/smartphone applications were used for geopark tourism. The results of our analysis indicated that smartphone applications in geopark information and interpretation systems would provide benefits such as accelerated geopark science popularization and education and facilitated interactive communication between geoparks and tourists.

  16. Crisis-like behavior in China's stock market and its interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangli Fan

    Full Text Available In order for China to play a bigger, more positive role in the world, it is important for China to have a healthy capital market. This perception motivates us to examine the health of China's capital market, especially the severity of the overall loss of the listed companies in China and the effects of accounting irregularities on the losses. We show the overall loss of the listed companies was very severe, in particular, crisis-like behavior emerged in the fourth quarter of 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. We further observe that loss in the fourth quarter was much greater than the average loss of the first three quarters in the same year. The most straightforward interpretation of this loss pattern is that companies underreported losses in the first three quarters, to boost their stock values in most time of the year. However, in the fourth quarter, accounting balance of the whole year dictated that the reported loss in the fourth quarter had to be much greater than the actual loss. Fortunately, such irregularity has been greatly reduced, thanks to the accounting reforms in China in 2007.

  17. Crisis-like behavior in China's stock market and its interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangli; Gao, Jianbo; Liang, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    In order for China to play a bigger, more positive role in the world, it is important for China to have a healthy capital market. This perception motivates us to examine the health of China's capital market, especially the severity of the overall loss of the listed companies in China and the effects of accounting irregularities on the losses. We show the overall loss of the listed companies was very severe, in particular, crisis-like behavior emerged in the fourth quarter of 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. We further observe that loss in the fourth quarter was much greater than the average loss of the first three quarters in the same year. The most straightforward interpretation of this loss pattern is that companies underreported losses in the first three quarters, to boost their stock values in most time of the year. However, in the fourth quarter, accounting balance of the whole year dictated that the reported loss in the fourth quarter had to be much greater than the actual loss. Fortunately, such irregularity has been greatly reduced, thanks to the accounting reforms in China in 2007.

  18. Interpretation on Expert Consensus for Diagnosis and Treatment of Melanoma in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Fu-rong; WU Yin-ping; YANG Xue; YU Li-fang; YE Zhen-hua

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, melanoma has become a tumor with the fastest increase of morbidity in all malignant tumors, and its annual increase is 3%-5%. Both morbidity and mortality of melanoma are low in China, but they are showing an increasing tendency in recent years. However, the morbidity of melanoma is increasing in most European and American countries, but the mortality keeps stable and is not in an increasing tendency along with the increasing morbidity, demonstrating that there are great differences between China and Western countries in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. At present, melanoma has become one of the diseases that severely threaten human health. Compared with other common malignant tumors, there are signiifcant differences in the clinical diagnosis and specific treatment of melanoma. To better adapt the rapid development of treatment for melanoma, and to make the clinical practice of melanoma more specific and internationalized in China, Expert Committee on Melanoma, Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology, has updated the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Melanoma in China. Therefore, the editorial board of this journal interpreted this guideline in details, aiming to provide the lastest and most practical evidence-based evidence for clinical oncologists in China.

  19. A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luculia Sweet contains about five species of small trees or shrubs and is a member of the family Rubiaceae (tribe Cinchoneae. Luculia yunnanensis is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to southwest China. Only two natural populations of L. yunnanensis exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that L. yunnanensis is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-sterptavidin capture method, 24 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 11 displayed polymorphisms and 13 were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.833 and from 0.431 to 0.771, with averages of 0.389 and 0.614, respectively. These markers will be useful for further investigation of conservation of resources, selecting parental types in cross-breeding, evolution of this species at the molecular level and related research in Luculia species.

  20. Comparative study on lake eutrophication control standards in Eastern and Yunnan-Guizhou lake region of China.%我国东部与云贵湖区富营养化控制标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秋瑾; 朱延忠; 郑丙辉; 赵伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitoring data of main lakes in China's eastern and Yunnan-Guizhou region from 2005 to 2008, as well as the internationally recognized chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration categories for lake eutrophication, statistical analysis was conducted on Chlorophyll a, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), transparency (SD) and permanganate index (CODMn) through method of frequency statistics. The recommended values for lake eutrophication control indicators in the two lake regions were calculated in accordance with the principle of anti-degradation. Shana results that the recommended values for lake eutrophication control indicators in China's eastern lake region should be TN at 1.65 mg/L,TP at 0.100mg/L,SD at 0.45m and CODMn at 4.50mg/L, while that in Yunnan-Guizhou lake region should be TN at 1.00mg/L,TP at 0.045 mg/L,SD at 1.10m and CODMn at 4.00mg/L. The absolute value of indicators for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient control in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau lake region is lower than that in eastern lake region. Thus, the control standard is comparatively higher in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau lake region. The main reason is that the general water environmental quality in lakes of China's eastern plain region is currently worse than that in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau region, because of intense interference by human activities.%以我国东部湖区及云贵湖区主要湖泊2005~2008年的监测数据和国际公认的湖泊富营养化叶绿素a含量分级为基础,通过频率统计方法,对叶绿素a、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、透明度(SD)和高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)进行了统计分析,并根据反退化原则,计算了两湖区湖泊富营养化控制指标的建议值.结果表明,东部湖区湖泊富营养化控制标准的建议值为TN:1.65mg/L,TP:0.100mg/L,SD:0.45m,CODMn:4.50mg/L;云贵湖区为TN:1.00 mg/L,TP:0.045 mg/L,SD:1.10m,CODMn:4.00mg/L.云贵高原湖区氮磷营养盐控制指标值绝对值低,相应控制标准比东部平原湖区严,

  1. 中国锈革菌属研究.5.采自云南的两个新记录种%Hymenochaete in China.5 .Two new records from Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何双辉; 李海蛟

    2013-01-01

    Hymenochaete contiformis and H .rufomarginata ,collected from Yunnan Province,are newly recorded in China.While Hymenochaete contiformis is characterized by its anatomical structure (without a cortex and hyphal layer), long setae and large basidiospores;H .rufomarginata is distinguished by its presence of numerous hyphidia and both small setae and basidiospores.Illustrated descriptions of these two species based on the Chinese materials and an identification key to all the 30 Hymenochaete species in Yunnan Province are provided.%报道了采自云南省的锈革菌属(Hymenochaete)2个中国新记录种,即长矛锈革菌(H.contiformis)和红边锈革菌(H .rufomarginata).前者的主要特点是解剖结构中无皮层和菌丝层,刚毛长且孢子大;后者的主要特点是子实层具大量的侧丝,刚毛和孢子较小.提供了这两个种的野外标本照片、显微结构绘图以及详细的形态学描述,并给出了云南省锈革菌属30个种的检索表.

  2. 云南栽培种及野生种芋头的AFLP指纹分析%AFLP Finger Analysis Between Cultivars and Wild Type of Taros (Colocasia esculenta) from Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉莎; 刘德团; 胡向阳

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析云南芋头种质资源遗传多样性.方法:应用扩增片段长度多态性(AFLP)指纹技术,用3对AFLP引物对采集自云南省的9份芋头栽培品种及1份野生品种进行研究,分离AFLP多态性条带.结果:共分离到60个AFLP多态性条带,AFLP多态位点百分率为96.77%,云南芋头种质资源在DNA分子水平上表现出丰富的遗传多样性.聚类分析将10份芋头品种分为2组,遗传距离为0.101~0.908.结论:AFLP指纹技术是筛选品种间差异基因的有效方法,研究结果为云南省芋头品种鉴定、遗传相关性分析、特殊功能基因的分离等工作提供了一定的理论基础.%Objective: To identify genetic diversities of taro germplasms in Yunnan province, China. Methods: The amplified fragmeng length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technology was used to analyze nine cultivars and one wild taro sampled in Yunnan province and to screen AFLP polymorphic bands. Results: 60 AFLP polymorphic bands were screened through three pairs of AFLP primes among these taros varieties and the ratio of polymorphic loci was 96.77%. It showed rich genetic diversities in taro germplasms of Yunnan province. The UPGMA result showed that these taros can be divided into two main groups, genetic distance among the collected taros range from 0.101 to 0.908. Conclusion: AFLP fingerprinting is an effective method to isolate special genes within different taro varieties. In summary, our study provides the theoretical basis for identification of taro variety and their genetic relationship in Yunnan.

  3. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  4. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  5. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  6. Pollination Ecology of a Pioneer Species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China%西双版纳先锋植物野芭蕉的传粉生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱忠; 李德铢; 王红

    2001-01-01

    Pollination ecology of Musa itinerans Cheesman (Musaceae), apioneer species in the tropical rain forest, was explored in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China. This research involved flowering phenology, nectar production, visitation patterns of pollinators and bagging experiments. It was found that (1) flowering of M. itinerans occurred a whole year round with a peak at the early dry season (Nov.) and the daily flowering pattern had two obvious peaks in the early morning and in the late evening, respectively; (2) nectar production occurred at two obvious peaks, during the day and in the night-time (from 8 am to 12 pm, and from 8 pm to 12 am, respectively), which allowed the two different foragers to visit at specific times; and (3) long-tongue fruit bats (Macroglossus sobrinus) and sunbirds (Arachnothera longirostris) were both effective pollinators of Musa itinerans.

  7. Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of Begoniaceae from Yunnan, China%中国云南秋海棠属(秋海棠科)一新种——假侧膜秋海棠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志丹; 税玉民; 张美德; 张嵘梅

    2007-01-01

    Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of the genus Begonia L. (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles B. oreodoxa Chun & F. Chun in having parietal placentas at the upper part of the ovary, differing mainly in the female flowers with 5 tepals and the largest wing of the capsule being 20-22 mm long and ligulate.%描述了中国云南秋海棠科Begoniaceae秋海棠属Begonia扁果组sect.Platycentrum的一新种--假侧膜秋海棠Begonia coelocentroides Y.M.Shui & Z.D.Wei.该种与山地秋海棠B.oreodoxa Chun & F.Chun相似,子房上部为侧膜胎座,但雌花被片5,蒴果最大翅舌形,长20-22 mm,而易于区别.

  8. Efficacy Observation on Yunnan Baiyao (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Hong-guang

    2001-01-01

    [1]JIA BQ. Helicobacter pylori and upper gastrointestinal diseases. Cf: CHEN Shou-po chief edited. Gastrointestinal Diseases Clinical Pharmacology. Beijing: Science Press, 1997∶483-489.[2]GU B, chief edited. Traditional Chinese and Western Clinical Digestive Diseases. Beijing: China TCM Press, 1997∶180-187.[3]National Multicenter Clinical Study Coordinating Group. Multicentric clinical study on low dosage triple therapy in clearing up Helicobacter pylori. J of Chin Digestion 1996;16(4)∶192-195.[4]ZHONG FY. Yunnan Baiyao in clinically application for 11 cases. J of Intermediate Med 1995;30(11)∶55.[5]TANG XD. Some problems on TCM in treating anti-relaptic study of ulcer disease. J of TCM 1995;36(12)∶745-748.

  9. 云南山地土壤垂直带信息图谱分析%Information Tupu Analysis on Mountainous Soil Vertical Zone in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月圆; 王金亮; 陈有君

    2013-01-01

    地学信息图谱是一种以图形方式显示地理事物或现象空间形态结构、揭示时空变化规律的手段与方法.为了实现基础地理信息数字化,推动“数字山地”研究的开展和区域可持续发展,在地学信息图谱理论和ArcGIS软件环境支撑下,利用云南省第二次土壤普查资料、1∶25万电子地图和DEM数据等建立了云南省土壤垂直带信息图谱,实现了山地土壤垂直带的数字化显示及其与地理位置的链接.基于空间维度的土壤信息带谱显示,在纬度方向上土壤带谱滇西比滇东复杂,且长度随纬向递增;在经度方向上,热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构相对较简单,亚热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构、长度趋于一致,温带高原气候区的土壤垂直带谱结构最为丰富和复杂,且再次体现了相同基带上发育的土壤带组成基本相似的规律,但各区内部随经度变化规律不明显.%Geo-informatic tupu is a means and method of using graphics mode to display the spatial configuration and reveal the spatial-temporal change rule of earth system and its elements and phenomena.This paper has taken Yunnan province as a research area due to the various physiognomies and typical mountainous characteristics.High complexity of the landscape and biological climate make the soil that is an essential factor of mountainous region environment to be clearly vertical differentiation.By researching the mountaionous soil vertical vertical zone could help us to recognize its distribution and variety law.It is not only beneficial to explore the methods of regional ecological and geographical pattern,but also to three-dimensional development of agriculture,afforestation,soil and water conservation,mountain environmental protection.Data model of mountainous soil vertical zone had been built by using the China soil database of 1 ∶ 1 000 000,the second soil survey data of Yunnan Province,electronic map of 1∶250 000 and DEM

  10. Analysis on Poliomyelitis Surveillance Reinforce in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China%云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区加强脊髓灰质炎监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芬; 张杰; 罗梅; 汤晶晶; 田炳均; 丁峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objectiv To understand the coverage of oral poliomyelitis attenuated live vaccine among the people who live in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China, surveillance poliovirus ( PV ) prevalence characteristic, and to provide scientific evidences for maintain polio free in border areas. Method Select three districts from six border districts in Yunnan, then choose three counties from each district and conducted coverage survey of OPV among the children by probability proportional to size sampling, sample specimens from healthy children and environmental water to surveillance PV. Result The coverage of OPV routine and supplementary immunization was high in all three counties, we did not find wild PV and vaccine-derived PV among healthy children and in environment water. Conclusion It is still maintain polio free, and it is necessary to strengthen poliomyelitis surveillance and OPV immunization in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China.%目的 了解云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区,人群口服脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)减毒活疫苗(Oral Poliomyelitis Attenuated Live Vaccine,OPV)接种情况,监测脊灰病毒(Poliovirus,PV)流行情况,为维持无脊灰提供参考.方法 在与缅甸接壤的边境6个设区的市(州)中,随机选择保山市、德宏傣族景颇族自治州、临沧市,每个市(州)选择3个县,采用容量比例概率抽样方法,对适龄儿童开展OPV接种率调查,采集健康儿童粪便标本和外环境水样标本,开展PV监测.结果 3个县适龄儿童OPV常规免疫和加强免疫接种率均>95%,在健康人群和外环境中未发现脊灰野病毒和疫苗衍生脊灰病毒.结论 云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区目前仍维持无脊灰状态,应继续加强脊灰监测和OPV免疫.

  11. 云南地区观测的舒曼谐振背景变化特征%Background features of Schumann resonance observed in Yunnan, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳新艳; 张学民; 申旭辉; 苗园青

    2013-01-01

    本文利用云南地区永胜台观测的地磁南北和东西分量开展舒曼谐振的背景变化特征分析.通过提取舒曼谐振各阶频率和功率谱密度的小时均值,分析了前三阶舒曼谐振频率和功率谱密度在分点和至点前后的周日变化特征.舒曼谐振功率谱密度的周日变化与亚洲、非洲和美洲三大闪电活动中心的活跃时段以及观测站相对于三大闪电活动中心的方位密切相关.舒曼谐振频率的周日变化特征更复杂.各阶功率谱密度和频率在夏至和秋分前后的变化幅度比春分和冬至前后大.从2011年舒曼谐振频率和功率谱密度日中值的年变化图中发现,谐振频率随季节变化的特征不明显,而功率谱密度的年度变化曲线呈半周期正弦波形态,以7月份为轴对称分布.功率谱密度的季节变化特征与闪电活动的季节变化特征相一致.南北和东西分量得到的前三阶谐振频率,第一阶约稳定在7.5 Hz.而随着阶数增加,南北分量得到的谐振频率比东西分量约大0.5 Hz.高阶谐振频率发生偏移的原因目前还不清楚.%Abstract This paper presents.the background features of Schumann resonance (SR) observed at Yongsheng observatory in Yunnan,southwestern China.Through obtaining the hourly average of the frequency and power spectral density (PSD) of the lowest three SR modes,we analyzed diurnal variation of SR frequency and PSD both in BNs and BEw components around equinoxes and solstices.Diurnal variation of SR PSD is found to be related to the dominant intervals of Asian,African and American thunderstorm centers and the relative position of the observatory to three thunderstorm centers.Diurnal variation of SR frequency is more complicated.SR frequency and PSD at the lowest three modes around summer solstice and autumn equinox are more changeablethan that in spring equinox and winter solstice.The daily median of SR peak frequency in 2011shows that seasonal variation

  12. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results were calculated.\tResults:\tPlasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384; that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384 and 17% (67/384 of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384 of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384 false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384 error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384 undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases.\tConclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

  13. Yunnan Gets Set for an Agricultural Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXINGXIANG

    2005-01-01

    HOME to 26 different ethnic nationalities,southwest China's Yunnan Province covers an area of 394,000 square kilometers, on 94 percent of which stand mountains and plateaus. At 6,740 meters above sea level, the province's highest point is the Meili Snow Mountain's Kawagebo Peak. Its lowest, where the Honghe River runs into neighboring Vietnam, is just 76 meters above sea level. Yunnan also has an extremely variable climate. The mountains in the northwestern part are snow-covered all year round, while well-known Xishuangbanna Prefecture enjoys a tropical climate. The weather is most volatile in the mountains, where the four seasons seem to collide and interchange every couple of miles.

  14. Economic analysis of freeway town of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Junquan; Zhang Haixiang

    2009-01-01

    Freeway town in Yunnan is driving to promote the economic development ties.The development along the highway in the town will become the central point of the performance the high-intensive economy in space and will increase new economic growth point along highway the vertical and horizontal development of the area around the gradient the proliJeration Point and Area.The highway town will develop to speed up the urbanization process and China should accelerate the development of the freeway town.Encouraging farmers will shift the highway town where some good conditions will build to.form a regional economic development and growth.This will be the promotion an inevitable choice of progress and rational way of China's rural economic" and social prosperity.In particular,freeway town will bring more added value of other social services of accommodation and catering industry of wholesale and retail of transportation and warehousing.Highway town and agriculture industrialization development will increase agriculture industry chain to improve agricultural products value and will enhance agricultural efficiency in Yunnan.The concentration of the non-agricultural industries of the speedway town will form pillar industries of highway town and will promote of tertiary industry development of hotels of insurance of finance of business of sports of culture of education of communications of transportation.Rural areas of Yunnan will adjust to optimize the industrial structure.It is estimated that a total 10 construction of the highway town of Yunnan will increase 0.8-1 billion )man revenue each year.

  15. Jurassic Tectonic Revolution in China and New Interpretation of the "Yanshan Movement"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shuwen; ZHANG Yueqiao; LONG Changxing; YANG Zhenyu; JI Qiang; WANG Tao; HU Jianming; CHEN Xuanhua

    2008-01-01

    With acquisition and accumulation of new data of structural geological investigations and high-resolution isotopic dating data, we have greatly improved our understanding of the tectonic events occurring in eastern China during the period from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and may give a new interpretation of the nature, timing and geodynamic settings of the "Yanshan Movement". During the Mid-Late Jurassic (165±5 Ma), great readjustment of plate amalgamation kinematics took place in East Asia and the tectonic regime underwent great transformation, thus initiating a new tectonic regime in which the North China Block was the center and different plates converged toward it from the north, east and southwest and forming the "East Asia convergent"tectonic system characterized by intracontinental subduction and orogeny. As a consequence, the crustal lithosphere of the East Asian continent thickened considerably during the Late Jurassic,followed immediately by Early Cretaceous substantial lithospheric thinning and craton destruction featured by drastic lithospheric extension and widespread volcano-magmatic activities, resulting in a major biotic turnover from the Yanliao biota to Jehol Biota. Such a tremendous tectonic event that took place in the continent of China and East Asia is the basic connotation of the "Yanshan Movement". In the paper, according to the deformation patterns, geodynamic settings and deep processes, the "Yanshan Movement" is redefined as the Late Jurassic East Asian multi-directional plate convergent tectonic regime and its associated extensive intracontinental orogeny and great tectonic change that started at ~165±5 Ma. The substantial lithospheric attenuation in East China is considered the post-effect of the Yanshanian intracontinental orogeny and deformation.

  16. Rice quality in relation to market prices in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENLijuan; FANXingming

    1996-01-01

    Factors affecting rice quality and their impacts on market price were investigated in this study. On-farm survey and market survey was undertaken in three selected sites namely Kunruing, Dali, and Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, China. Market sampling was conducted to determine important rice quality characteristics.

  17. Burden of injuries and diseases in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The burden of injuries is underestimated to an even greater extent in developing countries than in industrialized countries. The objective of this paper is to analyze injuries and diseases in the monitored work place of the world's largest tin mining operation in Yunnan, South China.

  18. Lead isotopic exploration intersecting mineralization zones for the depth forecast of concealed deposits——A case from Longbohe Cu deposit,Jinping, Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉; 邹日

    2000-01-01

    Pb isotopic geochemical exploration intersecting mineralization zones have been well developed in the light of the eigenvalues V1 and V2 of three-dimensional topological projection of Pb isotopic data. The newly developed theoretical model forecasting concealed deposits has been verified in the evaluation of Longbohe copper deposit in Jinping, Yunnan Province, which is consistent with the observed law of depth variation for Pb isotopes. The forecasting results show that the depth of buried major orebody should occur at about -50 to -400 m and deeper within the eastern and western mineralization belts of Longbohe copper deposit.

  19. Lost in translation? A background to action research into teacher education and training in China through interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a background for action research in China. The context is a training programme for Chinese vocational practitioners led by British Teacher Educators, teaching through Chinese interpreters. Teacher education and training in China are outlined, and an author case study provided. Global trends in vocational education have been considered, and reference made to the Chinese government’s plans for reforming and developing education. The Vocational Education and Training (VET programmes have been summarised to set the scene for the action research that will be reported in a further paper, which will consider the ways in which teaching through interpretation affects both learning and teaching on these programmes. In this paper, the following terms apply: the trainer is the United Kingdom (UK Teacher Educator, the interpreter is the member of the Chinese university staff who interprets on the training programme and the teachers are the Chinese teachers attending the training.

  20. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  1. Examining Land-Use/Land-Cover Change in the Lake Dianchi Watershed of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China with Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: 1974–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring land-use/land-cover change (LULCC and exploring its mechanisms are important processes in the environmental management of a lake watershed. The purpose of this study was to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of LULCC by using multi landscape metrics in the Lake Dianchi watershed, which is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China. Landsat images from the years 1974, 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analyzed using geographical information system (GIS techniques. The results reveal that land-use/land-cover has changed greatly in the watershed since 1974. This change in land use structure was embodied in the rapid increase of developed areas with a relative change rate of up to 324.4%. The increase in developed areas mainly occurred in agricultural land, especially near the shores of Lake Dianchi. The spatial pattern and structure of the change was influenced by the urban sprawl of the city of Kunming. The urban sprawl took on the typical expansion mode of cyclic structures and a jigsaw pattern and expanded to the shore of Lake Dianchi. Agricultural land changed little with respect to the structure but changed greatly in the spatial pattern. The landscape in the watershed showed a trend of fragmentation with a complex boundary. The dynamics of land-use/land-cover in the watershed correlate with land-use policies and economic development in China.

  2. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tobacco Field Based on Phenological Characteristics and Time Series Image——A Case Study of Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guangxiong; DENG Lei; CUI Weihong; MING Tao; SHEN Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using three-phase remote sensing images of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS02B) and Landsat-5 TM, tobacco field was extracted by the analysis of time series image based on the different phenological characteristics between tobacco and other crops. The spectral characteristics of tobacco and corn in luxuriant growth stage are very similar, which makes them difficult to be distinguished using a single-phase remote sensing image. Field film after tobacco seedlings transplanting can be used as significant sign to identify tobacco. Remote sensing interpretation map based on the fusion image of TM and CBERS02B's High-Resolution (HR) camera image was used as standard reference material to evaluate the classification accuracy of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) for time series image based on full samples test method. SAM has higher classification accuracy and stability than MLC in dealing with time series image. The accuracy and Kappa of tobacco coverage extracted by SAM are 83.4% and 0.692 respectively, which can achieve the accuracy required by tobacco coverage measurement in a large area.

  3. Coagulated Rhythm [Review of Li, Li Fang and Hai Tao Yang. Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Kunming: Yunnan People’s Press, 2002, iii+337]. Coagulated Rhythm [Review of Li, Li Fang and Hai Tao Yang. Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Kunming: Yunnan People’s Press, 2002, iii+337].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y. Cheung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is a recurrent theme and simultaneously a research focus of Cultural Studies. Not unrelated to this is the focus on complex diachronic and synchronic variability in language and discourse as demonstrated within the broad range of epistemologies in Linguistics and Sociolinguistics in particular. The ongoing debate concerning disciplinary boundaries of Cultural Studies and Sociolinguistics and related entities such as Anthropology, Gender Studies, Media Studies and Sociology is itself indicative of heterogeneity, complexity and variability. These themes emerge from the rich descriptive study offered through a kind of kaleidoscopic vision that is the monograph Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Heterogeneity is a recurrent theme and simultaneously a research focus of Cultural Studies. Not unrelated to this is the focus on complex diachronic and synchronic variability in language and discourse as demonstrated within the broad range of epistemologies in Linguistics and Sociolinguistics in particular. The ongoing debate concerning disciplinary boundaries of Cultural Studies and Sociolinguistics and related entities such as Anthropology, Gender Studies, Media Studies and Sociology is itself indicative of heterogeneity, complexity and variability. These themes emerge from the rich descriptive study offered through a kind of kaleidoscopic vision that is the monograph Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography.

  4. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland regions. It…

  5. A Study of the Driving Force Model Revealing Changes in Land Utilization Level Based on 3S Technologies--The Example of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin-feng; CHEN Guo-jie; YANG Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the theory and approaches of building driving force models revealing the changes in land utilization level by integrating RS, GPS, and GIS technologies based on the example of Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province. We first created the land utilization type database, natural driving forces for land utilization database, and human driving forces for land utilization database. Then we obtained the dependent and the independent variables of changes in land utilization level by exploring various data. Lastly we screened major factors affecting changes in land utilization level by using the po- werful spatial correlation analysis and main component analysis module of GIS and obtained a multivariable linear regression model of the changes in land utilization level by using GIS spatial regression analysis module.

  6. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  7. Valid or not? Yunnan mountain snake Plagiopholis unipostocularis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxenodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang Hui; Chen, Wen De; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Peng, Pei Hao; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Plagiopholis unipostocularis Zhao, Jiang & Huang, 1978 is a small snake endemic to Yunnan, southern China. Its validity is still controversial and unresolved. Based on extensive sampling in Yunnan, we conducted morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetics on the unidentified specimens of Plagiopholis from Yunnan. Based on a combination of morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny, the newly collected specimens could be identified as P. blakewayi. While some specimens exhibit one or more diagnostics of P. unipostocularis, and some characteristics are intermediate between that of Plagiopholis unipostocularis and P. blakewayi. Thus morphological continuities between two species uncovered P. unipostocularis is a synonymy of P. blakewayi, and the diagnostics of this species was revised accordingly.

  8. A new species of Lagerstroemioxylon (Lythraceae) from the Pliocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China%中国云南元谋上新世千屈菜科紫薇木属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程业明; 李承森; 姜笑梅; 王宇飞

    2007-01-01

    Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis sp.nov.is established from the Pliocene sediments near Xinhua,Yuanmou Basin,Yunnan,China.Its growth rings are distinct.Pores diffuse,solitary,and in radial multiples;perforation plates simple;intervessel pits alternate,vestured;vessel-ray pits alternate;tyloses thin-walled,abundant in vessels.Septate fibers distinct.Axial parenchyma predominantly paratracheal.narrow vasicentric and marginal.Rays mostly uniseriate,homocellular.The genus Lagerstroemioxylon was reported in the Tertiary sediments of India,Myanmar,Indonesia and Germany,which might indicate that Lagerstroemia living today in tropical forests of Asia and North Australia grew wider%报道了来自中国云南元谋新华土林上新世地层的木化石新种--元谋紫薇Lagerstroemioxylon yuanmouensis Y.M.Cheng,C.S.Li,X.M.Jiang & Y.F.Wang.目前紫薇属Lagerstroemia分布于亚洲至澳大利亚北部的热带森林中,其中有一些种在我国的西南部和台湾省也有分布.在印度、缅甸、印度尼西亚和德国的第三纪地层中曾报道有紫薇属木化石的存在,这表明该属在第三纪分布的范围比现代更广.

  9. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  10. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  11. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  12. Distribution Characteristics, Flowering and Seeding of Dendrocalamus sinicus in Yunnan, China%巨龙竹资源分布特点及其开花结实现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷志佳; 杨汉奇; 孙茂盛; 杨宇明

    2012-01-01

    巨龙竹Dendrocalamus sinicus Chia et J.L.Sun是云南特有的重要经济竹种之一,为了保护和开发巨龙竹资源,本文调查了18个典型的巨龙竹种群,并对近6年来巨龙竹开花结实现象进行了分析.研究结果显示巨龙竹分布区域十分狭窄,以滇西南的沧源、西盟和孟连3个县为中心,集中分布于22°09′~23°30′N,98°56′~99°37′E,海拔1 000~1 500 m之间的低中山区.同时,巨龙竹秆型依照分布区由南向北表现出明显的弯曲型——弯曲型与通直型混生(混生型)——通直型的变化趋势.种群平均胸径与分布区海拔之间呈现极显著的正相关关系.巨龙竹野外多见零星开花,以通直型为主,但结实少见且结实率低,约为0.34%~0.64%,这可能主要是由于个体零星开花以及小花雌雄异熟等原因造成的结果.土蜂Apis cerana Fabricius的访问可能是巨龙竹有性繁殖中传粉的重要补充方式.%Dendrocalamus sinicus Chia et J. L. Sun is one of the endemic and the most important economic bamboo species in Yunnan Province, China. In order to protect and excavate the native germplasm resources of this species, 18 typical populations were investigated and the flowering and seeding of D. Sinicus in Yunnan Province in the past years were analyzed. The results show that D. Sinicus is narrowly distributed in Southwest Yunnan, with the distribution centre locates in the lower and medium mountain areas at the altitude of 1 000 ~ 1 500 m above sea level in Cangyuan, Ximeng and Menglian Counties, ranging in 22° 09'~23° 30'N, 98° 56'~99° 37'E. Meanwhile, from south to north within distributions, the culm type of D. Sinicus shows an obvious trend as from bending-culmed, mixed type, to straight-culmed. The average diameter at the breast height is significantly and positively correlated with the altitude of populations. Sporadic flowering of D. Sinicus was observed in the wild, especially for the straight-culmed type

  13. Carbon Stock Assessment of Dai Homegarden in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan,China%云南西双版纳傣族庭院C储量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; Roberto G.Visco

    2003-01-01

    综合运用样方收获、生物量回归方程及标准木的方法进行样地调查,对西双版纳傣族庭院C储量进行了测定.结果表明傣族庭院的平均C密度为99.85 tons*hm-2.证明传统傣族庭院作为一种生产和生态系统,具有良好的吸收CO2温室气体的能力.%Carbon stock of traditionally managed Dai home gardens in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan was assessed using a method that combined small plot measurements, the use of allometric equations for trees with large dbh and the mean tree technique for bamboo and banana.Results showed the mean carbon stock of Dai home gardens in Xishuangbanna was 99.85 tons*hm-2, suggesting its high potential to curb the rate of CO2 increase in the atmosphere.

  14. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault constitutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with differential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3―1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota- tion of micro-block.

  15. [Long-term pattern of diatom community structure changes in response to multiple environmental stressors at Datun Lake, Southeast Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-shuang; Chen, Guang-jie; Chen, Xiao-lin; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Lu, Hui-bin; Hu, Kui

    2015-08-01

    Subtropical plateau lakes in Southeast Yunnan are known to have experienced multiple environmental stressors (lake pollution, eutrophication, land reclamation and droughts) during the past decades. Here, we applied multi-proxy analyses (i.e., diatom, grain size, C and N isotopic and chronology) of lake sediments, aiming to track the history of lake environment change and the characteristics of diatom community responses in Datun Lake for the past century. The results proved that the sedimentary diatom community records showed significant changes with the replacement of Fragilaria construens by Achnanthes minutissima. Combining with multiple-proxy records (i.e., isotopic data) and modern monitoring records, the ordination analyses and variation partitioning further suggested that industrial pollution and eutrophication were the major driving factors that led to the long-term shift of diatom community. In addition, the grain size results and meteorological data revealed that the reductions in hydrodynamic and water exchange intensity associated with damming and the occurrence of extreme droughts, thus led to the corresponding diatom community change.

  16. Genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans regia and J. sigillata; Juglandaceae): Species distinctions, human impacts, and the conservation of agrobiodiversity in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Bee F; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Salick, Jan M; Miller, Allison J; Yongping, Yang; Lin, Liu; Xian, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Walnuts are a major crop of many countries and mostly cultivated in large-scale plantations with few cultivars. Landraces provide important genetic reservoirs; thus, understanding factors influencing the geographic distribution of genetic variation in crop resources is a fundamental goal of agrobiodiversity conservation. Here, we investigated the role of human settlements and kinship on genetic variation and population structure of two walnut species: Juglans regia, an introduced species widely cultivated for its nuts, and J. sigillata, a native species cultivated locally in Yunnan. The objectives of this study were to characterize sympatric populations of J. regia and J. sigillata using 14 molecular markers and evaluate the role of Tibetan villages and kin groups (related households) on genotypic variation and population structure of J. regia and J. sigillata. Our results based on 220 walnut trees from six Tibetan villages show that although J. regia and J. sigillata are morphologically distinct, the two species are indistinguishable based on microsatellite data. Despite the lack of interspecific differences, AMOVAs partitioned among villages (5.41%, P = 0.0068) and kin groups within villages (3.34%, P = 0.0068) showed significant genetic variation. These findings suggest that village environments and familial relationships are factors contributing to the geographic structure of genetic variation in Tibetan walnuts.

  17. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongHai; ZHANG YongShuang; HU DaoGong; ZHAO XiTao; YE PeiSheng

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault consti-tutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with dif-ferential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3-1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota-tion of micro-block.

  18. Disparities of Country Economy at Yunnan Province in China Base on the Perspective of Industrial Structure%基于产业结构视角的云南省县域经济差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利; 朱喜钢; 李小虎

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the influence of industrial structure on the economic inequali-ties among counties at the less developed Yunnan Province in China. In the process of modernization, the coun-try economy is the basic element of national economy and the ties of city with rural economic. Nowadays, Chi-nese economic operation of the prominent contradictions such as the regional inequality mostly is reflected in regional scale at countries. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the county economic difference in order to coor-dinate regional development. Yunnan as a frontier, ethnic, mountainous and poor district, it is located in the western inland and one of the most imbalanced areas with regional development in China. After studied the lit-eratures, we found the academia has not discussed the country economy from the perspective of industrial structure in Yunnan Province. So this article takes the shift share analysis and Industry decomposition of the Gi-ni coefficient methods, based on the data of statistical yearbook, to analyze the evolution of industrial structure effecting county economic difference in Yunnan Province. The results show that: the economic disparities of counties affected by the deviation of industrial structure and competition greatly, the eastern counties of the in-dustrial structure have a significant advantage, but the relative competitive advantage is weak, the western and southern counties have more competitive advantage, but less structural disadvantages than the eastern counties. In recent years, the eastern counties are dominant in the industrial structure, competitiveness, and the differ-ence between the western and southern county are widened;the results from the decomposition of the Gini co-efficient of industry indicate that the secondary industry is the leading factor causing the county economy dif-ference. In addition, the tertiary industry contributes to increase county economic difference and its impacts on

  19. Recent tectonic stress field zoning in Sichuan-Yunnan region and its dynamic interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; XIE Fu-ren; ZHANG Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we have carefully determined the stress zones in the Sichuan-Yunnan region with reference to the in-situ stress data of hydraulic fracturing and the inverted fault slip data by using the step-by-step convergence method for stress zoning based on focal mechanism solutions. The results indicate that the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region is divided into 3 stress zones by 2 approximately parallel NNW-trending stress transition belts. The area between the 2 belts is the Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone where the maximum principal stress σ1 is just in the NNW direction. The eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the eastern stress transition belt) is basically consistent with the eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the western stress transition belt) is not totally consistent with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The northern segment of the western stress transition belt extends basically along the Jinshajiang fault and accords with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block, while its southern segment does not extend along the southwestern boundary of the rhombic block, i.e., Honghe fault and converge with the eastern stress transition belt, but stretches continuously in the NNW direction and accords with the Yingpanshan fault. We therefore consider that under the combined influence from the northward motion of India Plate, the southeastward shift of east Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the strong obstruction of South China block, the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region might not be totally controlled by the previous tectonic frame and new stress transition belt may have possibly formed.

  20. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hui; BAI Yu-hua; ZHANG Shu-yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds(VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing(RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVl) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km × 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h.Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 × 1012 gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 × 1011 gCfor isoprene, 2.1 × 1011 gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 × 1011 gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

  1. Research on the Industrial Ecologicalization in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using ecological carrying capacity, ecological footprint method and shift-share analysis and the data from Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook, the status quo of industrial ecologicalization development in Yunnan Province is analyzed from the aspects of consumption of resources and environment, production technology and industrial pollution and industrial structure. The results show that the economic growth in Yunnan Province is based on the huge consumption of resources; the consumption of natural environment has surpassed its carrying capacity; the production technology is relatively backward and the comprehensive use efficiency of the "three wastes" is low; the solid waste emission of the ten thousand GDP far exceeds the average level of the whole county; the total emissions of industrial waste gas and domestic sewage are increasing; the efficiency of industrial structure is bad. On the strength of the analysis, the relevant measures on ecological industrial development in Yunnan Province is put forward, covering strengthening the awareness of saving resources and protecting environment; establishing energy-saving type national economy and social system; actively adjusting industrial structure; strengthening ecological construction of the three major industries.

  2. New insights into the lowest Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for Emeishan large igneous province felsic tuff deposition and the cause of the end-Guadalupian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lixin; Dai, Shifeng; Graham, Ian T.; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Beibei

    2016-11-01

    A previous study suggested that the lowest Xuanwei Formation is derived from weathered clastic materials of silicic composition from the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) based on chemostratigraphic correlations (Al2O3/TiO2 ratios) between the two. In this study, we have adopted the model that the Emeishan mantle plume commenced and terminated within a short duration and have investigated the detailed mineralogy and geochemistry of carefully sampled rocks from the lower sections of the Xuanwei Formation, eastern Yunnan Province, Southwest China. These samples are intensely argillized and characterized by high proportions of clay minerals and quartz. The samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation have an anomalous natural gamma response and high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, Ga and REY (rare earth elements and yttrium). Our results suggest that the samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation represent felsic volcanic tuff instead of acidic clasts as originally proposed. The lowest Xuanwei Formation and the Wangpo Bed are the felsic tuffaceous layers interbedded with clastic rocks derived from the Emeishan high-Ti basalts. Such volcanic layers most likely represent ELIP felsic tuff originated from the extrusive equivalent of Nb-Zr-enriched alkaline syenitic magmatism at the waning stage of Emeishan mantle plume activity. This study has verified the existence of extensive alkaline felsic volcanism of early Late Permian age. Such alkaline volcanism may have been catastrophic and have contributed to the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

  3. Fluid Inclusions of Calcite and Sources of Ore-forming Fluids in the Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) District, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Runsheng; LIU Congqiang; HUANG Zhilong; MA Deyun; LI Yuan; HU Bin; MA Gengsheng; LEI Li

    2004-01-01

    The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) district is a typical representative of the well-known medium-to large-sized carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) deposits, occurring in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn Ore-forming Zone.Generally, fluid inclusions within calcite, one of the major gangue minerals, are dominated by two kinds of small (1-10μm) inclusions including pure-liquid and liquid. The inclusions exist in concentrated groups along the crystal planes of the calcite. The ore-forming fluids containing Pb and Zn, which belong to the Na+-K+-Ca2+-C1--F--SO42- type, are characterized by temperatures of 164-221 ℃, medium salinity in 5-10.8 wt% NaCl, and medium pressure at 410xl0s to 661 x 10s Pa. The contents of Na+-K+ and Cl--F-, and ratios of Na+/K+-Cl-/F- in fluid inclusions present good linearity. The ratios of Na+/K+ (4.66-6.71) and C1-/F- (1 8.21-31.04) in the fluid inclusions of calcite are relatively high, while those of Na+/K+ (0.29-5.69) and Cl-/F- (5.00-26.0) in the inclusions of sphalerite and pyrite are relatively low. The ratio of Na+/K+increases in accord with those of C1-/F, which indicates that ore-forming fluid of deep source participates in the mineralization. The waters of fluid inclusions have δD values from -43.5‰ to -55.4‰ of calcite. The δ18Ov-sMow values of the ore-forming fluids, calculated values, range from 17.09‰ to 18.56‰ of calcite and 17.80‰ to 23.14‰ for dolomite.δ13 Cv-PDB values range from -1.94‰ to -3.31‰ for calcite and -3.35‰ to 0.85‰ for the ore-bearing dolomite. These data better demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic water and magmatic hot fluid, in relation to the metamorphism of the Kunyang Group in the basement and magmatic hydrothermalism. The deposit itself might have resulted from ascending cycles of ore-forming fluid, enriched in Pb and Zn. The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge)deposits related to carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb sulphides.

  4. 采自云南热带雨林的中国多孔菌两新记录种%Two polypores from Yunnan new to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余长军; 李娟; 戴玉成

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Wood-rotting fungi have been intensively studied in China (Dai & Niemel(a) 2002; Dai et al.2003, 2004a, 2004b; Dai & Penttil(a) 2006), and some new species and new records were found from tropical and subtropical forests in southern part of the Country (Cui et al. 2006b; Cui et al. 2007; Dai 2004; Dai & Cui 2005; Dai & Yuan 2005; Yuan et al. 2004).

  5. New Height in A New Stage Interpretation of the 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    The 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Wujiang) held on Sep. 1st, 2011 discussed in depth the world chemical fiber changes and the predictable development of China's chemical fiber industry during the "12th Five-Year Program" period. In order to help readers fully understand China's chemical fiber industry's development priorities during that period, the article will give an interpretation on the two themes of the conference "Innovation-Driven" and "Green & Low Carbon"

  6. 南滚河国家级自然保护区的动物多样性%Animal Diversity in the Nangunhe National-level Nature Reserve of Yunnan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic research on investigation and taxonomy of Botany and Zoology as well as application of the indigenous knowledge to utilization and conservation of biodiversity, the families and species of mammals, distribution types and habitat distribution of birds, and faunas of amphibian and reptiles, types and characteristics of the fish in the area were investigated and analyzed. The terraneous and aquatic animals, the characteristic of animal ecological system, and the characteristic of animal diversity in the nature reserve were discussed. Results indicated that the area is very rich in animal diversity. There are 98 species of mammals in the area belonging to 10 orders, 30 families and 75 genera,which account for 16.14% of 607 species of mammals in China and 32. 23% of Yunnans 304 species of mammals. There are 145 species of birds in the area belonging to 13 orders and 36 families, which account for 17.4% of 824 species of birds in Yunnan. There are 26 species and subspecies of amphibians in the area. There are 39 species and subspecies of reptiles in the area. Fish in the area were divided into 3,2 and 3 types according to the different habitats, the type of water flows and feeding habits respectively and the characteristics of the fish in the area were introduced. The characteristics of the Biogeocenose diversity in the area were analyzed. The main problems of management in the reserve were found. The long-term development targets for the nature reserve were set. Some suggestions for future management were made.%基于系统的植物学和动物学调查和分类学研究,以及乡土知识在生物多样性的利用和保护方面的应用,对分布于保护区的哺乳动物的科和种、鸟类的分布类型和生境分布、两栖和爬行动物的区系、鱼类的类型和特点作了调查分析,讨论了分布于保护区的陆生和水生动物、动物的生态系统和多样性特征.结果表明:保护区的

  7. Chinalco Straightened Out Copper Assets, and Delegated Stock Equity of Yunnan Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Immediately after the news that Chinalco transferred 58%stock equity of Yunnan Copper Group to its wholly-owned subsidiary China Copper Corporation Limited free of charge was disclosed on July 9,many individual investors couldn’t help but to think:Does it mean China Copper Corporation Limited will assemble assets for overall listing?At present,among main copper business companies under China Copper Corporation

  8. Chinalco Joined Hands with Yunnan to Create World Top-Class Nonferrous Metals Industrial Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    On April 13,China Copper Co.,Ltd,a key platform of the copper business division under Chinalco,was inaugurated in Kunming,Yunnan hereby welcomed the headquarters of the first central enterprise headed by the word"Zhong"(China)in its name to enter the City of Spring.China Copper Co.,Ltd was founded in 2008.Over the past eight years,it has become an

  9. The Relationship between Yunnan-Vietnam Railway and the City Form of Kunming in Times of Republic of China%滇越铁路与民国昆明城市形态变迁*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚

    2013-01-01

    从1910年到1940年,滇越铁路一直是云南人流、物流、信息流、资金流最密集繁盛的对外通道,昆明在云南的区域中心地位主要由滇越铁路奠定,昆明的城市形态变迁也与滇越铁路息息相关。%Yunnan-Vietnam Railway was the main road of the flowing of human resources,com-modities,information and fund in Yunnan province since 1910 to 1940.The railway pushed Kunming to be the local economic center in Yunnan province,at the same time,the relationship between the railway and the city form of Kunming was certified by the historical materials.

  10. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Bai ethnic group in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899 took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899 of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control.

  11. On intemational trade in educational services: an interpretation of the regulations and China's WTO commitments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS)of the World Trade Organization(WTO)covers educational trade services.Hence,all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services.Having acceded to the WTO.China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely respecting international trade,services and intellectual property laws.At the same time,it is also starting to fulfill some of the commitments it made in the GATS,such as expanding activities on trade in educational services.Comprehending the fundamental regulations and China's commitments is significant towards promoting China's international trade in educational services.

  12. Direct versus indirect climate controls on Holocene diatom assemblages in a sub-tropical deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu, Yunnan, SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Xiangdong; Anderson, Nicholas John; Dong, Xuhui

    2016-07-01

    The reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in lakes on the plateau region of southwest China provides an understanding of how these ecosystems may respond to climate change. Fossil diatom assemblages were investigated from an 11,000-year lake sediment core from a deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu) in southwest China, an area strongly influenced by the southwest (or the Indian) summer monsoon. Changes in diatom assemblage composition, notably the abundance of the two dominant planktonic species, Cyclotella rhomboideo-elliptica and Cyclostephanos dubius, reflect the effects of climate variability on nutrient dynamics, mediated via thermal stratification (internal nutrient cycling) and catchment-vegetation processes. Statistical analyses of the climate-diatom interactions highlight the strong effect of changing orbitally-induced solar radiation during the Holocene, presumably via its effect on the lake's thermal budget. In a partial redundancy analysis, climate (solar insolation) and proxies reflecting catchment process (pollen percentages, C/N ratio) were the most important drivers of diatom ecological change, showing the strong effects of climate-catchment-vegetation interactions on lake functioning. This diatom record reflects long-term ontogeny of the lake-catchment ecosystem and suggests that climatic changes (both temperature and precipitation) impact lake ecology indirectly through shifts in thermal stratification and catchment nutrient exports.

  13. Population characteristics of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in Yunnan Province, China%云南稻区稻水象甲Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel种群发生特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艳琼; 李向永; 赵雪晴; 刘萍; 谌爱东

    2016-01-01

    Background] The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, was first detected in Songming County of Yunnan Province in June 2007. In order to control its damaged, we characterised its occurrence, number of generations per year, population fluctuation of adults and larvae, and overwintering characteristics. [Method] We conducted regular field surveys in 2008-2010 in Bridge village, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China. [Result] When temperatures reached an average of 16 ℃ in early April ( temperature range 9.0~24.1℃) , the overwintering adults became active and migrated into rice paddies, set-tling and feeding on weeds and rice seedlings. In mid-May, the adults moved to rice fields and started egg laying on rice plants, and the larvae fed on new rice roots after the eggs hatched. At the tillering phase in mid-June, the larval population reached its peak, with 3.17~11.33 larvae per cluster. At rice booting stage in mid-to late July, cocoon density in the soil peaked, reaching 5.90~9.00 cocoons per cluster. At rice flowering and tesseling stage in late July to the middle of August, adults reached their peak density, after which the newly emerged adults gradually migrated to rice fields near sunny slopes and ridges to bury themselves to a maximum of 3 cm into the soil where they remained inactive during winter, we found a maximum of 98.33~266.00 overwintering adults per square meter.[Conclusion and significance] The rice water weevil produced 1~1.5 generations in Songming, closely synchronised with the growth stages of rice. The overwintering adults start to damage seedlings in the early April. July is the critical period for damage prevention and treatment against adults in Yunnan Province.%【背景】2007年6月,云南省首次在嵩明县发现稻水象甲,为掌握其年发生世代、成虫和幼虫种群消长动态及其越冬特点开展此项研究。【方法】2008—2010年,采用田间系统调查法对云南省昆

  14. 西盟合轮恙螨在云南省部分地区的分布及宿主选择%Distribution and host selection of Helenicula simena in some areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宾; 郭宪国; 耿明璐; 钱体军; 董文鸽; 王乔花

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the geographical distribution and host selection of Helenicula simena among different small mammal hosts in some areas of Yunnan Province, China. A field survey was carried out in 23 counties of Yunnan Province between 2001 and 2011. The small mammal hosts were captured with mouse cages and traps. The chigger mites were mainly collected from the pairs of auricles of each small mammal host. Hoyer's medium was used to mount each chigger mite onto a glass slide in a conventional way. All the mounted specimen of chigger mites on the glass slides was finally identified into species under a microscope. Some conventional statistical methods were used to calculate the constituent ratio, infestation prevalence, and infestation intensity of Helenicula simena in different geographical regions and in different hosts. A total of 108 480 individuals of chigger mites were collected from all the captured small mammal hosts. All the collected chigger mites were identified into 3 subfamilies, 24 genera and 234 species. Of 234 species of chigger mites, 5 501 individuals of Helenicula simena were collected in only 7 counties. The collected individuals of Helenicula simena accounted for 5. 07% of the total mites (108 480 individuals). The 85. 62% of Helenicula simena came from the mountainous regions and habitats while only 14. 38% of Helenicula simena from flatland areas. The hosts in orders Rodentia, Scandentia and Insectivora harbored 91. 86% , 7. 83% and 0. 31% of all the collected Helenicula simena. Of 67 species (in 34 genera and 12 families of 5 orders) , Kothenomys mile-tus (in genus Kothenomys and family of Rodentia) harbored 76. 20% of the collected Helenicula simena , and other wild-dwelling small mammals came next. In Yunnan Province, Helenicula simena is mainly distributed in the mountainous regions and habitats with relatively high altitude. Helenicula simena could parasitize several different species of hosts with low host specificity, but

  15. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae引起云南省香蕉细菌性叶斑病%A New Bacterial Leaf Spot of Banana Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 黄敏; 何鹏飞; Hon-hing HO; 吴毅歆; 何月秋

    2016-01-01

    To identify the pathogen causing a new bacterial leaf spot on banana (Musa sapientum L.) in Xinping County,Yunnan Province of China,the bacterium was isolated from the infected banana plant and identified by cultural and morphological studies,pathogenicity test,physiological and biochemical detection as well as sequences analyses of gyrB,16S rDNA and rpoB genes.The results showed that the leaf spot disease was caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae.The pathogen could infect banana fruit,pseudo-stem and leaf.Black spots appeared on diseased pseudo-stems within 3 days after inoculation and they enlarged lengthwise in both directions,causing massive brown necrosis of the internal tissues within the pseudo-stem in 7 days.This is the first report of K.pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae causing leaf spot of banana plants in the world.%为明确一种新的香蕉(Musa sapientum)细菌性叶斑病病原菌,以云南省新平县香蕉园区发现的一种新病害为供试材料,通过分离培养、形态观察、致病性测定、生理生化试验和gyrB,16S rDNA和rpoB基因片段分析,对病原菌进行了鉴定.该病由克雷伯氏肺炎球菌肺炎亚种(Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae)引起,病菌可侵染香蕉叶片、假茎和果实.茎干被病原菌侵入3d后即可出现黑色小斑点,在接种部位附近呈上下方向蔓延趋势,7d后茎干上出现大面积棕色坏死,内部组织褐变.本文在世界上首次报道克雷伯氏肺炎球菌肺炎亚种可侵染香蕉植株,引起香蕉细菌性叶斑病.

  17. Similarity of ectoparasitic gamasid mite(Acari:Parasitiformes:Mesostigmata)communities on small mammals in Yunnan,China%中国云南小兽体表革螨的群落相似性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗礼溥; 郭宪国; 钱体军; 吴滇; 门兴元; 董文鸽

    2007-01-01

    The ectoparasitic gamasid mite species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammal are regarded as a community of mites.The similarity of ectoparasitic gamasid mite communities on 17 species of small mammals was studied in Yunnan Province,China.Based on hierarchical clustering analysis,a similarity comparison of 17 mite communities was conducted with SPSS 11.5 software.Clustering analysis was based on the Pearson correlation coefficient for the nearest neighbor method.The results revealed these communities had high species abundance and diversity.The mite communities on the same genus of small mammals showed a high similarity and are classified into the same cluster.The clustering tendency of most mite communities was concordant with the taxonomic position of the corresponding small mammals on which the mites exist,but some of the mite communities are exceptions.The results suggest that ectoparasitic gamasid mite communities are related to host taxonomy and also possibly to host habitat[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(2):208-214,2007].%运用系统聚类分析方法对中国云南省境内17种主要小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表革螨群落相似性进行研究,每一种小兽体表的所有外寄生革螨被定义为一个相应的革螨群落.运用SPSS 11.5软件完成17种革螨群落的相似性比较.研究结果表明:小兽体表革螨群落结构复杂,物种多样性高;隶属同一个属的小兽体表的革螨群落相似程度高,在系统聚类分析中聚为一类;大多数革螨群落相似性大小与相应小兽宿主在动物分类上的近缘性高低呈现高度一致,但也有一些革螨群落是例外的.这说明小兽体表革螨群落不仅受小兽宿主分类地位的影响,可能还受宿主生境的影响[动物学报 53(2):208-214,2007].

  18. Mesozoic subduction-accretion zone in northeastern South China Sea inferred from geophysical interpretations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A segment of Mesozoic subduction-accretion zone was inferred across the northeastern South China Sea at approximately NE45° orientation. Basic evidence includes the following: A belt of peek gross horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient (PGHGBA) is comparable in size and intensity to that of the Manila subduction-accretion zone. A belt of high positive magnetic anomalies appears to the north and sub-parallel to the PGHGBA, representing the volcanic arc associated to the subduction zone. The PGHGBA crosses obliquely both Cenozoic structures and present seafloor topography, indicating a pre-Cenozoic age. The segment is offset left-laterally by NW-running strike-slip faults, in concord with the Mesozoic stress field of South China. In addition, the existence of the subduction zone is supported by wide-angle seismic data obtained in different years by different institutions. At approximate localities, a north-dipping ramp of Moho surface is indicated by records of ocean-bottom seismometers, and a strong reflector about 8 km beneath the Moho reflector is indicated by both OBS and long-cable seismic records. The identification of a segment of Mesozoic subduction zone in NE South China Sea fills nicely the gap of the Great Late Mesozoic Circum SE Asia Subduction-acrretion Zone, which extended from Sumatra, Java, SE Kalimantan to N Palawan, and from Taiwan, Ryukyu to SW Japan.

  19. Eclipses and Occultations of Galilean Satellites Observed at Yunnan Observatory in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Peng; Beno(i)t Noyelles

    2007-01-01

    We describe and analyze observations of mutual events of Galilean satellites made at the Yunnan Observatory in February 2003 from CCD imaging for the first time in China.Astrometric positions were deduced from these photometric observations by modelling the relative motion and the photometry of the involved satellites during each event.

  20. SIMS U-Pb zircon age of a tuff layer in the Meishucun section, Yunnan, southwest China: Constraint on the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary is critical in understanding early evolution of life on Earth. SIMS U-Pb zircon analyses of the Bed 5 tuff layer of the Meishucun section were carried out closely following the guidance of cathodoluminescence images, and the majority of analyses were conducted on the oscillatory zircon grains. Thirteen measurements yield a highly reliable Concordia U-Pb age of 536.7 ± 3.9 Ma for the Bed 5 horizon. A grand mean of 206Pb/238U age of 535.2± 1.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.53) is calculated based on 13 concordant SIMS measurements of this study and 4 nano-SIMS measurements of Sawaki et al., which is the best estimate of the deposition age of the tuff layer within Bed 5 in the Meishucun section. This age has provided a robust age constraint on the significant Precambrian-Cambrian boundary strata in southern China, which independently suggested the placement of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary at the bottom of the Xiaowaitoushan Member (Marker A).

  1. U-series dating of Zhangkou Cave in Yiliang, Yunnan Province: Evidence for human activities in China during 40-100 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guanjun; LI Jiankun; JI Xueping

    2005-01-01

    The cultural deposits at pits T1 and T2 in Zhangkou Cave are intercalated with several flowstone layers. U-series dates show that the capping and 2nd flowstone layers are Holocene of age. The 4th and 5th flowstone layers are ca. 55 and 110 ka old respectively. The lithic artifacts bracketed by them provide unequivocal evidence for hominid presence during this time interval. The "temporal gap" of hominid fossil, widely quoted as in support of the out-of-Africa hypothesis, is most probably an artifact due to systematic errors of dating techniques. The infillings under 6th flowstone layer date to >300 ka, much older than the previous estimate at 15 ka based on classical 14C dating of fossil bones, providing one more example of the limited reliability of this chronometer. With rich relics and favorable conditions for precise dating, this site is promising for further multidisciplinary studies to address issues concerning recent human evolution in China.

  2. 民国时期滇越铁路对沿线城市商品经济发展的作用%The Function of Yunnan-Vietnam Railway on the Commodity Economy of the Cities along the Railway in Times of Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚

    2012-01-01

    民国时期,滇越铁路推动了云南商品经济的发展,触发了云南的工业化、近代化进程。尤其对沿线城市的对外贸易、县际贸易、地方贸易的发展有显著作用,推动了当地农产品的商品化、规模化进程,使沿线各站成为新兴的农副土特产品集散地和商业街场。%Yunnan-Vietnam Railway pushed the development of commodity economy in Yunnan province, and initiated industrialization and modernization process of the cities along the railway in times of Republic of China. The historical materials witnessed that the railway had a remarkable effect especially on the expanding of foreign trade, and inner trade, and local trade among the cities along the railway. Meanwhile, the railway accelerated the pace of the rural products sold to markets, where the railway stations became the new transaction centers and country fairs.

  3. Influence of Human Pressure on Forest Resources and Productivity at Stand and Tree Scales: The Case Study of Yunnan Pine in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Thomas M; Chi, Phillip; Hagmann, Keala; Harrell, Stevan; Schmidt, Amanda Henck; Urgenson, Lauren; Zeng, Zong-Yong

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines human impact on stands and individual trees of Pinus yunnanensis growing near the small mountain villages of Pianshui and Yangjuan in southwestern Sichuan Province, China. In an effort to assess whether use of these forests was sustainable, we examined the effects of human use in two ways. First, we directly measured the effect of cutting branches, for fuel and fodder, on tree growth. We hypothesized that branch cutting would negatively impact tree growth. We established 12 plots on four hills and compared 14 pairs of trees, one tree in each pair with an apparently full crown and the other with a considerable portion of the crown removed. Second, we assessed stand and tree properties over a 500 m elevation gradient above the villages where we hypothesized that as elevation increases, stand and tree properties should show fewer human impacts. Although extensive branch cutting reduced the live crown, tree height and diameter, compensatory processes likely enabled trees to recover and to add basal area increments (BAIs) similar to those added by trees with full crowns. Trees and stands close to villages showed less growth and lower basal areas, respectively, than stands and trees at intermediate or distant elevations from villages. Areas relatively close to the villages showed considerable effects of human-related disturbances such as branch cutting, grazing, tree and shrub removal, losses of litter, and human and animal trails. Such areas had increased soil erosion and often loss of the 'A' horizon. Stands close to villages had younger trees, lower stand basal areas, smaller basal area increments, and more stumps. Our results suggest an increasingly vulnerable interface between occupants of these two villages and their surrounding forests.

  4. 云南省西双版纳地区2011年蚊虫及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承军; 朱进; 王宇; 陶伽伶; 李丽华; 白卫荣; 查冰; 王丕玉; 梁国栋; 付士红; 张海林; 范建华; 杨卫红; 章域震; 吕志; 李园园; 李鸿斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南省西双版纳地区蚊虫媒介的分布特点及当地虫媒病毒情况,为虫媒病毒病防治提供科学依据.方法 在云南省西双版纳州采集蚊虫标本,用细胞培养法分离病毒,并用RT-PCR法检测常见虫媒病毒核酸;在西双版纳州采集发热患者血清及脑脊液标本,并用ELISA法检测常见病毒性脑炎IgM抗体.结果 共采获蚊虫5属29种13 337只,其中三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、带足按蚊分别占蚊虫标本总数的79.98%( 10 667/13 337)、7.95%( 1060/13 337)和7.38%(984/13 337),三带喙库蚊为当地优势蚊种.采用流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒、版纳病毒、甲病毒属、环状病毒等多种虫媒病毒引物对214批蚊虫标本进行PCR检测,结果均为阴性;采用多种细胞对蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,结果也为阴性.用相关脑炎病毒试剂盒对采集到的52份急性期血清标本及54份脑脊液标本进行ELISA检测,发现乙脑病毒IgM阳性16例,单纯疱疹病毒IgM抗体阳性4例,腮腺炎病毒IgM抗体阳性13例,埃可病毒IgM抗体阳性3例,登革热病毒IgM抗体阳性1例.结论 2011年西双版纳地区采集到的蚊虫标本中未检测到乙脑、版纳及环状病毒等虫媒病毒,但血清学检测结果表明当地发热患者存在乙脑等多种病毒性脑炎感染.%Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for prevention and control of arbovirus diseases. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Xishuangbanna and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. RT-PCR was used to identify arbovirus. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from fever patients, and the common encephalitis virus IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results A total of 13 337 mosquitoes, belonging to 29 species and 5 genera, were collected. The main mosquitoes were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (79.98%, 10 667

  5. Alleviating poverty or reinforcing inequality? Interpreting micro-finance in practice, with illustrations from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Becky Yang

    2014-06-01

    Academic and political discussions about micro-finance have been found lacking in predictive power, because they are based on orthodox economic theory, which does not properly comprehend the social components of credit. I take a better approach, utilizing credit theory--specifically, Ingham's explication of how the nature of money as credit leads to social inequality. I also expound the perspective that morality is not separate from considerations borrowers make in micro-finance programmes on the micro level. I draw upon illustrations from my fieldwork in rural China, where a group-lending micro-finance programme was administered as part of a larger government-initiated effort across the country.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of rotifer in a seasonal fishing moratorium lake - Lake Erhai, Yunnan Province, China%一座季节性休渔湖泊——洱海轮虫的季节动态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋婷; 卫志宏; 朱江; 孟良; 吕兴菊; 赵萍萍; 韩博平; 林秋奇

    2012-01-01

    于2009年2-11月对洱海轮虫进行月际采样,分析洱海轮虫的多样性及其群落结构季节动态特征.洱海作为一个高原湖泊,其轮虫种类组成仍然呈现出热带-亚热带的主要特征.本研究共鉴定轮虫68种,多数种类为广布性或暖水性种类,隶属17科25属,异尾轮属、腔轮属和臂尾轮属是种类最多的三个属,占鉴定轮虫种类的37%.Lecane arcuata和Trichocera inermis为我国新记录种.轮虫生物量的季节分布呈“双峰型”,并分别出现在休渔期的中期和捕鱼期前期.在休渔期中期,轮虫主要以前节晶囊轮虫为优势种;在捕鱼期前期,轮虫先以螺形龟甲轮虫和广生多肢轮虫为优势,后以前节晶囊轮虫为优势.季节性休渔不仅使鱼类对轮虫的捕食压力出现季节性变化,而且还通过影响枝角类的群落结构改变枝角类对轮虫的竞争压力.在捕食和竞争的双重作用下,轮虫主要以大型杂食性种类——前节晶囊轮虫为优势种类,并呈现“双峰型”的季节分布模式.%Rotifers were sampled monthly from February to November in 2009 in Lake Erhai, Yunnan Province, China, in order to study their diversity and seasonal dynamics. Lake Erhai has a rotifer composition with tropical-subtropical characteristics: 68 species belonging to 25 genera of 17 families were identified, the majority of which were eurythermal or mesophilic. The genera of Tri-chocerca, Lecane and Brachionus were more abundant than others, accounting for 37% of the total community. Lecane arcuata and Trichocera inermis are new records in China. Biomass of the rotifer communities in Lake Erhai exhibited a bimodal seasonal cycle. An increase occurred during spring from low winter levels to an annual maximum in the mid fishing moratorium and a second increase in the early fishing season. In the mid fishing moratorium, the rotifer biomass was dominated by Asplanchna priodonla; while in the early fishing season, it was

  7. Modeling and Interpreting CHAMP Magnetic Anomaly Field over China Continent Using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanyuan; Liu Qingsheng; Yang Tao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the CHAMP Magsat data set, spherical cap harmonic analysis was used to model the magnetic fields over China continent. The data set used in the analysis includes the 15′×15′ gridded values of the CHAMP anomaly fields (latitude φ=25°N to 50°N and longitude λ=78°E to 135°E). The pole of the cap is located at φ=35°N and λ=110°E with half-angle of 30°. The maximum index (Kmax) of the model is 30 and the total number of model coefficients is 961, which corresponds to the minimum wavelength at the earth's surface about 400 km. The root mean square (RMS) deviations between the calculated and observed values are ~ 4 nT for ΔX, ~ 3 nT for ΔY and ~ 3.5 nT for ΔZ, respectively. Results show that positive anomalies are found mainly at the Tarim basin with ~6- 8 nT, the Yangtze platform and North China platform with ~4 nT, and the Songliao basin with ~4-6 nT. In contrast, negative anomaly is mainly located in the Tibet orogenic belt with the amplitude ~ (-6)-(-8) nT. Upward continuation of magnetic anomalies was used to semi-quantitatively separate the magnetic anomalies in different depths of crust. The magnetic anomalies at the earth's surface are from -6 to 10 nT for upper crust, middle crust -27 to 42 nT and lower crust -12 to 18 nT, respectively. The strikes of the magnetic anomalies for the upper crust are consistent with those for the middle crust, but not for the lower crust. The high positive magnetic anomalies mainly result from the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block (e.g. middle Sichuan continental nucleus, middle Tarim basin continental nucleus, Junggar diastrophic block and Qaidam diastrophic block). The amplitudes of the magnetic anomalies of the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block are related to evolution of deep crust. These results improve our understanding of the crustal structure over China continent.

  8. Fine structure of Pn velocity beneath Sichuan-Yunnan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金莉; 宋晓东; 汪素云

    2003-01-01

    We use 23298 Pn arrival-time data from Chinese national and provincial earthquake bulletins to invert fine structure of Pn velocity and anisotropy at the top of the mantle beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan and its adjacent region. The results suggest that the Pn velocity in this region shows significant lateral variation; the Pn velocity varies from 7.7 to 8.3 km/s. The Pn-velocity variation correlates well with the tectonic activity and heat flow of the region. Low Pn velocity is observed in southwest Yunnan , Tengchong volcano area, and the Panxi tectonic area. These areas have very active seismicity and tectonic activity with high surface heat flow. On the other hand, high Pn velocity is observed in some stable regions, such as the central region of the Yangtze Platform; the most pronounced high velocity area is located in the Sichuan Basin, south of Chengdu. Pn anisotropy shows a complex pattern of regional deformation. The Pn fast direction shows a prominent clockwise rotation pattern from east of the Tibetan block to the Sichuan-Yunnan diamond block to southwest Yunnan, which may be related to southeastward escape of the Tibetan Plateau material due to the collision of the Indian Plate to the Eurasia Plate. Thus there appears to be strong correlation between the crustal deformation and the upper mantle structure in the region. The delay times of events and stations show that the crust thickness decreases from the Tibetan Plateau to eastern China, which is consistent with the results from deep seismic sounding.

  9. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  10. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  11. Pondering Over the Countermeasures of Harmonious Development of Economy, Culture and Education in Sino-Vietnamese Border and Nationality Regions in China--With the Case of Yunnan Province%中国中越边境民族地区经济文化教育和谐性发展的对策思考--以云南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦发

    2013-01-01

      因受自然环境、历史和现实性因素的三重影响,中国云南省中越边境民族地区经济文化教育发展既内含着和谐性因素,又隐含着制约性因素,找寻“症结”并施以对策,可推动地区经济文化教育的和谐性发展。%  Due to the trial impact of natural and historical and realistic factors, it implies harmonious and restrictive factors for the economic、cultural and educational development in the Sino-Vietnamese border and nationality regions in Yunnan province in China. We could promote the harmonious development of economy、culture and education if we can find out the symptoms and its countermeasures.

  12. Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015%云南省中缅边境2015年一起登革热暴发的分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 杨明东; 姜进勇; 李华昌; 朱崇革; 桂琴; 卜力群; 周红宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region,Yunnan province,2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention.Methods Semi-nested RT-PCR was conducted to detect the capsid pre-membrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township,Gengma county,Yunnan province in July,2015.Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene.The positive PCR products were directly sequenced.Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program.Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank,including the representative strains from different countries and regions.Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software.Results Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1.Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus.A total of 13 strains with E gene (1 485 bp),including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains,were sequenced,which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype Ⅰ of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage.Conclusions This outbreak was caused by genotype Ⅰ of DENV-1,which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area.Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.%目的 对2015年云南省中缅边境一起登革热暴发查明病因,对流行的登革病毒(DENV)

  13. 浅谈竹子在我国云南少数民族餐具设计中的应用%Introduction to the Application of Bamboo in Tableware Design in China's Yunnan Minorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋哲; 袁涛

    2013-01-01

    竹子在云南少数民族餐具中的应用非常广泛,而且形态丰富多样。对几种典型的云南少数民族竹制餐具的造型、审美、加工工艺等特点进行探讨,展现少数民族独有的餐饮文化,挖掘少数民族竹制餐具在现代餐饮文化发展中的积极作用。%Bamboo is very extensive application in the yunnan minority tableware. To explore the modelling,aesthetic,and processing technology,of bamboo tableware in yunnan ethnic minorities,discusses the characteristics of present national minority unique food culture, mining minority bamboo tableware in the positive role in the development of modern catering culture.

  14. Seismic tomography of Yunnan region using short-period surface wave phase velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正勤; 苏伟; 叶太兰

    2004-01-01

    The data of short-period (1~18 s) surface waves recorded by 23 stations belonging to the digital seismic network of Yunnan Province of China are used in this paper. From these data, the dispersion curves of phase velocities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave along 209 paths are determined by using the two-station narrowband filtering cross-correlation method.Adopting tomography method, the distribution maps of phase velocities at various periods in Yunnan region are inverted. The maps of phase velocities on profiles along 24°N, 25°N, 26°N, 27°N and 100.5°E and the distribution maps of phase velocities at 3 periods in the study region are given. The results show that the phase velocity distribution in Yunnan region has strong variations in horizontal direction, and the phase velocity distribution in short-period range is closely related to the thickness of sedimentary layers in the shallow crust. The phase velocity in southern part of the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block encircled by the Honghe fault and Xiaojiang fault is obviously lower than that in surrounding areas. The epicentral locations of strong earthquakes in Yunnan region are mainly distributed in transitional zones between low and high phase velocities.

  15. Interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu region, eastern China and implications for deep geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Sutao; LIU Qingsheng; QIAO Qingqing; FU Yuanyuan

    2007-01-01

    By using data on the 1:100 000 aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu orogenic belt, we designed three simu-lated geotraverses, in which deep seismic reflection and other geophysical investigations have been completed. Based on the features of magnetism of the three profiles, and under the constraints of deep seismic reflection data, together with the magnetism of the core petrology at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) pilot-hole and areal geology, the three inversions of magnetic anomalies are carried out. The characteristics of terrane structure are presented: the rocks are mostly composed of eclogite, marble, and gneiss at the depth of 5 km. At the depth between 5 and 7 km under the surface,inverse magnetic bodies are mainly the ultra high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rock slices containing a lot of coesite-bearing eclogite. At the depth between 7 km and the bottom of upper crust are the rocks of the gneiss, granite and granite diorite that underwent ultra high pressure metamorphic process. Middle crust (10-19 km) is mostly composed ofUHPM gneiss and granite that intruded later. The rocks ofacid and basic granulite dominate the lower crust. Based on the inversed results of the three simulated geotraverses, we know that the UHPM rock slices of the three profiles are dipping north, stacking each other and being uplifted to the earth's surface, which may be the result of the North China craton's subduction and exhumation in the Triassic.

  16. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  17. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  18. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 王晶; 董文鸽; 张励; 马志敏; 李伟

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.%在对云南省9个县,市,抽样调查的基础上,本文对境内小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构进行了研究.物种多样性用物种丰富度表示,多样性指数及均匀度计算采用Shannon-Wiener方法.所捕获的2745只小兽经分类鉴定隶属啮齿目、食虫目、攀目、兔形目和食肉目5个目中的10科、25属、41种.从各种小兽突主体表共采集到吸虱昆虫18165只,经分类鉴定隶属4科、6属、22种,其种类明显少于突主种类.几科每种小兽突主体表都有固定的吸虱种类寄生,但吸怅是种类数很少(1-4种).动物分类上接近的突主,其体表的优势

  19. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  20. Land Use Change During 1960~2000 Period and its Eco-environmental Effects in the Middle and Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River:a Case Study in Yiliang County,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui; LIU Yansui; HE Yimei

    2004-01-01

    Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is a focus of the research of global environmental changes. The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, which are the most ecologically fragile mountainous area in China as well as one of the areas in China with most notable LUCC, have been on the Chinese Government's list of priority areas for ecological restoration. This paper is to reveal the trend of LUCC and the ecological degradation arising from it, and to provide a basis for the future sustainable use of land resources in the region based on a detailed analysis of Yiliang County. Based on the county's land use/cover maps in 1960, 1980 and 2000 drawn with the aid of aerial photograph interpretation, field investigation and GIS based spatial-temporal data analysis, LUCC during 1960~2000 period and the ecological degradation arising from it were analyzed. Using the Markv model, the paper brings out a forecast of what the county's LUCC would be like if the county's current land use continues, as well as the reasons and countermeasures for restoring degraded ecosystems.

  1. A Research for Economic Change on Private Businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China--Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province as an Example%建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁--以云南省红河州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何作庆

    2016-01-01

    文章以云南红河州为例,主要阐述了建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁:即疏理了中国建国初期越侨私商在云南红河州的经济现状,回顾了六、七十年代对红河州越侨私商进行社会主义改造的基本情况,改革开放时期红河州越侨私商的恢复和发展。%Based on investigation and reliable materials,as an Example in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province, this article research economic changing mainly on private businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China. The article know economic situation on private businessmen of Vietnam in the early time of P.R.China, review economic change to carry on the basic situation Socialist Transformation on private businessmen of Vietnam in 1960s~.1970s,and recovery and development of private businessmen of Vietnam during the period of reform and opening up of P.R.China in Honghe Prefecture.

  2. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  3. 云南省马铃薯晚疫病菌交配型及生物学特性研究(英文)%MATING TYPE AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Phytophthora infestans ISOLATES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立耘; 杨艳丽; 罗文富

    2002-01-01

    作者对1998~2000年间采自云南省13个县、23个地点的马铃薯晚疫病菌的交配型、菌落形态、燕麦培养基上生长情况、生长速度和产孢量进行了测定.结果显示,采自云南13个县、23个地点的共157个菌株全部为A1交配型,表明云南马铃薯主产区的晚疫病菌以A1交配型为主,同时,被测的代表菌株在生长速度和产孢量上存在显著差异,表明这一地区的晚疫病菌种群内存在丰富的遗传多样性.此外,结果还显示,晚疫病菌菌株在燕麦培养基上的生长情况与其菌落形态和交配型不相关.%Phytophthora infestans from potatoes collected from Yunnan Province during 1998 to 2000 were investigated for their mating type, colony growth pattern, ability to grow on oatmeal agar, linear growth rate and amount of sporangia produced. A total of 157 isolates from 23 locations in 13 counties in Yunnan were all A1 mating type. Representative isolates showed significant variation in growth rate and amount of sporangia produced, which indicate the existence of genetic diversity among the population of P. infestans in Yunnan. Results also show that colony growth pattern and the growth on oatmeal agar did not relate to the mating type of the isolate.

  4. THE FEATURES AND INVESTIGATION OUTLINE OF KARST WATER SYSTEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%云南省岩溶水系统特征及调查要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    First, the regional karst condition and features of karst drainage basin in Yunnan are delineated. And then, the karst water systems are divided into the different grades according to the differences of hydrogeological condition and features. The first grade is the karst water system. The second grade includes shallow-circulating and deep-circulating karat water systems. The third grade of karst water systems includes five basic types: exposed; exposed-covered; exposed-buried; stratabound and fault zone. Furthermore, the hydrogeological features and investigation outline of each type of karst water are put forward in this paper.

  5. The five species and distribution of Paragonimus in Yunnan Province, China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries%中国云南省与毗邻的部分东南亚国家5种并殖吸虫虫种及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    世淑兰; 李翠英; 王红; 周本江

    2013-01-01

    Objective Yunnan Province and some adjacent Southeast Asian countries share same mountains and rivers while the species of Paragronimus is various and its distribution is widespread,as the result of the multifarious natural conditions,ecological environment and clustering distribution of animals and plants.The species of Paragronimus from these countries is almost identical,and the host and pathogenicity are also the same.Although some Paragronimus have different names,they appear same or similar in morphology and genetic characteristics showing higher homology,and probably synonyms of the species.This article reviewed the five species and distribution of Paragronimus in Yunnan province of China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries.%目的 中国云南与东南亚部分国家的自然条件、动植物群落分布和生态环境具有多样性,并殖吸虫的虫种多、分布广.多年来的研究表明,云南省与周边部分东南亚国家的大多数并殖吸虫虫种是相同的,且宿主性和致病性也相同.有些虫种尽管名称不同,但相互之间在形态或遗传特征方面也相同或相近,显示出较高的同源性,可能存在同物异名现象.该文对中国云南与毗邻的部分东南亚国家并殖吸虫虫种及分布情况进行综述.

  6. Multivariate Analysis, Description, and Ecological Interpretation of Weed Vegetation in the Summer Crop Fields of Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng QIANG

    2005-01-01

    Two surveys were conducted to investigate weed vegetation in a 153-hm2 sampling area of summer crop fields from Anhui Province, China, through visual scoring of the level of weed infestation compared with summer crops on a seven-class scale. In total, 155 sampling sites were selected in the field based on crops, tillage, rotation systems, geographical regions, and soil types across the province. Data on weed communities and environmental factors were collected and analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and the output was interpreted ecologically. Results showed that the main factors influencing the structure and distribution of weed communities in summer crop fields were the soil submersion period, latitude, and soil type and pH. The CCA indicated a significant relationship between weed dominance and soil submersion duration, latitude, and soil pH. From the result of the PCA and CCA ordination, the 155 sampling sites could be divided into three groups based on geographic and floristic composition, as well as weed abundance. The southern dry land group, which was characterized by a double-cropping system in the hilly regions of southern and central Anhui Province with a continuous summer crop and an autumn dry land crop, was dominated by Galium aparine Linn. var. tenerum (Gren. et Godr) Robb., Avenafatua L., and Veronica persica Poir. The northern dry land group, which had the same cropping system as the southern dry land group, was dominated by G. aparine var. tenerun, Galium tricorne Stokes, Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur., and Lithospermum arvense L. in the North Anhui Province, China. These two dry land groups could be combined into one large dry land group, in which the Galium weed vegetation type dominated. The third group was the paddy soil group, which was characterized by a continu ous summer crop and double- or triple-cropping systems of rice, and prevailed in the south and central areas of Anhui

  7. Three-dimensional Evolutionary Models of the Qiongxi Structures, Southwestern Sichuan Basin, China: Evidence from Seismic Interpretation and Geomorphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Qiupeng; JIA Dong; LUO Liang; CHEN Zhuxin; LI Yiquan; DENG Fei; SUN Shengsi; LI Haibin

    2009-01-01

    Fold terminations are key features in the study of compressional fault-related folds. Such terminations could be due to loss of displacement on the thrust fault or/and forming a lateral or oblique ramp. Thus, high-quality seismic data would help unambiguously define which mechanism should be responsible for the termination of a given fault-related fold. The Qiongxi and Qiongxinan structures in the Sichuan Basin, China are examples of natural fault-propagation folds that possess a northern termination and a structural saddle between them. The folds/fault geometry and along-strike displacement variations are constrained by the industry 3-D seismic volume. We interpret that the plunge of the fold near the northern termination and the structural saddle are due to the loss of displacement along strike. The fault geometry associated with the northern termination changes from a flat-ramp at the crest of the Qiongxinan structure, where displacement is the greatest, to simply a ramp near the northern tip of the Qiongxi structure, without forming a lateral or oblique ramp. In this study, we also use the drainage pattern, embryonic structure preserved in the crest of the Qiongxinan structure and the assumption that displacement along a fault is proportional to the duration of thrusting to propose a model for the lateral propagation of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures. Specifically, we suggest that the structure first initiated as an isolated fault ramp within brittle units. With increased shortening, the fault grows to link with lower detachments in weaker shale units to create a hybridized fault-propagation fold. Our model suggests a possible explanation for the lateral propagation history of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures, and also provides an alternative approach to confirming the activity of the previous Pingluoba structure in the southwestern Sichuan Basin in the late Cenozoic.

  8. 10Be DATED BOULDERS FROM THE THIRD TERRACE OF NUJIANG RIVER AT BINGZHONGLUO,YUNNAN PROVINCE,CHINA%云南怒江丙中洛河段第三级阶地10Be暴露年龄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕延武; 顾兆炎; 许冰; A.Aldahan; G.Possnert

    2012-01-01

    宇宙成因核素可用于河流阶地测年,然而保存于阶地面上的漂砾暴露年龄是否能代表其形成年代还缺乏深入研究.应用宇宙成因核素10Be对怒江丙中洛河段第三级阶地上的花岗岩漂砾进行测年研究,结果显示继承性组分可以忽略,而风化侵蚀将对其暴露年龄产生较大影响.基于采集自第三级阶地保存较好的基岩中石英脉样品,应用有效暴露年龄、暴露时间与风化速率间的关系图解出花岗岩漂砾的风化速率为0.3cm/ka,并据此得到第三级阶地的形成年代大约为 150~203 ka.%Fluvial terraces are common in the Nujiang River valley,while the third level is widest and mostly distributed. There are five level terraces at Bingzhongluo(28°01'N,98°37'E) ,where located southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Yunnan, China. The third and the forth level terraces are covered with reddish-brown soil, indicating a long history of the terraces. Many granite boulders are spread out on the surface of the first, second and third level terraces, whose exposure ages could represent the terrace formation time. Three granite boulders were taken as samples at the posterior margin of the third terrace of the Nujiang River at Bingzhongluo(Fig. la and lc). The diameters of all boulders are large (>2m)and partly buried in soil layers. Sample NJ2-1 was collected from one granite boulder(about 2. 3m)on floodplain, which is used to estimate the inheritance. Sample BZL43 was chiseled about 1. 5cm from the surface of a quartz vein,which insets a sandy slate of the third terrace at downstream about 2km. The quartz purification, 10Be extraction,and BeO preparation,were done in the Cosmogenic Nuclide Laboratory at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The 10e/9Be ratio was measured by AMS facility at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University in Sweden. The "Be concentrations (Table 1) show that the 10Be concentration of sample BZL43 is

  9. Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表恙螨多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    本文运用shnnon-wiener,系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.O软件)和Levins niche等对云南大理洱海周边3 303头小兽体表寄生恙螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.调查点位于我国11大鼠疫自然疫源地之一,此地也是我国恙虫病和流行性出血热的流行地区.选择的洱海周边3个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这3个方位形成了同地域(经度、纬度、海拔和动物地理区划相同)异生境的地理景观.从洱海的3个方位共计诱捕小兽3 303头,分类鉴定为4目,7科,15属,21种.从小兽体表共计检获56 895头恙螨.分类鉴定为3亚科,13属,109种.恙螨的丰富度、分布和物种多样性随着宿主和生境的不同而存在着显著的差异.恙螨只有幼虫寄生,强烈受到环境(温度、降雨量和生境)的影响.恙螨的宿主特异性很低,恙螨的群落相似性大小与宿主小兽之间的近缘性高低呈现较低的关联度.结果提示,大部分的宿主小兽和恙螨之间协同进化程度不高;恙螨的这些特征从流行病学的角度来看,恙螨作为医学媒介生物在宿主之间传播疾病的潜能较大.%The aim of the present study was to study the species diversity,community structure,simolanty,distribution and niche of chigger mites on the body surface of 3 303 sinail mammals in the surrounding areas ol Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins'niche.The investigated site was located in the wild rodent-type plague focus,one of 11 known plague foci in China and also an important focus of both tsutsugamushi disease and epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF),where stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas with different landscapes are within

  10. Carbon storage and fixation, oxygen release of Pinus armandii plantations in middle Yunnan plateau, China%滇中高原华山松人工林碳储量及固碳释氧效益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元玖; 陈奇伯; 熊好琴; 舒蛟靖; 赵吉霞

    2015-01-01

    采用样方法和收获法,根据光合作用方程式、碳税法和人工制氧法,对云南玉溪磨盘山华山松人工林(16 a 中龄林、26 a 近成熟林、43 a 成熟林)生物量、碳储量及其空间分布特征和固碳释氧进行了研究。结果如下:三种林龄华山松人工林的生物量分别为181.515 t·hm-2、284.679 t·hm-2、295.311 t·hm-2,碳储量分别为85.7513 tC·hm-2、139.9344 tC·hm-2、132.5086 tC·hm-2,净碳储量分别为:5.3653 tC·hm-2·a-1、5.3836 tC·hm-2·a-1和3.0827 tC·hm-2·a-1;三种林龄群落各层碳储量均为乔木层>枯落物层>灌木层>草本层,三种林龄乔木层的碳储量分别占:91.37%、94.99%、93.70%;不同林龄相同器官(根、皮、叶、干、枝)之间变异系数在2.10%~7.33%之间,而同一林龄不同器官的变异系数在2.12%~5.82%之间;方差分析结果显示除成熟林乔木外,另两种林龄乔木各营养器官之间均存在显著差异;华山松中龄林、近成熟林、成熟林同化大气中 CO2和释放出 O2价值量分别是355044.2213 yuan·hm-2,216003.3861 yuan·hm-2,556831.5296 yuan·hm-2和338767.6484 yuan·hm-2、577627.3676 yuan·hm-2和351419.5130 yuan·hm-2。%Biomass, carbon storage and spatial distribution characteristics, carbon fixation and oxygen release of the 16-year-old, 26-year-old and 43-year-old Pinus armandii plantations in Mopanshan Mountain in Yuxi, middle Yunnan plateau, southwest China were studied by adopting quadrat method and harvest method, and synthetically using photosynthesis equation, carbon tax and artificial oxygen method. The results are as follows: the biomass values of the three kinds of P. armandii plantations were 181.515 t·hm-2, 284.679 t·hm-2 and 295.311 t·hm-2, their total of carbon storage were 85.7513 t·hm-2,139.9344 t·hm-2,and 132.5086 t·hm-2, their net carbon storages were: 5.3653 t·hm-2·a-1, 5.3836 t·hm-2·a-1 and 3.0827 t·hm-2·a-1; The carbon

  11. taxonomic status of the spot-legged treefrog in southern yunnan, inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    populations of the spot-legged treefrogs (polypedates megacephalus) in china show significant morphological variation,but no has yet been conducted to investigate the correlation between morphological variation and genetic/ecological divergence.in this study,mitochondrial dna sequences from the 12s rrna gene (374 bp) were amplified from 25 individual spot-legged treefrogs from southern yunnan,china.the phylogenetic analysis using bayesian inference determined two haplotype clades,different from those detected by richards and moore (1998).our results suggest that the phylogenetic lineages reconstructed in this study are not correlated with morphology,thus indicating that the populations in southern yunnan may be p.leucomystax rather than p.megacephalus.

  12. A new species of Coccus (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of soft scale, Coccus multisetus Wang & Feng, sp. n. is described and illustrated from Yunnan, China. A key to adult females of all Coccus known from China is provided.

  13. PROSPECTING FOR COPPER (GOLD )-POLYMETAL ORES FROM THE LANCANGJIANG TECTONIC ZONE IN WESTERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin; DAI Ta-gen; XIE Li-hua

    2001-01-01

    @@ The Lancangjiang tectonic zone in Western Yunnan is an important magmatic,metamorphic and tectonic mobile zone of Southwestern China,whose geotectonic location is very unique.It is characterized by complex geological structures,perfectly developed strata,frequent magmatic activities,,various degrees of metamorphism,rich ore resources and lots of metal deposits,thus formed a centralized zone of mineralization and also constituted one of the important metallogenic belts of noble and nonferrous metal deposits.

  14. Situation and Prospect of Oil and Gas Exploration in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zeheng; Gu Pingquan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Petroleum Geology Background The Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi region (hereinafter "YGG" region) is located in southwest China, with a total area of 800 000 km2, of which 580 000 km2 is covered by sedimentary rocks. In the course of long geologic evolution, a series of medium, small and micro basins of marine and terrestrial facies of different periods are developed in the region (Table 1).

  15. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  16. 基于线粒体控制区的云南澜沧江和海南岛主要水系宽额鳢遗传变异分析%THE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION BASED ON MTDNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCES OFCHANNA GACHUS IN THE LANCANG RIVER IN YUNNAN PROVINCE AND THE MAIN RIVERS IN HAINAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 章群; 郜星晨; 宫亚运; 曹艳

    2015-01-01

    Channa gachus is a tropical and subtropical species of freshwater carnivorous fish, and they have highly or-namental and economic values in original origins.C. gachus usually live in slow-flow rivers, ditches and ponds.As for in China, they mainly inhabit in the Irrawaddy River, the Nujiang River and the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, as well as in some rivers in Hainan Province. Due to the extensive hydraulic construction, river pollution and overfishing, the number of the fish has sharply decreased. To develop effective strategies of protecting its germplasm, it is important to investigate the genetic variance and the structure of the population of this species. Previous studies have focused on the chromosome and the isoenzyme of C. gachus, as well as the phylogenetic relationship betweenC. gachusand other species in the same genus.However, the genetic backgound of this fish remains obsecure. In the present study, we sequenced 411 bp segments of mitochondrial DNA control regions of 74C. gachusindi-viduals collected from 9 populations in the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, and the Nandu River, the Wanquan River and the Changhua River in Hainan Province of China. We observed 52 mutations of nucleotide acids and 20 haplotypes. There were 3 haplotypes shared by 5 populations in Hainan Province, whereas all other haplotypes were unique in each population. We observed 3 distinct lineages in the Kimura2-parameter-based Neighbour-Joining tree. One of them was from Yunnan, and the other 2 were from Hainan—one was the Maoyang population from the Changhua River, another was from the Nandu River and the Wanquan River, and the rest two populations were from the Changhua River. The pairwise fixation indexFstwas 0.786—0.672, the gene flow was 0.153—0.244, and the inter-clade variation accounted for 74.352% of the total variation. These data indicated a significant genetic differentiation between the 3 clades. The differentiation time of the 3 clades was 2.070—0

  17. 云南野生稻抗稻瘟病Pi-ta基因的检测及分析%Identification and Analysis on the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Wild Rice from Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国珍; 蒋春苗; 刘吉新; 陈于敏; 余腾琼; 程在全

    2014-01-01

    A total of 1 6 accessions of wild rice from different regions of Yunnan Province were used for PCR amplifica-tion with Pi-ta gene specific primers.The amplified PCR products were cloned into Topo cloning vector,and se-quenced.Among 1 6 accessions,the identical sequence fragment to the resitance Pi-ta gene was amplified separately from 7 accessions.The Pi-ta allele in one accession of Oryza rufipogon with purple stem from Jinghong contains an i-dentical DNA sequence in the coding region to the original Pi-ta resistance gene.It suggested that Yunnan might be one of the origins of the Pi-ta gene.%以16个不同来源的云南野生稻作为供试材料,用抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因特异引物(KG2/KG4)进行 PCR 扩增,并对PCR 产物进行克隆、测序及分析。结果表明,16个野生稻中7个品种持有抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因,其中,来自云南景洪的紫秆普通野生稻中 Pi-ta 基因的编码区与原始型的抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因的 DNA 序列完全相同。可见,云南可能是抗稻瘟病基因Pi-ta 的起源地之一。

  18. Yunnan Launches Four Year Mine Searching Action Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Yunnan Provincial State Land Resource Bureau has organized the provincial Geological Investigation Bureau and relevant institutions to kick off the "Yunnan Province 2009-2010 Mine Search Action Plan"

  19. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Landraces of Waxy Maize from Yunnan and Guizhou Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-jian; HUANG Yu-bi; RONG Ting-zhao; TIAN Meng-liang; YANG Jun-pin

    2005-01-01

    Waxy maize landraces are abundant in Yunnan and Guizhou of China. Genetic diversity of waxy maize landraces from Yunnan and Guizhou were analyzed using SSR markers. We screened 38 landraces with 50 primers that generated 3 to 6 polymorphic bands, with an average of 4.13 bands. Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan varied from 4.9571 to 42.1138 and averaged 26.5252; Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou varied from 22.0066 to 40.6320 and averaged 32.3156. For the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 45.40% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 54.60% of the total genetic diversity observed. For the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 50.76% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 49.24% of the total observed. Some individual landraces possessed as much as 96.86% of the total genetic diversity occurring among landraces within origins. Differentiation between geographic origins accounted for only 3.14% of the total genetic diversity. Both Yunnan and Guizhou would be the diversity centers and the original centers of waxy maize.

  20. 中国法官刑法解释权刍议%Judge’ s Right to Interpret Criminal Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐稷尧

    2015-01-01

    中国法官的刑法解释权虽然不为正式制度所承认却是司法实践中不争的事实。威权文化传统、刑法解释的公共政策属性、公众对法官解释能力的疑问以及对解释权滥用的担忧导致了对法官解释权的否定,但中国当前司法实践中的制度变革预示了对该项权力的承认。针对法官刑法解释活动构建有效的监督机制应当是正确的选择。%Although interpreting of criminal law by judges is not acknowledged by the official legal system in China, it is an indisputable fact in judicial practice. Because of authority tradition, property of public policy, ability of judge interpretation and worrying abuse of authority in criminal justice practice, the power of judge interpretation is negated by the pubic and official system. Nevertheless, the legal re⁃form in criminal judicial implies the acknowledgement of judge interpretation. It is the correct choice to construct supervision system to the judge interpretation in practice.

  1. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example.

  2. 解读奥巴马政府的南海政策%Interpreting Obama Administration's South China Sea Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宗友

    2016-01-01

    自2010年以来,奥巴马政府的南海政策日益朝着“积极干涉”和“选边站”的立场转移,给中美关系及南海问题的解决增添了新变数。奥巴马政府不仅对中国的“断续线”主张提出质疑,还指责中国阻碍南海航行自由,要求中国停止在南海填海造地,鼓动菲律宾将南海争端提交国际仲裁,推动南海问题的国际化与多边化,积极向越南、菲律宾等国提供外交帮助和军事支持,甚至直接派遣飞机和舰船进入南海争议地区。奥巴马政府在南海问题上日益积极的干涉立场与举措,不仅折射出美国对中国战略意图和海洋抱负与日俱增的忧虑,也反映出美国维护亚太领导权、安抚亚太盟友及维护其海洋霸权的战略决心与考量。在美国国内对华强硬的声音抬头、中美在亚太地区竞争加剧及美国政治正进入大选周期的背景下,美国在南海问题上“积极干涉”和“选边站”的态势只会加强而不会弱化,并可能采取一些新的措施。中国需要综合平衡各种利害关系,积极稳妥应对南海困局。%Since 2010, the Obama administration's South China Sea policy has moved steadily toward posi-tive intervention and side-choosing, which negatively impacted Sino-U.S.relations and complicated the South China Sea issues.The Obama administration not only doubted the legality of China's nine-dash line claims, but also charged that China has interfered with the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea, and urged China to stop land reclamation in the South China Sea.Besides, U.S.also encouraged the Philippines'efforts to submit its maritime disputes with China to international arbitration to internationalize and multilateralize the South China Sea disputes, provided diplomatic support and military aid to Vietnam, the Philippines and other claimants, and even sent airplanes and ships to the disputed area.The change of Obama

  3. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu.

  4. 金沙江干热河谷人工林地表的蚂蚁群落%Communities of Ground-Dwelling Ants in Different Plantation Forests in Arid-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧; 卢志兴; 张威; 马艳滟; 冯萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Because of the fragile ecological environment in arid-hot valleys of Jinsha River,Yunnan Province,China,the region has been the hot spots of vegetation restoration for which plantation is the main model. To reveal the diversity status of these plantations,and the potential role in biodiversity protection,the ground-dwelling ant community was studied in 7 different plantations in Jinsha River arid-hot valleys,by comparing the difference of ground-dwelling ant community in terms of species composition and diversity. It would be reference for revegetation and biodiversity protection in the arid-hot valleys.[Method]The experimental sites were in the Desert Ecosystem Observation Station of the State Forestry Administration in Yuanmou County. The sampled plots were set in the following tree plantations: Eucalyptus spp.; Jatropha carcas; Jatropha carcas +Leucaena leucocephala; Azadirachta indica; Azadirachta indica + Acacia auriculiformis; Azadirachta indica + Acacia glauca and Azadirachta indica + Leucaena leucocephala. Investigation of ground-dwelling ant community was carried out by pitfall trappings in all 7 plantations in April ( dry season) and August (wet season),2011,respectively. At each plot,two-three 200 m transects were established for ant collection. The 20 pitfall traps with 50ml 50% glycerol were set along each transect at 10 m intervals at ground level.Pitfall traps were made from plastic containers,8 cm diameter and 15 cm deep,covered by a stone plate to protect the trap from rain. Traps were set for 5 days. The contents of each transect were placed separately in plastic bottles and deposited in 95% alcohol.[Results]The resultswere as follows: 1 ) Ant community composition: 4001 ant individuals were collected,representing 36 species in 17 genera and 5 subfamilies. The collected Myrmicinae subfamily had the most abundant genus and species,with 18 species in 6 genera,followed by Formicinae with 10 species in 5 genera,then Dolichoderinae with 6

  5. 云南省甲基苯丙胺等新型毒品滥用群体性特征分析及思考%The Characteristics of Methamphetamine Abuse Population in Yunnan Province,P.R.China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冲; 赖跃; 曾晓锋; 徐静; 杨宇; 李祯

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey on some new-drug abusers or the methamphetamine abusers in Yunnan Province, this paper preliminarily compared the characteristics of new-drug abusers with those of the heroin abusers and the traditional Chinese group. Four characteristics of the new-drug abusers were conclued as younger abusers, grouping adicts, diverse profession and switching to new rogs. This study is expected to be helpful for effective prevention and control of drug abuse.%部分甲基苯丙胺等新型毒品滥用群体的情况进行分析,就其群体性特征与传统毒品滥用群体特征作分析比较,提出新型毒品滥用的四个群体性特征:(1)年龄"低龄化";(2)滥用"群体化";(3)职业"多样化";(4)群体"转换化".该研究有助于新型毒品滥用的预防和控制工作,同时使我们的工作更具有针对性和实效性.

  6. The crustal structure under Sanjiang and its dynamic implications: Revealed by seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongjie; BAI Zhiming; WANG Chunyong; TENG Jiwen; L(U) Qingtian; LI Jiliang; LIU Yifeng; LIU Zhenkuan

    2005-01-01

    The fault belts in Sanjiang mainly include Jinshajiang-Honghe fault, Lancangjiang fault and Nujiang fault (called Sanjiang faults) in western Yunnan Province, China. By interpreting the wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, which crosses Tengchong and Baoshan blocks in Dianxi (western Yunnan) tectonic zone, we reconstruct the crustal structure with seismic traveltime tomography for crustal P-wave velocity and the seismic scattering image for crustal seismic reflection structure. In this paper, we firstly present the crustal structure images of P-wave velocity and seismic reflection under the wide-angle seismic profile. These results demonstrate that, the crustal velocity structure and seismic reflection structure along the profile can be divided into 3 segments, and there is an obvious difference of crustal structure among the eastern, the western and the middle segment. Generally, crustal P-wave velocities in the Baoshan segment are 0.1-0.2 km/s slower and seismic reflection amplitudes from Moho discontinuity are stronger than the other 2 segments. In the studied area, crustal thickness is about 40 km, and shows the thickening tendency from west to east along the profile. Additionally, it can be seen that there is one strong-amplitude seismic reflection event as bright points at the depths of 8-10 km, along the segment of 80-115 km of the profile (southward of Tengchong); and seismic reflection wave-field from Moho discontinuity varies obviously along the lateral direction. Finally, we make some discussions on the crustal thickening pattern in the Sanjiang fault belt, structural environment of earthquake development and the contact relationship between the Tengchong block, Banshan block and Luxi trough.

  7. 云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨种群生态学研究%Study on population ecology of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽琴; 郭宪国; 任天广; 王乔花; 吴滇; 闫毅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical distribution, habitat, dominant hosts and population spatial distribution patterns of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan province. Methods A total of 28 counties in five zoogeographical subregions were chosen as the investigated sites. Each investigated site was divided into two habitats (indoors and outdoors) and then small mammal hosts were randomly captured by mouse traps. All the gamasid mites from the body surface of the hosts were collected and preserved in 70% ethanol. Hoyer's medium was used to mount the mites onto glass slides and each mite specimen was finally identified by microscope. The spatial pattern of the mite was analyzed by K-value of negative binomial distribution,patchiness index, Taylor' s power function and Iwao' s model. Results A total of 3339 O. bacoti were collected from 11 560 captured small mammal hosts which belonged to 3 orders 4 families 8 genera and 15 species. Of the investigated 28 counties,0. bacoti was found in 21 counties and the mites were collected from 15 species of small mammal hosts. O.bacoti mainly distributed in Southwest region (accounted for 90% of the total), and the quantity of O. bacoti in indoors (2914, 87.27%) were obviously higher than that in outdoors (425, 12.73%). 90% mites mainly parasitized on the body surface ofRattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi which were the dominant host of mites. The results showed that the spatial pattern of O. bacoti was an aggregated distribution.Conclusion O. bacoti widely distributes in Yunnan province and mainly parasitizes on the body surface of R, norvegicus and R. tanezumi. It is of aggregated distribution among its main hosts.%目的 了解云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨的地域及生境分布、优势宿主及其种群空间分布格局等.方法 选取云南省5个地理小区中的28个县(市)进行现场调查,每个小区按室内和室外两种生境诱捕小兽并采集体表革螨,70%乙醇固定,Hoyer液封片后于光学

  8. 云南省边境地区埃及伊蚊分布调查%Distribution survey on Aedes aegypti in the border areas of Yunnan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明东; 姜进勇; 郑宇婷; 周红宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解埃及伊蚊在云南省边境地区的分布,为登革热防控提供科学依据。方法在孳生地捕捞幼虫,对4龄幼虫分类鉴定以观察埃及伊蚊的分布;采用伊蚊布雷图指数和容器指数观察伊蚊幼虫种群密度。结果在边境17个县(市)共调查积水容器159924个,其中有伊蚊孳生的阳性容器2388个,布雷图指数为3.97,容器指数为1.46;捕捞幼虫7489条,共3种伊蚊,其中埃及伊蚊幼虫3303条,占捕捞总数的44.10%;白纹伊蚊幼虫4119条,占55.00%;圆斑伊蚊幼虫67条,占0.90%;伊蚊幼虫高峰期为5-10月,其中最高峰为7-8月;景洪、勐腊、勐海、盈江、陇川、瑞丽、泸水7个县发现埃及伊蚊的分布。结论云南省边境地区7个县已有埃及伊蚊分布,结果提示该蚊有向周边地区逐渐扩散趋势,应引起相关部门高度重视。%Objective To investigate the distribution of Aedes aegypti in border area in Yunnan province, providing scientific information for dengue control. Methods The distribution of Ae. aegypti was investigated by collecting mosquito larvae in different breeding sites and identifying fourth instar larvae; Aedes mosquito larva population density was investigated by Aedes Breteau index and container index. Results Total of 159 924 containers were investigated from 17 border counties, of those 2388 containers were positive;the Breteau index was 3.97, the container index was 1.46. There were 7489 individual larvae were collected, belonging to 3 species, of those 3303 individual larvae were Ae. aegypti, accounting for 44.10%of total collected larvae, 4119 individual larvae were Ae. albopictus, accounting for 55.00%of total collected larvae,12 individual larvae were Ae. annandalei, accounting for 0.90% of total collected larvae. Aedes mosquito larva population density peaks were occurred from May to October, its highest peaks were July and August. Ae. aegypti distributed in 7

  9. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  10. Relative Efficacy of CDC and UV Light-traps for Indoor Collection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhychus in Yunnan, P.R.China%云南人房三带喙库蚊CDC和UV诱蚊灯捕捉效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; Sarah Pettifor; Nigel Hill; 肖育江; 杜尊伟; 李鸿宾; 张再兴

    2004-01-01

    目的评估CDC和UV诱蚊灯夜间人房三带喙库蚊捕捉效果.方法根据拉丁方设计方案,把诱蚊灯置于寝室和客厅,每晚轮流置灯.结果共捕获库蚊属蚊虫6种624只.其中三带喙库蚊属于最常见的蚊种(419只);CDC和UV灯捕捉蚊虫效果差异无显著性,但当地降雨量与CDC捕捉效果存在较强的正相关关系,而与UV灯捕蚊效果呈弱的负相关.结论无论是CDC诱蚊灯还是UV诱蚊灯都可以作为云南省三带喙库蚊种群密度监测的有效方法.%Objective The efficacy of CDC and UV traps for the coll ection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus was evaluated in overnight in door c ollection. Method The traps were placed in bedrooms and sittin g rooms and rotated nightly approximately following a Latin square design. Results A total of 624 mosquitoes of the genera Culex were trapped comprising 6 species. Most common was Cx.tritaeniorhynchus with 419 individuals trapped. There was no significant difference in the efficiency of CDC and UV traps although there was a stronger positive correlati on between mosquitoes collected in CDC lamps and rainfall, whereas, there was a weak negative correlation between UV lamps and local rainfall. Conclusio n We suggest that either CDC or UV light traps provide an efficient met hod to monitor the population of Cx.tritaniorhychus in Yunnan province.

  11. Diversity of Sucking Lice on Small Mammals in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表吸虱多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammals was carried out in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan from 2003 to 2004.From investigation sites, 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured and identified into 7families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 14 635 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 5 families, 6 genera and 21 species in the Order Anoplura. The sites stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas are different landscapes within the same zone where the longitude, latitude, altitude and fauna are homologous but isolated by Erhai Lake as inartificial barrier. The aim of this study was to recognize features of the species diversity,abundance, community structure, similarity and distribution of sucking lice in different landscapes within the same zone. The results showed the species diversity of sucking lice was very low with a very simple community structure. The distribution of sucking lice and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven among different oriented areas and this may imply that ecological environment influences the species composition and distribution of sucking li ce and their corresponding hosts. A certain species of hosts usually have theirfixed louse species. The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. Species of sucking lice on the same small mam mal host in different oriented areas of Erhai Lake are homologous. The results stronglysuggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  12. Domains and enrichment mechanism of the lithospheric mantle in western Yunnan: A comparative study on two types of Cenozoic ultrapotassic rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Ping; XU; Yigang

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical comparison of two suites of Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in western Yunnan reveals the existence of two mantle domains beneath this region, which correspond to their respective tectonic affinity. The Erhai ultrapotassic rocks (42-24Ma) in western Yangtze Craton are characterized by LILE enrichment, HFSE depletion, low TiO2 content (<1%),high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7064-0.7094) and negative εNd (-3.84--4.64). Geochemically similar to K-rich volcanism in subduction setting, they were probably originated from a refractory spinel harzburgitic source metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. In contrast, the Maguan potassic magmas (<16Ma) in the South China Block show an OIB-type trace elemental signature, high TiO2 content (>2%), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7041-0.7060) and positive εNd (5.46-7.03). These features resemble the typical intraplate potassic rocks around the world. These rocks are thus interpreted as melting products of a fertile garnet Iherzolitic source which has been infiltrated by small-volume, asthenosphere-derived silicate melts. The temporal and spatial distribution of these two types of K-rich rocks cannot be explained by any unified tectonic model. It is proposed that the Oligocene magmatism in the Erhai area may have resulted from convective thinning of the thickened lithosphere, whereas the post-Miocene volcanism in the Maguan area was related to the opening of South China Sea.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Yunnan Outpatient STD Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大成

    2002-01-01

    Epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases havebecome world wide serious problems. The Institute of Dermatology and Veneology of Wenshan AutonomousPrefecture in Yunnan is a center of political, economical,cultural and social activities in the prefecture. It is alsothe location of the Committee of Wenshan and itsgovernment. Wenshan data indicates that STDs havebeen spreading from towns of this prefecture to thecountryside.

  14. The Construction of Emergency Logistics System in China---Based on the Ludian 6.5 Magnitude Earthquake in Yunnan Province%浅谈中国灾害应急物流体系建设--以云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泽旭; 鲁晓丽; 白杨

    2014-01-01

    在云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震应急中,中国政府及时采取了许多紧急方案来进行救灾,但是由于应急管理体系建设不完善、应急物流管理信息平台的缺乏,应急物资的运输与配送的协调性和计划性的缺乏,在营救过程当中,还是暴露出我国一些应急物流能力的不足。通过对我国应急物流的反思,结合国外应急管理和应急物流的先进经验,系统分析我国应急物流存在的问题,并从应急物流设备、交通网络、信息技术以及应急中的回收物流等方面对中国的应急物流提出建设性的意见。%The Chinese government has taken a number of emergency measures to respond to the 6.5-magnitude earthquake in Ludian country of Yunnan province. However, as the emergency management system is not perfect, lack of emergency logistics management information platform, and is short of the coordination of the transport and distribution of emergency supplies, the Chi-nese government still expose some shortcomings of emergency logistics capability. Combined with the foreign advanced experiences in emergency logistics management, this article systematically analysis the problems of emergency logistics in China; and put for-ward some suggestions of developing emergency logistics, like improving the logistics equipment, transportation network, information technology, and the reverse logistics and so on.

  15. THE ENIGMATIC REPTILE PACHYSUCHUS IMPERFECTUS YOUNG, 1951FROM THE LOWER LUFENG FORMATION ( LOWER JURASSIC )OF YUNNAN, CHINA%产自中国云南下禄丰组(下侏罗统)的爬行动物不完美硕鳄的再研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul M.BARRETT; 徐星

    2012-01-01

    一般认为植龙类在三叠纪末期灭绝,但有研究显示它们可能在欧洲和亚洲延续到了侏罗纪最早期.来自亚洲的证据是产自中国云南下禄丰组(?赫唐阶-锡内穆阶)的不完美硕鳄(Pachysuchus imperfectus).重新研究显示不完美硕鳄正型标本和植龙类存在许多不同点,它可能属于一个保存较差的、分类位置无法确定的蜥脚型类恐龙头骨.这一属种的归入标本也无法明确归入某一类群,因此亚洲没有可靠的晚于三叠纪的植龙类化石记录.欧洲的侏罗纪植龙类化石也存在着同样的问题.因而认为,植龙类的化石记录仅限于三叠纪晚期.%Phytosaurs are generally considered to have become extinct at the end of the Triassic Period,but several records have suggested that they survived into the basal Jurassic in Europe and Asia.The Asian record consists of Pachysuchus imperfectus from the Lower Lufeng Formation ( ? Hettangian-Sinemurian) of Yunnan,China.However,this specimen differs from phytosaurs in numerous respects and is more likely a poorly preserved,indeterminate sauropodomorph dinosaur skull.The referred specimens of this species are also regarded as indeterminate,thereby removing the post-Triassic record of phytosaurs from Asia.The European records of Jurassic phytosaurs are also shown to be doubtful,suggesting that this clade was restricted to the Late Triassic.

  16. Discovery of dinosaur footprints from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province,China and new observations on Changpeipus%云南下侏罗统禄丰组恐龙足迹的发现和张北足迹属新观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立达; 杰瑞德 D.哈里斯; 关谷秀; 藤田将人; 董枝明

    2009-01-01

    Herein described are two footprints that belong to the new ichnospecies Changpeipus pareschequier ichnosp, nov. from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation near Yaozhan Village, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China. This is the first discovery of dinosaur footprints in the Lufeng Formation. The ichnogenus Changpeipus is revised after the re-study of its type specimens. Specimen IVPP V2472 2a, a supposed manus print that is part of the ichnogenoholotype of Changpeipus carbonicas, is re-studied herein and assessed as apes print of a juvenile individual of the Changpeipus carbonieus track maker. Changpeipus luanpingeri, is a junior synonym of Changpeip us carbonieus. Changpeipus pareschequier ichnosp, nov. resembles the ichnotaxon Kayenlapus. Based on its characteristics, the footprints are presumably made by a member of the Coelophysoidea from the Lufeng Formation.%记述了云南省禄丰县腰站乡下侏罗统禄丰组2个恐龙足迹,命名了棋盘张北足迹(Changpeipus pareschequicr ichnosp.nov.)一新种.这是在禄丰组中首次发现恐龙足迹化石,重新观察并修订了张北足迹一属的属征.滦平张北足迹(Changpeipus luanpingeris)应为石炭张北足迹(Changpeipus carbonicus)的亚成年个体,为同物异名.此前被认为是石发张北足迹(Changpeipus carbonicus)前足迹的IVPP V2472 2a,应为其未成年体的后足迹.张北足迹与卡岩塔足迹(Kayentapus)类似.综合种种特征.棋盘张北足迹(新种)的造迹恐龙很可能为禄丰组的腔骨龙类(Coelophysoidea).

  17. Research on Mining Development in Yunnan under Ecological Environment Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqun Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is rich of mineral resources, and the mining industry is the pillar industry in Yunnan. But with the development of mining economy, the problems of the ecological environmental damage have come out. Under the mechanism of ecological environment compensation, the mining economic development in Yunnan needs to deal well with the problems of environmental protection. According to the natural ecological conditions of mining area in Yunnan Province, and combining with the phenomena on economic, social, and environmental development, the paper will analyze the impact on ecological environment in Yunnan in the process of mineral exploitation and utilization. It will also provide the mining development and environmental protection in Yunnan with reasonable proposal and give decision-making references about development plans for government.

  18. History and Future Development of Yunnan Gold%滇金的历史与今后的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永俐

    2011-01-01

    Yunnan was one of places for gold exploitation relatively early, and also one of main places of gold production in China. The Yunnan gold was brilliant for a time in the history: its exploitation began in the Warring States period (475 B.C. ~ 221 B.C.) at the latest; the ancient production methods were carried on as before to modern times after over a thousand of years; in the middle and late periods of Yuan dynasty the gold tax amount of Yunnan was ahead of other gold - producing provinces. Because of methods of production and management as backward, the modern Yunnan gold industry laged behind the development of gold industry nationwide. Since gold has a broad market and Yunnan is rich in gold resources, the development of contemporary Yunnan gold has broad prospects. The article discusses the production status in history and present development prospects of Yunnan gold, and puts forward thinkings for future development of Yunnan Gold. .%云南是国内采金较早的地区之一,又曾是我国黄金的主要产地之一.历史上滇金曾一度辉煌:其开采至迟始于战国时期(475 B.C.~221B.C.);古代滇金的生产方法,历经千余年而沿袭至近代;元代中后期其金课额领先于其他产金诸省.近代由于生产方法和经营方式落后,云南黄金业落后于全国黄金业的发展.由于黄金具有广阔的市场和云南有丰富的黄金资源,当代滇金的发展前景广阔.文章论述了历史上滇金的生产状况,当代滇金的发展前景,提出了开发滇金的思考.

  19. China's biggest zoological museum opens in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The opening ceremony for the Kunming Museum of Zoology was held at the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) on 31 October, 2006 in the capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province. With nearly10,000 animal specimens that could be put on display,the museum boasts the largest of its kind in China. The Museum opened to the public on 6 November.

  20. A NEW DIRECTION FOR WEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming Wujiaba Airport in southwest China's Yunnan Province is no strange name to veterans and enthusiasts of the Flying Tigers,the famed volunteer force of U.S.pilots who fought in China at the start of World War Ⅱ.At its peak,two planes took off or landed at the airport every minute.

  1. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  2. Physical studies of asteroids at the Yunnan Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Yunnan observatories are among the major astronomical observatories in China. There are three sites for the Yunnan observatories: Kunming, Lijiang, and Fuxian lake. There is a 1.0-m telescope at the Kunming site and a 2.4-m telescope at the Lijiang site; these are usually used for asteroid studies and are thus discussed here. Asteroids are thought to be remnants of planetesimals in the Solar System. Their physical properties, such as their spins and shapes, can provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of the entire Solar System as well as the individual small bodies themselves. Because the two telescopes are located at low latitudes (of about 25 degrees), they are useful for the observation of small Solar System bodies. With the photometric data obtained by the two telescopes, we have carried out studies on the determination of physical parameters for selected asteroids, e.g., the spin parameters and the convex shape. We analyze the surface characteristics of asteroids with the help of the spectral data from the 2.4-m telescope. For the determination of the spin parameters and the convex shape, several inversion methods have been developed [1,2; also, Muinonen et al., present meeting], e.g., the convex inversion method [3,4]. Under the frame of a collaboration between the Yunnan Observatories and the University of Helsinki, we carried out studies on lightcurve inversion. Here, with the virtual-photometry Monte Carlo method (cf., [5]), we investigate the relationship between the uncertainties of the solutions of the convex inversion and the photometric data for some selected asteroids with different orbital inclinations. For the spin parameters and parameters related to the scattering law of the surface, uncertainties are estimated from the distributions of the parameter values derived from the virtual photometric data. As for the modeled shape, the corresponding virtual shapes are compared with a best-fit shape. The reliability of the

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI

    2013-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  4. Annual Conference of China City Planning 2012 & First Meeting of Second Editorial Board of China City Planning Review Held in Kunmin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Fang

    2012-01-01

    <正>On Oct. 17, 2012, the Annual Conferenceof China City Planning 2012 that was cohosted by Urban Planning Society of China (UPSC) and Kunming Municipal Government, in collaboration with the Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Yunnan, and sponsored by Kunming Planning Bureau was launched in Yunnan Convention Center, with the theme of "Di-versity and Inclusiveness" WANG Guang-tao, Chairman of Environment Protection and Resources Conservation

  5. Degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China%滇西北高原纳帕海湖滨湿地退化特征、规律与过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚文; 杨永兴

    2012-01-01

    采用双向指示种分析(TWINSPAN)和典范对应分析(CCA)方法,研究了滇西北高原纳帕海湖滨湿地退化特征、规律与过程.结果表明:纳帕海湖滨湿地植物群落可以划分为4个群丛,群落演替规律为水生植物群落→沼泽植物群落→沼泽化草甸植物群落→草甸植物群落.随植物群落演替,群落盖度、密度、多样性指数、物种丰富度和地上生物量均增大,群落高度减小;植物水分生态型演替规律为水生植物→沼生植物→湿生植物→中生植物.随群落演替,湿地水体矿化度、硬度和碱度均降低,氨氮和总磷含量升高,总氮和硝态氮含量变化不明显;土壤pH、有机质和全氮含量逐渐降低,全磷和全钾含量逐渐升高,速效氮和速效磷含量先增大后减小.CCA分析表明,群落结构和物种组成主要受水分梯度影响,土壤pH、全磷和湿地水的总氮、氨氮对湿地植物物种分布和群落演替影响显著.%Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed to analyze the degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau. The plant communities in the lakeside wetland could be classified into four associations, according to the TWINSPAN results. The succession patterns of the plant community were represented by aquatic plant community→swamp plant community→swamp meadow plant community→meadow plant community. During die processes of succession, the plant community coverage, density, Shannon diversity index, species richness, and plant aboveground biomass increased, whereas the community height decreased. The succession of the plant hydro-ecotypes followed the sequence of aquatic→helophyte→hygrophyte→ meso-phyte. With the succession of the plant community, the wetland water quality indices salinity, alkalinity, and hardness decreased but ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus

  6. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone splits, Lawu shows affinity with other Central Ngwi languages such as Lisu and Lahu and is provisionally classified as a Central Ngwi language.

  7. Sociological Features of the Casualties from the 1996 Ms 7. 0 Lijiang Earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Yang Jieying; Yang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A statistics analysis was conducted on the basic information about fatalities from the Lijiang Ms 7.0 earthquake in 1996. The factors include age, gender, educational background, occupation, cause of death, death place, etc. We found that even though deaths caused by the Lijiang earthquake had some common features with those from earthquakes in other places in China, it also showed some specific features because of the multiracial and economically-underdeveloped situation of Lijiang area. The results reached in the paper can serve as a reference for studying the features of casualties caused by future strong earthquakes in Yunnan, and for the delicate and human-oriented emergency treatment.

  8. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  9. Review of species of the Scaphoideus albovittatus group (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) from China, with a checklist and distribution summary for Chinese species in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangying; Dai, Wu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The thirteen known leafhopper species of the Scaphoideus albovittatus species group, characterized by the presence of a dorsal white longitudinal stripe, are recognized. Eight species, including three new species, are reported in this group from China: S. albovittatus Matsumura (China: Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan; Japan, Korea, Russia), S. coniceus Li (China: Hainan, Yunnan), S. intermedius Matsumura (China: Taiwan), S. kumamotonis Matsumura (China: Anhui, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang; Japan), S. maai Kitbamroong & Freytag (China: Yunnan, Hainan; Thailand), S. rostratus sp. nov. (China: Yunnan), S. sagittatus sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and S. yuani sp. nov. (China: Guangxi). The detailed morphology of the new species is described; photographs of external habitus and male and female genitalia of the species from China are given. A checklist and a key to the species in this group are also provided, as well as a checklist with distribution summaries for all valid species in the genus from China

  10. 1961~2005年云贵高原太阳辐射变化特征及其影响因子%Variation Characteristics of Global Radiation and the Associated Climatic Factors over Yunnan- Guizhou Plateau in the Southwestern Part of China for 1961 - 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 王学锋; 罗宇翔; 陈娟

    2011-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the global radiation and the meteorological factors such as cloud cover, humidity, wind speed, visibility, and sunshine duration which may impact the global radiation over the Yunnan -Guizhou Plateau in the southwestern part of China were studied by mathematical statistics method, with which thedata of nine radiation observation stations and about 200 weather stations from 1961 to 2005 were involved. The results show that the spatial distribution characteristics of annual global radiation are higher in the western part than the eastern part, and the highest is at Lijiang station (6207 MJ ? M-2 ? A-1), the lowest is at Zunyi station (3340 MJ ? M-2 ? A-1). The global radiations in six out of nine stations have no significant linear trend (P>0.1) in inter-annual variation, but the other three stations (Mengzi, Guiyang, and Zunyi) have a significant decline (P<0. 001) from the 1960s to the 1980s, and then followed by slight (Mengzi) or significant increasing (Guiyang). The main reason of the global radiation declining in Mengzi may owe to the visibility decreasing, and that in Guiyang is concerned with the increasing total cloud cover which result in sunshine duration decreasing. The cloud cover increasing and visibility decreasing are the reasons of the global radiation decline in Zunyi. Overall, interannual or decadal time scale variations of the global radiation are relative to the cloud cover and sunshine duration on the Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau during 1961 - 2005. The sunshine duration at city stations (Kunming and Guiyang) decreased with visibility reducing.%利用云贵高原1961~2005年9个日射站辐射和气候观测资料以及能见度观测资料等,采用数理统计方法,研究了该区域到达地表太阳总辐射量(以下简称总辐射)变化特征及其影响因子.结果表明:该区年总辐射的空间分布特点是西部高于东部,丽江站最高(6207MJ·m-2·a-1),遵义站最低(3340MJ·m-2·a-1).1961

  11. Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association Delegation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, the Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA) delegation led by Murshed Chowdhury Manzur, patron of the BCPFA and former Bengali ambassador to China, visited Beijing, Shanghai and Yunnan from May 19 to 28.

  12. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers:a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiang-yi; WU Wen-bin; LIU Zhen-huan; Peter H Verburg; XIA Tian; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; YOU Liang-zhi; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers’ personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change) associated with external biophysical-socioeconomic data (presents real-world climate change) were used to develop a farmer-centered framework to explore climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations at a local level. A case study at Bin County (1980s-2010s), Northeast China, suggested that increased annual average temperature (0.6°C per decade) and decreased annual precipitation (46 mm per decade, both from meteorological datasets) were correctly perceived by 76 and 66.9%, respectively, of farmers from the survey, and that a longer growing season was conifrmed by 70%of them. These reasonably correct perceptions enabled local farmers to make appropriate adaptations to cope with climate change:Longer season alternative varieties were found for maize and rice, which led to a signiifcant yield increase for both crops. The longer season also affected crop choice:More farmers selected maize instead of soybean, as implicated from survey results by a large increase in the maize growing area. Comparing warming-related factors, we found that precipitation and agricultural disasters were the least likely causes for farmers’ agricultural decisions. As a result, crop and variety selection, rather than disaster prevention and infrastructure improvement, was the most common ways for farmers to adapt to the notable warming trend in the study region.

  13. Yunnan Smelting Group Examines an Aluminum Project for Possible Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tian Yong,General Manager of Yunnan Smelt- ing Group,has gone to Zha gai NuoEr in Heilongjiang Province with a study group to conduct a full careful examination on the feasi- bility of the investment in the aluminum pro- ject.Yunnan Smelting Group is a large-scale

  14. 黔西滇东地区早三叠世早期植物化石研究的新进展%New Research Progress on the Paleofiora in the Earliest Triassic of Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 喻建新; 黄其胜; Jean Broutin; 宋倩倩; 陈斌

    2011-01-01

    Early Lower Triassic plants are little known in China, especially in South China. This paper presents the paleofloral assemblage from the top of Xuanwei and the lower of the Kayitou Formations in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, China.Fossil plants in this area (Annularia shirakii, Lobatannularia sp. , Paracalamites stenocostatus, Gigantopteris sp. , Pecopteris sp. , which are all the Permian relicts) from the bottom of the Kayitou Formation described by other people in 1970s are covered. In addition, many important new fossil plants in the evolution during the Permian-Triassic interval, such as Isoetes Annalepis (including A. zeilleri , A. brevicystis ) , Peltaspermacae Peltaspermum (including P. martinsii, P. lobutalurn, P.sp. ), Lepidodendron and Stigmaria and so on are also reported. Both the new type and the “Gigantopteris-fiora” relicts are characterized with the Early Triassic Induan paleofloral features in South China. This paleofloral assemblage contains 31 species in 14 genera. These fossil plants are in association with an early Lower Triassic marine fauna (Bivalves, Ostracods, Brachiopods and Ammonites). So the geological age of this paleoflora is Early Triassic Induan stage, while the FAD of Annalepis is regarded as the marker, representing the beginning of Triassic. Based on analyzing paleofiora and limnology of the top of Xuanwei and the lower of Kayitou Formations, it is concluded that tropical and humid conditions persisted in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan throughout the Permian and Earliest Triassic.%早三叠世华南地区海相沉积广为发育.陆相沉积仅在海南岛和康滇古陆的东缘零星分布,植物化石非常罕见.报道的植物化石采自黔西滇东陆相岔河剖面宣威组顶部、海陆过渡相密德剖面和土城剖面的卡以头组下部,与晚二叠世晚期宣威组植物化石比较,植物类型单调,保存较破碎,共计14属31种,其中以Annalepis为主的石松纲5种;楔叶纲5

  15. KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF THE FRESHWATER DUGESI4 PLANARIANS FROM YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%中国云南三产地淡水三角涡虫核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 田士瑞; 刘涛; 刘德增

    2011-01-01

    利用空气干燥法,对采自云南省丽江市束河古镇、保山市龙王塘和香格里拉市小中甸3产地淡水三角涡虫(Dugesia sp.)的染色体和核型进行分析,结果表明:丽江市束河古镇淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以16条为主,为二倍体(2n=2x=16=16m);保山市龙王塘淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以24条为主(2n=3x=24=24m),少数为16条(2n=2x=16=16m),为三倍体和为二倍体的混合倍体;值得注意的是:香格里拉市小中甸淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以极少见的26条为主(2n=3x+2=24+2=21m+3st+2m),少数为25条(2n=3x+1=24+1=21m+3st+1m)和24条(2n=3x=24=21m+3st),为三倍性混合倍体.研究根据核型结果对上述三产地淡水三角涡虫的分类和染色体非整倍性进行了分析.%In order to provide evidence for taxonomy, evolutionary biology, biogeography and phylogenetics of the genus Dugesia, the chromosomes and karyotypes of the freshwater planarians, Dugesia sp., collected from Shuhe town in Lijiang City, Longwangtang pond in Baoshan City, and Xiaozhaongdian town in Xianggelila City, Yunnan Province,were studied. The adult planarians, 15-20 mm in length and 1.5-2.0 mm in width, were used. After starving for a week, each planarian was transversally cut into five pieces, the planarian pieces were cultured in distilled water for three or four days to regenerate. For the karyological analysis, the metaphase chromosomes were prepared from regenerating blastemas by an air-drying method. Chromosome numbers of over 100 well-spreaded cells were counted and the chromosomes were photographed using Leica DMLB light microscope. The karyotype parameters of five well-spreaded metaphase plates from five individuals were measured. Relative length (r.l.) was calculated as chromosome length × 100/total length of haploid genome. Centromeric index (c.i.) was calculated as length of the short arm× 100/total length of the chromosome. Arm ratio (a.r.) was calculated

  16. 中国云南洱海周边小兽体表革螨多样性%Diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    云南大理洱海周边是我国流行性出血热的流行地区之一.本文目的是运用Shannon-Wiener、系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.0软件)和Levins'niche等对该区3 303只小兽体表寄生革螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.选择的洱海周边三个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这三个方位形成了同地域异生境的地理景观.在调查点共捕获小兽宿主3 303只属4目(啮齿目、食虫目、攀鼩目和食肉目)7科15属21种,收集到的小兽体表寄生虫革螨23 196只被鉴定为6科16属43种.研究结果表明革螨群落结构复杂,物种多样性高.在不同方位革螨和它们相对应宿主的分布是不均匀的,但是洱海周边不同方位同样优势小兽上寄生的优势革螨种是一致的.结果暗示:生境影响着革螨和它们相对应小兽的物种构成和分布,如果小兽宿主的分类地位和生境相似,那么相对应的小兽宿主上的革螨群落就相似;不同方位小兽体表寄生虫革螨的丰富度和物种多样性主要由宿主本身和宿主所栖息的生境决定;这可能是小兽和革螨之间协同进化在生态学上的一个佐证.但通过使用革螨的生态位宽度分析,革螨的宿主特异性很低,这又可能暗示着小兽和革螨之间有协同进化,但协同进化程度不高.%The aim was to study the species diversity,community structure,similarity,distribution and niche of gamasid mites on the body surface of 3 303 small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins' niche.The investigated site was an important focus of epidemic hemorrhagic fever, where stands alongside three cordilleras surrounding Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain,Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas formed

  17. 云南香格里拉山地自然风景区蚤类多样性的研究%FLEAS FAUNA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN FIVE NATURAL LANDSCAPE AREAS OF SHANGRI-LA,YUNNAN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军旗; 龚正达; 栗冬梅; 刘起勇; 和耀兰

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are considered as the most common and important external parasites on small mammals , which can spread a variety of viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases to humans, such as bubonic plague and typhus.Investigation of flea fauna is an important work in natural landscape area for their biting on visitors which may raise the risk of spreading vector-borne diseases.To investigate the flea fauna and distinguish the differences among different natural landscape areas, researches were performed during autumn of 2005 in five main mountain areas: Hutiao Gorge, Haba Snow Mountain, Baishuitai Terraces, Qianhu Mountain and Red mountain.The results showed: (1) A total of 633 fleas identified as 34 species belonging to 4 genera and 19 families were collected from small rodents trapped , including 10 new recorded species (subspecies) in Shangri-La, among which Stenoponia and Stenoponia himalayana are first trapped in Yunnan province, implying that there existed abundant species of fleas in natural landscape areas in Shangri-La.(2) Both the species richness and Shannon-Wienor index of fleas increased along with the increase of altitude, which were highest in Red mountain with an altitude of 3 500-4 200 m, and lowest in Hutiao Gorge with an altitude of 1 800-1 900 m.(3) The 5 natural landscape areas were classified into two groups based on the Jaccard indexes and cluster analysis, one is Hutiao Gorge, Haba Snow Mountain and Baishuitai Terraces, another one is Qianhu Mountain and Red mountain.It is indicated that, compared with the vegetation and humidity , human disturbance may play a more important role in flea diversity of natural landscape areas . (4) Both the species richness and Shannon-Wienor index of fleas showed no relation with that of small mammal, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were 0.24 and 0.60, respectively.%蚤类是传播多种自然疫源性疾病的重要媒介昆虫,人类在自然风景区户外活动时存在被其叮咬而感染虫媒

  18. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  19. The observation of exoplanet transit events in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang X.-S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a research project on the exoplanet transit events at Yunnan Observatory. By using CCD cameras attached to 1m telescope of Yunnan Observatory and 85cm telescope of Xinglong station, NAOC, a group of exoplanet systems with transit events have been observed photometrically. By means of MCMC method, the preliminary results of the systems WASP-11 and XO-2 are derived. Finally, we give out the future plan on this research topic in China.

  20. The impact of land use on soil properties in a karst agricultural region of Southwest China: a case study of Xiaojiang watershed, Yunnan%典型岩溶农业区土地利用变化对土壤性质的影响——以云南小江流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勇军

    2006-01-01

    Supported by RS and GIS, the land use change from 1982 to 2003 were analyzed and the impacts of land use changes on pH value, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P, and available K in soil of Xiaojiang watershed, a typical karst agricultural region of Yunnan Province, Southwest China were assessed. The following aspects are concluded. (1) The total land use converted during the past 20 years in Xiaojiang watershed covers an area of 610.12 km2, of which 134.29 km2 of forestland was converted into cultivated land, and 210 km2 of unused land was converted into cultivated land. (2) The rapid growth of population and the economic development were the main driving forces of land use change. (3) With the change in land use, the soil properties have been changed significantly. The pH, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P and available K in soil in 1982 were 6.3, 38.02 g kg-1, 1.86 g kg-1, 1.63 g kg-1, 10.94 g kg-1, 114.42 g kg-1, 11.65 mg kg-1 and 64.69 mg kg-1g, respectively; and those in 2003 were 6.73, 25.26 g kg-1, 1.41 g kg-1, 0.99 g kg-1, 12.6 g kg-1, 113.43 mg kg-1, 11.11 mg kg-1 and 151.59 mg kg-1, respectively. Pared samples t-test of the tested indices of soil properties indicate that those indices have changed significantly during the last 20 years. But the soil properties changed differently, due to the differences in land use change. (4) Also, with the change in land use and management measures of soil, the modifications in soil properties which developed from carbonate rocks were more sensitive than those in the soil developed from sandstone.

  1. ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量%Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  2. From a Yunnan mountain to a Tibetan highland——the story of a hundred years of cosmic ray research in China%从乌蒙山到念青唐古拉——百年宇宙线研究的中国故事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭有恒

    2013-01-01

    百年前,宇宙线的发现曾极大地开阔了人们对宇观和微观世界的眼界,促成了粒子物理学的诞生.新中国成立之初,早年在国外在此领域业已成果卓著的几位前辈,组织起了中国本土第一支宇宙线研究队伍,在云南乌蒙山中建成了中国第一个宇宙线实验室,十年中收获了一系列高水平的实验成果.不幸,此后近20年的磋跎岁月扩大了中国与日新月异的国际新技术之间的差距,中国的宇宙线研究落到了自我边缘化的境地.幸好国家的改革开放政策为奋起直追提供了机会,中国第二代的宇宙线研究者经过种种摸索,选择了高海拔广延大气簇射观测的路线去实现我国宇宙线研究的复兴.20多年的埋头苦干,在海拔4300m的西藏念青唐古拉山脚下建成了一个现代化、国际化的宇宙线实验基地,完成了中国的宇宙线研究从云雾室、手工化向规模化、信息化的历史性转型,并以其特有的低阈能、高事例率、全天候、宽视场优势和国际合作,开展着多项前沿性的科研项目,迎来了丰收的季节.随着国家的日益富强,中国宇宙线研究的年青一代,必将从更高的起点出发,创造出中国宇宙线研究的更大的辉煌.%The discovery of cosmic rays a hundred years ago opened a new field of view to the universe and the mysterious particle world, leading to the birth of particle physics. Cosmic ray research in China was started in the early 50' s of the last century by several senior scientists who had already distinguished themselves abroad in this subject. The first cosmic ray observatory in China was built on a mountain in Yunnan province, and many high level results were obtained in the ensuing ten years.Then after almost twenty years of political unrest, the national "Reform & Opening up" policy provided a good opportunity to stimulate development and to narrow the wide gap caused by long term stagnation. The second generation

  3. A Study of the Tourism Development along the Yunnan-Vietnam Border%“桥头堡”战略下滇越边境旅游发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙良涛; 李继云; 冯万荣

    2012-01-01

    The Yunnan section of the China-Vietnam boundary line is 1353 kilometers in length,Yunnan is linked together to Vietnam with mountains and rivers,possesses the enormous geographical superiority.In recent years,the border tourism along Yunnan-Vietnam border has been developing prospectively.With the implementation Yunnan's "bridgehead fortress" strategy,Yunnan should use fully its geographical superiority,develops vigorously the border tourism,give active play to the border tourism on promoting the economics and trade cooperation as well as foreign cultural exchange and so on in Yunnan.This article analyzes the status of the Yunnan-Vietnam border tourism,conducts a deep analysis of the superiority and opportunities of developing the tourism along Yunnan-Vietnam border,finally give the proposal to speed up the Yunnan-Vietnam border tourism.%中越边界线云南段长1353公里,云南与越南山水相连,具有极大的区位优势。近年来,滇越边境旅游发展的如火如荼。随着云南"桥头堡"战略的实施,云南应充分利用其区位优势,大力发展边境旅游,发挥边境旅游在云南对外经贸合作以及对外文化交流等方面的积极作用。本文分析了滇越边境旅游发展的现状,对发展滇越边境旅游的优势和面临的机遇进行了深入分析,最后对加快滇越边境旅游发展提出建议。

  4. On interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “On interpretation” is an attempt to formulate a viewpoint on the issue of textual interpretation. It presents different ideas related to interpretation, including especially those that are concerned with a text’s meaning and with the way in which it is interpreted by the reader. The author proposes another interpretation method which he calls transactional. The primary concern is how to possibly justify the fundamental character of interpretation and interpretative activity while at the same time preserving and respecting the relative autonomy of an interpreted text.

  5. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  6. 滇黔北探区YQ1井页岩气的发现及其意义%Significance of Discovery of Shale Gas From Well YQ-1 in Northern Yunnan-Guizhou Provinces,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兴; 叶熙; 张朝; 张介辉; 舒红林

    2014-01-01

    YQ1井钻遇的龙马溪组—五峰组优质黑色页岩单层厚度大,有机碳含量高,有机质成熟度较高,微孔隙、微裂缝发育。分析化验结果表明,YQ1井页岩层甲烷吸附气含量随埋藏深度、地层压力、有机质及黏土含量的增加而增大,含气量达1.0∼3.0 m3/t,证实龙马溪组底部是本区页岩气勘探的现实目的层,为具有商业开采价值的优质页岩气层。针对“强改造、高演化”的中国南方海相勘探领域,页岩气成藏赋存具有“构造沉积控局势→保存条件控气藏→岩性物性控甜点”的地质特色,落实富有机质、超常地层压力、脆性微孔缝发育的页岩气甜点区是页岩气勘探评价的第一要务,寻找构造变形较弱、远离通天断层、区域盖层发育和整体保存良好的宽阔向斜区是海相构造坳陷页岩气甜点区评价优选的首要因素。%The high quality shale of Wufeng-Longmaxi formations that was encountered by well YQ-1 during the drilling pro-cess is characterized by thick single layer,high TOC content,high organic matter maturity,and well developed microscopic pore and cracks. The analysis results reveal that the absorbed methane content of core shale from well YQ-1 increases with the rise of burial depth,formation pressure,content of organic matter and clay minerals. The gas in place(GIP)of the shale reservoirs ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 m3/t,indicating that the shale horizon of the basal of Longmaxi formation and Wufeng forma-tion is the first target stratum with commercial development value. The marine gas shale in Southern China is characterized of“intensive reformation,and high maturity”,and because the occurrence of shale gas resources is characterized by the control factors on distribution,gas pool,and sweet pot that are controlled by tectonics,storage condition and physical properties of rocks respectively. The emergency mission on shale gas exploration is to identify

  7. The Path Analysis of Farmers’ Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtian; XIAO; Yu; CUI; Lijia; HU

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers’ income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture,countryside and farmers,so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper,we use the statistics concerning farmers’ income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012,to perform the path analysis of components of farmers’ income in Yunnan Province,study the path of influence of components of farmers’ income on farmers’ net income,and then set forth the policy recommendations for increasing farmers’ income in Yunnan Province.

  8. Yunnan Starts its Largest Copper Mining and Dressing Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Along with the recent establishment of DiqingMining Development Co.,the largest coppermining and dressing projeject at Yangla,DeqinCounty in Yunnan province started construc-tion.This project is invested by Yunnan Cop-per Group Corp.with RMB10 million yuan forthe mine’s propecting fight and over RMB30million yuan for risk capital.After a year’swork,the copper mine at Yangla is ready forlarge scale development.Yangla Copper Mineis located at the joint area of Yunnan,Sichuan

  9. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  10. 云南中缅边境居民贾第虫感染影响因素分析%Risk factors of Giardia Lamblia infection in residents at both sides of China-Myanmar border area of Nabang port,Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 王剑; 梁桂亮; 杨捷; 邓艳; Lasi Ja-hkawn; 张再兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南那邦口岸中缅双边贾第虫感染危险因素.方法 2008年整群随机抽取中国盈江县那邦镇和缅甸拉咱市边境自然村,对调查点内居住时间>1年的边民进行流行病学问卷调查及新鲜粪便碘液涂片镜检,采用logistic回归方法对数据进行统计分析.结果 共调查6个自然村903人,平均年龄为(22.81±18.82)岁;总贾第虫感染率为13.51%,其中调查2个中国自然村286人,感染率为2.10%;调查4个缅甸自然村617人,感染率为18.80%;单因素分析结果表明,国籍、年龄、民族、用手抓饭、喝生水、饮用水源、近1月内腹泻、使用厕所类型和粪便带粘液为可能的危险因素;多因素分析结果表明,国籍、年龄、民族、喝生水和粪便带粘液为主要危险因素.结论 直接饮用被粪便污染的水源是缅甸边民贾第虫流行的主要原因.%Objective To examine the risk factors of Giardia Lamblia infection in the residents at both sides of China-Myanmar border area in Nabang port of Yunnan province. Methods An epidemiological survey was carried out with clustered random sampling in the border villages of Nabang township of China and Laiza city of Myanmar in 2008. The data and fecal samples were collected from the villagers who living in the sampled villages more than one year. The fecal samples with iodine staining were examined with microscopy. The data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression. Results Totally 903 residents from 6 villages were investigated and 13 kinds of risk factors were analyzed. The average age of the residents was 22. 81 ± 18. 82 years and the overall infection rate of Giardia Lamblia was 13.51%. Among the residents,there were 286 infected Chinese with a infection rate of 2.10% and 617 infected Burmese with a infection rate of 18. 8%. The results of univariate non-conditional logistic analysis showed that the risk factors of the infection

  11. Interpretability formalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Joost Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form

  12. Geochemistry of Sedimentation and Diagenesis in Qixia Formation (Early Permian) of Badong,Hubei Province, China: Implications for T-R Cycle Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Combined with sedimentary observation and mineralogical research on a type of drusy celestite of early diagenesis in origin, this geochemical study on the Qixia Formation at the Shuibuya Section, Badong County, Hubei Province of south China evaluates the contribution of sedimentation and diagenesis to the mass fractions of CaO, Al2O3, MgO, SiO2, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, Mn, Sr, P and Ba in the carbonates. The Sr, initially released from the stabilization of carbonate calcium mineral, precipitated with sulfate ion as celestite in early diagenetic environment, where sulfate reduction was the minimum. Then it redistributed in burial diagenetic environment, where celestite was replaced by calcite. The fractions of the MgO and SiO2 in the carbonates were mainly modified by the early dolomitization and silicification respectively. That of the Na2O was overprinted by the burial diagenesis. Multivariate statistical analysis on data of sixty bulk rocks indicates that the mass fractions of the Al2O3, K2O, Fe2O3, Mn, CaO, P and Ba were affiliated with the sedimentary factor despite the obvious decrease of CaO during early dolomitization and silicification. Among them, the Al2O3 and K2O mainly represent the detrital components. In addition, a dysaerobic sedimentary background was confirmed by trace element measurement and information derived from the formation of the celestite. This genetic discrimination facilitates the interpretation of the transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycle and specialities featured this unusual carbonate unit.

  13. On New Landscape Agriculture in Yunnan Flatland Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; YANG; Wufu; QI; Qun; LIU

    2014-01-01

    With the support of national policy of building Yunnan into a gateway in China’s opening up to the Southwest,Yunnan Province offered the great opportunity for second time of starting an undertaking for tourism,and the landscape agriculture welcomes a new development opportunity. On the basis of regional natural and cultural resources,Yunnan Province has created diversified agricultural operating types and colorful farming culture. Thus,it has significant comparative advantage in developing the landscape agriculture,but it should avoid homogeneous competition in construction methods. The landscape agriculture of Yunnan Province should set foot on special features of rural landscape,stick to its " local characteristics",raise core competitiveness of characteristic landscape,and take the ecological and characteristic development road.

  14. Characteristics of coda wave attenuation in Yunnan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic of seismic coda wave attenuation in Yunnan area in 7 frequency-bands range from 1 Hz to 20 Hz was estimated by using the local earthquake's waveform data recorded from 22 Yunnan digital seismic stations.Coda attenuation Q-c1 of each station was firstly calculated by single scattering method. Then, mean free path Le and seismic albedo Bo of each station were calculated, and scattering attenuation Q-1s and intrinsic attenuation Q-1i were separated from total attenuation Q-1t by multiple lapse time window analysis based on the multiple scattering model in uniform random isotropic scattering medium. The attenuating characteristics in Yunnan show that most value of Le are in 10~30 km, with maximal within 2~6 Hz;Bo are about 0.5 at 1~2 Hz, but less than 0.5at other frequency-bands, which means Q-1i is comparable with Q-1s at 1~2 Hz, and after 1~2 Hz, Q-1i is greater than Q-1s and dominates the attenuation process. Q-1c is close to Q-1i at other frequency bands except 1~2 Hz.Results show that Q-1 especially Qs-1 varies spatially, Q-1 in eastern Yunnan zone is a bit higher than in northwestern Yunnan zone;northwestern Yunnan zone higher than southwestern Yunnan zone. Comparing with other results in global, Qs-1 in Yunnan is lower than the global average value among these results, Q-1i is higher than the global average value, and Q-1t lies the middle among these results.

  15. New species and records of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 (Odonata, Gomphidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Kosterin, Oleg E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2015-08-07

    Four new species of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 are described from Southwestern China: B. apricus sp. nov. from Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province; B. magnus sp. nov. from Huayudong, Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, Yunnan Province, B. dentatus sp. nov. from Zhangjiang River in Xiaoqikong scenic spot, altitude 400 m, Libo County, Guizhou Province, and B. latescens sp. nov. from Sifangjing, Mengding Town, Gengma County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. New records of Burmagomphus spp. in China are provided, with B. asahinai and B. williamsoni williamsoni for the first time reported from China. A revised checklist of Burmagomhus spp. of China is provided which includes 14 species. A doubtful record of B. arboreus and relations of the newly described species are discussed. All types are deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.

  16. PESTALOTIOPSIS KARSTENII, A NEW RECORD OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM CAMELLIA SASANQUA IN CHINA%中国茶梅内生真菌一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦继光; 徐同

    2003-01-01

    @@ In survey of diversity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis associated with Theaceae in Nanning, Guangxi Province and Kunming, Yunnan Province, Pestalotiopsis karstenii, a dominant endophytic fungus isolated from stem of Camellia sasanqua, is a new record in China.

  17. Implications of International Manorial Economy for Development of Characteristic Manorial Economy in Yunnan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Lu; FENG; Xiaobo; DONG; Yuan; YUAN; Xuelin; LI; Liangzheng; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized experience of Vietnam and Taiwan in developing modern agricultural manorial economy. The manorial economy of Vietnam is characterized by intensive and specialized operation and high marketization and wide employment of labors,while the experience of Taiwan can be outlined as " government launching,agricultural association promoting,and farmers acting". Then,it analyzed existing problems of modern agricultural manorial economy in China and opportunities and challenges of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area. Finally in line with these problems and combining experience of international manorial economy,it came up with systematic recommendations for healthy and sustainable development of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area:(i) perfecting organization leadership,improving planning guidance,and enhancing standardized management;(ii) putting forth effort on innovation of system and mechanism for land,fund and technology,to break bottleneck of manorial economic development;(iii) increasing input and comprehensively building the service support system to promote long-term development of manorial economy.

  18. Researches on Plants from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation in the Qujing District, Eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 郝守刚; 刘振锋

    2002-01-01

    Fossil plants Hedeia sinica Hao et Gensel 1998, Huia gracilis Wang et Hao 2001 andGuangnania cuneata Wang et Hao are described from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation, the Qujingdistrict, eastern Yunnan, China. They contribute to our knowledge of the flora in this district. Based on theoccurrence of common plants (Hedeia, Huia, Guangnania and Zosterophyllum australianum) and their horizons,it is proved for the first time that the mid-lower assemblage of the Xujiachong flora is comparable with theEarly Devonian ((late) Pragian) Posongchong flora of southeastern Yunnan and the upper Baragwanathia floraof Australia. In view of this fact and the stratigraphic sequence, the mid-lower part of the Xujiachong Formationis considered to be of (late) Pragian age. Through comprehensive analyses of plant, bivalve and fishassemblages and the lithology, the upper part of the Xujiachong Formation is dated to be of early Emsian age.The Xujiachong flora belonged to the northeastern Gondwana palaeophytogeographic unit during the EarlyDevonian. The early Emsian assemblage of this flora inherited the characters of the Posongchong flora and alsoexhibited the endemic elements. Belonging to different phytogeographic units, the Xujiachong and Posongchongfloras differ from the coeval flora of the Laurussian palaeocontinent. The Xujiachong flora is comparativelysimple in composition, while the Posongchong flora has abundant and highly diversified endemics. Thedisparity between them has resulted from the different environments.

  19. Coexistence and Competition between Tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytinae in Yunnan Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig (Coleoptera: Scolytinae were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside.

  20. 无量山大寨子黑长臂猿一夫二妻制的群体结构及其行为学原因%Polygynous Mating System and Behavioural Reason of Black Crested Gibbon ( Nomascus concolor jingdongensis ) at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范朋飞; 蒋学龙; 刘长铭; 罗文寿

    2006-01-01

    The field research on five black crested gibbon groups, recently performed at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang,Central Yunnan, China, showed that all groups in the local population consisted of one adult male, two adult females and2 - 5 sub-adults, juveniles and infants. The mean group size was 6.2 in August 2003 and 6.4 in August 2005. Two subadult males disappeared from their natal home range and three newborns were given birth in Group 3 (G3) and G4 during this study. The two adult females in G1, G2 and G3 gave births and/or carried babies but at different times. There was no aggressive or dominating behaviour observed between the two adult females. One floating female was first seen in G3's territory on April 15, 2005. The two resident females interrupted her duet with adult male and chased her. We did not observe adult male chased this floating female and she left G3's territory 10 days later. Sub-adult males often kept distance with the family, and they often sang solo bouts in their natal territory before they dispersed. The sub-adult males and females dispersed from natal territory and two adult resident females rejected the third one, which might were the reasons why the black gibbon groups were polygyny in Dazhaizi.%2003年8月-2005年8月,对无量山大寨子5个黑长臂猿群体的结构和组成进行了观察.当一个群体在早晨鸣叫或依次通过树冠时,记录群体的结构和组成.每个群体都由1个成年雄性、2个成年雌性及其后代组成.2003年8月平均群体大小为6.2只;到2005年8月,平均群体大小发展为6.4只,其中有2个亚成年雄性从出生群迁出,且有3只幼猿出生.在3个群体(G1、G2和G3)中两个成年雌性都成功繁殖了后代.同一群体内两个成年雌性间无攻击或等级行为.2005年4月15日,当一只亚成年雌性进入G3的领域后,两只成年雌性对其进行追逐驱赶,并且干扰其与成年雄性配合进行二重唱,成年雄性没有直接驱赶流浪的亚成年

  1. Geochemical Characteristics of the Langdu High-K Intermediate-Acid Intrusive Rocks in the Zhongdian Area,Northwest Yunnan Province, P.R. China%云南中旬地区浪都高钾中酸性侵入岩的地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任涛; 钟宏; 陈金法; 朱维光; 张兴春

    2011-01-01

    中甸地区浪都中酸性侵入岩在空间上与浪都夕卡岩型铜矿床共生,主要由石英二长斑岩、石英闪长斑岩和花岗闪长斑岩组成.这些侵入岩大多表现出高钾(K2O大于3%)的特征,在K2O-SiO2图上所有样品均落入高钾钙碱性和钾玄岩区域.在稀土元素球粒陨石标准化图上表现为轻稀土富集、重稀土亏损(LaN/YbN=14.3~21.2)、铕弱负异常至无异常(δEu=0.77~1.00);在原始地幔标准化微量元素蛛网图上,K、Rb、Sr、Ba等元素表现出正异常,而Nb、Ta和Ti等元素表现出负异常的特征.浪都侵入岩的87Sr/86Sr初始值为0.7044-0.7069,εsd(t)值为-2.8~2.2.结合主量、微量元素及Sr-Nd同位素组成,本研究认为浪都岩浆来源于交代地幔,很可能受到了俯冲带流体交代和地壳物质混染的影响,表明浪都中酸性侵入岩的形成与甘孜-理塘洋的俯冲有关.%The Langdu high-K calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province,China are spatially associated with the Langdu skarn copper deposit. These rocks consist mainly of quartz-diorite porphyry, granodiorite and quartz-monzonite porphyry. The K2O content of majority is higher than 3%, and in the K2O-SiO2 diagram, all the samples fall into the high-K talc alkaline to shoshonitic fields. They are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE (La/Yb) N = 14. 3 ~ 21.2), and show negative to no Eu anomaly ( δEu = 0. 77 ~ 1.00). In the primitive-mantle normalized spidergram, they are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba,-but depleted Nb, Ta and Ti. The samples have relatively enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with ( 87 Sr/86 Sr) i ratios from 0. 7044 to 0. 7069 and εNd(t) values from -2. 8 to -2. 2. In combination of the above elemental and isotopic characteristics, it is suggested that the L angdu intrusives were derived from a metasomatized mantle source generated by subduction-released fluids and involvement of crustal material, which are related to

  2. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南部分小兽体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 董文鸽

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.%应用系统聚类分析方法对云南省境内24种主要小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类进行了研究.研究中将每一种小兽体表的所有吸虱昆虫定义为一个相应的吸虱群落单位.结果表明,小兽体表吸虱群落结构简单,物种多样性很低.多数小兽有固定的吸虱种类寄生,其吸虱的宿主特异性高.在动物分类上隶属同一个属的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似程度高,在系统聚类分析中大多被归为一类.在动物分类上近缘的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似,优势虱种相同或相似,此情形尤其表现在鼠属、白腹鼠属、姬鼠属和绒鼠属.吸虱群落相似性大小与相应小兽宿主在动物分类地位上的近缘性高低呈现高度一致.从生态学角度来看,吸虱昆虫与其所寄生的小兽

  3. Tourism in China: representing the nation to English speaking tourists: A historical study of the development of tourism and the interpretive media encountered at five Beijing tourist sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koerts

    2015-01-01

    Since 1978, tourism in China has grown rapidly in terms of numbers of tourists and revenues. Although China is set to become the world’s major tourist receiving and tourist generating country, domestic tourism is presently the mainstay with over three billion visits in 2013. Tourism is not only of e

  4. The Influencing Factors of Rural Household Energy Consumption Structure in Mountainous Areas of Southwest China:A Case Study of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province%西南山区农村生活能源消费结构的影响因素分析——以云南省昭通市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁育填; 樊杰; 孙威; 韩晓旭; 盛科荣; 马海龙; 徐勇; 王传胜

    2012-01-01

    No-commercial energy like firewood and straw is the basic livelihood asset on which the rural households in poverty-stricken and mountainous areas rely. Over-harvesting firewood is one of the dominant factors for soil erosion and deforestation in ecologically frangible region. Mountainous areas of Southwest China are poverty-stricken areas and ecologically frangible region as well. This study investigates the rural energy consumption characteristics by 946 survey questionnaires in the city of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Overall, coal is the dominant energy, and the second is by non-commercial or traditional energy such as firewood and straw, followed by electricity and biogas utilization. Meanwhile, energy consumption structure of rural households displays a marked spatial distribution, with coal dominated at flat river valley areas and firewood concentrated in mountainous areas. Moreover, this study also analyzes the factors affecting the proportion of non-commercial and commercial energy consumption by the Tobit model. The results show that (1) Firewood and straw consumption is affected mainly by the per-capita forest land and per-capita arable land, while coal is subject to price, availability and accessibility. (2) With the increase of per-capita income, the proportion of the non-commercial energy would decline while the proportion of coal and electric energy would rise. However, it is difficult for poverty-stricken areas such as mountainous areas of Southwest China to upgrade the energy consumption structure due to living assets shortage and low income. (3) Development of education and expansion of employment in non-agricultural industry are helpful for households in this region to reduce the proportion of traditional energy and increase the proportion of commercial energy consumption. Only in this way can their energy consumption structure be changed.%能源是贫困地区农户赖以生产和发展的基本生计资产,过度采伐薪柴的

  5. New Eusauropod Dinosaur from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Yuanmousaurusjiangyiensis gen. et sp. nov. is erected based on an incomplete skeleton.It is characterized by more complex structures of the neural arches in the dorsal vertebrae than those in Omeisaurus, but less complex than those of Euhelopus; the dorsal vertebra bears 9laminae, forming three cavities on the lateral surface of the neural arch; the dorsal vertebral neural spines with dorsoventrally-oriented cavities are similar to those of Omeisaurus and Patagosaurus. Yuanmousaurus is more primitive than Euhelopus, but more derived than Omeisaurus. The similar dorsal vertebral structure between Yuanmousaurus and Patagosaurus may indicate that they have a close relationship to each other.

  6. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  7. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in cerebrovascular diseases of the Chinese Naxi populations from Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu; Qihong Yuan; Xijun Fan; Guoqiang He

    2011-01-01

    Currently it is not well known whether apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a genetic susceptibility factor for cerebrovascular diseases in the Chinese Naxi population. The present study detected and sequenced ApoE polymorphisms of 90 patients with cerebrovascular diseases (58 cases of cerebral infarction and 32 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage), and 50 normal people of Naxi nationality from Yunnan province, China. The populations were used to analyze the relationship of ApoE polymorphisms with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. Results showed an association between ApoE gene polymorphism and the onset of cerebral infarction, and a possibility that the ε4 allele is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebral infarction. However, there was no evidence of a relationship between the ApoE gene polymorphism and cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Biodiversity and taphonomy of the Early Cambrian Guanshan biota,eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; STEINER

    2010-01-01

    The Guanshan biota from eastern Yunnan(Cambrian Series 2,early Stage 4) is a Burgess Shale-type fossil biota with abundant exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils after the discovery of the well-known Cambrian Chengjiang fauna and Kaili biota in South China.The geological settings,sedimentology,taphonomy,and the fossil assemblage of the Guanshan biota are briefly summarized here.The Guanshan biota consists of about 60 taxa belonging to more than 10 metazoan groups and algae,among which the lobopods,eldonids,hyolithids with helens,and green algae are reported for the first time.The common occurrence of soft-bodied preservation in many groups,notably the trilobites and brachiopods,makes the Guanshan biota a significant fossil lagersttte for understanding the metazoan evolution during Cambrian explosion and taphonomy of the Burgess Shale-type fossils.