WorldWideScience

Sample records for china yunnan interpreted

  1. Wavelet analysis and interpretation of gravity data in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong

    2005-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly data of Sichuan-Yunnan region and its vicinity were analyzed with wavelet transformation method. In the process, complete orthogonal wavelet function system with good symmetry and higher vanishing moment was selected to decompose the gravity anomaly into two parts. With the power spectral analysis on the decomposed anomalies, we interpreted that the two parts of anomalies represent the density variation in upper and middle crust, and in deep crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. The two parts of anomalies indicate the difference between shallow and deep tectonics. The results of shallow-layer apparent density mapping reveal that: a) the crustal density in Sichuan basin is higher than that in Songpan-Garze orogenic zone; b) the density of Kangdian rhombic block is heterogeneous; c) the boundary faults of Kangdian block are of different density features, suggesting different tectonic signification. The results of deep-layer apparent density mapping show a similar,but not the same, density distribution pattern as the shallow results, and indicate that the tectonics of shallow and deep crust are different, they may be in a status of incomplete coupling. Our results also show that the earthquakes in this area are controlled not only by the fracture zones but also by the deep density distribution.

  2. A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province is a hotspot for the research of early hominid evolution and its environmental background. During the implementation of the Program "Research of the Origin and Evolution of Early Man and Its Environmental Background" from 1998 to 2001, a huge quantity of hominoid and mammal fossils were collected. The present report systematically describes an Euprox robustus sp. nov. identified during the recent laboratory work on the collected material. Euprox is a group of earliest cervids with true antlers. The new species is the third one of the genus discovered in China. Judged by its morphologic characteristics, the new species feed on juicy and tender leaves of dicotyledon. It implies that the vegetation of its epoch in the Yuanmou Basin is a kind of southern subtropical evergreen forest and the climate is humid and temperate with evident seasonality. The latter is mostly influenced by the monsoon and secondly by the latitude.

  3. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  4. Ordovician paleomagnetism of eastern Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Wu; Van der Voo, R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Liang, Qizhong (Yunnan Institute of Geological Sciences, Kunming (China))

    1990-06-01

    Three magnetic components have been isolated in Ordovician formations of the Yangtze Paraplatform (South China Block). Two of these (Daqing A and Hongshiya B components) yield paleopoles that conform to the Carboniferous to Triassic segment of the apparent polar wander path for South China, and are therefore interpreted as remagnetizations. The third component (declination/inclination = 301{degree}/+66{degree}, N = 5 sites, k = 21.4, {alpha}{sub 95} = 17{degree}) passes the fold test and is interpreted as primary (late Early Ordovician). The paleopole, at 39{degree}S, 236{degree}E, and the paleolatitude of 48{degree}S support an Ordovician position of South China adjacent to Gondwana.

  5. Development and countermeasures of flower industry in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yunan has attracted great attention from the world for its ideal location, advantaged climatic condition, rich biological resources and cheap labor forces. All these advantaged conditions make Yunnan become one of the most potential places in the world for flower production and trade. In recent wars, more and more foreign companies from different countries have forestalled their facilities in Yunnan, joining in the development process of Yunnan floriculture industry. The flower industry in Yunnan Province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Flower was only planted one hectare output totaled 35,000 yuan, and the planting area of the flower had 17,000ha and the sales volume of the flowers had 6 billion yuan in 2006. Yunnan Province accounts for 50% of the nation's total cut flower production. Yunnan's. flower industry, has become Asia's largest fresh, cut flower production and export base and sprout breeding and production base. And it has stepped into one of the major flesh-cut flower production areas in the world and a modern flower trading center that is leading in China.

  6. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Shi-Hong; WANG Huan-yu; Tang, Qing; Wang, Lin-Fa; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

  7. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao

    2007-01-01

    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  8. Spatial Patterns of Malaria Reported Deaths in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Yan; Hu, Wenbiao; Yang, Henling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yu, Weiwei; Guo, Yuming; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been a heavy social and health burden in the remote and poor areas in southern China. Analyses of malaria epidemic patterns can uncover important features of malaria transmission. This study identified spatial clusters, seasonal patterns, and geographic variations of malaria deaths at a county level in Yunnan, China, during 1991–2010. A discrete Poisson model was used to identify purely spatial clusters of malaria deaths. Logistic regression analysis was performed to detect change...

  9. The upper mantle anisotropy in Yunnan area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮爱国; 王椿镛

    2002-01-01

    Shear wave phase SKS of 11 earthquakes, collected from 23 stations of Yunnan Digital Seismic Network, is analyzed by fitting the theoretical transverse component with the observed one for determining the orientation and extent of polarization seismic anisotropy of upper mantle. Shear wave splitting is obviously observed in all stations except Heqing station (HQ). The results show that the polarization of fast split S-wave of upper mantle in Yunnan area is north-northeast in general and the time delay between fast and slow split shear waves is 0.5~2.0 s. It suggests that the influence of faults upon anisotropy analysis could not be neglected in such a geologically complex area. As the transitional zone between Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and the block of southern China, in Yunnan area the orientation of fast shear wave polarization indicating the subduction of Indian plate into Eurasian plate is the fundamental background of earth dynamics. While the southeast or south-southeast movement of Sichuan-Yunnan rhomb block, formed by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, plays an important role in the composition of complicated structural and stress environment of Yunnan area. The divergence between the fast direction and the movement of upper mantle indicates in Yunnan area there exists complex coupling effect between lower velocity layer or asthenosphere and crustal block. The distribution of structure driving force looks like a palm extending to northeast. According to the time delay between fast and slow split shear waves, it is deduced that the thickness of anisotropy layer is 60~225 km with variation range roughly equal to that of 104~260 km of the buried depth of lower velocity layer of the earth in Yunnan area. So it suggests the top of anisotropy zone starts from the bottom of crust or from the lower velocity layer varying with specific locations related to the tremendous variation of the Moho discontinuity in Yunnan area. Furthermore, it is deduced that the

  10. Evidence for fullerene in a coal of Yunnan, Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two types of coal from a coal mine in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, the presence of fullerene is confirmed. The fullerene had been suggested earlier by its characteristic infrared absorption spectrum. The present work reports verification by a high performance liquid chromatograph. A critical step leading to the confirmation is in the process of preparation of the liquid solution from the coal for chromatography and this is described. Possible conditions for the search of natural fullerenes are suggested. (orig.)

  11. Conifer Woods of the Pliocene Age from Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Mei YI; Cheng-Sen LI; Xiao-Mei JIANG

    2005-01-01

    The Tertiary floras play an integral role in understanding the biodiversity and interactions between climate and vegetation in Yunnan, China. The fossil spores, pollen grains, and leaves in this region have been investiagedintensively. In comparison, the woods have been studied relatively little. A large number of Pliocene wood specimens was collected from the opencast lignite coal mine of Hongxing situated in Changning County of Yunnan Province. Among the collection, Tsuga cf. dumosa (D. Don) Eichler and Pinus cf. armandii Franchet were identified based on wood structures. The subtle feature of tori extensions is reported in the wood of T. cf. dumosa. Considering the climatic requirements of modern T. dumosa and P.armandii, the two species of conifer described from Pliocene sediments probably grew in mountainous terrain at an elevation of approximately 2 300 m, in a cool and humid environment.

  12. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  13. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits of technical sanitation options and programs in Yunnan Province, China, as part of the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) conducted by the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in East Asia. As an underdeveloped province, Yunnan has achieved huge progress in sanitation improvement since the 1990s. Sanitation options evaluated in the stu...

  14. Subjective Well-Being among Those Who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This work explores differences in subjective well-being (SWB) between two samples. Survey data from Yunnan China was collected by Yang and Luo in 2003 and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. A second pilot data set was collected in Thailand during January and February 2007. Predictors of SWB were explored among the Yunnan sample as…

  15. The distinct distribution and phylogenetic characteristics of dengue virus serotypes/genotypes during the 2013 outbreak in Yunnan, China: Phylogenetic characteristics of 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binghui; Yang, Henglin; Feng, Yue; Zhou, Hongning; Dai, Jiejie; Hu, Yunzhang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Baloch, Zulqarnain; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, sporadic imported cases of dengue fever were documented almost every year in Yunnan Province, China. Unexpectedly, a large-scale outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection occurred from August to December 2013, with 1538 documented cases. In the current study, 81 dengue-positive patient samples were collected from Xishuangbanna, the southernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province, and 23 from Dehong, the westernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province. The full-length envelope genes were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine strains (39.1%) and 14 strains (60.9%) from the Dehong prefecture were classified as genotype I of DENV-1 and Asian I genotype of DENV-2, respectively. All strains from Xishuangbanna were identified as genotype II of DENV-3. Bayesian coalescent analysis indicates that the outbreak originated from bordering southeastern Asian countries. These three epidemic genotypes were predicted to originate in Thailand and then migrate into Yunnan through different routes.

  16. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  17. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  18. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  19. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  20. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  1. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QiYue; ZHOU ChangYong; LU Tao; XIE Tao; LOU XiongYing; LIU Wei; SUN YuanYuan; HUANG JinYuan; ZHAO LaiShi

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, Invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Small Towns : An Economic Analysis Conducted in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua; Jie HE; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and treatment service was e...

  3. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  4. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rong Zeng,1–3 Tao Shou,3 Kun-xian Yang,4 Tao Shen,5 Jin-ping Zhang,5 Rong-xia Zuo,5 Yong-qing Zheng,5 Xin-ming Yan5 1Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 3Medical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 4Surgical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 5Institute of Clinical and Basic Medicine Research, The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China Objective: This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods: Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578 and control subjects (n=620 with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD] in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females

  5. Distribution of gamasid mites on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PU LUO; XIAN-GUO GUO; TI-JUN QIAN; DIAN WU; XING-YUAN MEN; WEN-GE DONG

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gamasid mites on the body surface of small mammals wascarried outin Yunnan Province of China from 1990 to 2004. The small mammal hosts werecaptured from 25 counties which represent five geographical subregions, namely MiddleSubregion of Hengduan Mountains, Southern Subregion of Hengduan Mountains, EasternPlateau Subregion of Yunnan, Western Plateau Subregion of Yunnan and Southern Moun-tainous Subregion of Yunnan. The captured 10803 small mammal hosts belong to ninefamilies, 29 genera and 52 species in four orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia andLagomorpha). A total of 68 571 gamasid mites were collected from the body surface of thecaptured small mammal hosts and all the gamasid mites were identified to 10 families, 33genera and 112 species. This paper lists all the mite species, together with their taxonomicposition (genera and families) and their corresponding hosts. Much more mite species werefound in the Middle Subregion of Hengduan Mountains than in other geographical subregions.The total individuals of mites and small mammals in the Middle Subregion of HengduanMountains are also the most plentiful in the five geographical subregions. Three dominantmite species and three dominant small mammal hosts were determined as the dominant. species in the investigated areas of Yunnan Province. The dominant hosts are Rattusflavipectus (which accounts for 34.85 % of the total individuals), Apodemus chevrieri (13.43 %)and Rattus norvegicus (10.40%) while the dominant gamasid mite species are Laelapsnuttalli (Hirst, 1915) (27.84%), Laelaps echidninus (Berlese, 1887) (18.38%) and Laelapsguizhouensis (Gu et Wang, 1981) (14.79%). The results showed the high species diversityof gamasid mites in Yunnan Province and the uneven distribution feature in differentsubregions.

  6. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  7. A New Theropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-chun; Philip J.CURRIE; DONG Zhiming; PAN Shigang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    A new theropod dinosaur,Shidaisaurusjinae gen.et sp.nov.,has been described on the basis of an incomplete skeleton.The specimen was found near the base of the Upper Lufeng Formation(early Middle Jurassic)in Yunnan,China.It is the first theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yunnan.Shidaisaurus jinae is distinguishable from other Jurassic theropods by certain features from the braincase,axis,and pelvic girdle.The absence of any pleurocoels in the axis or in any anterior dorsal vertebrae suggests that the new Lufeng theropod is relatively primitive and more plesiomorphic than most of the Middle to Late Jurassic theropods from China.Most Chinese taxa of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs have not been well described;a further detailed study will be necessary for us to determine their phylogenetic relationships with Shidaisaurus jinae.

  8. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; XIANG, GUANGXIN; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles ...

  9. An investigation of the mathematical elements of the Dai culture south-west Yunnan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-jun, Zhou; Yu-hong, Shen; Qi-xiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Dai ethnic mathematical culture is an important part of Dai ethnic culture. Mathematical elements show in their daily life. Through a research project of the Yunnan Dehong Dai people in southwest China, We collected the first-hand information, tried to do a small investigative study, and collected mathematics teaching resources that is useful to primary and secondary schools students on mathematics learning  in this minority areas. Keyword: Dai ethnic; Mathematical culture; Primary and second...

  10. Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Rijsoort, van, J.G.; Jinfeng, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Recent international forest policies stimulate involvement of communities in forest management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation and the quality of local livelihoods. Increasingly, the role of local people in monitoring forest resources is also acknowledged. This paper presents a participatory resources monitoring (PRM) system developed and implemented by representatives of 12 villages, six each within and adjacent to two nature reserves in Yunnan, China. The short-term objec...

  11. A New Vetulicolian from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Fauna in Yunnan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ailin; FENG Hongzhen; ZHU Maoyan; MA Dongsheng; LI Ming

    2003-01-01

    The genus and species Yuyuanozoon magnificissimi gen. et sp. nov., a new fossil vetulicolian, is reportedfrom the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Fauna in Yunnan of China. It has a bipartite body plan and five pairs of chain-formedgill sacs, showing the general characteristics of Ventulicolia. However, the exclusive "atrial cavity" and external gillobserved indicate that the new form is different from those previously described as vetulicolians, probably representing alineage developed within deuterostomes and more primitive than urochordates.

  12. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhua Bai; Guofa Kang; Guoming Gao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geol...

  13. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  14. Genetic mutations in nonsyndromic deafness patients of Chinese minority and han ethnicities in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Feng; Yuan, Yongyi; Deng, Xiaoming; Han, Mingyu; Wang, Guojian; Zhao, Jiandong; Gao, Xue; Liu, Jun; Yu, Fei; Han, Dongyi; Dai, Pu

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year in China, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment. However, the molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Yunnan Province population where more than 52 minorities live has not been thoroughly investigated. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to these families, we investigated the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in this population. Methods Unrelated students with hearing loss (n = 235) who attended Kunming Huaxia second...

  15. Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Using Needle Exchange Programs in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Morgan M; Zhang FuJie

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth...

  16. Modern tectonic stress field in Southwest Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢富仁; 苏刚; 崔效锋; 舒赛兵; 赵建涛

    2001-01-01

    By means of inversion of fault slip data, the parameters of 20 tectonic stress tensors in Southwest Yunnan region are determined. Compared with the average stress field of the region obtained from focal mechanism solutions, the following characteristics of modern tectonic stress field in this region are obtained. From the west of Zhenyuan- Yingpanshan fault to the south of Longling fault zone, the maximum compressional stress is in NNE direction and the stress regime is mainly of strike-slip type. In Longling fault zone and the area north to it, the direction of maximum compressional stress is near-NS or NNW, the stress regime is of strike-slip type.

  17. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yang, Zushun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yongming; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    Previously, the prevalence of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A in Yunnan was high; and recently Yunnan was the predominant endemic province in China. To identify the molecular epidemiology, antibiotic resistance profile and genotypic diversity of the S. Paratyphi A isolates from 1995 to 2013 in Yunnan, we performed the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to identify the characteristics of the bacterial isolates. The results showed from 1995 to 2013, 366 S. Paratyphi A were isolated: 295 isolates (80.6%) from Yuxi and 68 isolates (18.58%) from Honghe. All of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and some were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in different years. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Identical PFGE with two enzyme digestion patterns were found for 339 isolates. Some environmental isolates in different years were homologous with the strains isolated from food and patients. MLST showed 349 strains were ST85, only 17 isolates were ST129. S. Paratyphi A isolates from Yunnan showed a high similarity, and we found the pathogen isolated from patients, the environment and food had the close epidemiological relationship, forming a transmission circulation. These findings have important implications for paratyphoid-control strategies.

  18. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  19. Prediction of Drought Risk Based on the WRF Model in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is the core region of the drought in the Southwest China, which makes the region become the hot spot in the meteorological research. However, among the various influencing factors of the drought in Yunnan province, the influence of the land use/cover change (LUCC on the drought has not been quantitatively analyzed. The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study. Given the fact that severe drought in Yunnan province is mainly due to much-less-than-normal precipitation and much-warmer-than-normal surface temperature, this study focused on the future spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation, which have great impacts on the drought. Finally, the influencing factors of drought in Yunnan province were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, and the risk of drought was spatially analyzed with the meteorological drought composite index. The results indicate that the large-area forest plays a more important role in alleviating the risk of drought than other vegetation types do. Besides, the changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying the risk of drought.

  20. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  1. The geographic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus among 25 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Hong; (石宏); DONG; Yongli; (董永利); LI; Weixiang; (李卫翔); YANG; Jie; (杨洁); LI; Kaiyuan; (李开源); ZAN; Ruiguang; (昝瑞光); XIAO; Chunjie; (肖春杰)

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus in 25 ethnic groups (33 populations) of China were analyzed in a total of 1294 samples. The average YAP+ frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations. Primi has the highest YAP+ frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP+ among all the eastern Asian populations studied. The YAP+ occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). The other 15 populations are YAP? including Lahu (2 populations), Hani, Achang, Drung, Lisu, Sui, Bouyei, Va, Bulang, Deang, Man and Hui and Mongol of Yunnan and Bai of Hunan. The YAP+ frequencies varied among the different ethnic groups studied, and even different among the same ethnic group living in different geographic locations. Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed.

  2. First evidence of prey capture and meat eating by wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping REN, Dayong LI, Zhijin LIU, Baoguo LI, Fuwen WEI, Ming LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most extant nonhuman primates occasionally prey on fast-moving, warm-blooded animals; however, Indriidae, Lepilemuridae, and Colobinae either scavenged for meat or did not eat meat at all. Here we report six cases of animal consumption by the snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti in a wild, habituated group between 2004 and 2009 in Yunnan, China. At present, only males in an all-male unit within the study group were involved in active hunting. Such a male-biased activity may be related to the group structure and spatial spread of R. bieti. Two females were observed eating freshly killed birds. The findings confirmed that R. bieti engaged in scavenging and, when hunting, employed a cranio-cervical bite to kill their prey. Meat eating is likely a nutrient maximization feeding strategy in R. bieti, especially in males. A begging behavior occurred after successful prey capture. Although begging was observed, no sharing of the meat was seen. The present findings illuminate the dietary diversity of R. bieti and their ability to expand their dietary spectrum [Current Zoology 56 (2 : 227–231, 2010].

  3. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  4. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan Province, southwest China bordering Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an important infectious pathogen causing serious human diarrhea. We analyzed 568 V. cholerae strains isolated from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan province, southwest China bordering Myanmar. Polymerase chain reactions for detecting virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility tests and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. The results showed all the strains were El Tor biotype from 1986. The ctxB subunit sequence analysis for all strains have shown that cholera between 1986 and 1995 was associated with mixed infections with El Tor and El Tor variants, while infections after 1996 were all caused by El Tor variant strains. All of the strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides and quinolone antibiotics while resistant to β-lactamase and carbapenem antibiotics increased gradually. 568 V. cholerae were divided into 218 PFGE-NotI patterns, and the isolates before 2001 and after 2011 were separated into two groups according to PFGE results. The strains isolated before 2001 were mainly referred to native cholera in Yunnan, and after 2011 were primarily referred to as imported strains from Myanmar, which showed the variation of V. cholerae in this area. The molecular characteristics of V. cholerae indicated regularity in bacterial variation and evolution in Yunnan province.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zai-quan; HUANG Xing-qi; YING Fu-you; LI Ding-qing; YU Teng-qiong; FU Jian; YAN Hui-jun; ZHONG Qiao-fang; ZHANG Dun-yu; LI Wei-jiao

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide.Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice.Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice.However,many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years.Therefore,the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preservation and utilization.Our investigations showed that the number of natural wild rice populations declined sharply in Yunnan Province during the past few years due to various reasons.Fortunately,one population of Oryza rufipogon,three of O.officinalis and ten of O.granulata have been newly found in different ecological sites,which were confirmed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker analysis in this study.ISSR analysis and investigation of some important traits of nutritional values indicated that the genetic diversity of the currently existing wild rice resources in Yunnan is still rich.The demonstration of genetic diversity of wild rice by a combined use of geographical distribution,morphological traits,nutrition contents and ISSR markers would be helpful for the conservation and exploration of these important wild rice resources.

  6. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Shou, Tao; Yang, Kun-xian; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Jin-ping; Zuo, Rong-xia; Zheng, Yong-qing; Yan, Xin-ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578) and control subjects (n=620) with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD]) in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females. Conclusion HT was not an independent risk factor for but was associated with PTC. TRAb is a risk factor for PTC in individuals living in the Yunnan plateau, but not for those in the plains region. PMID:27418831

  7. Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-jian LIU; Fu-ming GONG; Xiao-ran LI; Hai-yan LI; Zhong-hua ZHANG; Yue FENG; Hiroko NAGANO

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food,douchi,from Yunnan,China.The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods.Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan,and those strains were divided into twelve groups by their morphological and biochemical characteristics.Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and analysis,56 representative strains were identified as belonging to 6 genera and 14 species:Lactobacillus (4 spp.),Weissella (3 spp.),Pediococcus (2 spp.),Staphylococcus (2 spp.),Enterococcus (1 sp.),and Bacillus (2 spp.).The results show that douchi contains a large natural population of LAB of diverse composition from which some strains could be selected as starters for functional fermented foods.This is the first study on the original douchi from Yunnan,and the results suggest that it may be a useful source for the isolation of LAB.This study has also laid a foundation for further research on developing functional douchi products.

  8. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  9. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE, species-area relationship (SAR, water-energy dynamics (WED, Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP, with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  10. The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Youping; ZHANG; Jie; SONG; Linhua; BAO; Haosheng

    2004-01-01

    Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County,Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms.These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ("algal shape-controlling role") of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10-3m) and minor-scale (10-3-10-1m) erosional forms. The algal shape-controlling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms,while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the "promoting role" of algae in the formation of karst forms,which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms.

  11. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EM) with the distribution of ethnic minorities over the population, based on a sample of 1,464 freshmen from 25 EMs of Yunnan Province in P.R. China. Although this analysis shows that access to HE is equal for some categories of EM students, it is s...

  12. New Record of Palaeoscolecids from the Early Cambrian of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shixue; LI Yong; LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; YOU Ting; PANG Jiyuan; LIU Qi; Michael STEINER

    2008-01-01

    A new palaeoscolecid, Guanduscolex minor Hu, Luo et Fu gen. et sp. nov., with preserved soft parts of introvert and intestines comes from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan fauna of Yunnan,South China. Microstructural details of the cuticle revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)show that each annulation bears three rows of plates and each plate bears 9-10 marginal and 4-5 central nodes. This discovery sheds new light on the relationships and evolutionary pathway of the palaeoscolecids and other early priapulids.

  13. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of the β-globin gene in various geographic populations of Yunnan in southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of β-globin gene mutations in different ethnic groups in Yunnan province.From 2004 to 2014, 1,441 subjects with hemoglobin disorders, identified by PCR-reverse dot blot and DNA sequencing, were studied according to ethnicity and geographic origin. Haplotypes were examined among 41 unrelated thalassemia chromosomes.Eighteen β-thalassemia mutations and seven hemoglobin variants were identified for 1,616 alleles in 22 different ethnic groups from all 16 prefecture-level divisions of Yunnan. The prevalence of β-thalassemia was heterogeneous and regionally specific. CD 41-42 (-TCTT was the most prevalent mutation in the populations of northeastern Yunnan. CD 17 (A>T was the most common mutation in the populations of southeastern Yunnan, especially for the Zhuang minority, whereas Hb E (CD 26, G>A was the most prevalent mutation in populations of southwestern Yunnan, especially for the Dai minority. Among the seven types of haplotypes identified, CD 17 (A>T was mainly linked to haplotype VII (+ - - - - - + and IVS-II-654 (C>T was only linked to haplotype I (+ - - - - + +.Our data underline the heterogeneity of β-globin gene mutations in Yunnan. This distribution of β-globin mutations in the geographic regions and ethnic populations provided a detailed ethnic basis and evolutionary view of humans in southern China, which will be beneficial for genetic counseling and prevention strategies.

  15. [Effects of different ecological conditions on grain quality and RVA profile of japonica rice from Yunnan of China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-hua; Kim, Ki-young; Yuan, Ping-rong; Zhao, Guo-zhen; Su, Zhen-xi; Liao, Xin-hua; Yang, Sea-jun; Dai, Lu-yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taking sixteen japonica rice varieties from Yunnan of China and Korea growing at three locations with different altitudes in Yunnan Plateau as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different ecological conditions on their grain quality, including brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW), length-width ratio (L/W), chalky rate (CR), whiteness (WH), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and alkali digestion value (ADV), and their starch RVA profile, including peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosity (HTV), final viscosity (FLV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistence viscosity( CTV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT). Of all the test parameters, SBV had the largest coefficient of variation. The coefficients of variation of BRL, CR, AC, PC, ADV, FLV, SBV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties were higher than those of Korean varieties, while the BRW, L/W, WH, PKV, HTV, BDV, CTV, and PaT of Korean varieties had higher coefficients of variation than those of Yunnan varieties. With increasing altitude, the BRL, BRW, L/W, WH, AC, ADV, FLV, and CTV of Yunnan varieties, and the BRL, BRW, WH, PC, PKV, HTV and BDV of Korean varieties decreased significantly, while the CR, PC, HTV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties, and the L/W, AC, ADV, SBV and CTV of Korean varieties increased significantly. The CR of Korean varieties had no obvious change. The PKV, BDV, and PaT of Yunnan varieties and the PaT of Korean varieties increased after an initial decrease, whereas the SBV of Yunnan varieties and the FLV and PeT of Korean varieties were in reverse. PMID:20353061

  16. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  17. Skyscraper dams in Yunnan : China's new electricity generator should step in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, G.

    2006-05-12

    The construction of a series of high-head hydroelectric power dams in China's earthquake-prone Yunnan province has raised concerns in China's scientific and environmental communities. The series of skyscraper-high dams are being built to meet Beijing's power production targets without the benefit of market discipline or effective regulatory oversight. Dam building is central to Beijing's plan for tripling the country's hydropower production by 2020. To meet that target, the State Council granted exclusive development rights to Hydrolancang, the Yunnan Huadian Nu River Hydropower Development Company and the Three Gorges Corporation. The Hydrolancang company is building 2 of the world's tallest and most controversial hydro dams on the Lancang River. When completed in 2012, Xiaowan will be the world's tallest arch dam at 292 metres high. Another dam, the 254 metre high Nuozhadu dam is expected to start generating power in 2017. In addition, there are plans for 13 other high dams along the Nu River, one of only 2 major rivers in China that remains free-flowing. This document expressed that China's new electricity regulator should initiate a full-cost review of state dam-building in the earthquake-prone province. It was argued that as state-owned power companies, the dam builders are not market-driven and are shielded from many of the financial risks and environmental liabilities associated with large dams. The author argued that China's electricity regulator should examine the dam builders' projects costs and profits and review the economic implications of the hydro policy for China's power consumers. It was also suggested that the country's modernization goals for the power industry should be reviewed. The immediate concerns are ecological damage and the frequency with which Yunnan province is hit by earthquakes, rock falls and landslides. Experts caution that the extra weight of the high dams and reservoirs

  18. Discoveries of new Longfengshaniaceae from the uppermost Ediacaran in eastern Yunnan, South China and the significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Feng; SONG Xueliang; YIN Chongyu; LIU Pengju; S. M. Awramik; WANG Ziqiang; GAO Linzhi

    2007-01-01

    A morphologically more diverse assemblage of Longfengshaniaceae has been found in the uppermost Ediacaran (Sinian) Jiucheng Member, Yuhucun Formation at Jinning and Jiangchuan, eastern Yunnan, South China. A majority of them are different from the Longfengshania found in the Neoproterozoic Changlongshan Formation, Yanshan Mountain area, North China and the Little Dal Group, North America. They are mainly characterized by a more varied, often thallus-like appearance with no branches, such as oval, pyriform, spindle, shovel, heart, ribbon and balloon shapes, and more sturdy stalk-like projection (stipe) with a smooth connection on the basal part of the thallus. In addition, they appear to have a remarkable attaching organ of lanceolate, shuttle-like or short stem-like structure at the base of the stipe. Six distinct morphological taxa are recognized, including one new genus, two new species and three conformis species. The characteristics of the family and the genus Longfengshania are further discussed in this paper. The new discoveries of these carbonaceous macrofossils identified as Longfengshaniaceae algae on the basis of the diagnostic forms and anastomosis patterns of their thalli and stipes demonstrate that an important evolutionary radiation of metaphytes took place in the last Ediacaran stage. The flourishing of the benthonic thallophytes attached to the substrate from eastern Yunnan and considered to be photosynthetic alga probably provided continuous nutritional habitats for the explosion and diversification of the Early Cambrian "Chengjiang biota".

  19. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Calcite from the World-class Huize Pb-Zn Deposits, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-long; ZHOU Mei-fu; LI Xiao-biao; LI Wen-bo; JIN Zhong-guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ The world-class Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan province, China, is located in the center of the Sichuan-Yun-nan-Guizhou Pb-Zn polymetallic metallogenic province, has Pb+Zn reserves of more than 5 million tons at Pb+Zn grade of higher than 25% and contains abundant metals, such as Ag, Ge, Cd, and Ga.

  20. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  1. RNA-Based Investigation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; DONG, HAILIANG; WANG, Peng; Wang, Fengping; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2010-01-01

    Using RNA-based techniques and hot spring samples collected from Yunnan Province, China, we show that the amoA gene of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea can be transcribed at temperatures higher than 74°C and up to 94°C, suggesting that archaeal nitrification can potentially occur at near boiling temperatures.

  2. The world-class Jinding Zn-Pb deposit: ore formation in an evaporite dome, Lanping Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Song, Yu-Cai; Hou, Zeng-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb sediment-hosted deposit in western Yunnan, China, is the fourth largest Zn deposit in Asia. Based on field observations of the ore textures, breccias, and the sandstone host rocks, the ores formed in a dome that was created by the diapiric migration of evaporites in the Lanping Basin during Paleogene deformation and thrust loading. Most of the ore occurs in sandstones that are interpreted to be a former evaporite glacier containing a mélange of extruded diapiric material, including breccias, fluidized sand, and evaporites that mixed with sediment from a fluvial sandstone system. A pre-ore hydrocarbon and reduced sulfur reservoir formed in the evaporite glacier that became the chemical sink for Zn and Pb in a crustal-derived metalliferous fluid. In stark contrast to previous models, the Jinding deposit does not define a unique class of ore deposits; rather, it should be classified as MVT sub-type hosted in a diapiric environment. Given that Jinding is a world-class ore body, this new interpretation elevates the exploration potential for Zn-Pb deposit in other diapir regions in the world.

  3. Paleomagnetism of the Jianshui basin in Yunnan, SW China, and geomorphological evolution of the Yunnan Plateau since the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianguo; Li, Youli; Zhong, Yuezhi; Si, Supei; Yao, Yifan

    2016-06-01

    There are still a lot of uncertainty on the process of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the response of the Yunnan Plateau in the Cenozoic. In order to have a further understanding on the Yunnan Plateau uplift process, we combine the studies on the sedimentary history of the Jianshui basin and other basins and faults in the Yunnan Plateau. We established magnetostratigraphy for the Wanyao (WY) and Qingyunshuiku (QS) fluviolacustrine sections in the northern and middle parts of the Jianshui basin, which indicates eight reverse magnetozones (R1-R8) and seven normal magnetozones (N1-N7), correlating to Chrons C1r.3r through C3n.2r. The strata are constrained to a span from ∼4.77 to ∼1.73 Ma, representing an early Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The accumulation rate of the WY section has accelerated trend, stopping deposit earlier than the QS section. The stratigraphic characteristics of the two sections and their nearby regions indicate the Shiping-Jianshui (SJ) and Xiaojiang faults have already existed and affected the accumulation of the basin at least since the early Pliocene. According to the history of faults activities and the sedimentary strata of basins, we established the geomorphological evolution process of the Yunnan Plateau since the Neogene.

  4. Strategic studies on the biodiversity sustainability in Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ying-shan; Zhang Zhi-yi; Pu Li-na

    2007-01-01

    With an area of 394,000 km2 (4.1% of China's total area) and specific diversified geographical environments, Yunnan houses over 18,000 species of higher plants (51.6% of China's total), 1,836 vertebrate species (54.8% of China's total) and multitudinous species of rare, endemic and epibiotic wildlife, ranking first in species richness value and endemicity rate of China's biodiversity, thus becoming a rare gene bank of wildlife species with the most concentrated distribution of important wildlife taxa and a key terrestrial biodiversity region of global significance. Despite its evident abundance and endemism, however, the biodiversity is faced with threats of ecological fragility and human disturbances in socioeconomic development resulting in attenuation of biodiversity,degradation of ecosystems and serious loss of species, thus, it needs to be carefully studied for its sustainability. Based on the analyses of the geographical diversity, the macro material bases of Yunnan's biodiversity were reviewed and six characteristics of the provincial biodiversity were described in the ecosystems, forest types, species compositions, endemic species, genetic resources, etc. By appraising the present status of the provincial biodiversity conservation, the facts that the biodiversity coexisted with fragility were revealed so that eight key disadvantageous factors in the provincial ecological fragility causing serious biodiversity loss were summarized and described in this paper. In order to satisfy the two-fold needs of biodiversity sustainability and socioeconomic development, eight strategies for the sustainable development were intensively elaborated by borrowing certain theories in modem conservation biology, recycling economics and some successful innovations, and by giving comprehensive consideration to the ecological fragility mechanism, nature reserve construction, environmental protection and the exploitability of resources for biodiversity sustainability and

  5. Musa chunii Hakkinen, a new species (Musaceae) from Yunnan,China and taxonomic identity of Musa rubra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku H(A)KKINEN

    2009-01-01

    The center of diversity of the genus Musa (Musaceae) is in Southeast Asia, a region not studied in detail and where new species and varieties continue to be reported. A new wild banana species, M. chunii Hakki-nen from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated based on observed morphological characteristics in the field. This extremely rare new species was only found in Tongbiguan Nature Reserve, Dehong District, West Yunnan. A key to M. chunii and related taxa is provided. In addition, critical notes regarding M. rubra Kurz identity are given.

  6. A preliminary analysis of the formation of travertine and travertine cones in the Jifei hot spring, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaping; Zhou, Xun; Fang, Bin; ZHOU, HAIYAN; Yamanaka, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    The Jifei hot spring emerges in the form of a spring group in the Tibet–Yunnan geothermal zone, southwest of Yunnan Province, China. The temperatures of spring waters range from 35 to 81°C and are mainly of HCO3–Na·Ca type. The total discharge of the hot spring is about 10 L/s. The spring is characterized by its huge travertine terrace with an area of about 4,000 m2 and as many as 18 travertine cones of different sizes. The tallest travertine cone is as high as 7.1 m. The travertine formation...

  7. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jihua; Yunsheng ZHANG; Li, Yun; Guoqing YIN; Li, Yuebing; Bofu NING; Jiamin GUO

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report ...

  8. Extreme Drought-induced Trend Changes in MODIS EVI Time Series in Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme climatic events triggered by global climate change are expected to increase significantly hence research into vegetation response is crucial to evaluate environmental risk. Yunnan province, locating in southwest China, experienced an extreme drought event (from autumn of 2009 to spring of 2010), with the lowest percentage rainfall anomaly and the longest non-rain days in the past 50 years. This study aimed to explore the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of four land cover types in Yunnan province, including forest, grassland, shrub, and cropland during the period 2001-2011. We used remote sensing data, MODIS-derived EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to study the vegetation responses to this extreme drought event. The EVI time series were decomposed into trend, seasonal and remainder components using BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) which accounts for seasonality and enables the detection of trend changes within the time series. The preliminary results showed that: (1) BFAST proved to be capable of detecting drought-induced trend changes in EVI time series. (2) Changes in the trend component over time consisted of both gradual and abrupt changes. (3) Different spatial patterns were found for abrupt and gradual changes. (4) Cropland exhibited an abrupt change, due to its sensitivity to severe drought, while the forest seemed least affected by the extreme drought

  9. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  10. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs.

  11. Long Term Atmospheric and Erosional Pollution As Recorded in Lake Sediments from Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.; Bain, D.; Chiou-Peng, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities including agriculture, metallurgy (e.g. mining, processing, smelting), and deforestation have altered cycles of erosion and sedimentation in lake environments for thousands of years. In the Yunnan province of southwestern China, where written records are incomplete, it is unclear when, where, and how much disturbance occurred. Lake sediments offer a means to investigate a wide variety of human activities. Here, we present a lake sediment record from Erhai (25°43'N, 100°12'E) based on trace metal concentrations that reveals substantial atmospheric and erosional pollution to the lake environment over the last 4,000 years. Sediments indicate the initiation of copper-based metallurgy at 3,600 years BP, the existence of which has been debated amongst archaeologists. Beginning 2,000 years BP, sedimentation rates increase and concentrations of metals such as aluminum, titanium, lead, and zinc increase. This is likely linked to increased sediment flux to the lake associated with the initiation of terraced agriculture according to historical documents. The most prominent feature of the record is an abrupt and intense increase in lead, silver, cadmium, and zinc beginning at 700 years BP. The peak of this increase occurs at 600 years BP and is consistent with historical records that the Mongols established the first government operated silver mine in Yunnan. Notably, the concentrations of lead during this time are an order of magnitude greater than modern day levels of pollution.

  12. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed.

  13. Correlation of Tectono-Stratigraphic Units in Northern Thailand with Those of Western Yunnan (China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A tentative correlation scheme for the tectono-stratigraphic units of Northern Thailand and those of Western Yunnsn (China) is proposed. We point out that a correlation between the Changning-Menglian belt in Western Yunnan and the Nan-Uttaradit zone in Northern Thailand (or and a "cryptic suture" in the Chiang Rai-Chiang Mai region) is unlikely, for it would demand a "suture" which cuts across a zone with high-grade metamorphics and granite intrusions (Doi lnthanon-Lincang unit).Therefore, the northern continuation of the Lampang region is situated in the Simao region of Yunnan,as indicated by a very similar development during Permian and Triassic (Lampang-Yunxian unit). The Nan-Uttaradit zone is considered to be the easternmost part of this unit, and its northern continuation should be traceable via Luang Prabang in Laos into the southeastern parts of the Simao basin. Here,however, outcrops of this unit have not yet been found. The same is the case with the Phetchabun unit which follows to the east. Both units are probably hidden under a thick cover of Mesozoic red beds. The whole region was characterized by a highly mobile tectonic development with alternating phases of compressional and extensional deformation.

  14. Eocrinoid echinoderms from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Fauna in Wuding, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShiXue; LUO HuiLin; HOU ShuGuang; Bernd-Dietrich ERDTMANN

    2007-01-01

    This is a brief report of a new occurrence of eocrinoids from the Early Cambrian Wulongqing Formation in Yunnan, China. The eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna are among the earliest known eocrinoids. Different from many other Early and Middle Cambrian eocrinoids, the Guanshan eocrinoids are characterized by the absence of sutural pores and epispires, the long and spiral brachioles, the extremely long stalk, and the ratio of the length of the stalk versus that of the calyx. The discovery of the eocrinoids from the Guanshan fauna not only provides new information to the investigation of the early evolution of this animal group, but also shed new light on the occurrence and migration of early eocrinoids.

  15. Empirical assessment of debris flow risk on a regional scale in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Yue, Zhong Qi; Tham, Lesliw George; Lee, Chack Fan

    2002-08-01

    Adopting the definition suggested by the United Nations, a risk model for regional debris flow assessment is presented. Risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for evaluation. A Multiple-Factor Composite Assessment Model is developed for quantifying regional debris flow hazard by taking into account eight variables that contribute to debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. Vulnerability is a measure of the potential total losses. On a regional scale, it can be measured by the fixed asset, gross domestic product, land resources, population density, as well as the age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants. A nonlinear power-function assessment model that accounts for these indexes is developed. As a case study, the model is applied to compute the hazard, vulnerability and risk for each prefecture of the Yunnan province in southwestern China. PMID:12105765

  16. Yummy Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ People everywhere remember food that was made for them by loved ones,a friend once told. "Often the meal is simple,served without pretense.I discovered this caf6 one day because,as I walked by,it smelled like my grandmother's kitchen:an aroma of lime,garlic,and ginger tantalized my nose,"sald Mei Mei,my Chinese friend from southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  17. Tibet and China: The Interpretation of History Since 1950

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the way Tibet’s history and its relations with China have been interpreted and described in China since 1950. While China has long claimed that Tibet became part of China in the thirteenth century under the Yuan Dynasty, much evidence shows that this interpretation is a twentieth century construction. A more assertive Chinese position holds that historical China consists of the territory of the Qing Dynasty at its height, and that all within those boundaries have been un...

  18. Permian oolitic carbonates from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, and their paleoclimatic and paleogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Jin, Xiaochi; Li, Fei; Shen, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Marine carbonate ooids are environment—sensitive and hence valuable for paleoclimatic and paleogeographic reconstructions. This paper describes Permian ooids from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, in order to offer a new means to refine the uncertain paleogeographic details of this Gondwana-derived block. Four major types of ooids (micritic ooids, compound ooids, leached ooids and half-moon ooids) are documented from the Hewanjie Formation in the northern and the Shazipo Formation in the southern Baoshan Block. These ooids are dated via biostratigraphic analysis to be Wordian-early Wuchiapingian and signify an ameliorated shallow-marine temperature for the Guadalupian strata of the Baoshan Block. Results of this study, coupled with literature data, reveal diachronous debut of Permian ooids among the Gondwana-derived blocks: mostly Sakmarian in Central Taurides of Turkey, Central Iran, Central Pamir and Karakorum Block versus Wordian-Capitanian in Baoshan Block, Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang. In contrast, Asselian-Sakmarian strata of Baoshan Block as well as Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang are characterized by glaciomarine diamictites. These observations suggest that the Baoshan Block was probably situated at a considerably higher paleolatitude under distinct influence of Gondwana glaciation during the Asselian-Sakmarian than those blocks yielding Sakmarian ooids. Moreover, marine ooids are virtually absent nearby the equator within the Permian Tethys, similar to the modern situation. The Baoshan Block is accordingly interpreted to drift to warm-water southern mid-latitudes during the Wordian-Capitanian and remain to the south of Central Iran, Karakorum Block and South China, which were equatorially located in the Capitanian.

  19. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-01-01

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking “Golden triangle” and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong. PMID:27657722

  20. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  1. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  2. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  3. The Distribution of DEN Infected People in Dushan and Xingyi Area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu; Li Zuo; Yongbing Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DEN, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) are mosquito borne and have caused 100 million cases of dengue fever each year in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. However, in the Southwest area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China, the previous work demonstrated that different geographic strains of Aedes albopictus were susceptible to dengue virus. In this study, we collected 456 sera samples from patients with fever and 994 sera samples from healthy population in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. All sera samples were tested for dengue IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients' sera samples were tested for dengue IgM and DEN antigen was checked in the sera of 6 from 456 samples with which C6/36 cell in culated by IFA. The results indicate that these patients with fever were infected with DEN-2 and suggest that DEN infection had existed in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

  4. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang

    2016-08-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011-2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China-Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  5. Two Zosterophyll Plants from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovian)Xitun Formation of Northeastern Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinzhuang

    2009-01-01

    Two zosterophyll plants are described from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovianl Xitun Formation of Qujing,Yunnan,China.Xitunia spinitheca gen.et sp.nov.has stalked sporangia laterally attached on the axis in a helical arrangement.Sporangia are dorsoventrally flattened and composed of two unequal valves;the adaxial valve is round in face view,while the abaxial valve is larger than the former,triangular or wedge-shaped,and radially bears long spiny appendages along the distal margin.Xitunia shows new variation of sporangial morphology within the zosterophylls.Zosterophyllum minorstachynm sp.nov.has K-shaped branchings at the basal parts and small-sized terminal spikes,which consist of round to elliptical sporangia arranged helically.This paper provides new data on the diversity of plant types during Lochkovian when rare vascular plants were reported.As for various species of Zosterophyllum in South China,their apparent evolutionary trend of features from the Late Silurian to Early Devonian (Emsian) is discussed.

  6. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yao Hu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of N. nabanhensis sp. n. and N. caoi sp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given.

  7. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of Nazeris nabanhensissp. n. and Nazeris caoisp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given. PMID:21594163

  8. Three new species of Potamothrix (Oligochaeta, Naididae, Tubificinae from Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Cui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae, P. praeprostatus sp. n., P. paramoldaviensis sp. n. and P. parabedoti sp. n., are reported from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. P. praeprostatus differs from its allies by its prostate glands joining atria in its proximal to middle portion, and spermathecal chaetae. P. paramoldaviensis is distinguishable from its allies bypenial chaeta but no penes, and differs from P. moldaviensis by its homogenous atrium. P. parabedoti is distinctive in the position of its reproductive organs, and differs from P. bedoti by its homogenous atrium. Hitherto, 34 freshwater oligochaete species have been recorded in Yunnan Province, including nine endemic species from the plateau lakes.

  9. Three new species of Potamothrix (Oligochaeta, Naididae, Tubificinae) from Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongde; Wang, Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae), Potamothrix praeprostatussp. n., Potamothrix paramoldaviensissp. n. and Potamothrix parabedotisp. n., are reported from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Potamothrix praeprostatusdiffers from its allies by its prostate glands joining atria in its proximal to middle portion, and spermathecal chaetae. Potamothrix paramoldaviensis is distinguishable from its allies by having penial chaeta but no penes, and differs from Potamothrix moldaviensisby its homogenous atrium. Potamothrix parabedoti is distinctive in the position of its reproductive organs, and differs from Potamothrix bedoti by its homogenous atrium. Hitherto, 34 freshwater oligochaete species have been recorded in Yunnan Province, including nine endemic species from the plateau lakes. PMID:22451787

  10. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  11. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  12. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology.

  13. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  14. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  15. Factors Influencing Runoff P Losses from Farmlands of the Dianchi Lake Watershed in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai-Ming; YU Yang; HONG Bo; CHEN Jian-Jun; ZHANG Yu-Juan

    2004-01-01

    Effects of factors such as slope,surface soil texture,fertilization and crop cover with different rainfall intensities on phosphorus (P) losses in farmland runoff of the Dianchi Lake Watershed in Yunnan Province of China were studied through a rainfall simulation test using a red soil,one of the most widely distributed soils of the study area. Results showed that the runoff concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and P losses differed with the slope,being highest when the slope was 18°. At two different rainfall intensities,the runoff TP and P losses had a similar decreasing trend as the surface soil texture became coarser,therefore applying the grit would decrease P in runoff from soils of farmland on slopes with heavier textures. With wheat as a crop cover the runoff TP concentrations and P losses were significantly lower than those of the bare soil. This showed that plant cover would greatly decrease P in runoff from the farmland of the study area. The TP concentration in runoff from the soil two days after fertilization doubled when compared with that from the non-fertilized soil,indicating that fertilization could mean a dramatic rise in P runoff if irrigation or heavy rainfall occurred immediately after application and that no fertilization before a rain and no irrigation immediately after fertilization would reduce runoff P loss from the farmland of the study area.

  16. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  17. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in bats from Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cao, Lili; He, Biao; Li, Jiping; Hu, Tingsong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Fan, Quanshui; Tu, Changchun; Liu, Quan

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in bats. A total of 247 bats, belonging to Rhinolophus sinicus , Rousettus leschenaultia, Aselliscus stoliczkanus , and Hipposideros fulvus , were collected in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and the intestinal tissues were examined for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). The overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% CI, 4.5 to 11.0%), with R. sinicus having the highest level at 9.5% (95% CI, 2.8 to 16.1%) followed by A. stoliczkanus at 7.8% (95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9%), H. fulvus at 7.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.4%), and R. leschenaultia at 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 15.7%). DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA revealed the presence of 2 novel genotypes, designated as Cryptosporidium bat genotype I in A. stoliczkanus and R. sinicus and Cryptosporidium bat genotype II in R. leschenaultia, R. sinicus , and H. fulvus . This is the first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in bats. Further biological and genetic characterization is needed to determine the relationship of the 2 novel genotypes to established Cryptosporidium species-genotypes. PMID:23886252

  18. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  19. On Geodynamic Evolution of Simao Region (Southwestern Yunnan, China) during Late Paleozoic and Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over the last years, the Simao region, southwestern Yunnan, China, turned out to be a very promising target to elucidate plate-tectonic processes around the Permian-Triassic boundary within the Tethyan domain of Asia. New data from this area reveal that Upper Paleozoic compressional deformations occurred along the Lancangjiang and in areas to the east. Along Lancangjiang, an angular unconformity is exposed, which separates quartz-phyllites-formed during a Carboniferous tectono-metamorphic event-from Triassic red beds to roofing rhyolites. The acidic volcanics were often said to be remnants of a volcanic arc that was active during the Triassic subduction and closure of an oceanic realm along the Lancangjiang zone. According to our new data, however, these volcanics indicate most probably an Upper Triassic stage of rifting. In the Yunxian anticline (NW of Simao), an angular unconformity of intra-Permian age is exposed where Carboniferous to lower Middle Permian strata, which were deposited in a rather deep basin, are unconformably overlain by a shallow marine sequence of upper Middle to Upper Permian sediments. The angular unconformity is of the same age as the syn-orogenous sediments filst described and dated from the Phetchabun region in Thailand and hence a convincing argument for a Late Variscan orogeny forming an extensive zone of mountain-building that can be traced through the central parts of mainland Southeast-Asia.``

  20. Platinum and Palladium in Coal Rock and Geochemical Anomaly in Eastern Yunnan Province,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Yongqing; Zhang Shengyuan

    2008-01-01

    A series of geochemical anomalies of Pt and Pd were found in 1 358 recombined samples from a geochemical stream sediment survey in eastern Yunnan (云南) Province, China. Chemical optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and inductively coupled plasmas atomic emission spectrometry analyses of 22 elements and chemical compositions of 21 samples from coal-bearing strata from the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic show Pt and Pd concentrated to some extent in coal rocks, with Pd/Pt

  1. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  2. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gkarlaouni Ch; Papadimitriou E E; Karakostas V G; WEN Xue-ze; JIN Xue-shen; Kilias A; PAN Hua; YANG Jia-liang

    2008-01-01

    Coulomb stress changes associated with the strong earthquakes that occurred since 1904 in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China are investigated. The study area comprises the most active seismic fault zones in the Chinese mainland and suffers from both strong and frequent events. The tectonic regime of this rhombic-shaped area is affected by the eastern extrusion of the Tibetan highland due to the collision of Eurasian Plate against the Indian lithospherie block along the Himalayan convergent zone. This movement is accommodated on major strike-slip intraplate fault zones that strike in an E-W direction. The gradual 90° clockwise rotation of the faults in the study area contributes to the complexity of the stress field. The seismic hazard assessment in this region is attempted by calculating the change of the Coulomb Failure Function (ACFF) arising from both the coseismic slip of strong events (Ms≥6.5) and the stress built-up by continuous tectonic loading on major regional faults. At every step of the stress evolutionary model an examination of possible triggering of each next strong event is made and the model finally puts in evidence the fault segments that apt to fail in an impending strong event, thus providing fu- ture seismic hazard evaluation.

  3. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  4. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-02-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  5. The Full-length Genome Analysis of a Street Rabies Virus Strain Isolated in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Hai-lin Zhang; Xiao-yan Tao; Hao Li; Qing Tang; Xiu-yun Jiang; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of rabies has rapidly increased and expanded in Yunnan province in recent years.In order to further analyze and understand the etiological reasons for the rapid expansion of rabies in Yunnan,a strain of rabies virus CYN1009D in Yunnan was isolated,and the complete genomic sequencing was carried out,and the bioimfomative analysis on genes/encoded proteins and phylogeny with reference to sequences in GenBank was performed.The complete genome of CYN1009D was 11923 nt in length and belonged to genotype I.The genes encoding different structural proteins were all conserved in their lengths,in comparison to other strains in China.The amino acid sequence was conserved at different antigen sites of NP,but the variation was detected at the secondary phosphorylation site of position 375; variations were also detected in the phosphorylation sites at positions 63-63 and 162 of PP; the sites playing important roles in virus synthesis,budding and viral morphology in MP were conserved; two glycosylation sites were detected at Asn37 and Asn319in GP,the neutralizing antigen sites in GP were conserved; the initial amino acid of LP (ML) was different from that of most of the strains in China (MM); the variations in G-L region in the intergenic region were significant.The phylogenic tree showed that CYN1009D has a closer genetic relationship to the strains in Southeast Asia,indicating that prevention and control on rabies in borderland areas should be reinforced meanwhile efforts are made to control rabies in China.

  6. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Qiyan Feng; Ruoyu Sun; Guijian Liu

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-...

  7. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  8. Association of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet with the Southwest Asian summer monsoon: A diagnostic analysis on heavy rain events in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Yunnan province, China is a typical area that is influenced by Southwest Asian summer monsoon (SASM) during boreal summer. Although the interannual variation of summer precipitation in Yunnan Province is closely related to that of the SASM, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) may have an important role in heavy rainfall events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. By using daily observations and the NACAR/NCEP data during 1960-2011, a diagnostic analysis is performed to investigate the association of the EASWJ with the SASM on heavy rain events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. The analysis shows an anomalous divergence circulation pattern at upper level (200 hPa) over Eurasian continent that corresponds well to the negative anomaly of EASWJ during heavy rain events in boreal summer in Yunnan Province. At the same time, a low-level jet stream with abundant water vapor originated from the Arabian Sea and Bengal gulf provides necessarily dynamic and water conditions for heavy rain mechanism. The study further shows that the weakening of the EASWJ during heavy rain events in Yunnan Province is associated with the decrease in the meridional temperature gradient in northern mid-latitude (30o-40o N).

  9. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  10. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART eligibility. In China, flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas. In an attempt to address this issue, we conducted a study to validate the performance of Alere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer. Methods: Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province. Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer. Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference. Results: Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis. CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood. Compared to FACSCalibur, the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of − 47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement, [LOA]: −204-110 cells/μl for venous blood and −71.0 cells/μl (LOA: −295-153 cells/μl for finger-prick blood. For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl, the positive predictive value (PPV of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood, respectively. For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl, the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%, respectively. Conclusions: CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  11. Giant Mineral Deposits and Their Geodynamic Setting in the Lanping Basin, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunji; LIU Shuwen; CHEN Yuchuan; ZENG Rong; ZHAO Shihua

    2004-01-01

    There are giant mineral deposits, including the Jinding Zn-Pb and Baiyangping Ag-Co-Cu, and other important mineral deposits (e.g., Baiyangchang Ag-Cu, Jinman Cu deposits, etc.) in the Lanping Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin, Yunnan Province, China. The tabular ore-bodies and some veins hosted in terrestrial clastic rocks of the MesozoicCenozoic age and no outcropping of igneous rocks in the giant deposits lead to the proposal of syngenetic origin, but the giant mineral deposits are not stratabound (e.g. MVT, sandstone- and Sedex-type). They formed in a continental red basin with intense crust movement. The mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology and occurs in different strata,and no sedimentary nature and no exhalative sediments are identified in the deposits. The deposits show some relations with organic matter (now asphalt and petroleum) and evaporates (gypsum). The middle-low-temperature (mainly 110℃ to 280℃) mineralization took place at a depth of about 0.9 km to 3.1 km during the early Himalayan (58 to 67 Ma). The salinity of ore-forming fluids is surprisingly low (1.6% to 18.0 wt% (NaCl)eq). Affected by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, the mantle is disturbed under the Lanping Basin. The large-scale mineralization is closely linked with the geodynamics of the crust movement, the mantle and mantle-flux upwelling and igneous activity. Giant mineral deposits and their geodynamic setting are unique in the Lanping Basin.

  12. Investment Guide to Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile I.Geographic situation and administrative area division Yunnan Province is located on the southwest boundary of the People's Republic of China, spanning approximately 394,000 square kilometers, which accounts for 4.1% of the total area of China.

  13. Mosaics of Change: Cross-Scale Forest Cover Dynamics and Drivers in Tibetan Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon

    In reaction to devastating floods on the Yangtze River in the summer of 1998, the Chinese Central Government introduced a logging ban as part of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) with the goal of dramatically increasing national forest cover. Since then, over 11 billion USD has been allocated to the program, but the NFPP's success at promoting reforestation is unclear as neither the extent of forest cover change, nor the potential factors influencing the spatial variability of change have been examined. This research employs a case study in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China, to evaluate the spatial variability of forest cover change under the NFPP and investigate drivers that have influenced recent patterns of change. I employ a mixed methods, cross-scale research framework that includes the analysis of areal trajectories and spatial variability of Landsat-5 imagery-derived forest cover change at three administrative levels before and after the NFPP's introduction; landscape ecology-based metrics to measure the shifting patterns of forest cover change at the patch level; and household interview data on village-level forest resource use patterns and processes in three neighboring villages. Prefecture- and county-level analyses suggest rather stable forest cover across the three-county study area since the introduction of the ban, though township-level measures of forest cover change show a degree of spatial variability as well as a temporal delay in policy implementation effectiveness. Village-level remote sensing analysis shows comparable amounts of forest cover change between study villages but disparate forest resource use patterns in terms of location and amount. Though all research villages continue to exploit local forests for firewood and timber relatively unfettered by policy restrictions, villagers with tourism-derived income are able to buy forest products collected in outside forests much more often; this redistributes local

  14. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 ( M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, and Trichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment.

  16. Infections with Sarcococystis wenzeli are prevalent in the chickens of Yunnan Province, China, but rare or absent from the flocks of domesticated pigeons and ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution and prevalence of infections with species of Sarcocystis in domestic fowl in Asia are poorly known. Here, ducks, pigeons, and chickens from Yunnan Province, China were examined for evidence of parasitic infection with Sarcocystis spp. One hundred ninety one chickens, 514 ducks, and...

  17. Distribution and development strategy for Jatropha curcas L. in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kun; Yang Wen-yun; Li Li; Zhang Chun-hua; Cui Yong-zhong; Sun Yong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the main distributing area of Jatropha curcas L. This plant is abundant in several drainage areas of the dry-hot, dry-warm and sub-humid valleys in the south subtropical area of Yunnan Province. The seeds that were picked from trees blossoming between April and May and fructifying between September and October will have large seed yield and fine quality. For developing bio-diesel stock forest of J. curcas in areas with adaptive climate, seeding measures for afforestation should be taken and techniques on breeding, fast-growing, and high-yielding plantation cultivation are very important.

  18. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  19. Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-care CD4 Analyzer in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang; Song Duan; Yan-Ling Ma; Ji-Bao Wang; Ying-Zhen Su; Hui Zhang; Chin-Yih Qu

    2015-01-01

    Background:CD4 count is used to determine antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility.In China,flow cytometers are mostly located in urban areas with limited access by patients residing in remote areas.In an attempt to address this issue,we conducted a study to validate the performance ofAlere PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer.Methods:Venous and finger-prick blood specimens were collected from HIV-positive participants from two voluntary counseling and testing sites in Yunnan Province.Both venous and finger-prick blood specimens were tested with the PIMA analyzer.Venous blood specimens tested with the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur were used as a reference.Results:Venous specimens from 396 and finger-prick specimens from 387 persons were available for analysis.CD4 counts by PIMA correlated well with those from FACSCalibur with an R2 of 0.91 for venous blood and 0.81 for finger-prick blood.Compared to FACSCalibur,the PIMA analyzer yielded lower counts with a mean bias of-47.0 cells/μl (limit of agreement,[LOA]:-204-110 cells/μl) for venous blood and-71.0 cells/μl (LOA:-295-153 cells/μ1) for finger-prick blood.For a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/μl,the positive predictive value (PPV) of PIMA was 84.2% and 75.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% and 95.8% for venous and finger-prick blood,respectively.For an ART threshold of 500 cells/μl,the corresponding PPV was 90.3% and 84.0% and NPV was 94.3% and 93.4%,respectively.Conclusions:CD4 counting using venous blood with PIMA analyzers is a feasible alternative to a large flow cytometer to determine ART eligibility.

  20. Vertical characteristics of the Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoshan CUI; Zheyuan YOU; Min YAO

    2008-01-01

    The Hani terrace paddyfield in Yunnan Province,China is categorized as a 'constructed wetland' under the Lamsar Convention classification.The Hani terrace paddyfield ranges from an altitude of 144 to 2000 m above sea level (ASL) in the southern slopes of the Ailao Mountains,angling down at a range of 15°to 75°.In this study,we investigated the ecosystem of the terrace paddyfields in the Mengpin and Quanfuzhuang administrative villages located at the center of the cultural heritage conservation district in the Hani terrace paddy-field.The Hani terrace paddyfield ecosystem structure is "forest-village-terrace paddyfield-river" in the order of descending altitude.Soil and water samples were sequen-tially taken from forests,villages and the terrace paddy-fields to be able to study the vertical characteristics of Hani's terrace paddyfields.PO4-P and NH3-N in water were measured to test for water contamination.Seven soil nutrient factors were tested,including organic material (OM),char and nitrogen ratio (C/N),pH,total nitrogen (TN),total phosphorus (TP),available phosphorus (AP),and available potassium (AK).Soil quality was also eval-uated using the characteristics of the soil nutrient factors.Vertical changes in the landscape,wetland types,wetland plants,hydrology and soil nutrients were characterized.Results showed that:(1) Hani's terrace paddyfield can be divided into five types of wetlands; the rice varieties and cultivation patterns vary in each type of wetland.(2) Hani's terrace paddyfield has a great capacity for water conservation and a strong ability to purify contaminants.The impoundage of Hani's terrace paddyfield is about 5050 m3/hm2.Contaminants in the terrace paddyfield soils decrease exponentially with the decline in altitude.(3) Comparison of soil quality in five different land use types indicates decreasing soil quality from forest to ter-race land to terrace paddyfield to water source.Except for headwater soil,single factors such as OM,TN and TP

  1. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-zhen; LIU Ji-xin; YANG Sea-jun; YEA Jong-doo; LIAO Xin-hua; SU Zhen-xi; SHI Rong; JIANG Cong; DAI Lu-yuan

    2009-01-01

    The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  2. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  3. Method for Evaluating the Degrees of Land Use Sustainability of Mountainous County and its Application in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; TAO Wenxing; XU Jingjing; ZHAO Qiaogui

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of sustainable land use is the key issue in the field of studying the sustainable land utilization. In general analysis, the sustainable land use is evaluated respectively from its ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability in China and other countries in recent years. Although this evaluation is an important work, it seems insufficient and hard to comprehensively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability. Thus, to make up this deficiency, this paper brings forward the evaluation indexes, which make it possible to quantitatively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability, namely, the concept of "degrees of overall land use sustainability" (Dos), and research and development of the method of measurement and calculation in Dos. Taking the evaluation of the degree of land use sustainability in county regions of Yunnan Province as the actual example for analysis, results are basically as follows: 1) The degree of land use sustainability (Dos) is the ration index to organically and systematically integrate the degree of ecological friendliness (DEF), the degree of economic viability (DEV) and the degree of social acceptability (DSA), able to comprehensively reflect the whole sustainability degree of regional land use. 2) Based on the value of Dos, the grading system and standard for the sustainability of land use may be established and totally divided into five grades, namely, the high-degree sustainability, middle-degree sustainability, low-degree sustainabflity, conditional sustainability and non-sustainability. Meanwhile, the standard for distinguishing sustainability grades has also been confirmed so as to determine the nature of sustainability degrees in different grades. This makes the possibility for the combination of nature determination with ration in research result and provides with the scientific guideline and decision-making gist for better implementation of sustainable land use strategy.3

  4. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  5. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  6. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei

    2007-01-01

    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  7. Planar Velocity Distribution of Viscous Debris Flow at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China: A Field Measurement Using Two Radar Velocimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xudong; WANG Guangqian; KANG Zhicheng; FEI Xiangjun

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow were analyzed using the measured data at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China. The velocity data were measured through using two radar velocimeters. The cross-sectional mean velocities were calculated and used to examine Kang et al's (2004) relationship, which was established for converting the flow velocity at river centerline measured by a radar velocimeter into the mean velocity based on the stop-watch method. The velocity coefficient, K, defined by the ratio of the mean velocity to the maximum velocity, ranges from 0.2 to 0.6. Kang et al's (2004) relationship was found being inapplicable to flows with K smaller than 0.43. This paper contributes to show the complexity of the planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flows and the applicability of Kang et al's relationship.

  8. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  9. Isotopic dating of the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon in Central Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty black shale samples, which are free from the influence of weathering, were collected from the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon, central Yunnan Province, yielding a Pb-Pb isochron age of 534±60 Ma. Although this age is younger than both the Rb-Sr isochron age and 40Ar-39Ar age, it should represent the lower isotopic age limit of the Chengjiang Fauna.

  10. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  11. An Evaluation of the Introduction of Modified Cropping Practices in Yunnan Province, China, Using Surveys of Farmers' Households

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Subedi; T J Hocking; M A Fullen; A R McCrea; E Milne; D J Mitchell; WU go-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with land degradation are serious in China. Sloping land in South China has experienced a decline in crop productivity by 30-60% due to soil erosion and it has been predicted that most topsoil will be lost within the next 100 years if current erosion rates continue. Considering these situations, an agro-environmental research and development project (Sustainable Highland Agriculture in South-East Asia - SHASEA) was conducted in a catchment in Yunnan Province, China, to address the objectives of increasing crop productivity in sustainable and environmentally-friendly ways. A range of cropping practices was developed and implemented in a rural upland catchment (Wang Jia). At the end of the project, farmers were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. All farmers from Wang Jia Catchment, who were involved in project implementation, were surveyed. A sample of farmers working in an adjacent catchment (not associated with the project) was surveyed for comparative purposes. Farmers had different perceptions of the cropping practices employed. Contour cultivation was preferred and likely to be adopted. Others practices such as straw mulching and intercropping were seen as less appropriate and unlikely to be adopted. Polythene mulch was recognized as effective, but likely to be adopted only if financial returns were favourable. The availability of relevant information had an important impact on the extent of technology testing by farmers and their willingness to adopt the practices in the future.

  12. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of LUCC from 2001 to 2010 in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Chen, X.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    LUCC (Land use and land cover change) is increasingly regarded as an important component of global environmental change and sustainable development. In this study, regional land cover type maps were drawn using the MODIS products from 2001 and 2010 based on the modified classification scheme embodied by the characteristics of land cover in Yunnan. Dynamic change in each type of land cover was investigated by classification statistics, dynamic transfer matrices, and landscape pattern metrics. In addition, the driving factors of LUCC were discussed. The results showed that the land cover types of the Yunnan province, especially woodland (WL), cropland (CL) and grassland (GL), had experienced noticeable changes with an area of about 30% of land during the study period. And there was an obvious vertical distribution pattern for land cover types. The average altitude of different land cover types from the highest to the lowest were unused land (UUT), WL, GL, water (WT), urban and built-up areas (UB) and CL. The average slope for most of the land-cover types did not vary over the past 10 years. Stabilization and homogenization will be the direction of land cover in the future according to landscape metrics analysis. The regional differences of land use structure in the area are strongly influenced by such factors as the geographical position, level of economic development and land use policy. The new policy of land use, Construction of Mountainous Town, would be provided to achieve the economical and intensive utilization of land resources during the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in Yunnan.

  14. Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province,south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; MA Qinyan; DU Fan; YANG Yuming

    2007-01-01

    Altitudinal gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients,which vary continuously in different fashions.It is important to study the mountain floristic patterns along altitudinal gradients which reveal the regular pattern of the flora along the environmental gradients,the changing trend of biodiversity patterns along the altitudinal gradient,and relevance of biological fitness.To explore the compositional characteristics and ecological significance of floristic patterns along altitudinal gradient in China National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain in the southeast of Yunnan Province,field investigations have been made to the flora along the two routes of the southwest slope and the northeast slope of the said reserve,including a vertical vegetation transect.Meanwhile,further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain,which has been accounted for in the literature,as Flora Yunnan,The Seed Plant in Yunnan,and so on.The structural characteristics of the flora and the altitudinal distribution pattern of its floristic components were analyzed.By applying systematic cluster analysis,the altitudinal position of the dividing line of floristic changes along altitudinal gradient was detected,and the effects of the montane climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition were studied.Conclusions were put forward.This paper can be summarized as follows:(1) The obvious boundary that differentiates tropical floristic elements is located at the altitude of approximately 1,500 m;it is reasonable to stipulate the boundary line between tropical rain forests and the evergreen broad-leaved forests.(2) The vertical vegetation spectrum made by cluster analysis shows that humid rain forests are below 700 m a.s.1,montane rain forests are between 700 and 1,500 m,monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests are between 1,300 and 1,800 m,and montane mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests are above 1,800 m a.s.1.Nonrepresentative montane mossy dwarf forests (above

  15. Micro-textures and in situ sulfur isotopic analysis of spheroidal and zonal sulfides in the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China: Implications for biogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunji; Chi, Guoxiang; Fayek, Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    The Jinding deposit in Yunnan, southwest China, is the largest sandstone- and conglomerate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the world. In this paper, we report various micro-textures of spheroidal and zonal sulfides, such as pellet-shaped and colloform aggregates of pyrite and sphalerite, from the deposit and interpret them to be possibly related to micro-colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria, probably supporting an in situ BSR hypothesis. Micro-scale sulfur isotope analysis in different parts of the spheroidal and zonal sulfide aggregates, using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), revealed δ34S (VCDT) values as low as -48.4‰ for sulfides formed in the early-main stage disseminated ores in the western part of the deposit, possibly suggesting maximum sulfur isotopic fractionation through BSR. Relatively elevated δ34S (VCDT) values (-7.7‰ to -34.8‰, mainly from -10‰ to -20‰) for the late-stage, cavity-filling ores in the eastern part of the deposit, are interpreted to be possibly related to elevated temperatures close to the hydrothermal conduit and elevated δ34S values of the remaining sulfates resulting from the preceding BSR processes. The apparent discrepancy between the low temperatures required for BSR and the high temperatures indicated by fluid inclusions (>120 °C) may be reconciled through invoking episodic influx of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids into a shallow, relatively cool environment. It is proposed that the host rocks of the Jinding deposit have not been buried to great depths (⩽1 km), which, combined with the availability of hydrocarbons in the Jinding dome (a paleo-oil and gas reservoir), provides an ideal environment for BSR. Episodic influx of metal-carrying hydrothermal fluids temporarily and locally suppressed BSR and promoted thermo-chemical sulfate reduction (TSR), resulting in deposit- and micro-scale variations of δ34S.

  16. Relationship between ethnic landscape and environment in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Each nationality has formed unique ethnic culture in the long history. Ethnic culture is spatially reflected by ethnic distribution. The distribution of nationalities is influenced by ethnic history, culture, society and religion, also affected by regional physical setting. This paper analyzes the relationship between ethnic distribution pattern and natural setting with contrast analytical method. The digital elevation model (DEM) is established on basis of contour map on a scale of 1:250,000 in the Nujiang River basin, Yunnan Province by ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Based on DEM, the spatial analysis and statistical function of GIS, the landscape patterns of population distribution of the selected minorities is described, and 4 sub-regions are divided in the Nujiang River basin of Yunnan Province while the features and disparity of landscape pattern and its forming mechanism are discussed, along with historical and archaeological data. The conclusions are as follow: (1) The ethnic distribution is mosaic in the matrix of other racial distribution, and have a distinct spatial correlation. (2) For the difference in cultivation between different nationalities, certain nationality lived in the area suitable for production mode of its own and coincident with appropriate geographical setting. (3) The spatial distribution of settlement spots of the minorities is controlled by the convenience of water supply. The landscape pattern of ethnic distribution is closely relative to natural environment.

  17. Seismic anisotropy of the crust in Yunnan,China: Polarizations of fast shear-waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yu-tao; GAO Yuan; WU Jing; LUO Yan; SU You-jin

    2006-01-01

    Using seismic data recorded by Yunnan Telemetry Seismic Network from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003,the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves are obtained at l0 digital seismic stations by SAM technique, a systematic analysis method on shear-wave splitting, in this study. The results show that dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most stations are mainly at nearly N-S or NNW direction in Yunnan.The dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at stations located on the active faults are consistent with the strike of active faults, directions of regional principal compressive strains measured from GPS data, and basically consistent with regional principal compressive stress. Only a few of stations show complicated polarization pattern of fast shear-waves, or are not consistent with the strike of active faults and the directions of principal GPS compressive strains, which are always located at junction of several faults. The result reflects complicated fault distribution and stress field. The dominant polarization direction of fast shear-wave indicates the direction of the in-situ maximum principal compressive stress is controlled by multiple tectonic aspects such as the regional stress field and faults.

  18. Diversity of planthoppers associated with the winter rice agroecosystems in southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-ji; Fu, Da-ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Tao; Han, Zhong-liang; Lü, Jian-ping; Wan, Hai-long; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A field survey of the overwintering planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) associated with the rice agroecosystems in southern Yunnan was carried out during January-February in 2010 and 2011. 22 species of planthoppers were collected and identified, with one species representing the subfamily Stenocraninae and the other 21 species in Delphacinae. Nycheuma cognatum (Muir), Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), and Pseudosogata vatrenus (Fennah) were new provincial records for Yunnan. The pest species, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) were able to overwinter in part of the survey range. 13 species were listed to be of economic importance. Abandoned rice paddies with dense Poaceae grasses (Poaceae) were the most favorable overwintering habitat. The survey range was divided into four regions and five areas based on natural geographical characteristics. The study demonstrated that winter temperature differentiation, terrains, and habitat differences were three factors affecting planthopper diversity. Planthopper species diversity showed a reductive trend from south to north and reflected a gradient of more severe winter temperatures. In addition, planthopper diversity was influenced by smaller-scale differences in terrain and habitat, as evidenced by greater diversity in the valleys and low-altitude areas as compared to mid-mountain and Karst plain areas. PMID:22958347

  19. Variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on the 2001 Shidian earthquakes in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 梁维; 丁香; 薛艳; 蔡明军; 刘希强; 苏有锦; 彭立国

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 three earthquakes occurred in Shidian in Yunnan Province, which were the MS=5.2 on April 10, the MS=5.9 on April 12 and the MS=5.3 on June 8. Based on the data from the station Baoshan of Yunnan Telemetry Digital Seismograph Network, the variational characteristics of shear-wave splitting on these series of strong earthquakes has been studied by using the systematic analysis method (SAM) of shear-wave splitting. The result shows the time delays of shear-wave splitting basically increase with earthquake activity intensifying. However the time delays abruptly decrease immediately before strong aftershocks. It accords with the stress relaxation before earthquakes, which was found recently in study on shear-wave splitting. The result suggests it is significant for reducing the harm degree of earthquakes to develop the stress-forecasting on earthquake in strong active tectonic zones and economic developed regions or big cities under the danger of strong earthquakes.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities in household biogas digesters from tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangliang; Li, Qiumin; Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yingjuan; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xiaolong; Zhang, Wudi

    2016-06-01

    A combination of 16S rRNA gene PCR-based techniques and the determination of abiotic factors were used to study community composition, richness, and evenness and the correlation between biotic and abiotic factors in 19 household biogas digesters in tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China. The results revealed that both bacterial and archaeal community composition differed between regions and archaeal community composition was more affected by season than bacterial; regardless of sampling location, the dominant bacterial phyla included Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, and the most dominant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota; in digesters from both regions, Chloroflexi as the first or second most dominant bacteria accounted for 21.50-26.10 % of bacterial library sequences, and the phylum Crenarchaeota as the second most dominant archaea accounted for 17.65-19.77 % of archaeal library sequences; the species Methanosaeta concilii as the most dominant archaeal species accounted for 67.80-72.80 % of the sequences. This study found that most of the abundant microbial communities in 19 biogas digesters are similar, and this result will provide enlightenment for finding the universal nature in rural biogas digesters at tropical and subtropical regions in China. PMID:26916266

  1. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  2. Identification and Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Primeval Forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces and Northeast Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were screened from 683 soil samples collected from tropical and semitropical primeval forests in Yunnan and Hainan provinces of China. Several shapes of crystals, including bipyramidal, square,ovoid, spherical, and amorphous, were observed in the B. thuringiensis isolates. Twenty-six pairs of primers were used to identify 31 holotype cry genes at primary rank of the B. thuringiensis cry gene nomenclature system. The cry gene-types of 92 B. thuringiensis isolates and 33 B. thuringiensis isolates screened from Northeast region of China were identified by PCR-RFLP and SDS-PAGE methods. Fifty-eight isolates harbored cryl genes, 32 isolates cry2 genes, 12 isolates cry8 genes, 3 isolates cry9 genes, 12 isolates cry11 genes, and 13 isolates cry30 genes. Of the tested isolates, 42 produced no reaction product with 26 pairs of primers and also exhibited no toxicity against 8 insect species tested. The isolate Z2-34 harbored a novel cry30 gene, exhibited insecticidal activity against Aedes albopictus of Dipterans. The accession number of the novel genes in this study is AY916046. Isolation and identification of B. thuringiensis and cry gene are important for investigating the diversity of B. thuringiensis resources and cloning new cry gene.

  3. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  4. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  5. Impact of Snow Storms on Habitat and Death of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dayong; Ren, Baoping; Hu, Jie; Shen, Yongsheng; He, Xinming; Krzton, Ali; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as snow storms have far-reaching effects on variations in the habitat structure and ecological aspects of non-human primates. Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit high-altitude forest and endure harsh winters. The effect of heavy snow-storms (January 19 to February 6, 2008) on two large groups of R. bieti (Gehuaqing group and Xiangguqing group) inhabiting Samage Forest in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve were assessed. Data on habitat damage were colle...

  6. GPS-constrained inversion of present-day slip rates along major faults of the Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A linked-fault-element model is employed to invert for contemporary slip rates along major active faults in the Sichuan-Yunnan region (96°-108°E, 21°-35°N) using the least squares method. The model is based on known fault geometry, and constrained by a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field. Our results support a model attributing the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau driven mainly by the north-northeastward indentation of the Indian plate into Tibet and the gravitational collapse of the plateau. Resisted by a relatively stable south China block, materials of the Sichuan-Yunnan region rotate clockwise around the eastern Himalayan tectonic syntaxis. During the process the Garzê-Yushu, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, Zemuhe, Daliangshan, and Xiaojiang faults, the southwest extension of the Xiaojiang fault, and the Daluo-Jinghong and Mae Chan faults constitute the northeast and east boundaries of the eastward extrusion, with their left slip rates being 0.3-14.7, 8.9-17.1, 5.1 ± 2.5, 2.8 ± 2.3, 7.1 ± 2.1, 9.4 ± 1.2, 10.1 ± 2.0, 7.3 ± 2.6, and 4.9 ± 3.0 mm/a respectively. The southwestern boundary consists of a widely distributed dextral transpressional zone other than a single fault. Right slip rates of 4.2 ± 1.3, 4.3 ± 1.1, and 8.5 ± 1.7 mm/a are detected across the Nanhua-Chuxiong-Jianshui, Wuliangshan, and Longling-Lancang faults. Crustal deformation across the Longmenshan fault is weak, with short-ening rates of 1.4 ± 1.0 and 1.6 ± 1.3 mm/a across the Baoxing-Beichuan and Beichuan-Qingchuan segments. Northwest of the Longmenshan fault lies an active deformation zone (the Longriba fault) with 5.1±1.2 mm/a right slip across. Relatively large slip rates are detected across a few faults within the Sichuan-Yunnan block: 4.4±1.3 mm/a left slip and 2.7±1.1 mm/a shortening across the Litang fault, and 2.7±2.3 mm/a right-lateral shearing and 6.7±2.3 mm/a shortening across the Yunongxi fault and its surrounding regions. In conclusion, we find that the

  7. Notes on the scorpions (Arachnida, Scorpiones from Xizang with the redescription of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae from Yunnan (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Di

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now, there are 26 scorpion species of 7 genera of 5 families recorded in Xizang (China. Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet is the scorpion biodiversity richest area in China (53 scorpion species of 12 genera of 5 families, also the highest altitude habitat of scorpions in the world. We present information of type specimens, an identification key of the scorpion species from Xizang, the distribution, updated feature pictures, and discussion on the disputed species. The redescriptions of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Yunnan and S. tibetanus Hirst, 1911 (Xizang, comments and feature figures of species of genus Scorpiops are provided for identification.

  8. Mantle-derived magmatic gas releasing features at the Rehai area, Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官志冠; 白春华; 孙明良

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of escaped gases from the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong county of Yunnan Province. Results indicate that there is the mantle-derived magmatic intrusion in shallow crust at this area. Modern mantle-derived mag-matic volatiles are being released currently in a steady stream by way of active faults. The escaped gases are mostly composed of CO2, together with subordinate amounts of H2S, N2, H2, CH4, SO2, CO and He. At the studied area, the north-south directed fault is the deepest, and it may be interlinked with the deep-seated thermal reservoir that would be directly recharged by the mantle-derived magmatic volatile. The He, C isotopic evidence reveals that the modern active magma beneath Rehai area may originate from the historical mantle-derived magma which caused the latest eruptive activity of volcanoes in that region.

  9. A New Mamenchisaurid Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; LI Tianguang; ZHONG Shimin; JI Qiang; LI Shaoxue

    2008-01-01

    A new mamenchisaurid dinosaur, Eomamenchisaurus yuanmouensis gen et sp. nov. Is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Zhanghe Formation, the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province. The new taxon is characterized by absence of pleurocoels in dorsal vertebrae and the dorsal verterbrae with slightly convex anterior articular surfaces, moderately concave posterior articular surfaces; the fourth trochanter is developed posteromedially on the femur; length ratio of the tibia to the femur is approximately 0.64; and the shaft of the ischium is rod-like. Two fused centra of the posterior dorsal vertebrae (the presumed 9th and the 10th dorsal vertebrae) are similar to those in other mamenchisaurid dinosaurs, including Mamenchisaurus hochuanesis, M. youngi and Chuanjiesaurus anaensis. Therefore, fusion of centra of the ninth and the tenth dorsal vertebrae can be recognized as a synapomorphic character of the Mamenchisauridae.

  10. Potential variability of trans-lysozyme gene rice under ecological conditions of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxin YAO; Minghui XU; Wenzhong TIAN; Zuoshun TANG

    2008-01-01

    Using trans-lysozyme gene rice line D2-1-2 and its restorer Zhonghua No.9 as test materials, we studied their agronomic characters and grain qualities under two ecological conditions of Yunnan Province. The results show that there were no significant differences in the agro-nomic characters between D2-1-2 and Zhonghua No.9, but the seed setting rate and plant height of D2-1-2 were significantly lower, while the protein, amino acid and min-eral element (Ca, Fe and Zn in particular) contents in its crude grain were higher than those of Zhonghua No.9. It is suggested that there could be some potential genetic variances in the transgenic plant and the possibly induced environmental risk should be evaluated in multi-plots for several years.

  11. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXian-qi; YUMin; LINLi-fei; WANGYang; YUSheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  12. Species and Distribution of Rice Root Nematode in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; YU Min; LIN Li-fei; WANG Yang; YU Sheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    Rice root nematodes, Hirschmanniella spp. parasitize in the roots of rice and water plant spread widely. Ten species of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc et Goody, 1964 (Nemata:Pratylenchidae) collected from the root of rice in Yunnan Province are reported. They are H. belli, H. caudacrena, H. diversa, H. gracilis, H. imamuri, H. mexicana, H. microtyla,H. mucronata, H. oryzae and H. spinicaudata, including seven species of important pathogenic nematodes of rice and two dominant species H. oryzae and H. imamari. Generally,the trend of species composition pattern is H. oryzae and H. imamari, which is a common composition pattern in the world, but the species composition mode varies with the difference of altitude and latitude. Their distribution relates to altitude and latitude closely, and also to the type of rice, such as indica or japonica rice.

  13. Study on the sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Tian, J.; Qin, Y. [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China). Institute of Sedimentary Geology

    2007-03-15

    The sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Zhaotong of Yunnan Province has been studied using ion selective electrode (ISE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results show that the main workable channel coal seams contain an average fluorine content of 67.8 x 10{sup -6}, which is much lower than that of Chinese and American common coals. The contents in the clay and the mixture of coal and clay reach to 2239 x 10{sup -6} and 863.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. (The mixture of clay and coal is the primary fuel in the local families.) The volatile yield of the mixture of coal and clay during combustion is about 89%. The fluorine in the clay is the main source of the endemic fluorosis. The high content of fluorine is closely related to the mixed-layer minerals of illite and smectite, apatite, hornblende, and K-feldspar. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Most Complete Pistosauroid Skeleton from the Triassic of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lijun; Tamaki SATO; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    A new specimen discovered from the Falang Formation in northeastern Yunnan represents the most complete skeleton of Triassic pistosauroids. The new specimen is referred to Yunguisaurus Cheng et al., 2006 on the basis of the skull features, such as the presence of a separated nasal entering the external naris, a large pineal foramen located at the frontal/parietal suture and an interpterygoid vacuity with a narrow anterior extension. The new specimen differs from the type species of Yunguisaurus liae Cheng et al., 2006 in some aspects. Most of these differences can be attributed to ontogenetic variations. The new specimen is provisionally considered as Yunguisaurus cf. liae although its relatively short snout of the skull and slenderer hyoid may not be explained ontogenetically. Whether or not the new specimen represents a different taxon has to wait for a detailed study of the whole skeleton.

  15. Relation Between Seismicity and Geothermal Structure of the Lithosphere in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Caiying; Zhou Zhenheng

    2001-01-01

    The isoline map of the heat flow has been drawn by using the measured and estimated values of the heat flow in Yunnan Province and its adjacent region. The contrast studies of the heat flow and epicenters of the strong earthquakes (886 ~ 1998), the distribution of the geotemperature and high accurate data of focal depth (1983 ~ 1997 ) show that the strong earthquakes take place along the geothermal gradient zone in which the thermal stress is concentrated, and that the foci are generally located between 100°and 600° isogeotherms corresponding to the depths of 3~ 25km and densely distribute between 200° and 450° isogeotherms, i.e. the depths of 5 ~20km. The distribution range of the focal depths is probably related to the crustal brittle to ductile transition which mainly results from the geotemperatures.

  16. Alpine Ecosystems of Northwest Yunnan, China: an Initial Assessment for Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Implementing conservation actions on-the-ground is not a straightforward process,especially when faced with high scientific uncertainty due to limited available information. This is especially acute in regions of the world that harbor many unique species that have not been well studied, such as the alpine zone of the Hengduan Mountains of Northwest Yunnan (NWY), a global biodiversity hotspot and site of The Nature Conservancy's Yunnan Great Rivers Project. We conducted a quantitative, but rapid regional-level assessment of the alpine flora across NWY to provide a broad-based understanding of local and regional patterns of the alpine flora, the first large-scale analysis of alpine biodiversity patterns in this region. Multivariate analyses were used to classify the major plant community types and link community patterns to habitat variables. Our analysis indicated that most species had small distributions and/or small population sizes. Strong patterns emerged with higher diversity in the more northern mountains, but beta diversity was high, averaging only 10% among sites. The ordinations indicated that elevation and geographic location were the dominant environmental gradients underlying the differences in the species composition among communities. The high beta diversity across the alpine of these mountains implies that conservation strategies ultimately will require the protection of large numbers of species over a large geographical area. However, prioritization should be given to areas where potential payoffs are greatest. Sites with high species richness also have a greater number of endemic species, and, by focusing efforts on these sites, conservation investments would be maximized by protecting the greatest number of unique species.

  17. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  18. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Qiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were interviewed before start of treatment and during the fifth month of treatment using structured questionnaires. Information on treatment outcome was extracted from patient records. Patients cured at the end of treatment were compared to patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (failure, default, and death. Results A total of 841 patients were registered between January-June 2007 of which 792 (94% were cured. Independent risk factors for non-cure were having a low income (30 days, a positive smear test result two months after start of treatment, not being aware of the need to go to the CDC for medical follow up during treatment, and not seeing the need for treatment observation. Conclusion Reducing the financial burden of TB disease and providing health education to improve compliance with treatment could increase the proportion of patients with successful treatment outcomes.

  19. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-12-01

    China's small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2-5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms earn high income from rubber and fatten cross-bred pigs, often using purchased feeds. PB farms own similar-sized rubber plantations and raise pigs, with fodder mainly being cultivated and collected in the forest. LB farms grow corn, rice, and tea while also raising pigs, fed with collected and cultivated fodder as well. About one third of pigs were marketed (LB, 20 %; RB, 42 %; PB, 25 %), and local pig meat is highly appreciated in the nearby town. High mortality, low reproductive performance, and widespread malnourishment are the systems' main constraints. Basic training in hygiene and reproduction management could significantly increase production; most effective measures would be counterbalancing seasonal malnourishment and exploration of locally available protein feeds. Through support by external expertise, farmers could more effectively trade their pigs at lucrative town markets.

  20. Greater temporal changes of sediment microbial community than its waterborne counterpart in Tengchong hot springs, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Huang, Liuqin

    2014-12-19

    Temporal variation in geochemistry can cause changes in microbial community structure and diversity. Here we studied temporal changes of microbial communities in Tengchong hot springs of Yunnan Province, China in response to geochemical variations by using microbial and geochemical data collected in January, June and August of 2011. Greater temporal variations were observed in individual taxa than at the whole community structure level. Water and sediment communities exhibited different temporal variation patterns. Water communities were largely stable across three sampling times and dominated by similar microbial lineages: Hydrogenobaculum in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Sulfolobus in high-temperature acidic springs, and Hydrogenobacter in high-temperature circumneutral to alkaline springs. Sediment communities were more diverse and responsive to changing physicochemical conditions. Most of the sediment communities in January and June were similar to those in waters. However, the August sediment community was more diverse and contained more anaerobic heterotrophs than the January and June: Desulfurella and Acidicaldus in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Ignisphaera and Desulfurococcus in high-temperature acidic springs, the candidate division OP1 and Fervidobacterium in alkaline springs, and Thermus and GAL35 in neutral springs. Temporal variations in physicochemical parameters including temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon may have triggered the observed microbial community shifts.

  1. Impacts of temperature and pH on the distribution of archaeal lipids in Yunnan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiyan; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Huanye; He, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2013-01-01

    In culture experiments and many low temperature environments, the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) commonly shows a strong correlation with temperature; however, this is often not the case in hot springs. We studied 26 hot springs in Yunnan, China, in order to determine whether temperature or other factors control the distribution of GDGTs in these environments. The hot springs ranged in temperature from 39.0 to 94.0°C, and in pH from 2.35 to 9.11. Water chemistry including nitrogen-, sulfur-, and iron species was also determined. Lipids from the samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Distributions of GDGTs in these hot springs were examined using cluster analysis, which resulted in two major groups. Group 1 was characterized by the lack of dominance of any individual GDGTs, while Group 2 was defined by the dominance of GDGT-0 or thaumarchaeol. Temperature was the main control on GDGT distribution in Group 1, whereas pH played an important role in the distribution of GDGTs in Group 2. However, no correlations were found between the distribution of GDGTs and any of the nitrogen-, sulfur-, or iron species. Results of this study indicate the dominance of temperature or pH control on archaeal lipid distribution, which can be better evaluated in the context of lipid classification.

  2. Impacts of temperature and pH on the distribution of archaeal lipids in Yunnan hot springs, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan eWu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In culture experiments and many low temperature environments, the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs commonly shows a strong correlation with temperature; however, this is often not the case in hot springs. We studied 26 hot springs in Yunnan, China, in order to determine whether temperature or other factors control the distribution of GDGTs in these environments. The hot springs ranged in temperature from 39°C to 94°C, and in pH from 2.35 to 9.11. Water chemistry including nitrogen-, sulfur- and iron species was also determined. Lipids from the samples were analyzed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Distributions of GDGTs in these hot springs were examined using cluster analysis, which resulted in two major groups. Group 1 was characterized by the lack of dominance of any individual GDGTs, while Group 2 was defined by the dominance of GDGT-0 or thaumarchaeol. Temperature was the main control on GDGT distribution in Group 1, whereas pH played an important role in the distribution of GDGTs in Group 2. However, no correlations were found between the distribution of GDGTs and any of the nitrogen-, sulfur- or iron species. Results of this study indicate the predominance of temperature or pH control on archaeal lipid distribution, which can be better evaluated in the context of lipid classification.

  3. Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used by the red-headed yao people in Jinping, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chun-lin; Li, Rong

    2004-02-01

    Sixty-six medicinal plant species traditionally collected and used by the Red-headed Yao people in Jinping county, Yunnan Province, SW China, were investigated and studied through the approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Among these plants, 27 species were recorded to have medicinal values for the first time recorded in literature, 23 species were found to have different medicinal functions from those recorded in the literature. Many medicinal herbs are simultaneously wild food plants. The local Yao people take medicinal baths on some special days very common to treat and prevent diseases. The Red-headed Yao medicinal herb doctors have conserved medicinal plants and their habitats over the years. Most of the folk healers are old women, who are concerned about passing on their secrets to the younger generation. They fear that the younger generations have not learned enough about the herbal traditions to keep the practice going. The authors suggest that plants used by the Red-headed Yao people need to be further studied phytochemically and pharmacologically. PMID:15013206

  4. A Continuous Record of Indian Summer Monsoon Variability through the Holocene from Lake Sediments in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous terrestrial archives of the Indian Summer Monsoon through the Holocene are lacking, yet critical to providing a long-term perspective of hydroclimate variability. Here we present an 8,000 year sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in Yunnan, China that provides a semi-quantitative estimate of lake level change using stable isotopes of authigenic calcite as well as within-lake productivity using stable isotopes of organic matter. Substantial drops in lake level occur at 6,600 years BP, consistent with previous studies of a weaker monsoon system in the mid-Holocene due to declining summer insolation. Lake levels stabilize at 4,700 years BP and remain steady due to the topography surrounding the lake. From 5,600 to 5,100 and from 4,600 to 4,000 years BP, primary productivity decreases and is coincident with significant regional aridity as well as cooler Western Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Variability in the stable isotopes of both calcite and organic matter after 1,500 years BP is primarily controlled by human activities. This study shows broad agreement with previous work on the Tibetan Plateau and provides one of the first continuous records of lake hydrologic balance from a crucial region affected by the Indian Summer Monsoon.

  5. HIV-infected Female Sex Workers High Risk Behavior and Attitude Changes in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo Wei; WANG Ning; HSI Jenny H; LIU Hui Xin; SU Ying Ying; WANG Jun Jie; BAI Jun; WANG Gui Xiang; WANG Hai Bo; DONG Rui Ling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the attitude and sexual behavior status and change among HIV positive female workers in entertainment sites in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China. The key information should be applied in the integrated intervention program in future. Methods A cohort survey among HIV positive female workers was conducted during 12 months, between 2010 and 2012. All the risk sexual behavior and attitude were collected for assessment for the potential secondary transmission to sexual partners. Results Of 99 HIV positive women who sell sex in Kaiyuan city, 99 participated in the survey at baseline, 80, 80, 75, and 75 at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. The percentage of participants who reported consistently used condoms in the last one month ranged between 94.5%and 95.5%. The client volume in the last one month, income per sex and age group were significant related with non-insistent condom use with their clients. Conclusion It was suggested that integrated intervention program package should include 100 percent condom use promotion for the HIV positive FSW with all sexual partners, and also, include socially support involved.

  6. Characteristics and origin of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths in trachyandesite lavas from Heikongshan volcano,Tengchong,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The trachyandesite lavas from Heikongshan volcano of the Tengchong volcanic cluster, Yunnan Province contain relatively abundant mafic and ultramafic small xenoliths comprising mainly gabbro, pyroxenite and rare lherzolites, all less than 2.5 cm in size. Gabbro xenoliths are characterized by "open" texture represented by relatively abundant vesicles and ground-mass fillings, while pyroxenite xenoliths are characterized by equigranular and poikilitic texture. Their mineral compositions (clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± plagioclase) are similar to those of phenocrysts in lavas, and their equilibration temperature (1000-1125°C) is consistent with the crystallization temperature of the phenocrysts (998-1108°C). Thus, the textures and compositions of these xenoliths are different from those of lower crustal and mantle xenoliths, and were derived from the magma chamber. Among them, the gabbroic xenoliths come from the crystal-bubble-liquid zone at the top of the magma reservoir, while the pyroxenite xenoliths come from the cumulates in the bottom of magma reservoir. The studied single lherzolite xenolith with porphyroclastic texture has similar mineral compositions to the mantle xenoliths from eastern China, and is considered to be of upper mantle origin. It was brought into magma reservoir by replenishment magma, and might have experienced a cooling event before eruption. The formation of xenoliths in trachyandesite flows largely reflects the ascent, storage, evolution and eruption processes of magma.

  7. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases. PMID:27030920

  8. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  9. Composition and mode of occurrence of minerals in Late Permian coals from Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Shi-Feng Dai; Jian-Hua Zou; Sen Zhang; He-Hing Tian; Li-Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Minerals in the Late Permian coals from the Niuchang-Yigu mining area, Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China, were investigated using optical microscopy and low temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction (LTA ? XRD). The results showed that minerals in the coal LTAs are mainly quartz, kaolinite, chamosite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), pyrite, and calcite, with trace amounts of marcasite, dolomite, and bassanite. The authigenic quartz generally occurs in collodetrinite or as a filling in cleats or cell cavities. This silica was mainly derived from aqueous solutions produced by the weathering of basaltic rocks in the Kangdian Upland and from hydrothermal fluids. The presence of b-quartz paramorph grains in collodetrinite probably indicates that these grains were detrital and came from a volcanic ash. Clay minerals are generally embedded in collodetrinite and occur as cell-fillings. Pyrite occurs as framboidal, anhedral, and euhedral grains and a cell-filling. The coals are high in pyrite and the high pyrite content probably results from seawater invading during the stage of peat accumulation. Calcite generally occurs as vein-fillings, indicating an epigenetic origin.

  10. Reengineering Model of Supply Chain of Tea Industry in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Yunnan University of finance and Trade recording to t he statistics of chain's output of tea, Yunnan province has entered the ranks of the larger ones of the production in China. Yunnan's tea industry has the natur al resources and the economic effects envied, on the orther hand, Yunnan's tea m arket has gradually become less and the economic effects have been poor. Through our comprehensive investigation and study, we consider that because the supply chain has seriously been disjointed among production...

  11. My Days in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    1999-01-01

    In July 21st I started the last trip of my year-long stay in China. AnAmerican friend, Moira, had agreed to meet me in Shanghai and accompany me.Our goals were Yunnan Province, including Kunming, Lijiang, Dali, and thecountryside, and then on to the long-dreamed-of "top of the world" and spiritualbeacon-Tibet (the topic of next month’s article).

  12. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  13. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  14. Strontium isotope geochemistry of the Lemachang independent silver ore deposit, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sr isotope geochemical studies (the 87Sr/86Sr and ?18O-87Sr/86Sr systems) on the wall rocks and ores from the Lemachang independent Ag deposit in northeastern Yunnan provide strong evidence that the ore-forming fluids had flown through radiogenetically Sr-enriched rocks or strata prior to their entry into the locus of ore precipitation, and water-rock interaction is the main mechanism of Ag ore precipitation. The radiogenetically Sr-enriched source region may be the Proterozoic basement (the Kunyang and Hekou groups). Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the Sr isotopic system indicates that the ore-forming fluids contain as much as 3×10?6 Sr with isotopic composition of Sr being 0.750 and that of oxygen 7.0‰. The ore-forming temperatures were estimated at 150-250℃ for the carbonate rock-type ores and at 200-260℃ for the clastic rock-type.

  15. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  16. Molecular epidemic survey on co-prevalence of scrub typhus and marine typhus in Yuxi city, Yunnan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; LI Xue-mei; ZHANG De-rong; ZHANG Jing-shan; DI Ying; LUAN Ming-chun; FU Xiu-ping

    2007-01-01

    and their corresponding nucleotide sequences exhibited 100%, 100%, 99%, 99% and 99% similarity to R. mossori Wilmington and the analyses of predicted amino acid sequences indicated 100%, 100%,98%, 98% and 98% identity with the heat shock protein of R. mossoriWilmington strain. Of the 8 PCR positive patients, 3 showed a co-infection of scrub typhus with murine typhus. All the 13 serum samples from febrile patients were positive against O. tsutsugamushi and 8 of them were positive against R. mossori. All of the 8 paired specimens had four-fold elevation of antibody against O. tsutsugamushi, and seroconversion for typhus was demonstrated in 3 paired serum samples. Another finding in the study was that a high seropositive prevalence (76.9%) of Q fever was detected.Conclusion It's confirmed that co-prevalence of scrub typhus with murine typhus are occurring in Yuxi city of Yunnan province, China. Other rickettsial diseases also need to be investigated in these areas.

  17. East flank of the Sibumasu block in NW Thailand and Myanmar and its possible northward continuation into Yunnan: a review and suggested tectono-stratigraphic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, Michael F.

    2015-05-01

    The east flank of the Sibumasu block was a passive continental margin, and in NW Thailand is marked by the absence of the autochthonous Middle Permian-Triassic platform carbonates which are widespread across the rest of Sibumasu further west. Instead, the carbonates are represented by hemipelagic cherts, mudstones and sandstones including turbidites. During the northward drift of Sibumasu, following its Early Permian rifting from Gondwana, an accretionary complex was present where Palaeotethyan pelagic rocks as old as Devonian were subducted beneath the Sukhothai volcanic arc. At the time of Sibumasu's collision with the Sukhothai arc, beginning in the Middle Triassic, the accretionary complex was thrust westwards across the east flank of Sibumasu. It is suggested that in the Late Triassic the thrust pile which had been the accretionary complex underwent erosion and was the source of terrigenous clastic rocks deposited further west in a foredeep basin. The boundary of Sibumasu's east flank with the Permo-Triassic carbonate platform further west is the arcuate Mae Ping-Nam Teng Fault system. Notwithstanding later Cenozoic strike-slip displacement, those faults (as well as the Mae Yuam Fault) are interpreted to have had an earlier history of westward-directed Indosinian thrusting. Northwards in Myanmar and Yunnan the Sibumasu Permo-Triassic carbonate shelf continues as the Shan Plateau and Baoshan Block. The east flank is represented by the Changning-Menglian Belt, and the Palaeotethys 'cryptic suture' in Thailand possibly joins with the Lancangjiang Suture.

  18. First evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China: discovery of chytridiomycosis in introduced American bullfrogs and native amphibians in the Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Changming; Garner, Trenton W J; Li, Yiming

    2010-08-01

    Although the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the etiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in mass mortality and population declines on several continents around the world, there have been no reports on the presence of Bd infections in amphibians in China. We employed quantitative PCR and histological techniques to investigate the presence of Bd in introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) (referred to hereafter as bullfrog) and native amphibians in bullfrog-invaded areas of the Yunnan Province, China. A total of 259 samples at five wild sites were collected between June and September in 2007 and 2008, including bullfrogs and four native amphibian species (Rana pleuraden, Rana chaochiaoensis, Odorrana andersonii, and Bombina maxima). In addition, 37 samples of adult bullfrogs were obtained from a food market. Bd infections were discovered in bullfrogs and three native amphibian species from all of the surveyed sites. Of the 39 Bd-positive samples, 35 were from wild-caught bullfrog tadpoles, postmetamorphic bullfrogs, R. pleuraden, R. chaochiaoensis, and O. andersonii, and four were from adult bullfrogs from the market. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of Bd in Chinese amphibians, suggesting that native amphibian diversity in China is at risk from Bd. There is an urgent need to monitor the distribution of Bd in amphibians in China and understand the susceptibility of native amphibian species to chytridiomycosis. Strict regulations on the transportation of bullfrogs and the breeding of bullfrogs in markets and farms should be drafted in order to stop the spread of Bd by bullfrogs.

  19. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  20. Cold Tolerance of Core Collection at Booting Stage Associated with Eco-geographic Distribution in Yunnan Rice Landrace (Oryza sativa),China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shen-chong; LIU Jia-fu; ZENG Ya-wen; WANG Lu-xiang; SHEN Shi-quan; PU Xiao-ying; LI Zi-chao; WANG Xiangkun; WEN Guo-song; YANG Zhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-seven accessions of the second core collection of rice landrace from five rice cropping regions (16 prefectures) of Yunnan Province, China, were evaluated for cold tolerance at booting stage. The results showed as follows: 1) there was a significant positive correlation (0.588**) between anther length and seed setting rate under natural low temperature conditions but was not significant in greenhouse (0.080). 2) there were significant differences in cold tolerance among cora collections from different cropping regions under natural low temperature conditions while a negligible cold damage in greenhouse (with a seed setting rate approaching or exceeding 70%) for cold tolerance evaluation. Cold tolerance of core collection from Northwest Yunnan cold highland japonica region was the strongest, and that from south marginal paddy-upland rice region was the most sensitive, suggesting that the breeding goals for cold tolerance should be different in various rice cropping regions. 3) there were remarkable differences in cold tolerance of core collections from different prefectures of Yunnan Province under natural low temperature conditions. Based on the reduction of seed setting rate and characteristics of natural climate, the 16prefectures could be divided into three categories, i.e. serious cold damage, cold damage and slight cold damage regions. 4)Difference of cold tolerance between different rice cropping regions and prefectures revealed further that temperature change caused by elevation and latitude was not only a dominant factor for differentiation of japonica and indica but also the basic reason that the genetic diversity and six ecological group of indica and japonica were being developed and, even the critical factor leading to the formation of the cold tolerance gene as well. The cold tolerance at booting stage could be believed to be resulted from the long term co-evolution between Yunnan rice landrce and cold stress in rice cropping

  1. Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juan; Ma Qin-yan; Du Fan; Yang Yu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of floristic patterns along the vertical gradients of the National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain, located in the southeast of Yunnan Province. We analyzed the structural characteristics of the flora and the distribution patterns of its floristic components as a function of elevation on the basis of our field investigations along vertical vegetation transects. We carried out a systematic cluster analysis in order to determine the dividing line of floristic changes by elevation along gradients and studied the effects of mountain climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition. The study shows: 1)that the obvious boundary, which differentiates tropical distribution, is located at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m, which separates the tropical rain forests from the evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2) that humid rain forests are found below 700 m elevation,mountain rain forests between 700 and 1,500 m, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests between 1,300 and 1,800 m and mountain mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests above 1,800 m. Non-representative mountain mossy dwarf forests (above 2,100 m) in the area are found on the windward sides and barren lands on mountain slopes; 3) that Hopea mollissima is one of the major component species of mountain rain forests, but it should not be considered as the major indicator species in humid rain forests as is generally accepted.

  2. Study on the Basic Plague Pattern of Jianchuan Plague Natural Focus, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jie

    2001-01-01

    Since the plague natural focus of Jianchuan was found in 1974, it had broken the disputation whether Yunnan has plague natural focus among Chinese and foreign scholars for long. Because the focus locates the middle part of transversal mountains with higher biological diversity and complex landscape, many problems raised at beginning in distinguishing the major hosts and vectors, modeling the structure of the focus, and resolving the contradiction between theory and excitation. In review of that, according to the principle of unified of biological structure and function, the basic plague pattern has been systematically studied on through the generalized information concept in this paper. It suggests that the focus takes the community of Apodemus chevrieri + Rattus norvegicus : Neopsylla specialis + Frontopsylla. spadix + Menopsyllus anisus + Loptopsylla segnis as maintenance subsystem, the community of E. miletus:Ctenophthalmus quadratus + Neopsylla specialis as epidematic (amplifying) subsystem, the communities of squirrel rodent-flea as alternate subsystem. The relationship between subsystems is nonlinear. No human plague case is determined by the systematicness of the plague ecosystem. The possibility of human plague will remain in systemic changing or coming into chaos. Although most researches try to analysis of plague as system by means of experiments with many quantitative criterion, these measures are difficult to comprehension the systemic essence without application of the concept of systemic theory. They are often direct, discursive and paradoxical description of appearance rather than the analysis and generalization of interaction relationship between elements, thus reversing the basic ecological concept of Y.pestis as a living thing and agent of plague.

  3. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  4. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  5. Sequence analyses of ITS2 and CO1 genes of Paragonimus proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China and their similarities with those of P. hokuoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Yang, Bin-Bin; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Cui-Ying; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2008-05-01

    Among about 50 Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is a rare species characterized by extremely large metacercariae, most of which are present excysted in the crab hosts. Recently, this species was discovered by us in northern Vietnam as the first record outside of China. DNA sequences of both second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) genes of the metacercariae and adult worms of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates were identical with those of Paragonimus hokuoensis in the DNA database of the GenBank. To confirm those observations and to clarify the molecular phylogenetic status of P. proliferus, we determined the ITS2 and CO1 sequences of the metacercariae of P. proliferus obtained in Yunnan province, China where the original specimen was discovered. The results show that both ITS2 and CO1 sequences of P. proliferus of the Chinese isolates are identical with those of P. proliferus of the Vietnamese isolates and are also identical with those of P. hokuoensis that appeared in the DNA database (obtained in Yunnan province), suggesting the synonymy of P. hokuoensis with P. proliferus. By phylogenetic tree analyses, all samples of P. proliferus from China and Vietnam together with P. hokuoensis constructed a distinct group within, or very close to, Paragonimus skrjabini complex in both trees.

  6. 云南双扇蕨科植物的分类订正研究%A Taxonomic Revision of the Dipteridaceae from Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆树刚; 田治蛟

    2011-01-01

    Dipteridaceae is a natural taxon,containing a single genus,Dipteris Reinwardt and eight species,of which three are occuring in China, 0. Chinensis Christ,D. Conjugate (Kaulf.) Reinw.and D. Wallichii (R. Br.) T. Moore. Two species are found in Yunnan,China,D. Chinensis Christ and D. Wallichii (R. Br.) T. Moore. A newly recorded species,D. Wallichii (R. Br. )T. Moore from Yunnan,China,was reported and a key to the species and new color plates are provided.%双扇蕨科是一个自然的类群,为单型科,有8种.中国产3种:中华双扇蕨Dipteris chinensis Christ、双扇蕨D.conjugata( Kaulf.) Reinw.和喜马拉雅双扇蕨D.wallichii(R Br.)T Moore.云南产2种:中华双扇蕨和喜马拉雅双扇蕨.其中,喜马拉雅双扇蕨为云南分布新纪录.文中列出了国产种类的分类检索表,并均附有彩色图片.

  7. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  8. Assessment of the Cadmium Exposure in the Blood, Diet, and Water of the Pumi People in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Feng, Yue-Mei; Wang, Song-Mei; Du, Yu-Qian; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metals. Accumulation of Cd in the human body can cause multiorgan dysfunction. Long-term irrational mining activities have led to serious Cd pollution in soil, water, and even agricultural products. Therefore, evaluating the Cd exposure levels of people living in mining areas is of great importance. In the current study, we chose the Pumi people who lived in Jinding and Tongdian towns of Lanping county in Yunnan province, China, to do the on-site nutritional epidemiology investigation and laboratory detection. We analyzed the content of the Cd in peripheral blood and mixed dietary, as well as water samples in the Pumi residents of the two towns. Results showed that the blood Cd levels of people in Jinding town, which is nearer the mining district, were statistically significantly higher than those in Tongdian town. The P 50 of blood Cd level of the two towns was 0.64 ng/mL. In addition, the P 50 of the mixed diet of the two towns was 8.32 μg/kg. There was a weak correlation between blood Cd levels and Cd exposure in the mixed diet, PTDI, and PTWI of the Pumi people. In addition, higher concentrations of Cd were observed in the water of Jinding town, indicating people in Jinding town risking more Cd exposure. These results indicated that diet and water are critical factors of Cd exposure for the residents and the nearer people living to mining district risking the more Cd exposure.

  9. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus

  10. Irrigation system and land use effect on surface water quality in river, at lake Dianchi, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Tanaka; Takahiro Sato; Kazuo Watanabe; Ying Wang; Dan Yang; Hiromo Inoue; Kunzhi Li

    2013-01-01

    The surface water samples were collected in river Dahe and its tributaries,which flow into severely eutrophic lake Dianchi,Yunnan Province,China,in order to elucidate factors controlling water quality fluctuations.The temporal and spatial distribution of water quality tendency was observed.The water quality of each river is dependent on the hydrology effect such water gate and circulating irrigation system.We must consider the hydrology effect to accurately understand water quality variations of river in this study field.In river without highly circulating irrigation system or water gate effect,the downstream nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration increase occurred in area dominated by open field cultivation,whereas the NO3-N concentration was constant or decreased in area dominated by greenhouse land use.This result suggests that greenhouse covers the soil from precipitation,and nitrate load of greenhouse could be less than that of open field cultivation while the rainfall event.In the upper reaches of river,where is dominated by open field cultivation,there were no sharp increase dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus concentration,but P load was accumulated in the lower reaches of river,whose predominant land use is greenhouse.Although the P sources is unclear in this study,greenhouse area may have potential of P loads due to its high P content in greenhouse soil.Considering hydrology effect is necessary to determine what the major factor is influencing the water quality variation,especially in area with highly complicated irrigation system in this studying site.

  11. Isotopic Ages of the Carbonatitic Volcanic Rocks in the Kunyang Rift Zone in Central Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbei; WANG Guilan; NIE Jianfeng; ZHAO Chongshun; XU Chengyan; QIU Jiaxiang; Wang Hao

    2003-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kunyang rift, which is located on the western margin of the Yangtze platform and the southern section of the Kangdian axis, is a rare massive Precambrian iron-copper polymetallic mineralization zone in China. The Mesoproterozoic Wulu (Wuding(Lufeng) basin in the middle of the rift is an elliptic basin controlled by a ring fracture system. Moreover, volcanic activities in the basin display zonation of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner ring with carbonatitic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic dykes discovered in the outer and middle rings. The Sm-Nd isochron ages have been determined for the outer-ring carbonatitic lavas (1685 Ma) and basaltic porphyrite of the radiating dyke swarm (1645 Ma) and the Rb-Sr isochron ages for the out-ring carbonatitic lavas (893 Ma) and the middle-ring dykes (1048 Ma). In combination of the U-Pb concordant ages of zircon (1743 Ma) in trachy-andesite of the corresponding period and stratum (1569 Ma) of the Etouchang Formation, as well as the Rb-Sr isochron age (1024 Ma) and K-Ar age (1186 Ma) of the dykes in the middle ring, the age of carbonatites in the basin is preliminarily determined. It is ensured that all of these carbonatites were formed in the Mesoproterozoic period, whereby two stages could be identified as follows: in the first stage, carbonatitic volcanic groups, such as lavas, pyroclastic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, were formed in the outer ring; in the second stage, carbonatitic breccias and dykes appeared in the middle ring. The metamorphic age of the carbonatitic lavas in the outer ring was determined to be concurrent with the end of the first stage of the Neoproterozoic period, corresponding to the Jinning movement in central Yunnan.

  12. The spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall erosivity in Yunnan Province, southwest China: An analysis of empirical orthogonal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xingwu; Gu, Zhijia; Li, Yungang; Xu, Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Rainfall erosivity (R) influences the formation mechanisms and succession processes of soil erosion. Knowing of the R factor facilitates the prediction of soil erosion and of the impact of climate change on erosion. However, defining of the R factor is challenging because its spatiotemporal variation can be complex. We combined the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), North criteria, and Mann-Kendall test (M-K) to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of the R factor for a study area in a typical mountain plateau region of Yunnan Province (YP), China. Daily rainfall records from 1960 to 2012 were collected from 115 national meteorological observation stations in YP. Based on the daily rainfall erosivity estimating model, we determined that the average annual R factor was 4383.85 MJ·mm·ha- 1·h- 1, the seasonal R factor exhibited an order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and the summer R was significantly higher than winter R. The spatiotemporal variation of the R factor was complex and did not reveal a uniform pattern. The spatial distribution revealed that the annual and seasonal R factors in the west were higher than those in the east, and R in the south were higher than those in the north. The temporal trends of annual, summer, and autumn R factors had decreasing trends from 1960 to 2012. On the contrary, the spring and winter R factors showed an increasing trend. The EOF analysis identified two typical spatiotemporal patterns of the annual R factor in YP, and three for spring, summer, autumn, and winter R factors. These patterns represented the influence of the monsoon, circulation systems, and complex terrain conditions on the rainfall in the YP.

  13. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  14. Partial AZFc duplications not deletions are associated with male infertility in the Yi population of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-jie YE; Li MA; Li-juan YANG; Jin-huan WANG; Yue-li WANG; Hai GUO; Ning GONG

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however,results are conflicting,possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background.The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population,residents within Yunnan Province,China.Methods:A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population.The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gone copy definition analysis.Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology.Results:The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups.The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs.8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs.8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences.Similarly,single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls.However,the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%).Further,we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes.Conclusions:Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications,but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions,suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.

  15. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.. The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23 were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C → G at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  16. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  17. Oxygen isotope fractionation in travertine-depositing pools at Baishuitai, Yunnan, SW China: Effects of deposition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hailong; Liu, Zaihua; Yan, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Travertine δ18O values can be used to reconstruct paleo-temperatures if the oxygen isotope fractionation factors between travertine and water are accurately understood. For this purpose, the δ18O values of pool travertine and its parent water, and the deposition rates of the calcite were investigated at Baishuitai (Yunnan, SW China) over the course of the full hydrological year, April 23 2006-April 25 2007. The results show that the travertine-water isotope fractionation factors are close to the commonly accepted equilibrium line of Kim and O'Neil (1997). This differs from the results obtained by Yan et al. (2012) who found that the oxygen isotope fractionation factors in the travertine-depositing pools were close to the line suggested as equilibrium relationship by Coplen (2007). The average calcite deposition rate (2.30 mg cm-2 d-1) in the present study is six times larger than that (0.38 mg cm-2 d-1) in Yan et al. (2012). If slower calcite precipitation leads to equilibrium oxygen isotopic fractionation, then the results of this study support the results of Coplen (2007) that indicate that the equilibrium fractionation factor may be greater than the commonly accepted one derived by Kim and O'Neil (1997). The relationship between oxygen isotope fractionation factor and calcite deposition rate in our study also agrees with the results of Dietzel et al. (2009) who found that the kinetic-isotope effect favors preferential incorporation of 16O in solid calcite as the calcite deposition rate increases. There was a threshold for calcite precipitation rate control on oxygen isotopic equilibrium. In our case of travertine-depositing pools, when the calcite deposition rate was lower than 0.38 mg cm-2 d-1, oxygen isotopic equilibrium between calcite and water was attained. Therefore, calcite deposition rate is a potentially important consideration when using δ18O in natural carbonates as a proxy for terrestrial and ocean temperature.

  18. Tertiary deformation and metamorphism SE of Tibet: The folded Tiger-leap décollement of NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassin, Robin; SchäRer, Urs; Leloup, P. Hervé; Arnaud, Nicolas; Tapponnier, Paul; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Liansheng

    1996-06-01

    The Yulong-Haba Xue Shan range, in the northwestern part of Yunnan (China), is a large N-S antiform that folds the Paleozoic series of the Yangzi platform. The upper Yangzi River (Jinsha Jiang) has cut a 3500 m-deep valley (Hu Tiao gorge) across this antiform, thus exposing folded, bedding-parallel, ductile shear zones (décollements), with transport toward the SSW (in the present geographical coordinates). The large finite shear strain implies tens of kilometers of transport, pointing to the regional significance of these décollements. Rb/Sr radiometric dating of phlogopites that crystallized in marbles within the foliation planes yields the age of the metamorphic and deformation event (35.9 ± 0.3 (2σ) Ma). The age derives from an internal Rb-Sr isochron, made on different size fractions of the same mineral, which provides a novel demonstration of the feasibility of such plots. Transport on the décollement and related shortening occurred prior to, or at the onset of, extrusion of Indochina along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, ≈80 km west of the Yulong Shan. The 39Ar/40Ar age spectra of K-feldspar from the core of the Yulong Shan suggest uplift by antiformal folding around 17 Ma, as Indochina's extrusion came to an end. We infer that other large-scale Cenozoic décollements such as that exhumed in the Yulong Shan underlie some of the vast, folded areas that surround the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Transport on such décollements, first toward the south and then toward the east, and folding above them, might have occurred during two principal shortening phases, whose ages bracket Indochina's escape toward the SE.

  19. Use of Farmers' Indicators to Evaluate the Sustainability of Cropping Systems on Sloping Land in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SUBEDI; T.J.HOCKING; M.A.FULLEN; A.R.McCREA; E.MILNE; WU Bo-Zhi; D.J.MITCHELL

    2009-01-01

    Diversity in the biophysical and socio-economic attributes of agricultural systems makes them uniquely niche based.Farmers are expert in local biophysical and socio-economic situations and can contribute in developing pragmatic indicators of agro-environmental development.During evaluation of an agricultural research project in Yunnan,China,local farmers were capable of evaluating the effects of modified technologies on existing cropping systems and discussed their attitudes to the interventions using their own indicators.Farmers' response can be grouped into seven major aspects:i) effects on income,ii) effects on production resources,iii) effects on crop management,iv) existing local knowledge about the technology,v) availability of inputs,vi) access to information,and vii) socio-economic conditions of farming households.Farmers concluded that environmental conditions in the experimcntal catchment in comparison to an adjacent untreated catchment were better in terms of soil and water losses,vegetation cover and natural resources,infrastructures and catchment management,use of environmentally-friendly technologies,and crop productivity.Success in soil and water conservation programmes depends on the efforts of the farmers and other local users and their greater involvement helps to identify more pragmatic indicators.Furthermore,it increases ownership of the programme,enhances interactions with the project scientists,increases farmers' awareness of agro-environmental problems and their possible consequences.These development will enable scientists to develop better targeted interventions and increase the likelihood of adoption of tested technologies by local communities.The use of paired adjacent catchments improved evaluation activities and is proposed as good practice for future catchment improvement programmes.

  20. Mica-dominated seismic properties of mid-crust beneath west Yunnan (China) and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tongbin; Ji, Shaocheng; Oya, Shoma; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Wang, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) and calculations of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and anisotropy were conducted on three quartz-mica schists and one felsic mylonite, which are representative of typical metamorphic rocks deformed in the middle crust beneath the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Results show that the schists have Vp anisotropy (AVp) ranging from 16.4% to 25.5% and maximum Vs anisotropy [AVs(max)] between 21.6% and 37.8%. The mylonite has lower AVp and AVs(max) but slightly higher foliation anisotropy, which are 13.2%, 18.5%, and 3.07%, respectively, due to the lower content and CPO strength of mica. With increasing mica content, the deformed rocks tend to form transverse isotropy (TI) with fast velocities in the foliation plane and slow velocities normal to the foliation. However, the presence of prismatic minerals (e.g., amphibole and sillimanite) forces the overall symmetry to deviate from TI. An increase in feldspar content reduces the bulk anisotropy caused by mica or quartz because the fast-axis of feldspar aligns parallel to the slow-axis of mica and/or quartz. The effect of quartz on seismic properties of mica-bearing rocks is complex, depending on its content and prevailing slip system. The greatest shear-wave splitting and fastest Vp both occur for propagation directions within the foliation plane, consistent with the fast Pms (S-wave converted from P-wave at the Moho) polarization directions in the west Yunnan where mica/amphibole-bearing rocks have developed pervasive subvertical foliation and subhorizontal lineation. The fast Pms directions are perpendicular to the approximately E-W orienting fast SKS (S-wave traversing the core as P-wave) directions, indicating a decoupling at the Moho interface between the crust and mantle beneath the region. The seismic data are inconsistent with the model of crustal channel flow as the latter should produce a subhorizontal foliation where vertically incident shear

  1. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU

    2005-01-01

    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  2. Understanding ethnic multilingual learners at tertiary level : an ethnographic case study in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    王革; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on multilingual acquisition indicates that multilingual learners confront challenges not only in mastering new linguistic forms, but also in forming new identities, and especially when the languages concerned are socially and linguistically distant. This study shows that ethnic minority students in China (referred in particular as ‘ethnic multilingual learners’ or EMLs in this study) at universities can face more challenges than the ethnic majority, Han, when they choose to ...

  3. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VISCOUS DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE JIANGJIA RAVINE, YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyi WANG; Chyandeng JAN; Changzhi LI; Wenliang HAN

    2001-01-01

    The rheological properties of natural debris flow are studied using experimental data obtained from a rheometer built by the authors. The present study is aimed to address the rheological properties of viscous debris flow at low shear rate. It is found that overstress effect and shear-rate-thinning phenomenon characterize the viscous debris flow in the Jiangjia Ravine, China. Results obtained from this study are believed to lay the foundation for further study on the theory of debris flow rheology.

  4. Proifle, spectrum and signiifcance of hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic HBV-infected patients in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing You; Bao-Zhang Tang; Hutcha Sriplung; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Alan Geater; Lin Zhuang; Jun-Hua Huang; Hong-Ying Chen; Lan Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There are signiifcant variations in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes throughout the world, and some genotypes are associated with different clinical outcomes. Eight genotypes of human HBV (designated A-H) have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the distribution of HBV genotypes among patients at various stages of chronic type B liver disease in Yunnan Province, China, and to explore its signiifcance and the relationship of HBV genotype with gender and age, clinical spectrum of chronic HBV infection, and viral replicative activity. METHODS:Serum samples from 126 patients with chronic HBV infection from Yunnan Province, including 26 chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC), 61 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (21 mild, 30 moderate and 10 severe), 20 patients with chronic fulminant hepatic failure (CFHF), 12 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) and 7 patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were analyzed using reverse dot blot (RDB) methodology, which is based on the reverse hybridization principle for HBV genotyping. The relations of HBV genotype with gender and age, clinical patterns, and serological data of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: In this series, genotypes A, B, C, and D were found. 38.1%patients (48/126) belonged to B, 54.8%(69/126) to C, 0.8%(1/126) to D, 1.6%(2/126) to a mixture of B and C, and 1.6%(2/126) to a mixture of A and C. 3.2%patients (4/126) had unknown genotypes. No other genotypes (E, F, G, and H) were found. Genotypes B and C were predominant. There was a statistically signiifcant difference in the distributions of genotypes C and B (χ2=7.04, P=0.008), and C was the dominant genotype in all patient categories. The rate of genotype B in the mild CHB group was signiifcantly higher than that in the moderate and severe groups (χ2=12.16, P=0.0001; χ2=11.98, P=0.001, respectively), the ASC group (χ2=5.46, P=0.02), the CFHF group (χ2

  5. A re-interpretation of the exotic event observed in the cosmic ray at Yunnan Cosmic Ray Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆承瑞; 何祚庥; 高崇寿; 阮图南

    1995-01-01

    The exotic event observed in 1972 at Yunan Cosmic Ray Station (YCRS) has been re-interpreted as a collision between a high energy heavy particle with a nucleon. with three charged particles identified as the final products. If no other missing neutral particles were produced in this collision, then one of the three particles C- could be assigned with mass Mcd>45 GeV. and life-time . If C- is unstable it can decay via weak interaction to C0 and a pair of lepions. the mass difference between C- and C is estimated as less than 0.270GeV The relevance of this event to the dark matter problem in the Universe is also discussed.

  6. Shilin: The Formation of Stone Forests in Various Rock Types(Lunan, Yunnan, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin KNEZ; Tadej SLABE

    2007-01-01

    Shilin is among the most interesting form of stone forest to occur in karst landscapes. They develop from karren subsoil, and their shapes, entire forests or just individual pillars and their rock relief, depend on the conditions under which they were formed, their location in the karst landscape,and above all on the characteristics of the rock: its composition, stratification, and fissuring. Because of the exceptional characteristics of this karst phenomenon in China, we propose that the term "shilin" be used in the professional literature for this type of stone forest.

  7. Social Factors to Aggravate Disasters in Yunnan in Late Imperial China%清末民初云南灾荒加剧的社会因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立文

    2012-01-01

    云南的自然环境极具灾害性。明清以降至清末民初,由于人口急速膨胀、农田过度开垦和山林矿藏的掠夺式开发,云南生态环境迅速恶化,进而加速加剧了各类自然灾害的发生;农业与家庭手工业相结合的自然经济又从根本上限制了社会抗灾减荒能力的生成与提高。封建剥削、战乱兵祸及列强的经济掠夺、迷信赌毒等造成社会环境的全面恶化,各族民众极度贫困,加重了灾后饥荒疾疫的蔓延与流行。中央与地方政府的荒政长久缺失,导致云南赈灾救荒活动严重乏力。总之,清末民初的云南已完全陷入人为破坏生态环境加剧自然灾害频发、逢灾必荒的结果加速了社会环境的恶化、社会环境恶化又加重了饥荒的蔓延这一恶性循环过程。%Yunnan is prone to natural disasters due to its environment. From the Ming and Qing dynasties to late imperial China, population explosion, over-farming, predatory exploitation of forests and minerals, and ecological damages aggravated all kinds of natural disasters in Yunnan on one hand, and on the other hand, natural economy of agriculture and household handicrafts weakened the power of society to prevent and reduce disasters. Feudal exploitation, government's taxes, wars, bandits, economic plunder of imperialists, superstition, gambling and drugs deteriorated social environment, and extreme poverty of ethnic people speeded.up the wide spread of famine and epidemic after disasters. Neither the central government nor the local governments made policies to deal with natural disasters. As a result, disaster relief in Yunnan was seriously weak. All in all, Yunnan in late imperial China was ecological damages leading to frequent natural disasters which totally stuck into a vicious circle of man-made then would deteriorate social environment, and which in turn would result in prolonged famines.

  8. Study of climate change related to deforestation in the Xishuangbanna area, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the results of deforestation and the meteorological data of the Xinshuangbanna region of China shows that there are possible relations between the deforestation and climate change. With the forest area decreased by 33% during the past 30 years, the climate of this region has also been changed. The annual mean temperature has been increased by 0.7C, of which the increase is 0.97C in the dry season and 0.53C in the wet season. Together with the annual temperature increase the temperature variations have also been increased, which has resulted in more frequent low temperature damage to the local plantation agriculture. The relative humidity decreased by 3% annually; and the annual precipitation also decreased, with a decrease in the wet season of 6.8% and an increase in the dry season of 20.8%

  9. Telescoping ore targets by geochemical exploration at multiple scales in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YongOing; HUANG JingNing; ZHAI XiaoMing; ZHAO BinBin

    2009-01-01

    Platinum has been one of the highly needed mineral resources in China. The geochemical exploration at two survey scales was applied in telescoping ore targets for the first time in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province that was delineated using Pt data from flood plain sediments with extra-low sampling density. Our study was based on the delineations and assessments of both regional and local Pt anomalies using the Pt data by analyzing with C-OES the composite samples with two sampling densities. The composite samples were obtained by recomposing at two sampling densities the origi-nal stream sediment samples collected by the National Geochemical Mapping Project. Semi-variograms were used to quantitatively describe the variability of Pt anomalies and further analyze the factors controlling the variability. Pt resource potentials of both the regional Pt anomalies and the local Pt anomalies in the study area were estimated based on the geochemical block methods, respectively. It comes to the conclusions as follows. (1) From the regional to local Pt anomaly, the factors controlling their variability from the deep seated faults-basalts turn into the basalts-branch faults, which suggest that Semi-variograms could identify the geological factors controlling the variability of the Pt anomalies identified by the Pt data from the stream sediments with different sampling densities. (2) There existtwo types of Pt anomalies in the study area. One is those displaying at sampling densities, and its ave-rage Pt concentration significantly increases with sampling density increasing. The other is getting weaker and/or disappears with sampling density increasing. This shows that TOTGEMS could gradu-ally eliminate non-ore anomalies and keep ore anomalies. (3) The average Pt concentration of the local Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from stream sediments with sampling density of one com-posite per 16 km is twice as much as that of the regional Pt anomaly blocks delineated

  10. Re-engineer cultural “DNA” of an innovation in the process of adoption and diffusion: In the lens of adopters of an eco-innovation in Honghe UNESCO World Heritage Site in Yunnan China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Coles, Anne-Marie; Qi, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will report on a project, which investigated a research gap in the theory of technology diffusion regarding the influence of socio-cultural and religious factors in adoption processes. The project was concerned with identifying local factors influencing the uptake of solar water heating systems in the Yuanyang Hani Rice Terrace community, an ethnic minority from Yunnan, China. The rice terraces are located in a remote, mountainous part of South Western China where the...

  11. STATISTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GEOMORPHIC PARAMETERS- A CASE STUDY OF THE YUNNAN REACH OF THE LANCANGJIANG RIVER IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiji WANG; Shaohong WU; Erfu DAI

    2007-01-01

    The properties of rivers and their catchments can be expressed by statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters. These statistical relationships may reveal some inherent differences in geomorphic evolution for different reaches or different order tributaries of a river basin. A case study was undertaken of the Yunnan reach of the Langcangjiang River. The catchment area, channel length and gradient of the first-, second- and third-order tributaries all with catchment areas larger than 100 km2 in the Yunnan reach were the main geomorphic parameters evaluated. The correlation between catchment area and channel length as well as between catchment area and channel gradient with respect to the total tributaries, different reach tributaries, and different order tributaries were revealed using statistical methods. In general, the channel length as a function of catchment area, was best expressed by a quadratic function where channel length increases with increasing catchment area (half parabola), while the channel gradient as a function of catchment area is best expressed by an exponential decay function. Comparison of the best-fit formulas revealed the following phenomena: the lower Yunnan reach tributaries and the first-order tributaries have a dominant effect on geomorphic parameters of the total tributaries. In addition, the statistical relationships indicate that the river geomorphic system in the upper and lower Yunnan reaches evolved differently. This study method used to differentiate river characteristics by determining statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters may be extended to other rivers and their catchments.

  12. Weiwoboidae fam.nov.of 'Higher' Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera:Fulgoromorpha) from the Eocene Deposits of Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qibin; Jacek SZWEDO; HUANG Diying; Adam STROI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    A new family of so-called 'higher' planthoppers,Weiwoboidae fam.nov.,from the Lower Eocene of Yunnan is described.A new monotypic genus,Weiwoboa gen.nov.,with Weiwoboa meridiana sp.nov.is also described and illustrated.The characters of tegmen venation of the new family,its evolution,and supposed relationships are briefly discussed.

  13. Spatiotemporal transmission and determinants of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Hongta District, Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in Hongta District and their prevalence, at 113 per 100,000 individuals, remains the highest in China. However, the exact sources of the disease and its main epidemiological characteristics have not yet been clearly identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Numbers of typhoid and paratyphoid cases per day during the period 2006 to 2010 were obtained from the Chinese Center of Disease Control (CDC. A number of suspected disease determinants (or their proxies, were considered for use in spatiotemporal analysis: these included locations of discharge canals and food markets, as well as socio-economic and environmental factors. Results showed that disease prevalence was spatially clustered with clusters decreasing with increasing distance from markets and discharge canals. More than half of the spatial variance could be explained by a combination of economic conditions and availability of health facilities. Temporal prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with the monthly precipitation series. Polluted hospital and residential wastewater was being discharged into rainwater canals. Salmonella bacteria were found in canal water, on farmland and on vegetables sold in markets. CONCLUSION: DISEASE TRANSMISSION IN HONGTA DISTRICT IS DRIVEN PRINCIPALLY BY TWO SPATIOTEMPORALLY COUPLED CYCLES: one involving seasonal variations and the other the distribution of polluted farmland (where vegetables are grown and sold in markets. Disease transmission was exacerbated by the fact that rainwater canals were being used for disposal of polluted waste from hospitals and residential areas. Social factors and their interactions also played a significant role in disease transmission.

  14. Granite, gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves in the Gejiu area, Yunnan Province, China: a case of two-stage mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Mao, Jingwen; Rusk, Brian G.

    2012-10-01

    Geochronological, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd, and zircon Hf isotopic analyses were carried out on the Jiasha Gabbro, mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) and host Longchahe Granite samples from the Gejiu area in the southeast Yunnan province, SW China, with the aim of characterizing their petrogenesis. Compositional zoning is evident in the gabbro body as the cumulate textures and mineral proportions in the gabbro interior are distinct from the gabbro margin. The Longchahe Granite largely comprises metaluminous quartz monzonite with distinctive K-feldspar megacrysts, but also contains a minor component of peraluminous leucogranite. The MME have spheroidal to elongated/lenticular shapes with sharp, crenulated and occasionally diffuse contacts with the host granite, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of mafic magma globules within the cooler host felsic magma. Field observations, geochronology, geochemistry, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions point to a complex petrogenesis for this granite-MME-gabbro association. Zircon 206Pb/238U ages determined by LA-ICP-MS for a mafic enclave, its host granite and the gabbro body are 83.1 ± 0.9 Ma, 83.1 ± 0.4 Ma and 83.2 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively, indicating coeval crystallization of these igneous rock units. Crystal fractionation processes can explain much of the compositional diversity of the Jiasha Gabbro. The geochemical features of the gabbro, such as high Mg# (up to 70) and Cr (up to 327 ppm), enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Ba, K2O) and LREEs, and depletion in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), together with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.708-0.709 and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.23 to -6.45), indicate they were derived from a mantle source that had undergone previous enrichment, possibly by subduction components. The Longchahe Granite has a large range of SiO2 (59.87-74.94 wt%), is distinctly alkaline in composition, and has Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i > 0.712, ɛNd(t) = -6.93 to -7

  15. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  16. Late Triassic paleomagnetic result from the Baoshan Terrane, West Yunnan of China: Implication for orientation of the East Paleotethys suture zone and timing of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Huang, Baochun; Yan, Yonggang; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the paleogeographic position of the Baoshan Terrane in the northernmost part of the Sibumasu Block during formation of the Pangea supercontinent, a paleomagnetic study has been conducted on Late Triassic basaltic lavas from the southern part of the Baoshan Terrane in the West Yunnan region of Southwest China. Following detailed rock magnetic investigations and progressive thermal demagnetization, stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRMs) were successfully isolated from Late Triassic Niuhetang lava flows. The ChRMs are of dual polarity and pass fold and reversal tests with magnetic carriers dominated by magnetite and subordinate oxidation-induced hematite; we thus interpret them as a primary remanence. This new paleomagnetic result indicates that the Baoshan Terrane was located at low paleolatitudes of ∼15°N in the Northern Hemisphere during Late Triassic times. Together with available paleomagnetic data from the Baoshan Terrane and surrounding areas, a wider paleomagnetic comparison supports the view that the East Paleotethys Ocean separated the Sibumasu and Indochina blocks and closed no later than Late Triassic times. We argue that the currently approximately north-to-south directed Changning-Menglian suture zone is very likely to have been oriented nearly east-to-west at the time of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision.

  17. Contents of Fixed-Ammonium (NH4+) in Lamprophyres in the Zhenyuan Gold Orefield, Yunnan Province, China:Implications for Its Characteristics of the Source Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 黄智龙; 罗泰义

    2004-01-01

    This paper determined the fixed-ammonium (NH+4) contents of lamprophyres in the Zhenyuan gold orefield, Yunnan Province, China. The results show that the NH+4 contents of minettes in the orefield range from 120×10 -6 to 469×10 -6 and those of kersantites from 74.3 ×10 -6 to 136×10 -6 . These values are higher than those of other mantle-derived rocks (less than 50×10 -6 ), but lower than those of carbonaceous wall rocks in the orefield (from 1200×10 -6 to 1343×10 -6 ). Combining with the Sr isotopic composition, this paper suggested that lamprophyres in the orefield with high NH+4 contents relative to other mantle-derived rocks would not have resulted from the primary magma contaminated by crustal materials in the process of rising or in the magma chamber, but from mantle metasomatism.

  18. 云南米虾属一新种(十足目,匙指虾科)%A NEW SPECIES OF CARIDINA (DECAPODA, CARIDEA) FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卿; 梁象秋

    2005-01-01

    A new atyid shrimp from Yunnan, China, Caridina paucidentata, is described. The new species is closely allied to Caridina mongziensis but differs to the latter from the rostrum dorsal border which bearing only with 1-3 teeth.%记述了采集于云南蒙自匙指虾科米虾属1新种,贫齿米虾Caridina paucidentata sp.nov..文中详细描述了其形态特征,同时附特征图.新种和近似种蒙自米虾的主要区别在于前者额角背缘齿少,仅1~3个.模式标本保存于上海水产大学.

  19. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  20. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  1. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  2. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO2 emission changes during 1997–2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO2 emissions, during 2002–2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO2 emissions, during 2007–2012, the carbon intensity of Yunnan’s economy decreased substantially because the province vigorously developed hydropower and improved energy efficiency in energy-intensive sectors. Construction investments not only carbonized the GDP composition, but also formed a carbon-intensive production structure because of high-carbon supply chains. To further mitigate CO2 emissions in Yunnan, measures should promote the development and application of clean energy and the formation of consumption-based economic growth.

  3. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic characteristics of natural gases from the Luliang and Baoshan basins in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yongchang; LIU; Wenhui; SHEN; Ping; WANG; Wanchun; WANG; Xiaofeng; Tenger; YAN; Yaomin; LIU; Ruobin

    2006-01-01

    The Luliang and Baoshan basins of Yunnan Province are two small-sized continental oil/gas-bearing sedimentary basins, which were developed at the bases of the Carboniferous and Devonian systems during the Late Tertiary, covering an area of 325 km2 and 254 km2, respectively.Since the 1990s, there have been discovered small-sized natural gas pools in these two basins. The natural gases are composed mainly of hydrocarbon gases, with nonhydrocarbons accounting for less than 2%. Of the hydrocarbon gases, methane accounts for more than 99%, and the components above C2 account for less than 0.2%. On the basis of previous studies of geological background, the composition of natural gases and their carbon isotopic composition, it has been defined that these two gas pools are of bacterial origin. In this work we have comprehensively measured the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of natural gases from these two basins and have gone into the details of the mechanism of gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Luliang Basin are within the range of -72.1‰--73.3‰, and the δDcH4 values, -242‰--234‰, indicating that the bacterial gas generation is dominated by the way of CO2 reduction. It has been evidenced that under continental-facies fresh water conditions there did occur the CO2 reduction as a process of bacterial gas generation. The δ13C1 values of natural gases from the Baoshan Basin are within the range of -62.5‰--63.5‰, and the δDCH4 values, -252‰--260‰. These isotopic characteristics are fallen into transitional phase of acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction as defined by Whiticar et al. (1986).An important discovery in the Luliang Basin is the carbon isotopic composition of ethane of purely biogenetic origin, i.e., its δ13C2 values are within the range of -61.2‰--66.0‰. These carbon isotopic values have been reported for the first time in China. As compared to the δ13C2 values of less than -55‰ for the two cases

  4. Kant in China : A Study on the Introduction and Interpretation of Immanuel Kant's Philosophy from Late Qing China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the introduction and interpretation of Kant from late Qing China.The thesis is divided into five parts. The first part introduces the historical context in which Kant was introduced and interpreted. The historical context considers both China and Japan, due to the use of Japanese sources by the early authors writing on Kant’s philosophy. The historical analysis also examines some aspects of the reception of Western science and philosophy when these can provide insight int...

  5. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  6. REE geochemistry of lamprophyres in Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, China: implication for the mantle source region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Tao; HUANG Zhilong; XU Cheng; ZHANG Zhenliang; YAN Zaifei; SHEN Baojian

    2005-01-01

    Based on the REE geochemistry data from the Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, the authors modeled the composition of the mantle source region by way of petrological mixing calculation, and further discussed the genesis of this type of rocks. Both element geochemistry data and mixing calculation showed that lamprophyres in the Baimazhai nickel deposit were derived from a metasomatism-enrichment mantle and the fluids resulted from dehydration of a subducted slab which is comprised of ALK-, LREE- and incompatible element-rich sediments.

  7. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  8. Seismic Hazard Matrix of Buildings in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guangquan; Tan Wenhong; Shi Weihua; Fei Minglun; Xie Li

    2008-01-01

    Seismologists have begun to investigate the earthquake damage and assess the economic losses on the spot in the Yunnan area since the earthquakes with Ms6.7 and Ms6.9 that occurred on the boundary between China and Myanmar west of Menglian county, Yunnan Province, on April 23, 1992. From 1992 to 2003, 50 destructive earthquakes occurred in Yunnan, and large amounts of data on seismic hazard have been accumulated. With focus on the major building structures, the paper makes statistical analysis on the earthquake damage ratio, loss ratio and seismic hazard index in the areas with different seismic intensity of the 50 events, and presents the seismic hazard matrix of buildings for the Yunnan area.

  9. Population-based study on the prevalence of and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-lu Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix. Prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes vary among different regions. However there is no data on the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes from southwest China. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for HR-HPV infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China to provide comprehensive baseline data for future screening strategies. Methods A sample of 5936 women was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS. An epidemiological questionnaire was conducted via a face-to-face interview and cervical specimens were taken for HPV DNA testing by Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test. HPV Genotyping Reverse Hybridization Test was used for HPV genotyping. Proportions were compared by Chi-squared tests, and logistic regression was utilized to evaluate risk factors. Results The median age was 38 years and the inter-quartile range was from 31 years to 47 years. 97.3% of the study population was Han nationality. Overall prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 8.3% (494/5936 and bimodal age distribution of HPV infection was observed. The five most prevalent HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16(3.4%, HPV-56(1.7%, HPV-58(1.4%, HPV-33(1.2% and HPV-52(0.88%. Multiple HPV infections were identified in 50.5% (208/412 of the positive genotyping specimens. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated that parity (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.53, p  Conclusions This study provided baseline data on HR-HPV prevalence in the general female population in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China. The finding of multiple HPV infections and bimodal age distribution revealed that HPV screening is necessary for perimenopausal women in future.

  10. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  12. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  13. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp. in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp. abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  14. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions.

  15. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Interpretation of the Influential Power of China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hailin; Guo Chaoxian

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on China's economic develop- ment, utilization of resource environment and soft power, a basic judgment was made of the influence of "China development". The overall influential power of China development on international community was misunderstood. What we see is the role of "China Factor" in different fields. In the process of economic globalization, what economic system of capitalist market has seen is "China's cheap labor", "China's loose economic system environment", "earlier abuse of unlimited resource environment", "China's broad consumption market" and "demographic dividend". In global or Asian financial crisis, what other countries valued was China's "foreign currency" accumulated over the years. In global gov- ernance or crisis management, what international community expected was "China's obligations and responsibilities" without the right of speech, etc.. All these are the "passive" roles produced by "a single factor" in definite fields. The active and initiative role China will play in international community still needs time and the continuous efforts of several generations. China once was a big country that had significant inftuential power on the world, and China's renaissance is a normal process of development of things. What excessive talks about its influential power reflect may be the lack of China's influence.

  17. Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping of Yujiacun Ore Field in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Zhang Shouting

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate information comprehensive processing technique is especially important at present to the digital mineral prospecting. However, the GIS-based weights of evidence have provided us with a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mineral resource potential. In this paper, the mineralization model is established, based on the achievements made by previous researchers, to mend such deficiencies as few references on ore fields in Yujiacun, Yunnan Province and the shortage of quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources. In addition, the weights of evidence are used to make a systematic quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources there, so that 2 mineral prospecting target areas of grade I and 8 mineral prospecting target areas of grade Ⅱ are delineated,providing the further mineral resource exploration with the basis for the selection of mineral deposits.

  18. The Research on the Development of Trade Settlement between Yunnan China and Vietnam%云南省对越边境贸易及跨境贸易人民币结算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2012-01-01

    随着中越双方边境贸易的发展,结算方式等也随之变化和发展.双方边贸结算开始于所谓的"地摊银行"的兑换,经历了现金结算方式、银行结算、人民币结算等过程.云南省是中国实施边贸人民币结算试点较早的地区之一.2004年1月云南省试行边境小额贸易货物出口人民币结算退税试点,调动了边贸企业的积极性,扩大了对越出口,推进了人民币的周边化进程,此间也存在一些问题.把云南建成我国面向西南开放的重要桥头堡,给云南的发展带来了千载难逢的历史机遇.文章通过对滇越贸易结算方式发展的回顾,边境贸易及跨境贸易人民币结算产生的背景、发展及云南省对越贸易结算发展过程中存在问题等方面进行分析研究,有针对性地提出解决问题的措施,使人民币在中越两国间能有序地流通,以促进中越两国贸易稳定持续发展.%The way of trade settlement is changing with the development of cross-border trade between Yunnan China and Vietnam. Going through the cash settlement, bank settlement and RMB settlement, the way of trade settlement between those two places has become the exchange of "stall bank" currently. Yunnan Province is one of the pilot bases where Chinese cross-border trade settlements are firstly implemented. Yunnan tried the drawback of the RMB settlement of exports in small amount of border trade on January 1st 2004, which boosts the cross-trade cooperation's enthusiasm and expands exports from Yunnan to Vietnam. At the same time, it widens the use of RMB in the border. However, the disadvantages are also inevitably existed among those advantages. Building Yunnan as an important bridgehead to other countries in southwest of China brings Yunnan a golden opportunity of development. This article reviews the history of trade settlements between Yunnan China and Vietnam, researches the background and development of cross-border RMB

  19. Relationship between Rice Cultural Diversity and Ecological Environment in Yunnan Province of China%中国云南稻作文化多样性与生态环境的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亚文; 杜娟; 普晓英; 罗曦; 杨树明; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper aims to confirm that Yunnan is one origin center of rice and human in the world.[Method] The complicated and unique ecological environment in Yunnan makes Yunnan Province the largest center of genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being as well as the cradle of human childhood.[Result] The genetic diversity and cultural diversity of rice and human being is closely related to the ecosystem diversity.Rice civilization in Yunnan can be divided into four types,including the diversity center region of rice civilization in southwestern Yunnan,diffusion region of rice civilization of Hani-Zhuang in southern Yunnan,rice civilization region of water-drought rotation in central Yunnan and poverty region of rice civilization in northern Yunnan.Southwestern Yunnan is not only the center of genetic ecological diversity and rice cultural diversity,but also the center of origin and diversity of crop genetic diversity.It is not only a transitional region among East Asia continent,South Asian sub-continent and Indo-China Peninsula,but also a core integration area of Chinese culture,Indian culture and Mid-south Peninsula culture which all merge with the local culture.[Conclusion] Yunnan is one common sphere where the origin of human evolution is closely related to the origin of rice evolution.%[目的]探讨云南是世界稻种和人类的起源中心之一。[方法]复杂的而独特的云南生态环境造就了云南成为中国稻种最大的遗传多样性和文化多样性中心及其人类童年的摇篮。[结果]云南稻种和人类遗传多样性及其文化多样性与生态系统多样性息息相关;云南稻作文化可划分为滇西南稻作文化多样性中心区、滇南哈尼壮族稻作文化扩散区、滇中水旱轮作稻作文化区和滇北稻作文化贫乏区四大类型。滇西南既是云南稻种的遗传生态多样中心和稻作文化多样性中心,又是云南作物种质资源起源及其多样化

  20. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Dong, Shikui; Peng, Mingchun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world. The basin has been strongly affected by human activities, particularly by dam construction. This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China, where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed. To identify the vegetation composition and structure, we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010. We found that the forest, shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside. In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity. In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley. At high altitude, the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found. As a result of dam construction and operation, the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed. Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats. The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  1. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng LI; Shikui DONG; Mingchun PENG; Xiaoyan LI; Shiliang LIU

    2012-01-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world.The basin has been strongly affected by human activities,particularly by dam construction.This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China,where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed.To identify the vegetation composition and structure,we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010.We found that the forest,shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside.In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity.In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley.At high altitude,the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found.As a result of dam construction and operation,the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed.Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats.The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  2. A New Lycopsid, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation of Southeastern Yunnan, China,and Its Evolutionary Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new plant, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Posongchong Formation (Early Devonian, Pragian age) of the Wenshan District of southeastern Yunnan Province, China is a small herbaceous lycopsid. The aerial branches divide into foliar and fertile stems. The arrangement of the leaf bases on the stem shows lepidodendroid-like phyllotaxy. Possibly the leaf base bears a ligulate pit.The microphyll consists of a swollen, decurrent base, and an entire, linear lamina. The fertile axis is composed of sporophylls arranged helically, forming a compact area similar to cone-like structure.Each sporophyll consists of a widened lateral extension and a distal lamina. The ovoid-elongate sporangia are attached adaxially on the surface of sporophylls. Based on morphological similarities,especially the undivided microphylls, the style of phyllotaxy, the form of the cone-like structures and sporangia, the new lycopsid Zhenglia radiata is placed in the order Protolepidodendrales and a possible evolutionary relationship with the arborescent lycopsids of the Late Devonian and Carboniferous is considered.

  3. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乐昌; 王焰新; 吕俊文; 卢学实; 刘耀驰; 刘晓阳

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of radioactive pollutants, such as 222Rn, U, Th and 226Ra in the air, surface waters, soils and crops around the Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China, is studied. The mechanical, geochemical and biogeochemical processes responsible for the transport and fate of the radioactive elements are discussed based on the monitoring data. The pollutants concentrations of effluents from the mine tunnels were dependent on pH and which were controlled by biochemical oxidation of sulfide in the ore/host rocks. Radon anomalies in air reached 4 km from the tailings pile depending on radon release from the site, topography and climate. 238U and 226Ra abnormities in stream sediments and soil were 40-90 cm deep and 790-800 m away downstream. Anomalies of radioactive contaminants of surface watercourses extended 7.5-13 km from the discharge of effluents of the site mainly depending on mechanical and chemical processes. There were about 2.86 ha rice fields and 1.59 km stream sediments contaminated. Erosion of tailings and mining debris with little or no containment or control accelerated the contamination processes.

  4. Morphological diversity of Trichuris spp. eggs observed during an anthelminthic drug trial in Yunnan, China, and relative performance of parasitologic diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Du, Zun-Wei; Marti, Hanspeter; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large Trichuris spp. eggs in human faecal samples is occasionally reported. Such eggs have been described as variant Trichuris trichiura or Trichuris vulpis eggs. Within the frame of a randomised controlled trial, faecal samples collected from 115 Bulang individuals from Yunnan, People's Republic of China were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique (fresh stool samples) and the FLOTAC and ether-concentration techniques (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples). Large Trichuris spp. eggs were noted in faecal samples with a prevalence of 6.1% before and 21.7% after anthelminthic drug administration. The observed prevalence of standard-sized T. trichiura eggs was reduced from 93.0% to 87.0% after treatment. Considerably more cases of large Trichuris spp. eggs and slightly more cases with normal-sized T. trichiura eggs were identified by FLOTAC compared to the ether-concentration technique. No large Trichuris spp. eggs were observed on the Kato-Katz thick smears.

  5. Reappraisal of Fosbergia shweliensis (Rubiaceae), a species endemic to the Gaoligong Mountains, Western Yunnan, China%瑞丽茜(茜草科)的再确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 刀志灵; 李嵘

    2006-01-01

    Based on collections from the Gaoligong Mountains in 1998-2004, western Yunnan, China, the present paper describes in detail the fruit characters of Fosbergia shweliensis (Anth.) Tirveng. & Sastre (Rubiaceae), a species endemic to the Gaoligong area. The paper also reviews the flower structure and reports on the habit and distribution of the species. Comparing the original description of Randia shweliensis Anth. (the basionym of Fosbergia shweliensis), our collections are the same species as Fosbergia shweliensis.%瑞丽茜Fosbergia shweliensis (Anth.) Tirveng. & Sastre的基名为Randia shweliensis Anth., 是高黎贡山地区的特有种.根据作者1998-2004年从云南西部高黎贡山所采集的标本, 本文补充了瑞丽茜果实的形态描述, 更正了关于本种原描述的若干错误, 报道了本种的生活习性、生境和分布情况.

  6. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  7. Levels,trends and risk assessment of arsenic pollution in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic contamination accident in Yangzonghai Lake,Yunnan has been of wide concern.In order to investigate the arsenic distribution and concentration trends after the accident,samples including lake water,sediments,soil,aquatic organisms and crops were collected in November 2008,as well as in February,May and September 2009.The average arsenic concentrations (arithmetic average) in lake water in the four sampling events were 176.9,147.3,159.3,and 161.1 μg/L,while those in the sediments were 32.87,62.41,62.99,and 46.96 μg/g,respectively.The highest content of total arsenic in soil in the vicinity of Yangzonghai was 23.33 μg/g,which was below the limits of the relevant national standard.The total arsenic levels in most aquatic plants were in the range of 100-200 μg/g,with Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara having the highest concentration of ~300 μg/g.The arsenic levels of fish and shrimps were in the range of 1.52-11.4 μg/g (dry weight).

  8. [Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics under tourism disturbance in lakeside wetland of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Yan; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of vegetation and soil were investigated in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands in northwest Yunnan Plateau under tourism disturbance. The 22 typical plots in the wetlands were classified into 4 types by TWINSPAN, including primary wetland, light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation. Along the degradation gradient, the plant community density, coverage, species number and Shannon diversity index increased and the plant height decreased in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands, and Whittaker diversity index increased in Bita Lake wetland. Plant species number, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents were higher in Shudu Lake wetland than in Bita Lake wetland, but the plant density, height, soil total potassium and pH were opposite. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by importance values of 42 plants and 11 soil variables showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium were the key factors on plant species distribution in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands under tourism disturbance. TWINSPAN classification and analysis of vegetation-soil characteristics indicated the effects of tourism disturbance in Bita Lake wetland were larger than in Shudu Lake wetland.

  9. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities since the Holocene in Erhai catchment, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Ji; YANG; Liyuan; YANG; Xiangdong; R.; Matsumoto; TO

    2005-01-01

    According to high-resolution analyses on multi-proxy of sediment core from the Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, the sequence of climatic and environmental change since the Holocene has been reconstructed based on accurate dating. The results show that climate had transited from cold-wet to warm-wet during ca. 12950-8399 aBP in this area, and the transition happened in ca. 10329 aBP. Due to the enhancing southwest Asian monsoon and increasing precipitation, the lake-level of the Erhai Lake began to rise after ca. 10329 a BP. Climate in the catchment was warm and wet during the mid-Holocene, and the warmest stage appeared in ca.8399-6371 a BP. The lake-level descended in the mid-Holocene because of the decrease of effective moisture in the basin. Human activities appeared in ca. 6371 a BP, and the initial manner mainly focused on deforestation. Up to ca. 2139 a BP, due to the amount of immigration into this area, the cultivation was developed widely, which was followed by mining (coal mine).

  10. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  11. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  12. Soil Erosion under Different Land Use Types and Zones of Jinsha River Basin in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui

    2004-01-01

    Severe soil erosion in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River has been regarded as a major environmental problem. The on-site impact of soil erosion on agricultural production and the off-site impact on floods and sedimentation in Yangtze Rive are well known. A quantitative assessment of soil erosion intensity is still scanty for developing appropriate soil erosion control measures for different land use types and zones in this region. This article constructs a localized USLE and estimates the average soil loss in the Jinsha River Region in Yunnan Province, one of the priority areas for soil erosion control in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The estimation is done under different land uses and zones in this basin. The estimation shows that while soil erosion in the cultivated land is the most severe, 36~40% of the garden and forest land suffers from soil erosion of various degrees due to lack of ground cover and other factors. Soil erosion in the pasture is modest when the ground cover is well maintained. It also confirmed that terracing can reduce soil erosion intensity significantly on the cultivated land. Research findings suggest that sufficient attention must be paid to regeneration of the ground cover in reforestation programs. In addition to mass reforestation efforts, restoration of grassland and terracing of the cultivated land should also play an important role in erosion control.

  13. The Analysis of Currency Scale along Yunnan-Vietnam Railway in the Times of the Republic of China%民国时期滇越铁路沿线货币规模分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚; 马策

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, as the main outlet for the flowing of human resources, commodities, information and capital in Yunnan Province in the times of the Republic of China, pushed the development and expansion of Yunnan's banking system, which influenced remarkably on the transaction, exchanging, transferring and transporting of the monetary capital such as paper currency, coin, gold, silver along the railway. The currency scale along the railway had played the key role in the monetary ecology in Yunnan Province.%民国时期,滇越铁路成为云南人流、物流、信息流、资金流最密集的对外通道,铁路推动了近代云南金融的发展,铁路沿线纸币、现金、黄金、白银的交易、兑换、汇兑、运输繁盛,货币流动性规模对全省金融生态有决定性的影响。

  14. Isolation of Totivirus from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Yunnan province, China%云南省三带喙库蚊中分离到Toti病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 卢云兰; 曾旭灿; 陶娅琳; 周红宁; 张久松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the isolated virus (ML-13) from mosquitoes in Yunnan province, China by molecular biology techniques. Methods The new virus isolate (ML-13) was amplified by C6/36 cells. The viral gene was amplified and sequenced using several sets of arbovirus primers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 based on deduced amino acid sequences. Results ML-13 virus could be amplified in C6/36 cells. Target products were obtained by amplification using specific primers for Omono River virus (0MRV) and Tianjin Totivirus (ToV-TJ). ML-13 virus showed the highest sequence similarities (76%, 75%, 72%, 67%, and 67%) with 0MRV-AK4, ToV-TJ, 0MRV-Y61, DTV, and AsTV with regard to capsid protein (CP) and RNA - dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The phylogenetic analysis showed that ML-13 was in the same branch as 0MRV, ToV-TJ, and DTV in Totiviridae family. Conclusion ML-13 strain isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Yunnan province, China belongs to the Totiviridae family and is the first isolate of Totivirus from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in China.%目的 对云南省蚊虫病毒分离物进行分子生物学鉴定,以明确其分类地位.方法 采用C6/36细胞对病毒分离物ML-13做病毒扩增,使用多种虫媒病毒基因扩增引物进行病毒基因扩增和基因序列测定.采用推导的氨基酸序列用Mega 5.0软件构建种系发生树.结果 ML-13病毒可以在蚊虫细胞增殖,用OMRV和ToV-TJ病毒特异引物扩增出目的产物,序列分析显示,ML-13病毒与OMRV-AK4、ToV -TJ、OMRV-Y61、DTV、AsTV病毒衣壳蛋白和RNA依赖RNA聚合酶基因株相似性最高,分别为76%、75%、72%、67%和67%;与Toti病毒科中的DTV、ToV-TJ病毒和OMRV处于同一进化分支.结论 云南省三带喙库蚊中分离的ML-13病毒为Toti病毒,这是我国首次从三带喙库蚊中分离到Toti病毒.

  15. Geochemistry and environmental effect of cadmium in the super-large Jinding Pb-Zn deposit, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hang; LI Dahua; XIAO Tangfu; HE Libin; NING Zengping; SUN Jialong; ZHU Changsheng; SHUANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    The Jinding Pb-Zn deposit in Yunnan Province is the representative of a Cd-enriched area and mining activities lead to the release of Cd into the hypergenic ecosystem, resulting in Cd pollution. The concentrations of Cd vary greatly from one type to another type of rocks in the mining district. In the host rock, Cd concentrations range from 50×10-6 to 650×10-6 with an average of 310×10-6. In primary ores, Cd concentrations range from 14×10-6 to 2800×10-6 with an average of 767×10-6. However, in oxidized ores, Cd concentrations are highest, varying within the range of 110×10-6 to 8200×10-6 , averaging 1661×10-6. It is shown that the oxidized ores are the main carrier and environmental source of Cd. Leaching test showed that Pb/Zn ores are easy to oxidize and thereafter release Cd and other harmful elements. These leached elements in the leachate may be precipitated rapidly in the order of Zn>Pb>Cd. As for the concentration distribution of Cd in the Bijiang River, it is estimated to be 15.7 μg/L Cd in water, 49.3 mg/L in suspended substances, and 203.7 mg/L in sediments. The average value of Cd in soil from the polluted area is 83.0 mg/kg. Natural weathering of Cd-rich rocks and minerals imposes a potential environmental risk on the aquatic ecosystem of the Bijiang catchment.

  16. A STUDY ON THE BRYOPHYTES OF KARST CAVE THRESHOLD AT KUNMING AREA IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, P.R.CHINA%中国昆明地区岩溶洞穴洞口带苔藓植物研究(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 彭涛; 李晓娜; 赵传海

    2004-01-01

    164 bryophyte specimens were collected from 12 karst caves in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. We found 25 species in 18 genera and 10 families which were listed with site, substrate, altitude, date, collectors . Fieldwork indicated the bryophytes grew within 0~26 m at the cave entrance. The cave luminous liverwort Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze was recorded in 6 caves. Two turf species, Gymnostomum aurantiacum (Mitt) Jaeg and G. recurvirostre Hedw. were associated with travertine deposition such as stalactite or wet stalagmite at thresholds.

  17. Patterns and relationships of plant traits, community structural attributes, and eco-hydrological functions during a subtropical secondary succession in central Yunnan, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Denggao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes in land use lead to major changes in plant community composition and structure which have strong effects on eco-hydrological processes and functions. We here tested the hypothesis that changes in traits of living plants have resulted in changes in structural attributes of the community that influenced eco-hydrological functions by altering eco-hydrological processes. This was done in the context of a subtropical secondary forest suc­cession following land abandonment in Central Yunnan (Southwest China. During the succession, species with high specific leaf area (SLA, high leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC, high specific root length (SRL, and low leaf dry matter content (LDMC were progressively replaced by species with the opposite characteristics. The obtained results of correlation analyses were as follows: (1 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and the leaf area index (LAI. Significant correlations were detected between LAI, canopy interception and stemflow, and surface runoff and soil erosion. (2 Significant correlations were also found between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, LDMC, and accumulated litter biomass. High accumulated litter biomass strongly increases the maximum water-retaining capac­ity of litter. However, significant correlations were not found between the maximum water-retaining capacity of litter and surface runoff and soil erosion. (3 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was not significantly related to the maximum water-retaining capacity of the soil, but was significantly related to surface runoff and soil erosion. These results suggest that canopy characteristics play a more important role in control of runoff and soil erosion at the studied site. It follows that plant functional traits are closely linked with canopy characteristics, which should be used as a standard for selecting species in

  18. Contrasting responses of hoverflies and wild bees to habitat structure and land use change in a tropical landscape (southern Yunnan, SW China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Zeng Meng; Konrad Martin; Jing-Xin Liu; Frank Burger; Jin Chen

    2012-01-01

    The response of insects to monoculture plantations has mainly proceeded at the expense of natural forest areas,and is an outstanding and important issue in ecology and conservation biology,with pollination services declined around the world.In this study,species richness and distribution of hoverfly and wild bee communities were investigated in a changing tropical landscape in southern Yunnan,south-west China by Malaise traps periodically from 2008 to 2009.Species were recorded from the traditional land use types (natural forest,grassland,shrubland and rice field fallows),and from recently established rubber plantations of different ages.Hoverflies (total 53 species) were most common in young successional stages of vegetation,including rice field fallow and shrubland.Species richness was highest in rice field fallows and lowest in forests and showed a highly significant relationship with the number of forb species and ground vegetation cover.In contrast,the highest richness of wild bees (total 44 species) was recorded from the natural forest sites,which showed a discrete bee community composition compared to the remaining habitat types.There was no significant relationship between the bee species richness and the environmental variables,including the numbers of different plant life forms,coverage of canopy and ground vegetation,successional age of vegetation and land use type.At the landscape scale,open land use systems,including young rubber plantations,are assumed to increase the species richness ofhoverflies; however,this might decrease wild bee diversity.The present land use change by rubber cultivation can be expected to have negative impacts on the native wild bee communities.

  19. Geochronology of the Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn Cu deposit, northwestern Yunnan province, China: Implications for mineralization of the Zhongdian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Mao, Jing-wen; Pei, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chang-qing; Tian, Guang; Zhou, Yunman; Li, Jianxin; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn copper deposit is located in the Triassic Zhongdian island arc, northwestern Yunnan province, China. Single-zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating suggests that the diorite porphyry and the quartz monzonite porphyry in the deposit area formed at 200 Ma and 77 Ma, respectively. A Re-Os isotopic date of molybdenite from the ore is 78.9 Ma, which indicates that in addition to the known Triassic Cu-(Au) porphyry systems, a Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization event also exists in the Zhongdian arc. The quartz monzonite porphyry shows characteristics of a magnetite series intrusion, with a high concentration of Al, K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, low amount of Ta, Ti, Y, and Yb, and a high ratio of Sr/Y (average 26.42). The Cretaceous porphyry also shows a strong fractionation between light and heavy rare earth elements (average (La/Yb)N 37.9), which is similar to those of the Triassic subduction-related diorite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit and the porphyry hosting the Pulang copper deposit. However, in contrast to the older intrusions, the quartz monzonite porphyry contains higher concentrations of large ion lithophile elements and Co, and lesser Sr and Zr. Therefore, whereas the Triassic porphyry Cu-(Au) mineralization is related to slab subduction slab in an arc setting, the quartz monzonite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit formed by the remelting of the residual oceanic slab combined with contributions from subduction-modified arc lithosphere and continental crust, which provided the metals for the Late Cretaceous mineralization.

  20. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  1. Geochemistry of meta-volcanic rocks from the Longbohe Cu deposit, Yunnan Province, China: Implications for the genesis and tectonic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yinliang; QING Dexian; CHEN Yaoguang

    2007-01-01

    The Longbohe Cu deposit, which is located in the southern part of the Honghe ore-forming zone, Yunnan Province, China, belongs to a typical ore field where volcanic rocks are of wide distribution and are associated with Cu mineralization in time and space. The volcanic rocks in the ore field, which have experienced varying degree of alteration or regional metamorphism, can be divided into three types, i.e., meta-andesite, meta-subvolcanic rock and meta-basic volcanic rock in accordance with their mineral assemblages. These three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field are relatively rich in Na and the main samples plot in the area of alkali basalts in the geochemical classification diagram. With the exception of very few elements, these three types of volcanic rocks are similar in the content of trace elements. In comparison to the basalts of different tectonic settings, the meta-volcanic rocks in the ore field are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Th, Nb, etc. and depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Ba, etc. and their primary mantle-normalized trace element patterns show remarkable negative Th and Nb anomalies and negative Sr and Ba anomalies. These three types of volcanic rocks are similar in REE content range and chondrite-normalized REE patterns with the exception of Eu anomaly. Various lines of evidence show that these three types of volcanic rocks in the ore field have the same source but are the products of different stages of magmatic evolution, their original magma is a product of partial melting of the metasomatically enriched mantle in the tensional tectonic setting within the continent plate, and the crystallization differentiation plays an important role in the process of magmatic evolution.

  2. Tertiary paleomagnetic data from northwestern Yunnan, China: further evidence for large clockwise rotation of the Indochina block and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken; Liu, Yuyan; Zhu, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhenyu; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2001-02-01

    Eocene red sandstones were collected at 15 sites for paleomagnetic study from two areas (Lanping and Yunlong) of the western part of Yunnan province, China, in the northern part of Indochina. The high-temperature magnetization component with an unblocking temperature of around 680°C is isolated after stepwise thermal demagnetization. Characteristic directions from nine accepted sites reveal a positive fold test at the 99% confidence limit, indicating that the high-temperature magnetization component is possibly of Eocene age. A tilt-corrected mean direction from nine accepted sites is D=266.1°, I=-39.8° with α95=11.2°, corresponding to a paleopole at 14.5°N, 169.7°E with A95=10.9°. A comparison with previously reported Tertiary paleomagnetic data indicates that the Lanping basin of the northern part of the Indochina block rotated clockwise through 91° (±15°) with respect to the Yangtze craton. This large magnitude clockwise rotation is probably caused by the superimposition of regional and local rotations. Our previous middle Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from the Yunlong area indicate that about 40° of clockwise rotation out of 90° is explained by tectonic rotation due to a relatively rigid body rotation of the Simao Terrane during indentation of India. The remaining component of rotation is probably ascribed to further Eocene/post-Eocene rotational motion of the tectonically independent small blocks within the Lanping basin associated with fault movement.

  3. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (pspp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas, sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminth infections necessitates measures to reduce faecal environmental contamination to complement mass drug administration. However, elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiasis will not be achieved in the short run even with a package of interventions, and probably requires improvements in living conditions, changes in hygiene behaviour and more efficacious anthelminthic drugs and treatment

  4. Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to investigate socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 5532 Na Xi, Li Su, Dai and Jing Po ethnic minorities. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for diabetes prevalence, as well as the other outcomes. Results: Higher individual educational level was associated with a higher rate of awareness, treatment, adherence to medicines and monitoring of blood glucose (OR = 1.87, 4.89, 4.83, 6.45; 95% CI: 1.26–2.77, 1.87–12.7, 1.95–11.9, 2.23–18.6, respectively. Diabetic respondents with better household assets tended to receive more treatment (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.12 and to monitor their blood glucose (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.48–7.30. Diabetic patients with better access to medical services were more likely to treat (OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 2.46–20.4 and adhere to medication (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.46–11.7. Income at the contextual level was significantly correlated with diabetes prevalence, treatment and blood glucose monitoring (OR = 1.84, 3.04, 4.34; 95% CI: 1.20–2.83, 1.20–7.73, 1.45–13.0, respectively. Conclusions: Future diabetes prevention and intervention programs should take both individual and township-level socioeconomic factors into account in the study regions.

  5. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  6. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  7. Cenozoic evolution of tectono-fluid and metallogenic process in Lanping Basin,western Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from apatite fission track data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoming; SONG Yougui

    2006-01-01

    Since the Mesozoic, abundant metal and salt deposits have been formed in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province, Southwest China, constituting a well-known hydrothermal ore belt in China. Most of the deposits are meso-epithermal hydrothermal deposits. This paper preliminarily deals with the mineralization ages of hydrothermal deposits in the Lanping Basin by using the apatite fission track method, and integrates the spatial distribution of the deposits and their regional geological backgrounds, to give the preliminary viewpoints as follows: (1) the apatite fission track ages acquired range from 19.9 Ma to 52.8 Ma, much younger than those of their host strata, so they may be considered to be mineralization ages, which represent the late mineralization period; (2) the apatite fission track ages tend to become younger from the west to the middle of the basin, indicating that the latest evolution of tectono-fluid and/or metallogenic processes of the middle basin ended later than that in the west; (3) in the Paleogene, most of the Cu deposits were formed in the western part of the basin; (4) the major metallogenic processes occur between the Paleogene and the Neogene, because the eastern and western edges of the basin were subducted into and collided with its bilateral continental blocks, respectively, and the central fault was strongly activated, which led to the processes of large-scale ore-forming fluids, and their differentiation and transport because of the variation of their physical and chemical properties. Having been squeezed and uplifted, the Lanping Basin became an intermontane basin that contains many kinds of fluid traps resulting in the formation of different types of ore deposits (for example, Pb-Zn, Cu, Ag) of different scales in the middle of the basin. Simultaneously, the fluids with volatile elements such as Hg, Sb and As were transported upwards along the central fault system and diffused into its subordinate fractures, thus leading to the

  8. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  9. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P., reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729―2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid. Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553―0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876―0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This

  10. Palynological evidence for vegetational and climatic changes from the HQ deep drilling core in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO XiaYun; SHEN Ji; WANG SuMin; XIAO HaiFeng; TONG GuoBang

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution pollen study of a 737.72-m-long lake sediment core in the Heqing Basin of Yunnan Province shows that the vegetation and climate of mountains around the Heqing Basin went through six obvious changes since 2.780 Ma B.P. Namely, Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and the structure of vertical vegetational belt was simple between 2.780 and 2.729 Ma B.P.,reflecting a relatively warm and dry climate. During 2.729-2.608 Ma B.P., the areas of cold-temperate conifer forest (CTCF) and Tsuga forest increased and the structure of vertical vegetational belt became clear. According to percentages of tropical and subtropical elements growing in low-altitude regions rifely increased, we speculate that the increase of CTCF and Tsuga forest areas mainly resulted from strong uplift of mountains which provided upward expanding space and growing condition for these plants. Thus, the climate of the low-altitude regions around the basin was relatively warm and humid.Between 2.608 and 1.553 Ma B.P., Pinus forest occupied most mountains around the studied area and forest line of CTCF rose, which reflects a moderately warm-dry climate on the whole. During 1.553-0.876 Ma B.P., the structure of vertical vegetational belt in mountains around the studied area became complicated and the amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down enlarged, which implies that the amplitude of climatic change increased, the climatic associational feature was more complex and the climate was moderately cold at a majority of the stage. During 0.876-0.252 Ma B.P., there were all vertical vegetational belts existing at present in mountains around the studied area. The elements of each belt were more abundant and complex than earlier. At different periods in the stage vertical vegetational belts occurred as expanding or shrinking, and alternated each other. The amplitude of vegetational belts shifting up and down was the maximum in the whole section. This change

  11. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  12. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  13. Aboveground forest biomass estimation using ICESat GLAS in Yunnan, China%基于ICESat GLAS的云南省森林地上生物量反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克标; 庞勇; 舒清态; 付甜

    2013-01-01

    结合机载、星载激光雷达对GLAS(地球科学激光测高系统)光斑范围内的森林地上生物量进行估测,并利用MODIS植被产品以及MERIS土地覆盖产品进行了云南省森林地上生物量的连续制图.机载LiDAR扫描的260个训练样本用于构建星载GLAS的森林地上生物量估测模型,模型的决定系数(R2)为0.52,均方根误差(RMSE)为31 Mg/ha.研究结果显示,云南省总森林地上生物量为12.72亿t,平均森林地上生物量为94 Mg/ha.估测的森林地上生物量空间分布情况与实际情况相符,森林地上生物量总量与基于森林资源清查数据的估测结果相符,表明了利用机载LiDAR与星载ICESatGLAS结合进行大区域森林地上生物量估测的可靠性.%Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) could reduce uncertainties in the characterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provides an accurate measure of canopy height and vertical structure and information for the estimation of aboveground biomass of vegetation. Spaceborne large footprint LiDAR (ICESat GLAS) acquires over 250 million observations over forest regions globally and has been used successfully for forest height and biomass estimation in various sites. In this paper, airborne LiDAR and ICESat GLAS data were used to estimate aboveground biomass of forest at footprint level in Yunnan, China. Vegetation products from EOS MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS were used to expand these discrete estimations from GLAS data to a wall-to-wall map. The R2 between ICESat GLAS waveform parameters and airborne LiDAR estimated forest AGB is 0.52 after training with 260 footprints. Results showed that the total forest AGB in Yunnan Province was 1272 million ton and the average was 94 Mg/ha. The amount and distribution of predicted aboveground biomass were in good agreement with the reference data. The results showed that the predict model using GLAS data could be used to estimate

  14. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    [1]Gillmore, G. K., Grattan, J., Pyatt, F. B. et al., Radon, water and abandoned metalliferous mines in the UK: Environmental and Human Health Implications, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 65-76.[2]GB/T 16146-1995, Standards for Controlling Radon Concentration in Dwellings (in Chinese).[3]Kinze, M., Dose limits and maximum concentration limits (MCL's) for radionuclides--Implication on remediation of uranium mining and milling facilities in Saxony Germany, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 1-7.[4]Xu, L. C., Wang, Y. X., Environmental issues and remedial actions of the abandoned Lincang uranium mine in China, in Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Proceedings of the International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III and the International Mine Water Association Symposium (eds. Merkel, B. J., Planer-Friedrich, B., Wolkersdorfer, C.), Berlin: Springer, 2002, 709-718.[5]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 70.[6]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 23-26.[7]Xu, L. C., Dai, X., Tan, T. et al., Environment Impact Report on Environmental Treatment Engineering of Decommissioning Lincang Uranium Mine (Feasibility studies stages) ( in Chinese), 1999.[8]Zhang Zhihui, Measurement Methods of Radon and Its Daughters in

  15. El Nino And Forest Fire In Yunnan Province, Southwest China -New Way to Study Three Essential Factors of Forest Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three essential factors of forest fire (fire source, environment, and litter) were taken as the point of view, and has approached the forecast method of forest fire in tropical area of southwest China in a macroscopic scale. This study supported by mathematical method was from a new angle. For example, in the aspect of forest fire forecast, it has been thought over that most forest fire is artificial fire, which has lots of randomness. So it could be studied in a kind of Markov random processes. In the ...

  16. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  17. Soil erosion risk evaluation using GIS in the Yuanmou County,a dry-hot valley of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to sustainable agriculture. Evaluating regional erosion risk is increasingly needed by national and in-ternational environmental agencies. This study elaborates a model (using spatial principal component analysis [SPCA]) method for the evaluation of soil erosion risk in a representative area of dry-hot valley (Yuanmou County) at a scale of 1:100,000 using a spatial database and GIS. The model contains seven factors: elevation, slope, annual precipitation, land use, vegetation, soil, and population density. The evaluation results show that five grades of soil erosion risk: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. These are divided in the study area, and a soil erosion risk evaluation map is created. The model may be applicable to other areas of China because it utilizes spatial data that are generally available.

  18. Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use Pattern of Rocky-desertified Land in Southwest China's Poverty-stricken Karst Mountainous Areas——A Case Study in Benggu Township, Xichou County, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; BAO Guangjing; LI Zhiguo; HE Yimei

    2006-01-01

    The rocky desert in a karst area directly causes the lack of soil, water and forest, hence leading to the poverty there. In 1990, the villagers from the Muzhe Village in Benggu Township, Xichou County,Yunnan declared a war against rocky desert in an attempt to ask the fields for more yields. They invented a distinctive land rehabilitation and sustainable use pattern called "transforming heaven and earth" that had been practiced in Southwest China's karst areas. The key mechanism of the pattern was to develop terraced fields with well conserved soil,water and fertility by exploding rocks in the fields,building stone walls, gathering more soil, and improving soil quality and productivity for the fields in combination with building of irrigation facilities and roads, as well as with forestation and agriculture structure adjustment. The purpose of the pattern was to alleviate poverty in the karst areas by improving soil productivity and promoting agricultural development. A typical area was studied with the help of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and the pattern was carried out there for fifteen years, have produced excellent ecological benefits and good economic benefits. Its application in the area approved that it was a sustainable land use pattern for rocky desert areas.

  19. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  20. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Peacock, Joseph P; Huang, Qiuyuan; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenjun; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of

  1. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  2. Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Yap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic.The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9-12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes.Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1 (P = 0.02 less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04 fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9-2.1 ml kg(-1 min(-1; all P<0.05.We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and anthropometric indicators due to deworming over a 6-month follow-up period

  3. An Awareness-Adoption Matrix for Strategic Decision Making in Agricultural Development Projects:A Case Study in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Subedi; T J Hocking; M A Fullen; A R McCrea; E Milne; WU Bo-zhi; D J Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Significant achievements have been made in generating sustainable agricultural technologies in developing countries.Usually,these new technologies have been more effective in increasing production and productivity than existing technologies.However,many new technologies considered 'effective' have not been successful in alleviating the associated sustainability problems,due to poor adoption by targeted users.Success of any novel technical intervention should be judged on the basis of how widespread adoption is in the target area by targeted users.In this context,a case study identified the factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved technologies extended by an agricultural development project in a rural Village in Yunnan Province,China.Initial adoption/adaptation of project technologies was influenced by farmers' wareness of the technology.Farmers were more aware of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,intercropping and tree planting technologies than others.This led to a comparatively high initial uptake of polythene mulch,contour cultivation,sweet chestnut,and intercropping technologies.Farmers had inadequate knowledge about some Project technologies,the adoption of which was particularly low.This reveals the need for increasing farmers'awareness about the rationale for Project technologies to achieve greater adoption/adaptation of project technologies by farmers over wider areas.Farmers' testing of the technology leads to better adoption/adaptation compared to mere awareness.However,considerable time and resources are required for testing/trying technologies.This justifies the usefulness of comparatively quick and less resource demanding options for awareness creation.Development of effective cropping technologies is important for sustainable agricultural development.The success of any agricultural development project,especially in terms of improving sustainability,depends on how widely those improved technologies are adopted/adapted by farmers in the

  4. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  5. A 22 570 yr record of vegetational and climatic change from Wenhai Lake in the Hengduan Mountains biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y. F.; Song, X. Y.; Wortley, A. H.; Blackmore, S.; Li, C. S.

    2014-09-01

    The Hengduan Mountains, with their strong altitudinal vegetation zonation, form a biodiversity hotspot which offers the potential for comparison between sites in order to understand how this zonation arose and how it has responded to climate change and human impacts through time. This paper is one of the studies covering a range of altitudes within this hotspot, and presents a 22 570 yr pollen record of vegetational and climatic change based on a core 320 cm in depth collected from Wenhai Lake on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, one of the highest peaks in the Hengduan Mountains region of Yunnan, Southwest China. From 22 570 to 21 140 cal. yr BP, the vegetation was dominated by broad-leaved forest (comprising mainly Quercus, Betula and Castanopsis), accompanied by coniferous Pinus and Abies and the drought-tolerant herb Artemisia, indicating a cool and dry climate. In the period between 21 140 and 19 350 cal. yr BP, the vegetation was still dominated by broad-leaved forest but with a notable increase in pollen of aquatic plants, implying a relatively warm and moderately humid climate. The period 19 350 to 17 930 cal. yr BP was a transition stage from broad-leaved forest to needle-leaved forest, reflecting a warm-humid climate at the beginning and a cold-dry one at the end. Between 17 930 and 9250 cal. yr BP, needle-leaved forest and broad-leaved forest alternated in dominance in the early stages, with the former taking the predominant position by the end of the period, suggesting a climate fluctuating between warm-humid and cold-dry. From 9250 cal. yr BP to present, the vegetation has been dominated by needle-leaved forest (comprising mainly Pinus and Abies), coupled with broad-leaved forest (mainly Quercus and Betula), reflecting a transition in climatic conditions from warm-humid to cold-humid. During this period, human activity increased in this region, with impacts on the vegetation which may be evidenced by the distinct decrease in Pinus and Quercus pollen and

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward smartphone applications for geoparks information and interpretation systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Tian, Mingzhong; Li, Xingle; Shi, Yihua; Zhou, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Geopark information and interpretation systems are both necessary infrastructure in geopark planning and construction program, and they are also essential for geoeducation and geoconservation in geopark tourism. The current state and development of information and interpretation systems in China's geoparks were presented and analyzed in this paper. Statistics showed that fewer than half of geoparks run websites, and less than that amount maintained database, and less than one percent of all Internet/smartphone applications were used for geopark tourism. The results of our analysis indicated that smartphone applications in geopark information and interpretation systems would provide benefits such as accelerated geopark science popularization and education and facilitated interactive communication between geoparks and tourists.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Dendrocalamus membranaceus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a Declining Bamboo Species in Yunnan, China, as Based on Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro is a woody bamboo with a high economic and ecological value that often occurs as natural stands, such as in the large-scale forested areas of China’s Yunnan Province. Due to its overexploitation, the habitat of D. membranaceus in Yunnan has been dramatically reduced, and the quality of the stands has declined. As a preliminary analysis in considering the effective protection for these germplasm resources, we assessed the genetic diversity of 12 natural populations in Yunnan, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. From 10 ISSR primers, we generated 155 bands, of which 153 were polymorphic (98.71%. Compared with other species in the genus, this species demonstrated a greater genetic diversity (S = 0.349 and lower genetic differentiation (GST = 0.252. Our analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic differentiation among the populations is significant. A large proportion of the genetic variation (78.95% resides among the individuals within populations, whereas only 21.05% are found among populations. Mantel tests indicated no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the populations. Given the low sexual reproducibility and characteristics of monocarpic plants, we recommend implementing in situ conservation measures for all of the D. membranaceus populations in Yunnan and collecting sufficient samples for ex situ conservation. Furthermore, the conservation area should be extended to its main natural habitats, the Lancang-Mekong River Valley.

  9. Crisis-like behavior in China's stock market and its interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangli; Gao, Jianbo; Liang, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    In order for China to play a bigger, more positive role in the world, it is important for China to have a healthy capital market. This perception motivates us to examine the health of China's capital market, especially the severity of the overall loss of the listed companies in China and the effects of accounting irregularities on the losses. We show the overall loss of the listed companies was very severe, in particular, crisis-like behavior emerged in the fourth quarter of 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. We further observe that loss in the fourth quarter was much greater than the average loss of the first three quarters in the same year. The most straightforward interpretation of this loss pattern is that companies underreported losses in the first three quarters, to boost their stock values in most time of the year. However, in the fourth quarter, accounting balance of the whole year dictated that the reported loss in the fourth quarter had to be much greater than the actual loss. Fortunately, such irregularity has been greatly reduced, thanks to the accounting reforms in China in 2007. PMID:25658454

  10. A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luculia Sweet contains about five species of small trees or shrubs and is a member of the family Rubiaceae (tribe Cinchoneae. Luculia yunnanensis is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to southwest China. Only two natural populations of L. yunnanensis exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that L. yunnanensis is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-sterptavidin capture method, 24 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 11 displayed polymorphisms and 13 were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.833 and from 0.431 to 0.771, with averages of 0.389 and 0.614, respectively. These markers will be useful for further investigation of conservation of resources, selecting parental types in cross-breeding, evolution of this species at the molecular level and related research in Luculia species.

  11. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  12. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  13. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  14. 云南栽培种及野生种芋头的AFLP指纹分析%AFLP Finger Analysis Between Cultivars and Wild Type of Taros (Colocasia esculenta) from Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉莎; 刘德团; 胡向阳

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析云南芋头种质资源遗传多样性.方法:应用扩增片段长度多态性(AFLP)指纹技术,用3对AFLP引物对采集自云南省的9份芋头栽培品种及1份野生品种进行研究,分离AFLP多态性条带.结果:共分离到60个AFLP多态性条带,AFLP多态位点百分率为96.77%,云南芋头种质资源在DNA分子水平上表现出丰富的遗传多样性.聚类分析将10份芋头品种分为2组,遗传距离为0.101~0.908.结论:AFLP指纹技术是筛选品种间差异基因的有效方法,研究结果为云南省芋头品种鉴定、遗传相关性分析、特殊功能基因的分离等工作提供了一定的理论基础.%Objective: To identify genetic diversities of taro germplasms in Yunnan province, China. Methods: The amplified fragmeng length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technology was used to analyze nine cultivars and one wild taro sampled in Yunnan province and to screen AFLP polymorphic bands. Results: 60 AFLP polymorphic bands were screened through three pairs of AFLP primes among these taros varieties and the ratio of polymorphic loci was 96.77%. It showed rich genetic diversities in taro germplasms of Yunnan province. The UPGMA result showed that these taros can be divided into two main groups, genetic distance among the collected taros range from 0.101 to 0.908. Conclusion: AFLP fingerprinting is an effective method to isolate special genes within different taro varieties. In summary, our study provides the theoretical basis for identification of taro variety and their genetic relationship in Yunnan.

  15. Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of Begoniaceae from Yunnan, China%中国云南秋海棠属(秋海棠科)一新种——假侧膜秋海棠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志丹; 税玉民; 张美德; 张嵘梅

    2007-01-01

    Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of the genus Begonia L. (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles B. oreodoxa Chun & F. Chun in having parietal placentas at the upper part of the ovary, differing mainly in the female flowers with 5 tepals and the largest wing of the capsule being 20-22 mm long and ligulate.%描述了中国云南秋海棠科Begoniaceae秋海棠属Begonia扁果组sect.Platycentrum的一新种--假侧膜秋海棠Begonia coelocentroides Y.M.Shui & Z.D.Wei.该种与山地秋海棠B.oreodoxa Chun & F.Chun相似,子房上部为侧膜胎座,但雌花被片5,蒴果最大翅舌形,长20-22 mm,而易于区别.

  16. Pollination Ecology of a Pioneer Species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China%西双版纳先锋植物野芭蕉的传粉生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱忠; 李德铢; 王红

    2001-01-01

    Pollination ecology of Musa itinerans Cheesman (Musaceae), apioneer species in the tropical rain forest, was explored in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China. This research involved flowering phenology, nectar production, visitation patterns of pollinators and bagging experiments. It was found that (1) flowering of M. itinerans occurred a whole year round with a peak at the early dry season (Nov.) and the daily flowering pattern had two obvious peaks in the early morning and in the late evening, respectively; (2) nectar production occurred at two obvious peaks, during the day and in the night-time (from 8 am to 12 pm, and from 8 pm to 12 am, respectively), which allowed the two different foragers to visit at specific times; and (3) long-tongue fruit bats (Macroglossus sobrinus) and sunbirds (Arachnothera longirostris) were both effective pollinators of Musa itinerans.

  17. 云南山地土壤垂直带信息图谱分析%Information Tupu Analysis on Mountainous Soil Vertical Zone in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月圆; 王金亮; 陈有君

    2013-01-01

    地学信息图谱是一种以图形方式显示地理事物或现象空间形态结构、揭示时空变化规律的手段与方法.为了实现基础地理信息数字化,推动“数字山地”研究的开展和区域可持续发展,在地学信息图谱理论和ArcGIS软件环境支撑下,利用云南省第二次土壤普查资料、1∶25万电子地图和DEM数据等建立了云南省土壤垂直带信息图谱,实现了山地土壤垂直带的数字化显示及其与地理位置的链接.基于空间维度的土壤信息带谱显示,在纬度方向上土壤带谱滇西比滇东复杂,且长度随纬向递增;在经度方向上,热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构相对较简单,亚热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构、长度趋于一致,温带高原气候区的土壤垂直带谱结构最为丰富和复杂,且再次体现了相同基带上发育的土壤带组成基本相似的规律,但各区内部随经度变化规律不明显.%Geo-informatic tupu is a means and method of using graphics mode to display the spatial configuration and reveal the spatial-temporal change rule of earth system and its elements and phenomena.This paper has taken Yunnan province as a research area due to the various physiognomies and typical mountainous characteristics.High complexity of the landscape and biological climate make the soil that is an essential factor of mountainous region environment to be clearly vertical differentiation.By researching the mountaionous soil vertical vertical zone could help us to recognize its distribution and variety law.It is not only beneficial to explore the methods of regional ecological and geographical pattern,but also to three-dimensional development of agriculture,afforestation,soil and water conservation,mountain environmental protection.Data model of mountainous soil vertical zone had been built by using the China soil database of 1 ∶ 1 000 000,the second soil survey data of Yunnan Province,electronic map of 1∶250 000 and DEM

  18. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ji-Lei; Njuabe, Metoh Theresia; Li, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) results were calculated. Results: Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384); that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384) and 17% (67/384) of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384) of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384) false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384) error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384) undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance. PMID:24954235

  19. Efficacy Observation on Yunnan Baiyao (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Hong-guang

    2001-01-01

    [1]JIA BQ. Helicobacter pylori and upper gastrointestinal diseases. Cf: CHEN Shou-po chief edited. Gastrointestinal Diseases Clinical Pharmacology. Beijing: Science Press, 1997∶483-489.[2]GU B, chief edited. Traditional Chinese and Western Clinical Digestive Diseases. Beijing: China TCM Press, 1997∶180-187.[3]National Multicenter Clinical Study Coordinating Group. Multicentric clinical study on low dosage triple therapy in clearing up Helicobacter pylori. J of Chin Digestion 1996;16(4)∶192-195.[4]ZHONG FY. Yunnan Baiyao in clinically application for 11 cases. J of Intermediate Med 1995;30(11)∶55.[5]TANG XD. Some problems on TCM in treating anti-relaptic study of ulcer disease. J of TCM 1995;36(12)∶745-748.

  20. Analysis on Poliomyelitis Surveillance Reinforce in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China%云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区加强脊髓灰质炎监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芬; 张杰; 罗梅; 汤晶晶; 田炳均; 丁峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objectiv To understand the coverage of oral poliomyelitis attenuated live vaccine among the people who live in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China, surveillance poliovirus ( PV ) prevalence characteristic, and to provide scientific evidences for maintain polio free in border areas. Method Select three districts from six border districts in Yunnan, then choose three counties from each district and conducted coverage survey of OPV among the children by probability proportional to size sampling, sample specimens from healthy children and environmental water to surveillance PV. Result The coverage of OPV routine and supplementary immunization was high in all three counties, we did not find wild PV and vaccine-derived PV among healthy children and in environment water. Conclusion It is still maintain polio free, and it is necessary to strengthen poliomyelitis surveillance and OPV immunization in the border region between Myanmar and Yunnan province of China.%目的 了解云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区,人群口服脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)减毒活疫苗(Oral Poliomyelitis Attenuated Live Vaccine,OPV)接种情况,监测脊灰病毒(Poliovirus,PV)流行情况,为维持无脊灰提供参考.方法 在与缅甸接壤的边境6个设区的市(州)中,随机选择保山市、德宏傣族景颇族自治州、临沧市,每个市(州)选择3个县,采用容量比例概率抽样方法,对适龄儿童开展OPV接种率调查,采集健康儿童粪便标本和外环境水样标本,开展PV监测.结果 3个县适龄儿童OPV常规免疫和加强免疫接种率均>95%,在健康人群和外环境中未发现脊灰野病毒和疫苗衍生脊灰病毒.结论 云南省与缅甸接壤边境地区目前仍维持无脊灰状态,应继续加强脊灰监测和OPV免疫.

  1. 云南地区观测的舒曼谐振背景变化特征%Background features of Schumann resonance observed in Yunnan, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳新艳; 张学民; 申旭辉; 苗园青

    2013-01-01

    本文利用云南地区永胜台观测的地磁南北和东西分量开展舒曼谐振的背景变化特征分析.通过提取舒曼谐振各阶频率和功率谱密度的小时均值,分析了前三阶舒曼谐振频率和功率谱密度在分点和至点前后的周日变化特征.舒曼谐振功率谱密度的周日变化与亚洲、非洲和美洲三大闪电活动中心的活跃时段以及观测站相对于三大闪电活动中心的方位密切相关.舒曼谐振频率的周日变化特征更复杂.各阶功率谱密度和频率在夏至和秋分前后的变化幅度比春分和冬至前后大.从2011年舒曼谐振频率和功率谱密度日中值的年变化图中发现,谐振频率随季节变化的特征不明显,而功率谱密度的年度变化曲线呈半周期正弦波形态,以7月份为轴对称分布.功率谱密度的季节变化特征与闪电活动的季节变化特征相一致.南北和东西分量得到的前三阶谐振频率,第一阶约稳定在7.5 Hz.而随着阶数增加,南北分量得到的谐振频率比东西分量约大0.5 Hz.高阶谐振频率发生偏移的原因目前还不清楚.%Abstract This paper presents.the background features of Schumann resonance (SR) observed at Yongsheng observatory in Yunnan,southwestern China.Through obtaining the hourly average of the frequency and power spectral density (PSD) of the lowest three SR modes,we analyzed diurnal variation of SR frequency and PSD both in BNs and BEw components around equinoxes and solstices.Diurnal variation of SR PSD is found to be related to the dominant intervals of Asian,African and American thunderstorm centers and the relative position of the observatory to three thunderstorm centers.Diurnal variation of SR frequency is more complicated.SR frequency and PSD at the lowest three modes around summer solstice and autumn equinox are more changeablethan that in spring equinox and winter solstice.The daily median of SR peak frequency in 2011shows that seasonal variation

  2. Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

    2014-05-01

    The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative δCe and δEu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) δ34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological

  3. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results were calculated.\tResults:\tPlasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384; that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384 and 17% (67/384 of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384 of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384 false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384 error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384 undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases.\tConclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

  4. Yunnan Gets Set for an Agricultural Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXINGXIANG

    2005-01-01

    HOME to 26 different ethnic nationalities,southwest China's Yunnan Province covers an area of 394,000 square kilometers, on 94 percent of which stand mountains and plateaus. At 6,740 meters above sea level, the province's highest point is the Meili Snow Mountain's Kawagebo Peak. Its lowest, where the Honghe River runs into neighboring Vietnam, is just 76 meters above sea level. Yunnan also has an extremely variable climate. The mountains in the northwestern part are snow-covered all year round, while well-known Xishuangbanna Prefecture enjoys a tropical climate. The weather is most volatile in the mountains, where the four seasons seem to collide and interchange every couple of miles.

  5. Bridgehead Strategy in Yunnan: An Important Fulcrum of the Indian Ocean Strategy of China%云南“桥头堡”建设:中国印度洋战略的重要支点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵畅

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan, located between China, Southeast Asia and South Asia, is the junction of the major e- conomic zones--China, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Also, it has the regional advantages of linking the mar- kets across the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. After the Cold War ended, the world geopolitics has changed and the Indian Ocean has become the center of "sea power". China has 18,000 kilometers of coastline and 3 million square kilomaters of territorial waters, but China~ maritime geopolitical environment is not as safe. To the China, the importance of Indian Ocean can be seen in two aspects : it is the major energy channel and it can help break the U. S. blockade. The paper aims to discuss the potentiality of implementing Yunnan as a "bridge- head" strategy which can become an important fulcrum in China~ Indian Ocean strategy by analysing the impor- tance as well as the plight reality of Indian Ocean. The strategy of building Yunnan as a bridgehead not only provides a breakthrough for the implementation of the strategy in the Indian Ocean, but also its geographical ad- vantage of land access can be brought into full play, thus solving the problems of the seaports leading to Indian Ocean. Historically speaking, it has possessed all the feasible conditions under the current situation. The paper argues that in order to deal with the difficulties in the implementation process, building a balanced strategy and strengthening the friendly relations with South Asian countries are the two best solutions.%中国云南地处中国与东南亚、南亚三大经济区的结合部,具有连接中国、东南亚、南亚三大市场和沟通太平洋、印度洋的区位优势。冷战后,世界地缘政治发生变化,印度洋成为“海权”中心。我国拥有1.8万公里的海岸线,300万平方公里可管辖的海洋国土,但我国海洋地缘环境却不容乐观。印度洋对我国的重要性主要体现在能源通道和打破关国封锁两个

  6. Historically Interpreting "China Model"%历史性解读“中国模式”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海洋

    2012-01-01

    "China model" has become a major topic of Chinese philosophy and social sciences at present, but some still deny the existence of "China model". So it is necessary to historically interpret it as "real mode" and "desirable model" so that we can dialectically treat China model and neither consider it perfect just because it is an objective reality nor deny its objective existence because of the various problems existing in the reality.%对“中国模式”是否存在,理论界依然存有争议。辩证地、历史性地把中国模式解读为“现实的中国模式”和“愿景的中国模式”,既不会因为中国模式是客观存在的而认为其已尽善尽美,也不会因为现实中存在的种种问题而否认其存在的客观事实。

  7. Economic analysis of freeway town of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Junquan; Zhang Haixiang

    2009-01-01

    Freeway town in Yunnan is driving to promote the economic development ties.The development along the highway in the town will become the central point of the performance the high-intensive economy in space and will increase new economic growth point along highway the vertical and horizontal development of the area around the gradient the proliJeration Point and Area.The highway town will develop to speed up the urbanization process and China should accelerate the development of the freeway town.Encouraging farmers will shift the highway town where some good conditions will build to.form a regional economic development and growth.This will be the promotion an inevitable choice of progress and rational way of China's rural economic" and social prosperity.In particular,freeway town will bring more added value of other social services of accommodation and catering industry of wholesale and retail of transportation and warehousing.Highway town and agriculture industrialization development will increase agriculture industry chain to improve agricultural products value and will enhance agricultural efficiency in Yunnan.The concentration of the non-agricultural industries of the speedway town will form pillar industries of highway town and will promote of tertiary industry development of hotels of insurance of finance of business of sports of culture of education of communications of transportation.Rural areas of Yunnan will adjust to optimize the industrial structure.It is estimated that a total 10 construction of the highway town of Yunnan will increase 0.8-1 billion )man revenue each year.

  8. Jurassic Tectonic Revolution in China and New Interpretation of the "Yanshan Movement"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shuwen; ZHANG Yueqiao; LONG Changxing; YANG Zhenyu; JI Qiang; WANG Tao; HU Jianming; CHEN Xuanhua

    2008-01-01

    With acquisition and accumulation of new data of structural geological investigations and high-resolution isotopic dating data, we have greatly improved our understanding of the tectonic events occurring in eastern China during the period from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and may give a new interpretation of the nature, timing and geodynamic settings of the "Yanshan Movement". During the Mid-Late Jurassic (165±5 Ma), great readjustment of plate amalgamation kinematics took place in East Asia and the tectonic regime underwent great transformation, thus initiating a new tectonic regime in which the North China Block was the center and different plates converged toward it from the north, east and southwest and forming the "East Asia convergent"tectonic system characterized by intracontinental subduction and orogeny. As a consequence, the crustal lithosphere of the East Asian continent thickened considerably during the Late Jurassic,followed immediately by Early Cretaceous substantial lithospheric thinning and craton destruction featured by drastic lithospheric extension and widespread volcano-magmatic activities, resulting in a major biotic turnover from the Yanliao biota to Jehol Biota. Such a tremendous tectonic event that took place in the continent of China and East Asia is the basic connotation of the "Yanshan Movement". In the paper, according to the deformation patterns, geodynamic settings and deep processes, the "Yanshan Movement" is redefined as the Late Jurassic East Asian multi-directional plate convergent tectonic regime and its associated extensive intracontinental orogeny and great tectonic change that started at ~165±5 Ma. The substantial lithospheric attenuation in East China is considered the post-effect of the Yanshanian intracontinental orogeny and deformation.

  9. Lead isotopic exploration intersecting mineralization zones for the depth forecast of concealed deposits——A case from Longbohe Cu deposit,Jinping, Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉; 邹日

    2000-01-01

    Pb isotopic geochemical exploration intersecting mineralization zones have been well developed in the light of the eigenvalues V1 and V2 of three-dimensional topological projection of Pb isotopic data. The newly developed theoretical model forecasting concealed deposits has been verified in the evaluation of Longbohe copper deposit in Jinping, Yunnan Province, which is consistent with the observed law of depth variation for Pb isotopes. The forecasting results show that the depth of buried major orebody should occur at about -50 to -400 m and deeper within the eastern and western mineralization belts of Longbohe copper deposit.

  10. Burden of injuries and diseases in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The burden of injuries is underestimated to an even greater extent in developing countries than in industrialized countries. The objective of this paper is to analyze injuries and diseases in the monitored work place of the world's largest tin mining operation in Yunnan, South China.

  11. Rice quality in relation to market prices in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENLijuan; FANXingming

    1996-01-01

    Factors affecting rice quality and their impacts on market price were investigated in this study. On-farm survey and market survey was undertaken in three selected sites namely Kunruing, Dali, and Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, China. Market sampling was conducted to determine important rice quality characteristics.

  12. Lost in translation? A background to action research into teacher education and training in China through interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a background for action research in China. The context is a training programme for Chinese vocational practitioners led by British Teacher Educators, teaching through Chinese interpreters. Teacher education and training in China are outlined, and an author case study provided. Global trends in vocational education have been considered, and reference made to the Chinese government’s plans for reforming and developing education. The Vocational Education and Training (VET programmes have been summarised to set the scene for the action research that will be reported in a further paper, which will consider the ways in which teaching through interpretation affects both learning and teaching on these programmes. In this paper, the following terms apply: the trainer is the United Kingdom (UK Teacher Educator, the interpreter is the member of the Chinese university staff who interprets on the training programme and the teachers are the Chinese teachers attending the training.

  13. Security and Stability Analysis for Yunnan Power Grid with Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Qiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is sustainable, renewable and clean energy. There are abundant wind resources in Yunnan province, China. In recent years, wind power integration has developed rapidly in Yunnan province. With the first batch of the wind farm being built and a part of them going into production in Yunnan, the wind power resources will be large-scale developed and utilized in the future. Based on the wind power planning of Yunnan, the impacts of security and stability after wind power are studied in this paper. The major researches are made on the capacity analysis for accessing high-capacity wind farm, the analysis for power system voltage stability and comparison of different wind-generator model structures, thus finding out the most suitable choice for fan selection in Yunnan Power Grid.

  14. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tobacco Field Based on Phenological Characteristics and Time Series Image——A Case Study of Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guangxiong; DENG Lei; CUI Weihong; MING Tao; SHEN Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using three-phase remote sensing images of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS02B) and Landsat-5 TM, tobacco field was extracted by the analysis of time series image based on the different phenological characteristics between tobacco and other crops. The spectral characteristics of tobacco and corn in luxuriant growth stage are very similar, which makes them difficult to be distinguished using a single-phase remote sensing image. Field film after tobacco seedlings transplanting can be used as significant sign to identify tobacco. Remote sensing interpretation map based on the fusion image of TM and CBERS02B's High-Resolution (HR) camera image was used as standard reference material to evaluate the classification accuracy of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) for time series image based on full samples test method. SAM has higher classification accuracy and stability than MLC in dealing with time series image. The accuracy and Kappa of tobacco coverage extracted by SAM are 83.4% and 0.692 respectively, which can achieve the accuracy required by tobacco coverage measurement in a large area.

  15. Exploring that Zhou Bao-zhong Who be a well-educated and trained and legendary---possessed a concept of knowledge about Yunnan ethnic affairs after the founding of China%文武兼备、富于传奇的白子将军--探析建国后周保中对云南民族事务的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳春

    2014-01-01

    Zhou Bao-zhong Who was born in a Wangqiao village of Dali prefecture of Yunnan province on February 7,1902 was a Bai people.Most of his life was spent in a military career and made a great contribution to the cause of China's revolution and nation,so he was be honoured as a Bai son general.After the peaceful liberation of Yunnan province,Zhou Bao-zhong actually presided over the work about daily affairs and military control commission of Yunnan province.As a director position of Yunnan ethnic affairs commission,his understanding of yunnan ethnic affairs mainly reflected his speech in the second conference of southwest ethnic affairs committee on February 2,1951.%周保中,1902年2月7日出生于云南省大理县湾桥村,白族人。他的大部分人生是在戎马生涯中度过的,对中国的革命和民族事业做出了很大贡献,被誉为“白子将军”。云南和平解放后,周保中实际主持着云南省日常事务和军事管制委员会的工作。而身兼云南省民族事务委员会主任职务的周保中,他对云南民族事务的认识主要体现他在1951年2月2日西南民族事务委员会第二次委员会议的讲话上。

  16. 云南省岩溶水地球物理探测实践%Geophysical Prospecting of Karst Water in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the main methods adopted for karst water prospecting in Yunnan province have been resistivity sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, resistivity imaging, etc.. The achievements and problems of the applications of these methods have been discribed in the paper, with valuable experiences summed up and technical parameters specified. And even more important, an optimized procedure for the karst water prospecting has been proposed. That is to adopt resistivity sounding to quickly cover a large area first to outline preliminarily watery sectors, and lay-out boreholes based on the sounding and geological data; then perform nuclear magnetic resonance soundings around each planned borehole location to map out water abundance of an area unit circled by the antenna frame; finally carry out densely-spaced resistivity soundings within the most prospective units to locate water-bearing bodies. The procedure has made the probability of success of drilling greatly increased.

  17. A Study of the Driving Force Model Revealing Changes in Land Utilization Level Based on 3S Technologies--The Example of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin-feng; CHEN Guo-jie; YANG Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the theory and approaches of building driving force models revealing the changes in land utilization level by integrating RS, GPS, and GIS technologies based on the example of Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province. We first created the land utilization type database, natural driving forces for land utilization database, and human driving forces for land utilization database. Then we obtained the dependent and the independent variables of changes in land utilization level by exploring various data. Lastly we screened major factors affecting changes in land utilization level by using the po- werful spatial correlation analysis and main component analysis module of GIS and obtained a multivariable linear regression model of the changes in land utilization level by using GIS spatial regression analysis module.

  18. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  19. Valid or not? Yunnan mountain snake Plagiopholis unipostocularis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxenodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang Hui; Chen, Wen De; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Peng, Pei Hao; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Plagiopholis unipostocularis Zhao, Jiang & Huang, 1978 is a small snake endemic to Yunnan, southern China. Its validity is still controversial and unresolved. Based on extensive sampling in Yunnan, we conducted morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetics on the unidentified specimens of Plagiopholis from Yunnan. Based on a combination of morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny, the newly collected specimens could be identified as P. blakewayi. While some specimens exhibit one or more diagnostics of P. unipostocularis, and some characteristics are intermediate between that of Plagiopholis unipostocularis and P. blakewayi. Thus morphological continuities between two species uncovered P. unipostocularis is a synonymy of P. blakewayi, and the diagnostics of this species was revised accordingly.

  20. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  1. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault constitutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with differential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3―1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota- tion of micro-block.

  2. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongHai; ZHANG YongShuang; HU DaoGong; ZHAO XiTao; YE PeiSheng

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault consti-tutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with dif-ferential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3-1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota-tion of micro-block.

  3. Carbon Stock Assessment of Dai Homegarden in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan,China%云南西双版纳傣族庭院C储量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; Roberto G.Visco

    2003-01-01

    综合运用样方收获、生物量回归方程及标准木的方法进行样地调查,对西双版纳傣族庭院C储量进行了测定.结果表明傣族庭院的平均C密度为99.85 tons*hm-2.证明传统傣族庭院作为一种生产和生态系统,具有良好的吸收CO2温室气体的能力.%Carbon stock of traditionally managed Dai home gardens in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan was assessed using a method that combined small plot measurements, the use of allometric equations for trees with large dbh and the mean tree technique for bamboo and banana.Results showed the mean carbon stock of Dai home gardens in Xishuangbanna was 99.85 tons*hm-2, suggesting its high potential to curb the rate of CO2 increase in the atmosphere.

  4. Genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans regia and J. sigillata; Juglandaceae): Species distinctions, human impacts, and the conservation of agrobiodiversity in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Bee F; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Salick, Jan M; Miller, Allison J; Yongping, Yang; Lin, Liu; Xian, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Walnuts are a major crop of many countries and mostly cultivated in large-scale plantations with few cultivars. Landraces provide important genetic reservoirs; thus, understanding factors influencing the geographic distribution of genetic variation in crop resources is a fundamental goal of agrobiodiversity conservation. Here, we investigated the role of human settlements and kinship on genetic variation and population structure of two walnut species: Juglans regia, an introduced species widely cultivated for its nuts, and J. sigillata, a native species cultivated locally in Yunnan. The objectives of this study were to characterize sympatric populations of J. regia and J. sigillata using 14 molecular markers and evaluate the role of Tibetan villages and kin groups (related households) on genotypic variation and population structure of J. regia and J. sigillata. Our results based on 220 walnut trees from six Tibetan villages show that although J. regia and J. sigillata are morphologically distinct, the two species are indistinguishable based on microsatellite data. Despite the lack of interspecific differences, AMOVAs partitioned among villages (5.41%, P = 0.0068) and kin groups within villages (3.34%, P = 0.0068) showed significant genetic variation. These findings suggest that village environments and familial relationships are factors contributing to the geographic structure of genetic variation in Tibetan walnuts.

  5. Study on the Recent Tectonic Stress Field in the Yunnan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xiaodong; Qin Jiazheng; Liu Lifang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, using focal mechanism solutions of moderate-strong earthquakes in Yunnan and its adjacent areas, and based on the statistical analysis of the parameters of focal mechanism solutions, we discussed in detail the earthquake fault types and the characteristics of the modern tectonic stress field in the Yunnan region. The results show that most moderate-strong earthquakes occurring in the Yunnan region are of the strike- slip type, amounting to 80% of the total. Normal faulting and normal with strike-slip and reverse and reverse with strike-slip earthquakes is almost equivalent in proportion, about 8 % each. The tectonic stress field of the Yunnan region is near-horizontal, and the dips of earthquake fault planes are large. There are three main dynamic sources acting on the Yunnan region: one is the NE, NNE and NNW-directed acting force from Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam; the second is the SE-SSE directed force from the Sichuan and Sichuan-Yunnan rhombus block and the third is the NW-NNW directed force from the South China block. These three acting forces have controlled the faulting behavior of the main faults and the characteristics of strong earthquake activity of Yunnan and its adjacent regions.

  6. Recent tectonic stress field zoning in Sichuan-Yunnan region and its dynamic interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; XIE Fu-ren; ZHANG Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we have carefully determined the stress zones in the Sichuan-Yunnan region with reference to the in-situ stress data of hydraulic fracturing and the inverted fault slip data by using the step-by-step convergence method for stress zoning based on focal mechanism solutions. The results indicate that the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region is divided into 3 stress zones by 2 approximately parallel NNW-trending stress transition belts. The area between the 2 belts is the Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone where the maximum principal stress σ1 is just in the NNW direction. The eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the eastern stress transition belt) is basically consistent with the eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan stress zone (the western stress transition belt) is not totally consistent with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The northern segment of the western stress transition belt extends basically along the Jinshajiang fault and accords with the western boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block, while its southern segment does not extend along the southwestern boundary of the rhombic block, i.e., Honghe fault and converge with the eastern stress transition belt, but stretches continuously in the NNW direction and accords with the Yingpanshan fault. We therefore consider that under the combined influence from the northward motion of India Plate, the southeastward shift of east Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the strong obstruction of South China block, the tectonic stress field in the Sichuan-Yunnan region might not be totally controlled by the previous tectonic frame and new stress transition belt may have possibly formed.

  7. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hui; BAI Yu-hua; ZHANG Shu-yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds(VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing(RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVl) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km × 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h.Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 × 1012 gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 × 1011 gCfor isoprene, 2.1 × 1011 gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 × 1011 gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

  8. Research on the Industrial Ecologicalization in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using ecological carrying capacity, ecological footprint method and shift-share analysis and the data from Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook, the status quo of industrial ecologicalization development in Yunnan Province is analyzed from the aspects of consumption of resources and environment, production technology and industrial pollution and industrial structure. The results show that the economic growth in Yunnan Province is based on the huge consumption of resources; the consumption of natural environment has surpassed its carrying capacity; the production technology is relatively backward and the comprehensive use efficiency of the "three wastes" is low; the solid waste emission of the ten thousand GDP far exceeds the average level of the whole county; the total emissions of industrial waste gas and domestic sewage are increasing; the efficiency of industrial structure is bad. On the strength of the analysis, the relevant measures on ecological industrial development in Yunnan Province is put forward, covering strengthening the awareness of saving resources and protecting environment; establishing energy-saving type national economy and social system; actively adjusting industrial structure; strengthening ecological construction of the three major industries.

  9. New Discoveries of Phaeophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian,Haikou, Kunming,Yunnan, Southwest China%云南海口早寒武世褐藻化石新知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2001-01-01

    主要报道了产自云南海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的褐藻化石——拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov.)、简单拟点叶藻(Punctariopsis simplex gen. et sp. nov.)和古文德带藻(Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya) 3种.这些化石丰富了澄江生物群物种的多样性,为研究该群生物爆发性演化提供了新的证据.同时通过对现生褐藻和褐藻化石形态学的比较研究,表明化石属和现代属在系统演化上可能有较密切的亲缘关系,并进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个潮间带和亚潮带的海水环境.%The paper deals with the new phaeophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southwest China. Three new taxa, Punctariopsis latifolia gen. et sp. nov., P.simplex gen. et sp. nov. and Vendotaenia cf. antiqua Gnilovskaya are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. The fossil genus described here is found to have a close relationship with the living Punctaria based on similar morphology. The results suggest that the Chengjiang Biota in Haikou area of Kunming was living in an intertidal and subtidal seawater environment.

  10. 昆明海口早寒武世澄江生物群中叶状红藻化石%Leaf-like Rhodophycean Fossils in the Early Cambrian from Haikou,Kunming,Yunnan of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the new leaf-like rhodophycean fossils in the Early Cambrian from Chengjiang Biota at Mafang Village of Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, Southeast China. The new taxa Paradelesseria sanguinea gen. et sp. nov. is found to have a close relationship with the living Delesseria according to detailed morphological study between the fossil and modern Delesseria. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution and its paleoenvironment. The Biota in Haikou district of Kunming was living in subtidal and lower intertidal marine environment, up to 30 m below surface of the water based on the comparative study of extant red algae.%主要报道了采自云南省昆明市海口马房村鞍山早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中的叶状红藻-似红叶藻(新属、新种)(Paradelesseria sanguinea Xu,gen.et sp.Nov.).通过比较形态学研究,探讨了该宏观化石藻类的分类归属与亲缘关系,进一步丰富了澄江生物群生物物种多样性的认识,并为研究早寒武世生物演化及其古环境提供了新的化石证据.同时,通过对现生红藻的比较研究,进一步证明了澄江生物群在云南海口地区发生于一个水深在30 m以上的亚潮带和下潮间带的海水环境.

  11. The Occurrence of Longfengshania in the Early Cambrian from Haikou, Yunnan, China%龙凤山藻在澄江早寒武世生物群中的发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2002-01-01

    Well preserved Early Cambrian small individual megascopic carbonaceous algal fossils have been found from the Chengjiang Biota. This paper deals with the new megascopic algal fossils in the Early Cambrian also from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village, Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, southwest China. Two new taxa, Longfengshania cordata sp. nov. and Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov. are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. Moreover, the fossils described here might belong to the megaalgal fossils according to detailed morphological study on the relationships of Longfengshania. Additionally, the occurrence of Longfengshania in the early Cambrian and the Neoproterozoic probably indicates a wide ecological tolerance and flexibility and apparently reflects its evolutionary conservation and a high degree of inherent genetic stability.%主要报道了产自云南昆明海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中可能为自由漂浮生长的宏观藻类化石--心型龙凤山藻(新种)(Longfengshania cordata sp. nov.)和中华豆芽藻(新属、新种)(Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov.).这些化石的发现进一步显示了澄江生物群物种多样性,为揭示该生物群爆发性演化提供了新的证据.通过对龙凤山藻属亲缘关系的深入比较研究,进一步证明该类化石应归属宏观藻类以及它们遗传上的稳定性、演化上的保守性和环境上的适应性.

  12. [Yield formation of different single-season rice (Oryza sativa L. ) types and its relationships with meteorological factors in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chu; Zhu, Ying-Mo; Zhu, Yong; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mao-Song; Xu, Meng-Ying

    2013-10-01

    By using the 1994-2010 observation data of paddy rice growth period and yield from 14 agro-meteorological stations at different altitudes in Yunnan Province, this paper studied the rice yield formation and the effects of meteorological factors on low-yield rice yield components. According to the systematic cluster analysis of rice yield components and the rice types at the 14 stations, the rice was divided into 4 types, i. e., low-yield japonica rice, low-yield indica rice, high-yield japonica rice, and high-yield indica rice. The analysis of the yield components of the 4 rice types showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the spikelet number per square meter (sqm) and the rice yield. The yield of low-yield japonica was mainly affected by the seed setting rate and the spikelet number per sqm. For the other three rice types, the spikelet number per sqm had greater effects on the rice yield. The low-yield japonica rice was mainly affected by low temperature. At booting stage, low temperature decreased the spikelet number and the productive panicle number of unit sqm. At booting and flowering stages, low temperature increased the empty grain rate, and the effects of average temperature, average maximum temperature, and cold accumulated temperature were greater. At pre-milk stage, low temperature increased the unfilled grain rate, and meanwhile, decreased the 1000-grain mass. The yield components of low-yield indica rice were obviously affected by multiple meteorological factors. A certain degree of warming at tillering and jointing stages was not beneficial to the increase of productive panicle number per sqm of low-yield indica rice, but the more sunshine hours and the greater average diurnal temperature range at tillering stage was beneficial to the increase of the productive panicle number per sqm. There was a parabolic relationship between the temperature and sunshine hours at tillering and jointing stages and the spikelet number per

  13. 云南省乳腺癌基线特征分析%Baseline characteristics of breast cancer in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云芬; 杨晓娟; 刘倩; 张宁鑫; 聂建云

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the baseline characteristics of breast cancer in Yunnan Province. Methods:Col-lected 1862 cases confirmed to be breast cancer by pathology. Results:Patients were aged in 21 to 78,the average age was(48. 23 ± 10. 59)years old,the peak age of onset was 40-49 years old. According to the age0. 05). Predominantly invasive nonspecific carcinoma in pathological classification,with 1523 cases,accounting for 81. 8%;Pathological staging Ⅱ period pa-tients,with 916 cases,accounting for 49. 2%. Main molecular classification was Luminal B patients,with 1260 cases, accounting for 67. 7%. According to the stratified analysis of different cultural levels,the breast cancer patients be-tween the ages of different cultural levels,production history,pathological staging expression difference was statistically significant(P0. 05). Conclusion:The difference between Han nationality and ethnic minorities breast cancer patients in Yunnan Province has not been found. The clinical feature of breast cancer may have relationship with education level.%目的:了解云南省肿瘤医院收治的乳腺癌患者基线特点。方法:收集2011年1月-2012年12月云南省肿瘤医院乳腺病科收治的经病理确诊为乳腺癌的所有初诊患者,共计1862例,对其年龄、病理分型、分期及分子分型构成等情况进行分析。结果:患者年龄21-78岁,平均年龄(48.23±10.59)岁。发病高峰年龄为40-49岁,按年龄<40和年龄≥40岁分为2组,分析不同年龄组民族、生产史、发病时间、病理分型、分期、分子分型、ER、PR、CerbB2、p53及Ki67的表达情况。除生产史(P<0.001)和PR(P=0.025)差异有统计学意义外,其余差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。病理分型以浸润性非特殊癌为主,共1523例,占81.8%。临床分期以Ⅱ期患者为主,共916例,占49.2%;Ⅰ期620例,占33.3%;Ⅲ期294例,占15.8%;Ⅳ期32例,占1.7

  14. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China%滇东产(燃)煤区农民肺癌流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继华; 张云生; 李云; 殷国青; 李玥冰; 宁伯福; 国家敏

    2011-01-01

    .37%,主要从事农业生产和做饭、喂养牛猪等室内家务工作,吸烟、职业危害不是女性肺癌的丰要发病因素,但可能是男性肺癌发病比女性严重的影响因素.结论 肺癌高发与室内外烟煤污染、家族易感性有关联,吸烟、采煤、炼焦不是女性肺癌的主要因素.%Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei,and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei.The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province.Methods 382 study units (nature villages) were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China.The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled.AlI the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exp osure history, family and personal medical history, etc.The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination.The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions.Results 5 2, 833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray.604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial

  15. 南滚河国家级自然保护区的动物多样性%Animal Diversity in the Nangunhe National-level Nature Reserve of Yunnan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic research on investigation and taxonomy of Botany and Zoology as well as application of the indigenous knowledge to utilization and conservation of biodiversity, the families and species of mammals, distribution types and habitat distribution of birds, and faunas of amphibian and reptiles, types and characteristics of the fish in the area were investigated and analyzed. The terraneous and aquatic animals, the characteristic of animal ecological system, and the characteristic of animal diversity in the nature reserve were discussed. Results indicated that the area is very rich in animal diversity. There are 98 species of mammals in the area belonging to 10 orders, 30 families and 75 genera,which account for 16.14% of 607 species of mammals in China and 32. 23% of Yunnans 304 species of mammals. There are 145 species of birds in the area belonging to 13 orders and 36 families, which account for 17.4% of 824 species of birds in Yunnan. There are 26 species and subspecies of amphibians in the area. There are 39 species and subspecies of reptiles in the area. Fish in the area were divided into 3,2 and 3 types according to the different habitats, the type of water flows and feeding habits respectively and the characteristics of the fish in the area were introduced. The characteristics of the Biogeocenose diversity in the area were analyzed. The main problems of management in the reserve were found. The long-term development targets for the nature reserve were set. Some suggestions for future management were made.%基于系统的植物学和动物学调查和分类学研究,以及乡土知识在生物多样性的利用和保护方面的应用,对分布于保护区的哺乳动物的科和种、鸟类的分布类型和生境分布、两栖和爬行动物的区系、鱼类的类型和特点作了调查分析,讨论了分布于保护区的陆生和水生动物、动物的生态系统和多样性特征.结果表明:保护区的

  16. Spatial patterns of dominant species in secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan, Southwest China.%滇中次生常绿阔叶林优势树种的空间格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保双; 付登高; 吴晓妮; 王洪娇; 王琪; 段昌群

    2013-01-01

    By using Ripley' s point pattern analysis, the spatial patterns of the dominant species Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Keteleeria evelyniana in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan of Southwest China as well as the spatial associations among the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were analyzed. Overall, the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were in uniform distribution, indicating that the growth of the two populations was in stable period. The two species and their individuals with different DBH classes had a clumped distribution. With the increase of DBH class, the aggregation degree of C. glaucoides had a decreasing trend, while that of K. evelyniana decreased first, increased then, and decreased at last. A positive or no significant spatial association was observed among the saplings, juvenile trees, and adult trees of the two species. At different spatial scales, the two species of different DBH classes had less association, possibly because of the greater differences in the survival strategies of the two species. It was suggested that in the restoration of the forests in central Yunnan, it would be essential to control the plant population density and attend to the interspecific interaction to build an appropriate structure of the community.%采用Ripley的点格局分析方法对滇中次生常绿阔叶林中优势种滇青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides)和滇油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)的分布格局以及不同径级分株之间的相互关系进行了分析.结果表明:(1)总体来看,两个优势物种各径级株数分布较均匀,二者的增长处于稳定期.(2)两个优势物种在总体上及不同径级阶段主要呈聚集分布.随径级的增加,滇青冈种群的聚集程度逐渐降低,而滇油杉种群的聚集程度呈现降低-增加-降低的趋势.两个优势物种的幼树、中树和大树主要呈空间正相关或无空间关联性.(3)两优势种群不同

  17. New Height in A New Stage Interpretation of the 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    The 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Wujiang) held on Sep. 1st, 2011 discussed in depth the world chemical fiber changes and the predictable development of China's chemical fiber industry during the "12th Five-Year Program" period. In order to help readers fully understand China's chemical fiber industry's development priorities during that period, the article will give an interpretation on the two themes of the conference "Innovation-Driven" and "Green & Low Carbon"

  18. Chinalco Straightened Out Copper Assets, and Delegated Stock Equity of Yunnan Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Immediately after the news that Chinalco transferred 58%stock equity of Yunnan Copper Group to its wholly-owned subsidiary China Copper Corporation Limited free of charge was disclosed on July 9,many individual investors couldn’t help but to think:Does it mean China Copper Corporation Limited will assemble assets for overall listing?At present,among main copper business companies under China Copper Corporation

  19. The Relationship between Yunnan-Vietnam Railway and the City Form of Kunming in Times of Republic of China%滇越铁路与民国昆明城市形态变迁*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚

    2013-01-01

    从1910年到1940年,滇越铁路一直是云南人流、物流、信息流、资金流最密集繁盛的对外通道,昆明在云南的区域中心地位主要由滇越铁路奠定,昆明的城市形态变迁也与滇越铁路息息相关。%Yunnan-Vietnam Railway was the main road of the flowing of human resources,com-modities,information and fund in Yunnan province since 1910 to 1940.The railway pushed Kunming to be the local economic center in Yunnan province,at the same time,the relationship between the railway and the city form of Kunming was certified by the historical materials.

  20. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Bai ethnic group in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899 took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899 of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control.

  1. Lessons from Participatory Evaluation of Cropping Practices in Yunnan Province, China: Overview of the Effectiveness of Technologies and Issues Related to Technology Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Milne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing crop production, while maintaining sustainability, is a priority for agricultural development projects, particularly in developing countries. This study investigated the factors contributing to the effectiveness of agricultural development projects in improving the sustainability of cropping systems in a small upland watershed in south-west China. This involved a review of recent related projects and detailed evaluation of one project: the SHASEA Project. Farmers’ perceptions of several agricultural technologies are discussed, along with factors contributing to farmers’ adoption of these technologies. Local, national and international institutions need to adopt several strategies to improve project effectiveness and agro-environmental sustainability.

  2. On intemational trade in educational services: an interpretation of the regulations and China's WTO commitments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS)of the World Trade Organization(WTO)covers educational trade services.Hence,all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services.Having acceded to the WTO.China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely respecting international trade,services and intellectual property laws.At the same time,it is also starting to fulfill some of the commitments it made in the GATS,such as expanding activities on trade in educational services.Comprehending the fundamental regulations and China's commitments is significant towards promoting China's international trade in educational services.

  3. Direct versus indirect climate controls on Holocene diatom assemblages in a sub-tropical deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu, Yunnan, SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Xiangdong; Anderson, Nicholas John; Dong, Xuhui

    2016-07-01

    The reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in lakes on the plateau region of southwest China provides an understanding of how these ecosystems may respond to climate change. Fossil diatom assemblages were investigated from an 11,000-year lake sediment core from a deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu) in southwest China, an area strongly influenced by the southwest (or the Indian) summer monsoon. Changes in diatom assemblage composition, notably the abundance of the two dominant planktonic species, Cyclotella rhomboideo-elliptica and Cyclostephanos dubius, reflect the effects of climate variability on nutrient dynamics, mediated via thermal stratification (internal nutrient cycling) and catchment-vegetation processes. Statistical analyses of the climate-diatom interactions highlight the strong effect of changing orbitally-induced solar radiation during the Holocene, presumably via its effect on the lake's thermal budget. In a partial redundancy analysis, climate (solar insolation) and proxies reflecting catchment process (pollen percentages, C/N ratio) were the most important drivers of diatom ecological change, showing the strong effects of climate-catchment-vegetation interactions on lake functioning. This diatom record reflects long-term ontogeny of the lake-catchment ecosystem and suggests that climatic changes (both temperature and precipitation) impact lake ecology indirectly through shifts in thermal stratification and catchment nutrient exports.

  4. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  5. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China%滇东产(燃)煤区农民肺癌流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继华; 张云生; 李云; 殷国青; 李玥冰; 宁伯福; 国家敏

    2011-01-01

    .37%,主要从事农业生产和做饭、喂养牛猪等室内家务工作,吸烟、职业危害不是女性肺癌的丰要发病因素,但可能是男性肺癌发病比女性严重的影响因素.结论 肺癌高发与室内外烟煤污染、家族易感性有关联,吸烟、采煤、炼焦不是女性肺癌的主要因素.%Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei,and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei.The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province.Methods 382 study units (nature villages) were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China.The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled.AlI the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exp osure history, family and personal medical history, etc.The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination.The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions.Results 5 2, 833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray.604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial

  6. Phylogenic diversity of soil chemotatic bacteria in a phosphorous-rich area around Dianchi Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China%云南滇池富磷区趋化性细菌的系统多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉娥; 杨培香; 陈明会; 舒雪萍; 陈强; 李程; 杨发祥; 莫明和

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated from 100 soil samples collected from a phosphorous-rich area around the Dianchi Lake of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The chemotatic PSB strains were screened by cheA gene detection, and their chemotaxis was verified by the method of soft agar plate. The tricalcium phosphate (TCP) -solubilizing activities of PSB were determined with molybdenum blue spectrophotometry. Based on 16S rRNA sequences, the phylogenic relationships of the PSB were analyzed. A total of 145 PSB strains with a diameter of phosphate-solubilizing halo zone ranged from 0. 5 cm to 2 cm were isolated, among which, 37 strains were chemotactic. The 37 chemotactic strains showed chemotaxis towards four test attractants, and exhibited TCP-solubilizing activity. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the 37 chemotatic strains were belonged to 17 species of 10 genera, in which, Pseudomonas was dominant (9 strains of 5 species) , followed by Enterobacter (8 strains of 3 species). Only one species (Bacillus aryabhattai) was isolated from Bacillus, but 9 strains were identified.%从云南滇池富磷区100份土样中筛选解磷细菌(PSB),通过组氨酸激酶编码基因(cheA)筛选趋化性PSB,并通过软琼脂平板法验证其趋化性;利用钼蓝比色法测定PSB对磷酸三钙的溶解能力;基于16S rRNA基因序列分析趋化性PSB的系统亲缘关系.结果表明:分离到的145株PSB的溶磷圈直径在0.5 ~2 cm,其中37株为趋化性PSB.该37株PSB对供试的4种趋化底物均具有趋化性,而且对磷酸三钙均具有解磷活性.基于16S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析显示,这37株趋化性PSB分属于10属,共17种细菌,其中假单胞菌属种类最多(5种9株),肠杆菌属次之(3种8株),芽孢杆菌属尽管只分离到1个种(Bacillus aryabhattai),但共分离到9个菌株.

  7. INTERPRETING OVERALL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL CAPITAL, HUMAN CAPITAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...

  8. Interpreting seasonal changes of low-tropospheric CO2 over China based on SCIAMACHY observations during 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Xingying, Zhang; Liyang, Zhang; Ling, Gao; Lin, Tian

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration exhibits a strong seasonal variation. Analyzing the regional seasonal cycle could help to improve the interpretation of the sources and sinks of CO2 over certain areas. Based on a long-term (2003-2011) retrieved dataset from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variations of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) over China have been analyzed. The result shows that XCO2 over China increases by about 4.2% from 2003 to 2011, but the seasonal fluctuation keeps the similar pattern with the average peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.35 ppm. The highest concentration appears in spring, and the lowest value always occurs in summer. Based on the multi-year averages, it can be discerned that the seasonal signal of XCO2 increases during colder seasons with a drop during the period from December to February of the following year. The potential affecting factors are also discussed in this manuscript, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), air temperature, and industrial productions in Thermal Power Generation (TPG) and cement that are relative main contributors for the anthropogenic CO2 of China. The seasonal variations of CO2 are highly connected with the changes of NDVI and air temperature. While the increase of the anthropogenic CO2 emission over China since 2003 is probably caused by the rapid growth of coal combustion and cement manufacture.

  9. U-series dating of Zhangkou Cave in Yiliang, Yunnan Province: Evidence for human activities in China during 40-100 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guanjun; LI Jiankun; JI Xueping

    2005-01-01

    The cultural deposits at pits T1 and T2 in Zhangkou Cave are intercalated with several flowstone layers. U-series dates show that the capping and 2nd flowstone layers are Holocene of age. The 4th and 5th flowstone layers are ca. 55 and 110 ka old respectively. The lithic artifacts bracketed by them provide unequivocal evidence for hominid presence during this time interval. The "temporal gap" of hominid fossil, widely quoted as in support of the out-of-Africa hypothesis, is most probably an artifact due to systematic errors of dating techniques. The infillings under 6th flowstone layer date to >300 ka, much older than the previous estimate at 15 ka based on classical 14C dating of fossil bones, providing one more example of the limited reliability of this chronometer. With rich relics and favorable conditions for precise dating, this site is promising for further multidisciplinary studies to address issues concerning recent human evolution in China.

  10. SIMS U-Pb zircon age of a tuff layer in the Meishucun section, Yunnan, southwest China: Constraint on the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary is critical in understanding early evolution of life on Earth. SIMS U-Pb zircon analyses of the Bed 5 tuff layer of the Meishucun section were carried out closely following the guidance of cathodoluminescence images, and the majority of analyses were conducted on the oscillatory zircon grains. Thirteen measurements yield a highly reliable Concordia U-Pb age of 536.7 ± 3.9 Ma for the Bed 5 horizon. A grand mean of 206Pb/238U age of 535.2± 1.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.53) is calculated based on 13 concordant SIMS measurements of this study and 4 nano-SIMS measurements of Sawaki et al., which is the best estimate of the deposition age of the tuff layer within Bed 5 in the Meishucun section. This age has provided a robust age constraint on the significant Precambrian-Cambrian boundary strata in southern China, which independently suggested the placement of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary at the bottom of the Xiaowaitoushan Member (Marker A).

  11. Eclipses and Occultations of Galilean Satellites Observed at Yunnan Observatory in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Peng; Beno(i)t Noyelles

    2007-01-01

    We describe and analyze observations of mutual events of Galilean satellites made at the Yunnan Observatory in February 2003 from CCD imaging for the first time in China.Astrometric positions were deduced from these photometric observations by modelling the relative motion and the photometry of the involved satellites during each event.

  12. Contributing factors to the failure of an unusually large landslide triggered by the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan, China, Ms = 6.5 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z. F.; Chen, X. L.; An, X. W.; Cui, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    The 3 August 2014 Ludian, China, Ms = 6.5 earthquake caused many large landslides. The biggest occurred at Hongshiyan near the epicenter, had a volume of 1.0 × 107 m3 and dammed the Niulanjiang River, creating a large lake. Post-event field investigations yielded detailed data on the following aspects: rock structure of the landslide, the local lithology and geometry of the area around the landslide dam and composition and grain sizes of the debris avalanche. Based on these data, this work analyzes the geology and topography of the Hongshiyan area, and explores reasons for the occurrence of an unusually large landslide at this location. Our analysis suggests the following conditions are responsible for this catastrophic event. (1) Due to recent crustal deformation, intense incision on the river increased topographic relief with steep slopes and scarps. (2) Combined structures, including unloading fissures, high-angle joints and low-angle beds along the river, as well as an upper-strong and lower-weak interlayer structure on the slope, especially the existence of weak layers in the slope, are important factors that contribute to this large failure. (3) Hongshiyan lies near an active fault, where intense crustal deformation has resulted in rock fractures and weathering, and frequent earthquakes may progressively reduce the strength of the slope. (4) During the Ms = 6.5 earthquake, the terrain and site conditions led to abnormally strong ground shaking. The combined impacts of these factors triggered a very large landslide during a moderate-sized earthquake.

  13. 民国时期滇越铁路对沿线城市商品经济发展的作用%The Function of Yunnan-Vietnam Railway on the Commodity Economy of the Cities along the Railway in Times of Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辚

    2012-01-01

    民国时期,滇越铁路推动了云南商品经济的发展,触发了云南的工业化、近代化进程。尤其对沿线城市的对外贸易、县际贸易、地方贸易的发展有显著作用,推动了当地农产品的商品化、规模化进程,使沿线各站成为新兴的农副土特产品集散地和商业街场。%Yunnan-Vietnam Railway pushed the development of commodity economy in Yunnan province, and initiated industrialization and modernization process of the cities along the railway in times of Republic of China. The historical materials witnessed that the railway had a remarkable effect especially on the expanding of foreign trade, and inner trade, and local trade among the cities along the railway. Meanwhile, the railway accelerated the pace of the rural products sold to markets, where the railway stations became the new transaction centers and country fairs.

  14. 云南省西双版纳地区2011年蚊虫及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承军; 朱进; 王宇; 陶伽伶; 李丽华; 白卫荣; 查冰; 王丕玉; 梁国栋; 付士红; 张海林; 范建华; 杨卫红; 章域震; 吕志; 李园园; 李鸿斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南省西双版纳地区蚊虫媒介的分布特点及当地虫媒病毒情况,为虫媒病毒病防治提供科学依据.方法 在云南省西双版纳州采集蚊虫标本,用细胞培养法分离病毒,并用RT-PCR法检测常见虫媒病毒核酸;在西双版纳州采集发热患者血清及脑脊液标本,并用ELISA法检测常见病毒性脑炎IgM抗体.结果 共采获蚊虫5属29种13 337只,其中三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、带足按蚊分别占蚊虫标本总数的79.98%( 10 667/13 337)、7.95%( 1060/13 337)和7.38%(984/13 337),三带喙库蚊为当地优势蚊种.采用流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒、版纳病毒、甲病毒属、环状病毒等多种虫媒病毒引物对214批蚊虫标本进行PCR检测,结果均为阴性;采用多种细胞对蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,结果也为阴性.用相关脑炎病毒试剂盒对采集到的52份急性期血清标本及54份脑脊液标本进行ELISA检测,发现乙脑病毒IgM阳性16例,单纯疱疹病毒IgM抗体阳性4例,腮腺炎病毒IgM抗体阳性13例,埃可病毒IgM抗体阳性3例,登革热病毒IgM抗体阳性1例.结论 2011年西双版纳地区采集到的蚊虫标本中未检测到乙脑、版纳及环状病毒等虫媒病毒,但血清学检测结果表明当地发热患者存在乙脑等多种病毒性脑炎感染.%Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for prevention and control of arbovirus diseases. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Xishuangbanna and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. RT-PCR was used to identify arbovirus. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from fever patients, and the common encephalitis virus IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results A total of 13 337 mosquitoes, belonging to 29 species and 5 genera, were collected. The main mosquitoes were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (79.98%, 10 667

  15. Numerical simulation of the influence of lower-crustal flow on the deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; CAO Jian-ling; ZHANG Huai; ZHANG Guo-min; SHI Yao-lin; SHEN Xu-hui

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of distribution of active fault and regional rheological structure, a three-dimensional finite element model of Sichuan-Yunnan region, China, is constructed to simulate contemporary crustal motion and stress distribution and discuss the dynamic mechanism of crustal motion and deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. Linear Maxwell visco-elastic model is applied, which includes the active fault zones, the elastic upper crust and viscous lower crust and upper mantle. Four different models with different boundary conditions and deep structure are calculated. Some conclusions are drawn through comparison. Firstly, the crustal rotation about the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya in the Sicuan-Yunnan region may be controlled by the special dynamic boundary condition. The drag force of the lower-crust on the upper crust is not negligible. At the same time, the main active fault zones play an important role in the contemporary crustal motion and deformation in Sichuan-Yunnan region.

  16. Modeling and Interpreting CHAMP Magnetic Anomaly Field over China Continent Using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanyuan; Liu Qingsheng; Yang Tao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the CHAMP Magsat data set, spherical cap harmonic analysis was used to model the magnetic fields over China continent. The data set used in the analysis includes the 15′×15′ gridded values of the CHAMP anomaly fields (latitude φ=25°N to 50°N and longitude λ=78°E to 135°E). The pole of the cap is located at φ=35°N and λ=110°E with half-angle of 30°. The maximum index (Kmax) of the model is 30 and the total number of model coefficients is 961, which corresponds to the minimum wavelength at the earth's surface about 400 km. The root mean square (RMS) deviations between the calculated and observed values are ~ 4 nT for ΔX, ~ 3 nT for ΔY and ~ 3.5 nT for ΔZ, respectively. Results show that positive anomalies are found mainly at the Tarim basin with ~6- 8 nT, the Yangtze platform and North China platform with ~4 nT, and the Songliao basin with ~4-6 nT. In contrast, negative anomaly is mainly located in the Tibet orogenic belt with the amplitude ~ (-6)-(-8) nT. Upward continuation of magnetic anomalies was used to semi-quantitatively separate the magnetic anomalies in different depths of crust. The magnetic anomalies at the earth's surface are from -6 to 10 nT for upper crust, middle crust -27 to 42 nT and lower crust -12 to 18 nT, respectively. The strikes of the magnetic anomalies for the upper crust are consistent with those for the middle crust, but not for the lower crust. The high positive magnetic anomalies mainly result from the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block (e.g. middle Sichuan continental nucleus, middle Tarim basin continental nucleus, Junggar diastrophic block and Qaidam diastrophic block). The amplitudes of the magnetic anomalies of the old continental nucleus and diastrophic block are related to evolution of deep crust. These results improve our understanding of the crustal structure over China continent.

  17. Fine structure of Pn velocity beneath Sichuan-Yunnan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金莉; 宋晓东; 汪素云

    2003-01-01

    We use 23298 Pn arrival-time data from Chinese national and provincial earthquake bulletins to invert fine structure of Pn velocity and anisotropy at the top of the mantle beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan and its adjacent region. The results suggest that the Pn velocity in this region shows significant lateral variation; the Pn velocity varies from 7.7 to 8.3 km/s. The Pn-velocity variation correlates well with the tectonic activity and heat flow of the region. Low Pn velocity is observed in southwest Yunnan , Tengchong volcano area, and the Panxi tectonic area. These areas have very active seismicity and tectonic activity with high surface heat flow. On the other hand, high Pn velocity is observed in some stable regions, such as the central region of the Yangtze Platform; the most pronounced high velocity area is located in the Sichuan Basin, south of Chengdu. Pn anisotropy shows a complex pattern of regional deformation. The Pn fast direction shows a prominent clockwise rotation pattern from east of the Tibetan block to the Sichuan-Yunnan diamond block to southwest Yunnan, which may be related to southeastward escape of the Tibetan Plateau material due to the collision of the Indian Plate to the Eurasia Plate. Thus there appears to be strong correlation between the crustal deformation and the upper mantle structure in the region. The delay times of events and stations show that the crust thickness decreases from the Tibetan Plateau to eastern China, which is consistent with the results from deep seismic sounding.

  18. 对中国梦的三重解读%Interpretations on China Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾林

    2013-01-01

    Chinese dream is the country dream , the national dream and every Chinese person's dream . The dream of China has its unique connotation , value and profound historical background . This is the requirement of China's development since modern times . We should not only be confined to its own understanding on Chinese dream , but also need contrast with the American dream and the European dream so that we can deepen our understanding of the Chinese dream . Chinese dream as a kind of ideal and belief has its theoretical foundation . It takes individual as its starting point with the basic point of realism and idealism in accordance with the Marxism .%中国梦是国家梦,是民族梦,也是每个中国人的梦。中国梦具有自己独特的内涵和价值维度,它的提出具有深刻的历史背景,是中国近代以来发展的必然要求。对中国梦的理解不能仅局限于对其本身的理解,还需要通过与美国梦、欧洲梦的对比,加深对中国梦的理解。中国梦作为一种理想信念有其理论基础,它以现实的个人作为出发点,它所具有的现实性和理想性都符合马克思主义的基本观点。

  19. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  20. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  1. Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015%云南省中缅边境2015年一起登革热暴发的分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 杨明东; 姜进勇; 李华昌; 朱崇革; 桂琴; 卜力群; 周红宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region,Yunnan province,2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention.Methods Semi-nested RT-PCR was conducted to detect the capsid pre-membrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township,Gengma county,Yunnan province in July,2015.Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene.The positive PCR products were directly sequenced.Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program.Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank,including the representative strains from different countries and regions.Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software.Results Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1.Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus.A total of 13 strains with E gene (1 485 bp),including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains,were sequenced,which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype Ⅰ of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage.Conclusions This outbreak was caused by genotype Ⅰ of DENV-1,which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area.Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.%目的 对2015年云南省中缅边境一起登革热暴发查明病因,对流行的登革病毒(DENV)

  2. Interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu region, eastern China and implications for deep geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Sutao; LIU Qingsheng; QIAO Qingqing; FU Yuanyuan

    2007-01-01

    By using data on the 1:100 000 aeromagnetic anomalies of the Sulu orogenic belt, we designed three simu-lated geotraverses, in which deep seismic reflection and other geophysical investigations have been completed. Based on the features of magnetism of the three profiles, and under the constraints of deep seismic reflection data, together with the magnetism of the core petrology at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) pilot-hole and areal geology, the three inversions of magnetic anomalies are carried out. The characteristics of terrane structure are presented: the rocks are mostly composed of eclogite, marble, and gneiss at the depth of 5 km. At the depth between 5 and 7 km under the surface,inverse magnetic bodies are mainly the ultra high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rock slices containing a lot of coesite-bearing eclogite. At the depth between 7 km and the bottom of upper crust are the rocks of the gneiss, granite and granite diorite that underwent ultra high pressure metamorphic process. Middle crust (10-19 km) is mostly composed ofUHPM gneiss and granite that intruded later. The rocks ofacid and basic granulite dominate the lower crust. Based on the inversed results of the three simulated geotraverses, we know that the UHPM rock slices of the three profiles are dipping north, stacking each other and being uplifted to the earth's surface, which may be the result of the North China craton's subduction and exhumation in the Triassic.

  3. Seismic tomography of Yunnan region using short-period surface wave phase velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正勤; 苏伟; 叶太兰

    2004-01-01

    The data of short-period (1~18 s) surface waves recorded by 23 stations belonging to the digital seismic network of Yunnan Province of China are used in this paper. From these data, the dispersion curves of phase velocities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave along 209 paths are determined by using the two-station narrowband filtering cross-correlation method.Adopting tomography method, the distribution maps of phase velocities at various periods in Yunnan region are inverted. The maps of phase velocities on profiles along 24°N, 25°N, 26°N, 27°N and 100.5°E and the distribution maps of phase velocities at 3 periods in the study region are given. The results show that the phase velocity distribution in Yunnan region has strong variations in horizontal direction, and the phase velocity distribution in short-period range is closely related to the thickness of sedimentary layers in the shallow crust. The phase velocity in southern part of the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block encircled by the Honghe fault and Xiaojiang fault is obviously lower than that in surrounding areas. The epicentral locations of strong earthquakes in Yunnan region are mainly distributed in transitional zones between low and high phase velocities.

  4. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  5. 云南鹤庆锰矿碳氧同位素特征分析%Characteristics of Carbon and Oxygen Isotope in Heqing Manganese Deposit,Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 温兴平; 常海亮; 刘灿; 李林强

    2013-01-01

    Heqing manganese deposit is located in the southwestern margin of Yangtze platform in Yunnan Province,China.Carbon and oxygen isotopes indicate that Songgui Formation which is the main ore bearing stratum experienced one transgression and another long-term regression.The paleotemperature derived from oxygen isotopes are higher due to the exchange of oxygen isotope between biological (algae) metabolites and seawater,changes in paleoclimate and sea depth.The paleosalinity show normal marine sediments and there are good correlation between the paleosalinity and the value of δ13 C.δ18O values from cores are higher mainly owing to the variation of paleosalinity,which are good correlation with δ3C value.With the sea level falling,the possibility of buried organic was decreased,which led to negative values of δ13 C.Through a comprehensive analysis of carbon and oxygen isotopes,it is concluded that the depositional environment was at least a semi-enclosed shallow or near continental basin.With uplifting of Yangze platform continuously and climate changing from humid,hot into arid gradually,the manganese ores were formed accompanied by falls in sea level.%云南鹤庆锰矿位于扬子地台西南缘,对其岩石样品的碳氧同位素分析表明,上三叠统松桂组经历了一次海进和一次漫长的海退期.生物(藻类)代谢与海水发生同位素交换、古气候环境的变化和古海水深度的变化都使反演的古温度偏高;古盐度分析显示正常海相沉积特征,略低的盐度与碳同位素偏低有关.钻孔样品的氧同位素主要由盐度变化而产生一个高值范围,且对应碳同位素低值区,由于海平面下降,有机质埋藏率低导致碳同位素向负值漂移.根据以上分析认为,沉积时期的环境至少是一个半局限的浅海近陆源盆地,伴随扬子地台不断抬升,气候由潮湿、炎热转变为干燥的大陆性气候,锰矿的形成也是伴随海退海水变浅而沉积成矿.

  6. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  7. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 王晶; 董文鸽; 张励; 马志敏; 李伟

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.%在对云南省9个县,市,抽样调查的基础上,本文对境内小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构进行了研究.物种多样性用物种丰富度表示,多样性指数及均匀度计算采用Shannon-Wiener方法.所捕获的2745只小兽经分类鉴定隶属啮齿目、食虫目、攀目、兔形目和食肉目5个目中的10科、25属、41种.从各种小兽突主体表共采集到吸虱昆虫18165只,经分类鉴定隶属4科、6属、22种,其种类明显少于突主种类.几科每种小兽突主体表都有固定的吸虱种类寄生,但吸怅是种类数很少(1-4种).动物分类上接近的突主,其体表的优势

  8. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  9. Land Use Change During 1960~2000 Period and its Eco-environmental Effects in the Middle and Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River:a Case Study in Yiliang County,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui; LIU Yansui; HE Yimei

    2004-01-01

    Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is a focus of the research of global environmental changes. The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, which are the most ecologically fragile mountainous area in China as well as one of the areas in China with most notable LUCC, have been on the Chinese Government's list of priority areas for ecological restoration. This paper is to reveal the trend of LUCC and the ecological degradation arising from it, and to provide a basis for the future sustainable use of land resources in the region based on a detailed analysis of Yiliang County. Based on the county's land use/cover maps in 1960, 1980 and 2000 drawn with the aid of aerial photograph interpretation, field investigation and GIS based spatial-temporal data analysis, LUCC during 1960~2000 period and the ecological degradation arising from it were analyzed. Using the Markv model, the paper brings out a forecast of what the county's LUCC would be like if the county's current land use continues, as well as the reasons and countermeasures for restoring degraded ecosystems.

  10. A Research for Economic Change on Private Businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China--Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province as an Example%建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁--以云南省红河州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何作庆

    2016-01-01

    文章以云南红河州为例,主要阐述了建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁:即疏理了中国建国初期越侨私商在云南红河州的经济现状,回顾了六、七十年代对红河州越侨私商进行社会主义改造的基本情况,改革开放时期红河州越侨私商的恢复和发展。%Based on investigation and reliable materials,as an Example in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province, this article research economic changing mainly on private businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China. The article know economic situation on private businessmen of Vietnam in the early time of P.R.China, review economic change to carry on the basic situation Socialist Transformation on private businessmen of Vietnam in 1960s~.1970s,and recovery and development of private businessmen of Vietnam during the period of reform and opening up of P.R.China in Honghe Prefecture.

  11. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  12. Ichnofabrics and Their Environmental Interpretation from the Fluvial Deposits of the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Western Henan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Yongan Qi; Da Li; Mingyue Dai; Yuguang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial deposits from the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Henan Province, China contain a low-diversity trace fossils. Vertical dwelling burrows of opportunists dominate in active channel, whereas horizontal deposit-feeding, grazing, and vertical dwelling burrows occur in overbank deposits. Seven recurrent ichnofabrics were distingushed. The Palaeophycus tubularis ichnofabric pre-serves below scour interface between two fluvial cycles. The Skolithos linearis ichnofabric forms in middle to high-energy, soft substrates in the middle and upper parts of active channel deposits under semi-arid climate. The Skolithos linearis-Planolites montanus ichnofabric occurs in the sediments just a little above the Skolithos linearis ichnofabric and is formed in middle-energy, soft substrates in the up-per part of active channel deposits. The Planolites montanus ichnofabric is mostly preserved in associa-tion with medium- to thick-bedded brown-red silty mudstones or siltstones in low-energy, perennial muddy bottom ponds in overbank settings. The Taenidium barretti ichnofabric is interpreted as peri-odically exposed ephemeral ponds or low-energy distal floodplain. The Skolithos isp. ichnofabric com-monly occurs in middle to high-energy firm ground of proximal foodplain or crevasse-splay deposits. The root trace ichnofabric occurs in the crevasse splay deposits. The presence of thin palaeosols and the abundance of calcretization in mudstones indicate a seasonal climate ranging from humid to semi-arid, with high temperature, rainfall, and well-defined dry and wet seasons.

  13. 云南省马铃薯晚疫病菌交配型及生物学特性研究(英文)%MATING TYPE AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Phytophthora infestans ISOLATES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立耘; 杨艳丽; 罗文富

    2002-01-01

    作者对1998~2000年间采自云南省13个县、23个地点的马铃薯晚疫病菌的交配型、菌落形态、燕麦培养基上生长情况、生长速度和产孢量进行了测定.结果显示,采自云南13个县、23个地点的共157个菌株全部为A1交配型,表明云南马铃薯主产区的晚疫病菌以A1交配型为主,同时,被测的代表菌株在生长速度和产孢量上存在显著差异,表明这一地区的晚疫病菌种群内存在丰富的遗传多样性.此外,结果还显示,晚疫病菌菌株在燕麦培养基上的生长情况与其菌落形态和交配型不相关.%Phytophthora infestans from potatoes collected from Yunnan Province during 1998 to 2000 were investigated for their mating type, colony growth pattern, ability to grow on oatmeal agar, linear growth rate and amount of sporangia produced. A total of 157 isolates from 23 locations in 13 counties in Yunnan were all A1 mating type. Representative isolates showed significant variation in growth rate and amount of sporangia produced, which indicate the existence of genetic diversity among the population of P. infestans in Yunnan. Results also show that colony growth pattern and the growth on oatmeal agar did not relate to the mating type of the isolate.

  14. THE FEATURES AND INVESTIGATION OUTLINE OF KARST WATER SYSTEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%云南省岩溶水系统特征及调查要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    First, the regional karst condition and features of karst drainage basin in Yunnan are delineated. And then, the karst water systems are divided into the different grades according to the differences of hydrogeological condition and features. The first grade is the karst water system. The second grade includes shallow-circulating and deep-circulating karat water systems. The third grade of karst water systems includes five basic types: exposed; exposed-covered; exposed-buried; stratabound and fault zone. Furthermore, the hydrogeological features and investigation outline of each type of karst water are put forward in this paper.

  15. The five species and distribution of Paragonimus in Yunnan Province, China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries%中国云南省与毗邻的部分东南亚国家5种并殖吸虫虫种及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    世淑兰; 李翠英; 王红; 周本江

    2013-01-01

    Objective Yunnan Province and some adjacent Southeast Asian countries share same mountains and rivers while the species of Paragronimus is various and its distribution is widespread,as the result of the multifarious natural conditions,ecological environment and clustering distribution of animals and plants.The species of Paragronimus from these countries is almost identical,and the host and pathogenicity are also the same.Although some Paragronimus have different names,they appear same or similar in morphology and genetic characteristics showing higher homology,and probably synonyms of the species.This article reviewed the five species and distribution of Paragronimus in Yunnan province of China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries.%目的 中国云南与东南亚部分国家的自然条件、动植物群落分布和生态环境具有多样性,并殖吸虫的虫种多、分布广.多年来的研究表明,云南省与周边部分东南亚国家的大多数并殖吸虫虫种是相同的,且宿主性和致病性也相同.有些虫种尽管名称不同,但相互之间在形态或遗传特征方面也相同或相近,显示出较高的同源性,可能存在同物异名现象.该文对中国云南与毗邻的部分东南亚国家并殖吸虫虫种及分布情况进行综述.

  16. Wood-decaying fungi in eastern Himalayas 1.Polypores from Zixishan Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, China%东喜马拉雅山地区木材腐朽菌研究1.云南紫溪山自然保护区的多孔菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成; 周丽伟; STEFFENKari

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven polypore species were identified from materials collected in the Zixishan Nature Reserve,Yunnan Province,China.A checklist of these species is supplied and the host tree or substrate of each species is listed.Most of the species are reported for the first time in Yunnan Province.Wolfiporia castanopsis Y.C.Dai (Polyporales,Basidiomycota) is described as new.It is characterized by resupinate basidiocarps,cream to ash-grey pore surface,ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid spores and by growth on wood of Castanopsis.It is similar to Wolfiporia cocos which,however,has cylindrical basidiospores (8- 11 ×3-4μm) and its basidiocarp is normally on sclerotia.%在云南紫溪山自然保护区的木材腐朽菌研究中发现87种多孔菌,其中多数是云南首次报道,给出了每种的寄主和生长基质.锥沃菲卧孔菌Wolfiporia castanopsis为一新种,其特点为子实体平伏,孔口表面奶油色至浅灰色,担孢子椭圆形至广椭圆形,且生长在元江锥腐朽木上;该种与茯苓沃菲卧孔菌Wolfiporia cocos具有相似的孔口,但后者的担孢子为圆柱形,且通常生长在菌核上.

  17. Multivariate Analysis, Description, and Ecological Interpretation of Weed Vegetation in the Summer Crop Fields of Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng QIANG

    2005-01-01

    Two surveys were conducted to investigate weed vegetation in a 153-hm2 sampling area of summer crop fields from Anhui Province, China, through visual scoring of the level of weed infestation compared with summer crops on a seven-class scale. In total, 155 sampling sites were selected in the field based on crops, tillage, rotation systems, geographical regions, and soil types across the province. Data on weed communities and environmental factors were collected and analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and the output was interpreted ecologically. Results showed that the main factors influencing the structure and distribution of weed communities in summer crop fields were the soil submersion period, latitude, and soil type and pH. The CCA indicated a significant relationship between weed dominance and soil submersion duration, latitude, and soil pH. From the result of the PCA and CCA ordination, the 155 sampling sites could be divided into three groups based on geographic and floristic composition, as well as weed abundance. The southern dry land group, which was characterized by a double-cropping system in the hilly regions of southern and central Anhui Province with a continuous summer crop and an autumn dry land crop, was dominated by Galium aparine Linn. var. tenerum (Gren. et Godr) Robb., Avenafatua L., and Veronica persica Poir. The northern dry land group, which had the same cropping system as the southern dry land group, was dominated by G. aparine var. tenerun, Galium tricorne Stokes, Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur., and Lithospermum arvense L. in the North Anhui Province, China. These two dry land groups could be combined into one large dry land group, in which the Galium weed vegetation type dominated. The third group was the paddy soil group, which was characterized by a continu ous summer crop and double- or triple-cropping systems of rice, and prevailed in the south and central areas of Anhui

  18. Yunnan province reports hefty growth of foreign investment%云南省吸引外资大幅增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Southwest China's Yunnan Province reported a hefty growth of foreign investment.It approved 181 foreign-invested projects in the first three quarters,with contractual foreign funds amounting to US$1.23 8 billion, and actual use of foreign funds of US8500 million, surging 45.97%, 94.64% and 63.23% year on year respectively.

  19. Three-dimensional Evolutionary Models of the Qiongxi Structures, Southwestern Sichuan Basin, China: Evidence from Seismic Interpretation and Geomorphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Qiupeng; JIA Dong; LUO Liang; CHEN Zhuxin; LI Yiquan; DENG Fei; SUN Shengsi; LI Haibin

    2009-01-01

    Fold terminations are key features in the study of compressional fault-related folds. Such terminations could be due to loss of displacement on the thrust fault or/and forming a lateral or oblique ramp. Thus, high-quality seismic data would help unambiguously define which mechanism should be responsible for the termination of a given fault-related fold. The Qiongxi and Qiongxinan structures in the Sichuan Basin, China are examples of natural fault-propagation folds that possess a northern termination and a structural saddle between them. The folds/fault geometry and along-strike displacement variations are constrained by the industry 3-D seismic volume. We interpret that the plunge of the fold near the northern termination and the structural saddle are due to the loss of displacement along strike. The fault geometry associated with the northern termination changes from a flat-ramp at the crest of the Qiongxinan structure, where displacement is the greatest, to simply a ramp near the northern tip of the Qiongxi structure, without forming a lateral or oblique ramp. In this study, we also use the drainage pattern, embryonic structure preserved in the crest of the Qiongxinan structure and the assumption that displacement along a fault is proportional to the duration of thrusting to propose a model for the lateral propagation of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures. Specifically, we suggest that the structure first initiated as an isolated fault ramp within brittle units. With increased shortening, the fault grows to link with lower detachments in weaker shale units to create a hybridized fault-propagation fold. Our model suggests a possible explanation for the lateral propagation history of the Qiongxinan and Qiongxi structures, and also provides an alternative approach to confirming the activity of the previous Pingluoba structure in the southwestern Sichuan Basin in the late Cenozoic.

  20. Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表恙螨多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    本文运用shnnon-wiener,系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.O软件)和Levins niche等对云南大理洱海周边3 303头小兽体表寄生恙螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.调查点位于我国11大鼠疫自然疫源地之一,此地也是我国恙虫病和流行性出血热的流行地区.选择的洱海周边3个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这3个方位形成了同地域(经度、纬度、海拔和动物地理区划相同)异生境的地理景观.从洱海的3个方位共计诱捕小兽3 303头,分类鉴定为4目,7科,15属,21种.从小兽体表共计检获56 895头恙螨.分类鉴定为3亚科,13属,109种.恙螨的丰富度、分布和物种多样性随着宿主和生境的不同而存在着显著的差异.恙螨只有幼虫寄生,强烈受到环境(温度、降雨量和生境)的影响.恙螨的宿主特异性很低,恙螨的群落相似性大小与宿主小兽之间的近缘性高低呈现较低的关联度.结果提示,大部分的宿主小兽和恙螨之间协同进化程度不高;恙螨的这些特征从流行病学的角度来看,恙螨作为医学媒介生物在宿主之间传播疾病的潜能较大.%The aim of the present study was to study the species diversity,community structure,simolanty,distribution and niche of chigger mites on the body surface of 3 303 sinail mammals in the surrounding areas ol Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins'niche.The investigated site was located in the wild rodent-type plague focus,one of 11 known plague foci in China and also an important focus of both tsutsugamushi disease and epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF),where stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas with different landscapes are within

  1. 高黎贡山赧亢东白眉长臂猿春秋季食谱及食物结构%Diet and Dietary Composition of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon at Nankang,Mt.Gaoligong,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 吴建普; 周伟; 艾怀森; 蔺如涛

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the diet and dietary composition of eastern hoolock gibbons (Hoolock leuconedys),to un-derstand how their diet and dietary composition changes seasonally and annually,and to probe the strategies and a-dapting mechanism of eastern hoolock gibbons reply to the food changes,we conducted field observation at Nan-kang,Mt.Gaoligong,Yunnan,China.The feeding habits and behaviors of eastern hoolock gibbons in the spring and the autumn of 2007 and 2008 were observed and recorded using focal animal sampling method.Feeding behav-iors of eastern hoolock gibbons were divided into eating leaves,fruits,worms,flowers and stems,and drinking fruit juice.Their dietary composition was divided into fruits,young leaves,flowers,stems and animal matters.Mean-while,the feeding amount and percentage of each vegetative food source and dietary composition were compared and calculated.The results showed that eastern hoolock gibbons had 16 vegetative food sources in spring and 23 in autumn.Four sources in spring and 5 in autumn accounted for a relatively high proportion among all food sources. The Shannon-Wiener index of the vegetative food sources in autumn was higher than that in spring and 5 vegetative food sources overlapped in springs and autumns between 2007 and 2008.The result of Crosstabsχ2 test showed that the feeding amount of the 5 overlapping vegetative food sources was strikingly different when the same season was compared.Although the results showed that Shannon-Wiener index of the types of the vegetative dietary composition in spring was higher than that in autumn,yet the dietary compositions in spring and autumn were similar,i.e. fruits accounted for the majority,followed by young leaves,flowers and stems in turn;animal food were hunted in both spring and autumn,but this phenomenon only occurred occasionally.The fact that diet of eastern hoolock gib-bons at Nankang,Mt.Gaoligong varied from season to season could be regarded as their adaptation to the changes of

  2. Carbon storage and fixation, oxygen release of Pinus armandii plantations in middle Yunnan plateau, China%滇中高原华山松人工林碳储量及固碳释氧效益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元玖; 陈奇伯; 熊好琴; 舒蛟靖; 赵吉霞

    2015-01-01

    采用样方法和收获法,根据光合作用方程式、碳税法和人工制氧法,对云南玉溪磨盘山华山松人工林(16 a 中龄林、26 a 近成熟林、43 a 成熟林)生物量、碳储量及其空间分布特征和固碳释氧进行了研究。结果如下:三种林龄华山松人工林的生物量分别为181.515 t·hm-2、284.679 t·hm-2、295.311 t·hm-2,碳储量分别为85.7513 tC·hm-2、139.9344 tC·hm-2、132.5086 tC·hm-2,净碳储量分别为:5.3653 tC·hm-2·a-1、5.3836 tC·hm-2·a-1和3.0827 tC·hm-2·a-1;三种林龄群落各层碳储量均为乔木层>枯落物层>灌木层>草本层,三种林龄乔木层的碳储量分别占:91.37%、94.99%、93.70%;不同林龄相同器官(根、皮、叶、干、枝)之间变异系数在2.10%~7.33%之间,而同一林龄不同器官的变异系数在2.12%~5.82%之间;方差分析结果显示除成熟林乔木外,另两种林龄乔木各营养器官之间均存在显著差异;华山松中龄林、近成熟林、成熟林同化大气中 CO2和释放出 O2价值量分别是355044.2213 yuan·hm-2,216003.3861 yuan·hm-2,556831.5296 yuan·hm-2和338767.6484 yuan·hm-2、577627.3676 yuan·hm-2和351419.5130 yuan·hm-2。%Biomass, carbon storage and spatial distribution characteristics, carbon fixation and oxygen release of the 16-year-old, 26-year-old and 43-year-old Pinus armandii plantations in Mopanshan Mountain in Yuxi, middle Yunnan plateau, southwest China were studied by adopting quadrat method and harvest method, and synthetically using photosynthesis equation, carbon tax and artificial oxygen method. The results are as follows: the biomass values of the three kinds of P. armandii plantations were 181.515 t·hm-2, 284.679 t·hm-2 and 295.311 t·hm-2, their total of carbon storage were 85.7513 t·hm-2,139.9344 t·hm-2,and 132.5086 t·hm-2, their net carbon storages were: 5.3653 t·hm-2·a-1, 5.3836 t·hm-2·a-1 and 3.0827 t·hm-2·a-1; The carbon

  3. taxonomic status of the spot-legged treefrog in southern yunnan, inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    populations of the spot-legged treefrogs (polypedates megacephalus) in china show significant morphological variation,but no has yet been conducted to investigate the correlation between morphological variation and genetic/ecological divergence.in this study,mitochondrial dna sequences from the 12s rrna gene (374 bp) were amplified from 25 individual spot-legged treefrogs from southern yunnan,china.the phylogenetic analysis using bayesian inference determined two haplotype clades,different from those detected by richards and moore (1998).our results suggest that the phylogenetic lineages reconstructed in this study are not correlated with morphology,thus indicating that the populations in southern yunnan may be p.leucomystax rather than p.megacephalus.

  4. A new species of Coccus (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of soft scale, Coccus multisetus Wang & Feng, sp. n. is described and illustrated from Yunnan, China. A key to adult females of all Coccus known from China is provided.

  5. Situation and Prospect of Oil and Gas Exploration in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zeheng; Gu Pingquan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Petroleum Geology Background The Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi region (hereinafter "YGG" region) is located in southwest China, with a total area of 800 000 km2, of which 580 000 km2 is covered by sedimentary rocks. In the course of long geologic evolution, a series of medium, small and micro basins of marine and terrestrial facies of different periods are developed in the region (Table 1).

  6. The coexistence of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia Town, Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Ji; Wu, Fei; HU, Wan-Zhao; FANG, Jian-Ling; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of ecologically similar species sharing sympatric areas is a central issue of community ecology. Niche differentiation is required at least in one dimension to avoid competitive exclusion. From 2012-2014, by adopting the methods of mist-nets and point counts to evaluate spatial niche partitioning and morphological differentiations, we explored the coexistence mechanisms of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia town, Yunnan Province, China. The microhabitats of the...

  7. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    OpenAIRE

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish) language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone sp...

  8. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe. PMID:25685905

  9. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  10. 基于线粒体控制区的云南澜沧江和海南岛主要水系宽额鳢遗传变异分析%THE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION BASED ON MTDNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCES OFCHANNA GACHUS IN THE LANCANG RIVER IN YUNNAN PROVINCE AND THE MAIN RIVERS IN HAINAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 章群; 郜星晨; 宫亚运; 曹艳

    2015-01-01

    Channa gachus is a tropical and subtropical species of freshwater carnivorous fish, and they have highly or-namental and economic values in original origins.C. gachus usually live in slow-flow rivers, ditches and ponds.As for in China, they mainly inhabit in the Irrawaddy River, the Nujiang River and the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, as well as in some rivers in Hainan Province. Due to the extensive hydraulic construction, river pollution and overfishing, the number of the fish has sharply decreased. To develop effective strategies of protecting its germplasm, it is important to investigate the genetic variance and the structure of the population of this species. Previous studies have focused on the chromosome and the isoenzyme of C. gachus, as well as the phylogenetic relationship betweenC. gachusand other species in the same genus.However, the genetic backgound of this fish remains obsecure. In the present study, we sequenced 411 bp segments of mitochondrial DNA control regions of 74C. gachusindi-viduals collected from 9 populations in the Lancang River in Yunnan Province, and the Nandu River, the Wanquan River and the Changhua River in Hainan Province of China. We observed 52 mutations of nucleotide acids and 20 haplotypes. There were 3 haplotypes shared by 5 populations in Hainan Province, whereas all other haplotypes were unique in each population. We observed 3 distinct lineages in the Kimura2-parameter-based Neighbour-Joining tree. One of them was from Yunnan, and the other 2 were from Hainan—one was the Maoyang population from the Changhua River, another was from the Nandu River and the Wanquan River, and the rest two populations were from the Changhua River. The pairwise fixation indexFstwas 0.786—0.672, the gene flow was 0.153—0.244, and the inter-clade variation accounted for 74.352% of the total variation. These data indicated a significant genetic differentiation between the 3 clades. The differentiation time of the 3 clades was 2.070—0

  11. Yunnan Launches Four Year Mine Searching Action Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Yunnan Provincial State Land Resource Bureau has organized the provincial Geological Investigation Bureau and relevant institutions to kick off the "Yunnan Province 2009-2010 Mine Search Action Plan"

  12. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Landraces of Waxy Maize from Yunnan and Guizhou Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-jian; HUANG Yu-bi; RONG Ting-zhao; TIAN Meng-liang; YANG Jun-pin

    2005-01-01

    Waxy maize landraces are abundant in Yunnan and Guizhou of China. Genetic diversity of waxy maize landraces from Yunnan and Guizhou were analyzed using SSR markers. We screened 38 landraces with 50 primers that generated 3 to 6 polymorphic bands, with an average of 4.13 bands. Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan varied from 4.9571 to 42.1138 and averaged 26.5252; Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou varied from 22.0066 to 40.6320 and averaged 32.3156. For the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 45.40% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 54.60% of the total genetic diversity observed. For the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 50.76% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 49.24% of the total observed. Some individual landraces possessed as much as 96.86% of the total genetic diversity occurring among landraces within origins. Differentiation between geographic origins accounted for only 3.14% of the total genetic diversity. Both Yunnan and Guizhou would be the diversity centers and the original centers of waxy maize.

  13. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example.

  14. 解读奥巴马政府的南海政策%Interpreting Obama Administration's South China Sea Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宗友

    2016-01-01

    自2010年以来,奥巴马政府的南海政策日益朝着“积极干涉”和“选边站”的立场转移,给中美关系及南海问题的解决增添了新变数。奥巴马政府不仅对中国的“断续线”主张提出质疑,还指责中国阻碍南海航行自由,要求中国停止在南海填海造地,鼓动菲律宾将南海争端提交国际仲裁,推动南海问题的国际化与多边化,积极向越南、菲律宾等国提供外交帮助和军事支持,甚至直接派遣飞机和舰船进入南海争议地区。奥巴马政府在南海问题上日益积极的干涉立场与举措,不仅折射出美国对中国战略意图和海洋抱负与日俱增的忧虑,也反映出美国维护亚太领导权、安抚亚太盟友及维护其海洋霸权的战略决心与考量。在美国国内对华强硬的声音抬头、中美在亚太地区竞争加剧及美国政治正进入大选周期的背景下,美国在南海问题上“积极干涉”和“选边站”的态势只会加强而不会弱化,并可能采取一些新的措施。中国需要综合平衡各种利害关系,积极稳妥应对南海困局。%Since 2010, the Obama administration's South China Sea policy has moved steadily toward posi-tive intervention and side-choosing, which negatively impacted Sino-U.S.relations and complicated the South China Sea issues.The Obama administration not only doubted the legality of China's nine-dash line claims, but also charged that China has interfered with the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea, and urged China to stop land reclamation in the South China Sea.Besides, U.S.also encouraged the Philippines'efforts to submit its maritime disputes with China to international arbitration to internationalize and multilateralize the South China Sea disputes, provided diplomatic support and military aid to Vietnam, the Philippines and other claimants, and even sent airplanes and ships to the disputed area.The change of Obama

  15. 金沙江干热河谷人工林地表的蚂蚁群落%Communities of Ground-Dwelling Ants in Different Plantation Forests in Arid-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧; 卢志兴; 张威; 马艳滟; 冯萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Because of the fragile ecological environment in arid-hot valleys of Jinsha River,Yunnan Province,China,the region has been the hot spots of vegetation restoration for which plantation is the main model. To reveal the diversity status of these plantations,and the potential role in biodiversity protection,the ground-dwelling ant community was studied in 7 different plantations in Jinsha River arid-hot valleys,by comparing the difference of ground-dwelling ant community in terms of species composition and diversity. It would be reference for revegetation and biodiversity protection in the arid-hot valleys.[Method]The experimental sites were in the Desert Ecosystem Observation Station of the State Forestry Administration in Yuanmou County. The sampled plots were set in the following tree plantations: Eucalyptus spp.; Jatropha carcas; Jatropha carcas +Leucaena leucocephala; Azadirachta indica; Azadirachta indica + Acacia auriculiformis; Azadirachta indica + Acacia glauca and Azadirachta indica + Leucaena leucocephala. Investigation of ground-dwelling ant community was carried out by pitfall trappings in all 7 plantations in April ( dry season) and August (wet season),2011,respectively. At each plot,two-three 200 m transects were established for ant collection. The 20 pitfall traps with 50ml 50% glycerol were set along each transect at 10 m intervals at ground level.Pitfall traps were made from plastic containers,8 cm diameter and 15 cm deep,covered by a stone plate to protect the trap from rain. Traps were set for 5 days. The contents of each transect were placed separately in plastic bottles and deposited in 95% alcohol.[Results]The resultswere as follows: 1 ) Ant community composition: 4001 ant individuals were collected,representing 36 species in 17 genera and 5 subfamilies. The collected Myrmicinae subfamily had the most abundant genus and species,with 18 species in 6 genera,followed by Formicinae with 10 species in 5 genera,then Dolichoderinae with 6

  16. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  17. Folk Nomenclature and Management Practices of Rattan in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Southwest China%云南西双版纳棕榈藤的民俗和经营方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Experience shows that sustainable development of natural resources cannot be made without the full support of the local community and participation of indigenous people at the local level. In Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, the indigenous people have established a close relati onship with their natural resources and lively environment, which is based on practices for the sustainable development and conservation of these resources. Genetic diversity of plants like rattan is managed and enhanced among indigenous communities through their agriculture and forestry practices, such as folk classification, Sangpabawa, and Qeiya-aneya, which are discussed in the paper.%经验表明:在当地的水平上,自然资源的可持续发展没有使当地的群落完全投入以及本地人们的参与.云南的西双版纳,在资源的可持续和保护的基础上,当地人与自然资源和生存环境建立了非常紧密的关系.植物的遗传多样性,如棕榈藤的管理是通过农业和林业的方式在当地的群落中实施,如民间传统的桑帕巴哇(村社藤类保护林)和旱谷地-藤园(轮歇地棕榈藤传统栽培体系).

  18. 云南省甲基苯丙胺等新型毒品滥用群体性特征分析及思考%The Characteristics of Methamphetamine Abuse Population in Yunnan Province,P.R.China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冲; 赖跃; 曾晓锋; 徐静; 杨宇; 李祯

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey on some new-drug abusers or the methamphetamine abusers in Yunnan Province, this paper preliminarily compared the characteristics of new-drug abusers with those of the heroin abusers and the traditional Chinese group. Four characteristics of the new-drug abusers were conclued as younger abusers, grouping adicts, diverse profession and switching to new rogs. This study is expected to be helpful for effective prevention and control of drug abuse.%部分甲基苯丙胺等新型毒品滥用群体的情况进行分析,就其群体性特征与传统毒品滥用群体特征作分析比较,提出新型毒品滥用的四个群体性特征:(1)年龄"低龄化";(2)滥用"群体化";(3)职业"多样化";(4)群体"转换化".该研究有助于新型毒品滥用的预防和控制工作,同时使我们的工作更具有针对性和实效性.

  19. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu.

  20. 云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨种群生态学研究%Study on population ecology of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽琴; 郭宪国; 任天广; 王乔花; 吴滇; 闫毅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical distribution, habitat, dominant hosts and population spatial distribution patterns of Ornithonyssus bacoti in Yunnan province. Methods A total of 28 counties in five zoogeographical subregions were chosen as the investigated sites. Each investigated site was divided into two habitats (indoors and outdoors) and then small mammal hosts were randomly captured by mouse traps. All the gamasid mites from the body surface of the hosts were collected and preserved in 70% ethanol. Hoyer's medium was used to mount the mites onto glass slides and each mite specimen was finally identified by microscope. The spatial pattern of the mite was analyzed by K-value of negative binomial distribution,patchiness index, Taylor' s power function and Iwao' s model. Results A total of 3339 O. bacoti were collected from 11 560 captured small mammal hosts which belonged to 3 orders 4 families 8 genera and 15 species. Of the investigated 28 counties,0. bacoti was found in 21 counties and the mites were collected from 15 species of small mammal hosts. O.bacoti mainly distributed in Southwest region (accounted for 90% of the total), and the quantity of O. bacoti in indoors (2914, 87.27%) were obviously higher than that in outdoors (425, 12.73%). 90% mites mainly parasitized on the body surface ofRattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi which were the dominant host of mites. The results showed that the spatial pattern of O. bacoti was an aggregated distribution.Conclusion O. bacoti widely distributes in Yunnan province and mainly parasitizes on the body surface of R, norvegicus and R. tanezumi. It is of aggregated distribution among its main hosts.%目的 了解云南省横断山区柏氏禽刺螨的地域及生境分布、优势宿主及其种群空间分布格局等.方法 选取云南省5个地理小区中的28个县(市)进行现场调查,每个小区按室内和室外两种生境诱捕小兽并采集体表革螨,70%乙醇固定,Hoyer液封片后于光学

  1. Community structure and regeneration characteristics of Taxus yunnanensis in northwest Yunnan Province of Southwest China%滇西北云南红豆杉群落结构与更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万德; 李帅锋; 张志钧; 苏建荣

    2012-01-01

    Taking the Taxus yunnanensis communities in northwest Yunnan Province as test ob-jects and based on the field investigation data at three sites ( Lanping, Xianggelila, and Ninglang counties) of northwest Yunnan, this paper analyzed the species composition, species diversity, stem size class, and regeneration features of the T. yunnanensis communities. The dominant spe-cies in the T. yunnanensis communities were Yushania niitakayamensis, Tsuga dumosa, T. yun-nanensis , Betula albo-sinensis, and Fargesia yunnanensis. Xianggelila had the higher species richness of family, genus, and shrubs than the other two counties, but no significant differences were observed in the species richness of trees and lianas and the total species richness among the three counties. Lanping and Xianggelila had the higher species richness and abundance at smal-ler size classes (DBH < 5 cm) , while Ninglang had the highest species richness and abundance at the second diameter class (1 cm≤DBH < 5 cm) and height class (5 cm≤H<10 m). The wild T. yunnanensis population had weak regeneration ability through seedling, but had stronger sprouting ability. The ratio of the stems through sprouting to through seedling was 1. 314. The major sprouting types at all of the three sites were stem basal sprouting and stem epicormic sprou-ting. Ninglang had the highest sprouting stems, but all the three sites had no significant differ-ences in the mean diameter and height of sprouting stems.%以云南西北部云南红豆杉(Taxus yunnanensis)群落为研究对象,利用在兰坪县、香格里拉县和宁蒗县的野外样地调查数据,分析了云南红豆杉群落物种组成、多样性、结构及云南红豆杉更新特征.结果表明:云南红豆杉群落主要物种包括玉山竹(Yushania niitakayamensis)、云南铁杉(Tsuga dumosa)、云南红豆杉、红桦(Betula albo-sinensis)和云南箭竹(Fargesia yunnanensis).香格里拉县具有较高的科、属、灌木物种丰富度,但乔木、

  2. 云南省边境地区埃及伊蚊分布调查%Distribution survey on Aedes aegypti in the border areas of Yunnan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明东; 姜进勇; 郑宇婷; 周红宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解埃及伊蚊在云南省边境地区的分布,为登革热防控提供科学依据。方法在孳生地捕捞幼虫,对4龄幼虫分类鉴定以观察埃及伊蚊的分布;采用伊蚊布雷图指数和容器指数观察伊蚊幼虫种群密度。结果在边境17个县(市)共调查积水容器159924个,其中有伊蚊孳生的阳性容器2388个,布雷图指数为3.97,容器指数为1.46;捕捞幼虫7489条,共3种伊蚊,其中埃及伊蚊幼虫3303条,占捕捞总数的44.10%;白纹伊蚊幼虫4119条,占55.00%;圆斑伊蚊幼虫67条,占0.90%;伊蚊幼虫高峰期为5-10月,其中最高峰为7-8月;景洪、勐腊、勐海、盈江、陇川、瑞丽、泸水7个县发现埃及伊蚊的分布。结论云南省边境地区7个县已有埃及伊蚊分布,结果提示该蚊有向周边地区逐渐扩散趋势,应引起相关部门高度重视。%Objective To investigate the distribution of Aedes aegypti in border area in Yunnan province, providing scientific information for dengue control. Methods The distribution of Ae. aegypti was investigated by collecting mosquito larvae in different breeding sites and identifying fourth instar larvae; Aedes mosquito larva population density was investigated by Aedes Breteau index and container index. Results Total of 159 924 containers were investigated from 17 border counties, of those 2388 containers were positive;the Breteau index was 3.97, the container index was 1.46. There were 7489 individual larvae were collected, belonging to 3 species, of those 3303 individual larvae were Ae. aegypti, accounting for 44.10%of total collected larvae, 4119 individual larvae were Ae. albopictus, accounting for 55.00%of total collected larvae,12 individual larvae were Ae. annandalei, accounting for 0.90% of total collected larvae. Aedes mosquito larva population density peaks were occurred from May to October, its highest peaks were July and August. Ae. aegypti distributed in 7

  3. Diversity of Sucking Lice on Small Mammals in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表吸虱多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammals was carried out in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan from 2003 to 2004.From investigation sites, 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured and identified into 7families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 14 635 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 5 families, 6 genera and 21 species in the Order Anoplura. The sites stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas are different landscapes within the same zone where the longitude, latitude, altitude and fauna are homologous but isolated by Erhai Lake as inartificial barrier. The aim of this study was to recognize features of the species diversity,abundance, community structure, similarity and distribution of sucking lice in different landscapes within the same zone. The results showed the species diversity of sucking lice was very low with a very simple community structure. The distribution of sucking lice and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven among different oriented areas and this may imply that ecological environment influences the species composition and distribution of sucking li ce and their corresponding hosts. A certain species of hosts usually have theirfixed louse species. The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. Species of sucking lice on the same small mam mal host in different oriented areas of Erhai Lake are homologous. The results stronglysuggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  4. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  5. Relative Efficacy of CDC and UV Light-traps for Indoor Collection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhychus in Yunnan, P.R.China%云南人房三带喙库蚊CDC和UV诱蚊灯捕捉效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; Sarah Pettifor; Nigel Hill; 肖育江; 杜尊伟; 李鸿宾; 张再兴

    2004-01-01

    目的评估CDC和UV诱蚊灯夜间人房三带喙库蚊捕捉效果.方法根据拉丁方设计方案,把诱蚊灯置于寝室和客厅,每晚轮流置灯.结果共捕获库蚊属蚊虫6种624只.其中三带喙库蚊属于最常见的蚊种(419只);CDC和UV灯捕捉蚊虫效果差异无显著性,但当地降雨量与CDC捕捉效果存在较强的正相关关系,而与UV灯捕蚊效果呈弱的负相关.结论无论是CDC诱蚊灯还是UV诱蚊灯都可以作为云南省三带喙库蚊种群密度监测的有效方法.%Objective The efficacy of CDC and UV traps for the coll ection of Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus was evaluated in overnight in door c ollection. Method The traps were placed in bedrooms and sittin g rooms and rotated nightly approximately following a Latin square design. Results A total of 624 mosquitoes of the genera Culex were trapped comprising 6 species. Most common was Cx.tritaeniorhynchus with 419 individuals trapped. There was no significant difference in the efficiency of CDC and UV traps although there was a stronger positive correlati on between mosquitoes collected in CDC lamps and rainfall, whereas, there was a weak negative correlation between UV lamps and local rainfall. Conclusio n We suggest that either CDC or UV light traps provide an efficient met hod to monitor the population of Cx.tritaniorhychus in Yunnan province.

  6. The crustal structure under Sanjiang and its dynamic implications: Revealed by seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongjie; BAI Zhiming; WANG Chunyong; TENG Jiwen; L(U) Qingtian; LI Jiliang; LIU Yifeng; LIU Zhenkuan

    2005-01-01

    The fault belts in Sanjiang mainly include Jinshajiang-Honghe fault, Lancangjiang fault and Nujiang fault (called Sanjiang faults) in western Yunnan Province, China. By interpreting the wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile between Zhefang and Binchuan, which crosses Tengchong and Baoshan blocks in Dianxi (western Yunnan) tectonic zone, we reconstruct the crustal structure with seismic traveltime tomography for crustal P-wave velocity and the seismic scattering image for crustal seismic reflection structure. In this paper, we firstly present the crustal structure images of P-wave velocity and seismic reflection under the wide-angle seismic profile. These results demonstrate that, the crustal velocity structure and seismic reflection structure along the profile can be divided into 3 segments, and there is an obvious difference of crustal structure among the eastern, the western and the middle segment. Generally, crustal P-wave velocities in the Baoshan segment are 0.1-0.2 km/s slower and seismic reflection amplitudes from Moho discontinuity are stronger than the other 2 segments. In the studied area, crustal thickness is about 40 km, and shows the thickening tendency from west to east along the profile. Additionally, it can be seen that there is one strong-amplitude seismic reflection event as bright points at the depths of 8-10 km, along the segment of 80-115 km of the profile (southward of Tengchong); and seismic reflection wave-field from Moho discontinuity varies obviously along the lateral direction. Finally, we make some discussions on the crustal thickening pattern in the Sanjiang fault belt, structural environment of earthquake development and the contact relationship between the Tengchong block, Banshan block and Luxi trough.

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Yunnan Outpatient STD Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大成

    2002-01-01

    Epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases havebecome world wide serious problems. The Institute of Dermatology and Veneology of Wenshan AutonomousPrefecture in Yunnan is a center of political, economical,cultural and social activities in the prefecture. It is alsothe location of the Committee of Wenshan and itsgovernment. Wenshan data indicates that STDs havebeen spreading from towns of this prefecture to thecountryside.

  8. The Construction of Emergency Logistics System in China---Based on the Ludian 6.5 Magnitude Earthquake in Yunnan Province%浅谈中国灾害应急物流体系建设--以云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泽旭; 鲁晓丽; 白杨

    2014-01-01

    在云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震应急中,中国政府及时采取了许多紧急方案来进行救灾,但是由于应急管理体系建设不完善、应急物流管理信息平台的缺乏,应急物资的运输与配送的协调性和计划性的缺乏,在营救过程当中,还是暴露出我国一些应急物流能力的不足。通过对我国应急物流的反思,结合国外应急管理和应急物流的先进经验,系统分析我国应急物流存在的问题,并从应急物流设备、交通网络、信息技术以及应急中的回收物流等方面对中国的应急物流提出建设性的意见。%The Chinese government has taken a number of emergency measures to respond to the 6.5-magnitude earthquake in Ludian country of Yunnan province. However, as the emergency management system is not perfect, lack of emergency logistics management information platform, and is short of the coordination of the transport and distribution of emergency supplies, the Chi-nese government still expose some shortcomings of emergency logistics capability. Combined with the foreign advanced experiences in emergency logistics management, this article systematically analysis the problems of emergency logistics in China; and put for-ward some suggestions of developing emergency logistics, like improving the logistics equipment, transportation network, information technology, and the reverse logistics and so on.

  9. THE ENIGMATIC REPTILE PACHYSUCHUS IMPERFECTUS YOUNG, 1951FROM THE LOWER LUFENG FORMATION ( LOWER JURASSIC )OF YUNNAN, CHINA%产自中国云南下禄丰组(下侏罗统)的爬行动物不完美硕鳄的再研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul M.BARRETT; 徐星

    2012-01-01

    一般认为植龙类在三叠纪末期灭绝,但有研究显示它们可能在欧洲和亚洲延续到了侏罗纪最早期.来自亚洲的证据是产自中国云南下禄丰组(?赫唐阶-锡内穆阶)的不完美硕鳄(Pachysuchus imperfectus).重新研究显示不完美硕鳄正型标本和植龙类存在许多不同点,它可能属于一个保存较差的、分类位置无法确定的蜥脚型类恐龙头骨.这一属种的归入标本也无法明确归入某一类群,因此亚洲没有可靠的晚于三叠纪的植龙类化石记录.欧洲的侏罗纪植龙类化石也存在着同样的问题.因而认为,植龙类的化石记录仅限于三叠纪晚期.%Phytosaurs are generally considered to have become extinct at the end of the Triassic Period,but several records have suggested that they survived into the basal Jurassic in Europe and Asia.The Asian record consists of Pachysuchus imperfectus from the Lower Lufeng Formation ( ? Hettangian-Sinemurian) of Yunnan,China.However,this specimen differs from phytosaurs in numerous respects and is more likely a poorly preserved,indeterminate sauropodomorph dinosaur skull.The referred specimens of this species are also regarded as indeterminate,thereby removing the post-Triassic record of phytosaurs from Asia.The European records of Jurassic phytosaurs are also shown to be doubtful,suggesting that this clade was restricted to the Late Triassic.

  10. Discovery of dinosaur footprints from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province,China and new observations on Changpeipus%云南下侏罗统禄丰组恐龙足迹的发现和张北足迹属新观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立达; 杰瑞德 D.哈里斯; 关谷秀; 藤田将人; 董枝明

    2009-01-01

    Herein described are two footprints that belong to the new ichnospecies Changpeipus pareschequier ichnosp, nov. from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation near Yaozhan Village, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China. This is the first discovery of dinosaur footprints in the Lufeng Formation. The ichnogenus Changpeipus is revised after the re-study of its type specimens. Specimen IVPP V2472 2a, a supposed manus print that is part of the ichnogenoholotype of Changpeipus carbonicas, is re-studied herein and assessed as apes print of a juvenile individual of the Changpeipus carbonieus track maker. Changpeipus luanpingeri, is a junior synonym of Changpeip us carbonieus. Changpeipus pareschequier ichnosp, nov. resembles the ichnotaxon Kayenlapus. Based on its characteristics, the footprints are presumably made by a member of the Coelophysoidea from the Lufeng Formation.%记述了云南省禄丰县腰站乡下侏罗统禄丰组2个恐龙足迹,命名了棋盘张北足迹(Changpeipus pareschequicr ichnosp.nov.)一新种.这是在禄丰组中首次发现恐龙足迹化石,重新观察并修订了张北足迹一属的属征.滦平张北足迹(Changpeipus luanpingeris)应为石炭张北足迹(Changpeipus carbonicus)的亚成年个体,为同物异名.此前被认为是石发张北足迹(Changpeipus carbonicus)前足迹的IVPP V2472 2a,应为其未成年体的后足迹.张北足迹与卡岩塔足迹(Kayentapus)类似.综合种种特征.棋盘张北足迹(新种)的造迹恐龙很可能为禄丰组的腔骨龙类(Coelophysoidea).

  11. Interactions between nigra scale Parasaissetia nigra and ant in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, Southwest China%西双版纳橡胶盔蚧与蚂蚁的相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖兵; 段波; 周明; 李国华

    2011-01-01

    在云南省植胶区采用2种不同方法对橡胶盔蚧共生蚂蚁种类进行调查.共采集到蚂蚁22种,隶属4个亚科15个属.优势种为黄猄蚁(Oecophylla smaragdina).大田普查发现,有蚂蚁存在的橡胶树,受橡胶盔蚧危害的几率较高.为了解橡胶盔蚧与蚂蚁的相互关系,选择2棵有黄猄蚁和橡胶盔蚧的橡胶树进行调查.结果表明,橡胶盔蚧数量与蚂蚁数量呈正相关,蚂蚁数量越大,橡胶盔蚧危害越严重;同时,离蚁巢的距离也影响着橡胶盔蚧的数量,离蚁巢越近,橡胶盔蚧数量越大.蚂蚁隔离后,橡胶盔蚧第2代死亡率和寄生蜂的寄生率降低,从而增加了橡胶盔蚧的种群数量.结果验证,蚂蚁的存在确能保护橡胶盔蚧,它们之间为共生关系.%An investigation was conducted to study the ant associated with nigra scale ( Parasais-setia nigra) in Yunnan rubber planting area. A total of 22 ant species were collected, belonging to 15 genera and 4 subfamilies, and Oecophylla smaragdina was the dominant species. Field survey found that the rubber trees with ants presented had higher probability damaged by the scale. To understand the interactions between the scale and ant, two rubber trees with ants and scales in a rubber plantation were selected, and the survey showed that there was a positive correlation between the amounts of the scales and ants. The more the ants presented, the more serious damage caused by the scales. The distance from the ant nests also affected the quantity of the scales, I. E. , the nearer the nest, the more the scale individuals presented. After ant isolation, the 2nd generation mortality of the scales and the parasitism rate of chalcids decreased, and accordingly, the scale population increased. These results demonstrated that the existence of ant protected the nigra scale, and their relationship was mutualism.

  12. Research on Mining Development in Yunnan under Ecological Environment Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqun Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is rich of mineral resources, and the mining industry is the pillar industry in Yunnan. But with the development of mining economy, the problems of the ecological environmental damage have come out. Under the mechanism of ecological environment compensation, the mining economic development in Yunnan needs to deal well with the problems of environmental protection. According to the natural ecological conditions of mining area in Yunnan Province, and combining with the phenomena on economic, social, and environmental development, the paper will analyze the impact on ecological environment in Yunnan in the process of mineral exploitation and utilization. It will also provide the mining development and environmental protection in Yunnan with reasonable proposal and give decision-making references about development plans for government.

  13. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  14. A NEW DIRECTION FOR WEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming Wujiaba Airport in southwest China's Yunnan Province is no strange name to veterans and enthusiasts of the Flying Tigers,the famed volunteer force of U.S.pilots who fought in China at the start of World War Ⅱ.At its peak,two planes took off or landed at the airport every minute.

  15. China's biggest zoological museum opens in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The opening ceremony for the Kunming Museum of Zoology was held at the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) on 31 October, 2006 in the capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province. With nearly10,000 animal specimens that could be put on display,the museum boasts the largest of its kind in China. The Museum opened to the public on 6 November.

  16. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-01-01

    The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers....

  17. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  18. Analysis on the composition of 13 649 head and neck tumors inpatients of Yunnan province in China%云南省头颈部肿瘤住院患者13649例构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀叶; 李磊; 杨洁; 孙瑞梅; 李晓江

    2013-01-01

    nasopharyngeal cancer showed a trend of greater volatility.In male incidence was 1.52 times of that in female; The occurrences of oral cancer,salivary glands tumors,oropharyngeal cancer,nasal and sinus cancer,hypopharyngeal cancer,laryngeal cancer were increased stably.CONCLUSION:Thyroid cancer,nasopharyngeal cancer are the main focus of cancer prevention and control in Yunnan region,and the prevention and treatment of other head and neck tumors are very important too.

  19. 滇西北高原闭合半闭合退化湿地的生态恢复效果%Ecological restoration effect of closed and half-dosed degraded wetlands in Northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 田昆; 肖德荣; 李隐; 董瑜; 杨扬

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the restoration site of Napahai, a representative degraded wetland in Northwest Yunnan Plateau, as test object, a comparative study was made on the changes of plant community species composition, water quality, and soil organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen ( TN) contents within stream way, meadow, and lakeside before and after vegetation restoration, aimed to verify the effectiveness of integrated ecosystem restoration at catchment scale. In the early restoration period, the plants at the study site increased from 13 to 28 species, 12 to 22 genera, and 8 to 18 families, and the aboveground biomass increased from 318. 56 g· m-2 to 507. 68 g·m-2. The plant community structure and composition in lakeside and riverside had an obvious change before and after the vegetation restoration. Pollution-tolerant species diminished or disappeared, while the primary swamp communities of Sparganium stoloniferum and Batrachium bungei appeared after their disappearance for many years. After vegetation restoration, soil OM and TN contents increased from 28. 85 g · kg-1 and 0. 79 g · kg-1 to 50. 26 g · kg-1 and 1. 45 g· kg-1, respectively. The TN and TP contents and COD in the water decreased significantly, and their removal rates reached to 67. 9% , 79. 2% , and 71. 2% , respectively. The transparency of water body increased to 179% , indicating that the structure and function of the wetland ecosystem had been substantially improved and restored. It was concluded that the vegetation restoration measures and technology used in closed or half-closed plateau wetland area were effective.%选取滇西北高原典型退化湿地纳帕海,对比植被恢复前后入湖河流廊道、草甸(汇水过渡区)、湖滨带植物群落物种的组成、水质、土壤有机质和全氮含量的变化,分析流域完整尺度恢复实践的有效性.结果表明:研究区湿地植物在恢复初期由8科12属13种迅速增加至18科22属28种;地上生物量从318.56 g·m-2

  20. 昆明树木园枯枝落叶层无脊椎动物群落多样性%Diversity of invertebrate community in leaf litters of Kunming Arboretum, Yunnan Province of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 聂晶; 张立敏; 谢永辉; 李正跃; 张宏瑞

    2012-01-01

    litters of the five tree species, a total of 375 adult fungus-feeding thrips were collected, belonging to 4 species, 3 genera, and 1 family, in which, Allothrips was the dominant fungus-feeding thrips group, and also, a newly recorded genus for Yunnan Province.

  1. Seasonal variation in ranging patterns of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt.Fuhe, China%云南富合山地区滇金丝猴游走模式的季节性差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽华; 丁伟; Cyril C.GR(U)TER

    2004-01-01

    From November 2000 to January 2002, data on range patterns and other behaviors were collected for a band of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe (99°20′E, 26°25′N) to describe the seasonal variations of behaviors and their potential adaptations to a temperate environment. Due to the similarities of ranging patterns between following seasons, we pooled data and showed the results in categories of winter-spring and summer-autumn. The monkeys primarily fed on broad leaves and acted around sleeping sites year-round. In winter-spring, the monkeys often stayed at lower altitudes, had shorter daily path distances, and fed more on broadleaves, bamboo leaves and shoots than in summer-autumn, which was characterized by a reverse ranging mode and by incorporating more fruits in their diet. These seasonal ranging patterns and diets suggest that the movements of R. bieti at Mt. Fuhe are results of compromise between food availability and temperature variations and coincide with the ranging patterns of other temperate monkeys. In addition, the distribution of sleeping sites also influenced the pattern of monkeys utilizing different quadrats within home range [Acta Zoologica Sinica 50 (5): 691 - 696, 2004].%从2000年11月至2002年1月,我们在云南富合山(99°20′E,26°25′N)记录了滇金丝猴(Rhinopithecus bieti)的游走以及其他行为,以描述猴群行为模式的季节性变化及其对温带环境的适应.由于季节间行为方式的相似,我们将冬季和春季、夏季和秋季的数据合并表述.猴群终年以取食树叶为主,多在过夜地附近活动.在冬春季,猴群一般在低海拔的南部地区活动,同时缩短日行走距离,花费较多的时间取食树叶、竹叶和竹笋;而在夏-秋季猴群的活动模式与冬-春季相反,并取食大量果实.我们将富合地区猴群的季节性游走模式以及食性看作是食物供给和温度变化之间折中的结果,这些行为特征和其它温带

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI

    2013-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  3. Sociological Features of the Casualties from the 1996 Ms 7. 0 Lijiang Earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Yang Jieying; Yang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A statistics analysis was conducted on the basic information about fatalities from the Lijiang Ms 7.0 earthquake in 1996. The factors include age, gender, educational background, occupation, cause of death, death place, etc. We found that even though deaths caused by the Lijiang earthquake had some common features with those from earthquakes in other places in China, it also showed some specific features because of the multiracial and economically-underdeveloped situation of Lijiang area. The results reached in the paper can serve as a reference for studying the features of casualties caused by future strong earthquakes in Yunnan, and for the delicate and human-oriented emergency treatment.

  4. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone splits, Lawu shows affinity with other Central Ngwi languages such as Lisu and Lahu and is provisionally classified as a Central Ngwi language.

  5. 菜豆黄花叶病毒中国和叙利亚蚕豆分离物外壳蛋白的序列分析%Sequence Analysis of the Coat Protein Gene of Bean yellow mosaic virus Isolates from Faba bean in Yunnan, China and Syria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓鹏; 王晓鸣; 何月秋

    2007-01-01

    Viral diseases are one of the major factors for yield loss of faba bean in Yunnan province, China.Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was identified in faba bean samples by Tissue Blot Immunoassay (TBIA). According to BYMV sequence submitted to GenBank, a pair of primer was designed and used to amplify the coat protein (CP) gene of BYMV in six faba bean isolates, five from Yunnan province and one from Syria, by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The amplified fragment was cloned and in which 822 nucleotides was for CP gene. The CP gene was found to be 86.4% to 100.0% and 96.7% to 100.0% homologous among six BYMV isolates at both the nucleotide and amino acid level. The CP gene of six sequenced isolates showed 79.1% to 97.9% and 83.5% to 98.5% nucleotide and amino acid identities with 34 BYMV isolates in GenBank. The comparison data of CP gene sequences showed that BYMV-Chinese faba bean isolates were closely related to the BYMV-Japanese faba bean isolates. The NAG motif, a basic structure for aphid transmission of the virus located at the N-terminus of CP gene in BYMV, was presented in all of six isolates.%病毒病是影响云南省蚕豆生产的重要病害.对采集的蚕豆病毒病标样进行了组织印迹法检测,表明菜豆黄花叶病毒(BYMV)是最主要的病原.据此,以BYMV基因的保守序列设计了一对特异性引物,用BYMV的5个中国云南蚕豆分离物和1个叙利亚蚕豆分离物侵染的蚕豆叶片总RNA为模板,RT-PCR扩增获得了长度为907 bp的目标片段.序列分析显示,此片段中包含822 bp的外壳蛋白序列.6个分离物间的外壳蛋白核苷酸和推导编码蛋白质的氨基酸序列的同源性分别为86.4%~100.0%和96.7%~100.0%.与GenBank登录的34个具有完整外壳蛋白序列的BYMV分离物进行同源性和系统进化树分析的结果表明,6个分离物在核苷酸和氨基酸水平上与其它分离物的同源性分别为79.1%~97.9%和83.5%~98.5%,BYMV中国蚕豆分离物与日本

  6. 1961~2005年云贵高原太阳辐射变化特征及其影响因子%Variation Characteristics of Global Radiation and the Associated Climatic Factors over Yunnan- Guizhou Plateau in the Southwestern Part of China for 1961 - 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 王学锋; 罗宇翔; 陈娟

    2011-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the global radiation and the meteorological factors such as cloud cover, humidity, wind speed, visibility, and sunshine duration which may impact the global radiation over the Yunnan -Guizhou Plateau in the southwestern part of China were studied by mathematical statistics method, with which thedata of nine radiation observation stations and about 200 weather stations from 1961 to 2005 were involved. The results show that the spatial distribution characteristics of annual global radiation are higher in the western part than the eastern part, and the highest is at Lijiang station (6207 MJ ? M-2 ? A-1), the lowest is at Zunyi station (3340 MJ ? M-2 ? A-1). The global radiations in six out of nine stations have no significant linear trend (P>0.1) in inter-annual variation, but the other three stations (Mengzi, Guiyang, and Zunyi) have a significant decline (P<0. 001) from the 1960s to the 1980s, and then followed by slight (Mengzi) or significant increasing (Guiyang). The main reason of the global radiation declining in Mengzi may owe to the visibility decreasing, and that in Guiyang is concerned with the increasing total cloud cover which result in sunshine duration decreasing. The cloud cover increasing and visibility decreasing are the reasons of the global radiation decline in Zunyi. Overall, interannual or decadal time scale variations of the global radiation are relative to the cloud cover and sunshine duration on the Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau during 1961 - 2005. The sunshine duration at city stations (Kunming and Guiyang) decreased with visibility reducing.%利用云贵高原1961~2005年9个日射站辐射和气候观测资料以及能见度观测资料等,采用数理统计方法,研究了该区域到达地表太阳总辐射量(以下简称总辐射)变化特征及其影响因子.结果表明:该区年总辐射的空间分布特点是西部高于东部,丽江站最高(6207MJ·m-2·a-1),遵义站最低(3340MJ·m-2·a-1).1961

  7. Annual Conference of China City Planning 2012 & First Meeting of Second Editorial Board of China City Planning Review Held in Kunmin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Fang

    2012-01-01

    <正>On Oct. 17, 2012, the Annual Conferenceof China City Planning 2012 that was cohosted by Urban Planning Society of China (UPSC) and Kunming Municipal Government, in collaboration with the Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Yunnan, and sponsored by Kunming Planning Bureau was launched in Yunnan Convention Center, with the theme of "Di-versity and Inclusiveness" WANG Guang-tao, Chairman of Environment Protection and Resources Conservation

  8. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  9. Review of species of the Scaphoideus albovittatus group (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) from China, with a checklist and distribution summary for Chinese species in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangying; Dai, Wu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The thirteen known leafhopper species of the Scaphoideus albovittatus species group, characterized by the presence of a dorsal white longitudinal stripe, are recognized. Eight species, including three new species, are reported in this group from China: S. albovittatus Matsumura (China: Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan; Japan, Korea, Russia), S. coniceus Li (China: Hainan, Yunnan), S. intermedius Matsumura (China: Taiwan), S. kumamotonis Matsumura (China: Anhui, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang; Japan), S. maai Kitbamroong & Freytag (China: Yunnan, Hainan; Thailand), S. rostratus sp. nov. (China: Yunnan), S. sagittatus sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and S. yuani sp. nov. (China: Guangxi). The detailed morphology of the new species is described; photographs of external habitus and male and female genitalia of the species from China are given. A checklist and a key to the species in this group are also provided, as well as a checklist with distribution summaries for all valid species in the genus from China

  10. Describe the Historical Changes of Yunnan Traffic Culture%试述云南交通文化的历史变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭云

    2013-01-01

    通过对云南古代、近现代、建国后、改革开放后到云南作为中国连接东南亚、南亚、“桥头堡-大通道”等各个历史时期,云南交通发展及交通文化特点内容的阐述,分析了云南交通文化各历史阶段的发展变迁特点,以期云南交通文化在不断传承发展过程中,进一步丰富内涵和拓展外延。%Through expounding the contents of Yunnan traffic development and traffic cultural characteristics in the different historical periods of Yunnan ancient and modern times ,after the founding of new China ,the reforming and o-pening to the time of Yunnan as the connecting Southeast Asia ,South Asia ,“bridgehead-channel” and so on ,the paper analyzes the developing and changing characteristics in the different historical stages of Yunnan traffic culture in order to hope Yunnan traffic culture inheritance in constant development process ,further enrich the connotation and expand the extension .

  11. Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association Delegation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, the Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA) delegation led by Murshed Chowdhury Manzur, patron of the BCPFA and former Bengali ambassador to China, visited Beijing, Shanghai and Yunnan from May 19 to 28.

  12. Genetic diversity for sustainable rice blast management in China: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla-Molina, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Disease management, genetic diversity, rice interplanting, competition, resource complementarity, technical efficiency, production function, Magnaporthe grisea The experience on rice blast in Yunnan Province, China, is one of the most successful and widely publicized examples of genetic

  13. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers:a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiang-yi; WU Wen-bin; LIU Zhen-huan; Peter H Verburg; XIA Tian; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; YOU Liang-zhi; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers’ personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change) associated with external biophysical-socioeconomic data (presents real-world climate change) were used to develop a farmer-centered framework to explore climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations at a local level. A case study at Bin County (1980s-2010s), Northeast China, suggested that increased annual average temperature (0.6°C per decade) and decreased annual precipitation (46 mm per decade, both from meteorological datasets) were correctly perceived by 76 and 66.9%, respectively, of farmers from the survey, and that a longer growing season was conifrmed by 70%of them. These reasonably correct perceptions enabled local farmers to make appropriate adaptations to cope with climate change:Longer season alternative varieties were found for maize and rice, which led to a signiifcant yield increase for both crops. The longer season also affected crop choice:More farmers selected maize instead of soybean, as implicated from survey results by a large increase in the maize growing area. Comparing warming-related factors, we found that precipitation and agricultural disasters were the least likely causes for farmers’ agricultural decisions. As a result, crop and variety selection, rather than disaster prevention and infrastructure improvement, was the most common ways for farmers to adapt to the notable warming trend in the study region.

  14. 中国云南洱海周边小兽体表革螨多样性%Diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    云南大理洱海周边是我国流行性出血热的流行地区之一.本文目的是运用Shannon-Wiener、系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.0软件)和Levins'niche等对该区3 303只小兽体表寄生革螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.选择的洱海周边三个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这三个方位形成了同地域异生境的地理景观.在调查点共捕获小兽宿主3 303只属4目(啮齿目、食虫目、攀鼩目和食肉目)7科15属21种,收集到的小兽体表寄生虫革螨23 196只被鉴定为6科16属43种.研究结果表明革螨群落结构复杂,物种多样性高.在不同方位革螨和它们相对应宿主的分布是不均匀的,但是洱海周边不同方位同样优势小兽上寄生的优势革螨种是一致的.结果暗示:生境影响着革螨和它们相对应小兽的物种构成和分布,如果小兽宿主的分类地位和生境相似,那么相对应的小兽宿主上的革螨群落就相似;不同方位小兽体表寄生虫革螨的丰富度和物种多样性主要由宿主本身和宿主所栖息的生境决定;这可能是小兽和革螨之间协同进化在生态学上的一个佐证.但通过使用革螨的生态位宽度分析,革螨的宿主特异性很低,这又可能暗示着小兽和革螨之间有协同进化,但协同进化程度不高.%The aim was to study the species diversity,community structure,similarity,distribution and niche of gamasid mites on the body surface of 3 303 small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins' niche.The investigated site was an important focus of epidemic hemorrhagic fever, where stands alongside three cordilleras surrounding Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain,Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas formed

  15. Cultivated Land Soil Environment Quality Analysis and E valuation in Longchuan County, Yunnan Province, China%滇西陇川县耕地土壤环境质量分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国云; 郭晋; 王定忠; 毕生斌; 周新惟; 马柱芳

    2013-01-01

    为揭示滇西地区土壤环境质量状况,以陇川县为例,参照《绿色食品产地环境技术条件》,对耕地土壤pH值、有机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾营养元素含量及重金属元素铅、镉、汞、砷、铬、铜总量进行测定分析。采用标准对比法、单因子污染指数法和Nemero综合污染指数法,对其土壤环境质量进行了评价。结果表明,研究区土壤pH值介于3.49~7.45之间,均值为5.05,土壤偏酸;各营养元素平均值中有机质、全氮、速效磷含量为优良,速效钾含量为中等,有机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾含量分别有64.17%、59.34%、75.33%、71.66%的耕地面积达到生产绿色食品土壤肥力要求,分别有35.83%、40.66%、24.67%、28.34%的面积土壤肥力不足;采用单因子污染指数法对土壤重金属评价,砷、铬、铜处于清洁状态;有20.27%、2.03%、4.73%的样本铅、镉、汞单因子污染指数大于1,所代表的面积受到铅、镉、汞轻度污染,镉有1.35%样本单因子污染指数大于2,所代表的面积受到镉中度污染;综合污染指数评价,4.79%样本达到轻度污染。%In order to reveal the status of the quality of soil environment in the western area of Yunnan Province, Taking Longchuan County as an example, refering to"green food producing area environment technical specifications", soil pH value, organic matter, total nitrogen, avail-able phosphorus, available potassium content of nutrient elements and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium, copper volume were measured and analyzed. Using the standard comparison method, the method of single factor pollution index and compre-hensive pollution index method of Nemero, the soil environmental quality was evaluated. The results showed that, the soil pH ranged from 3.49 to 7.45, the mean value was 5.05,with acid soil nutrient elements. The average value of organic matter, total nitrogen

  16. THE STRUCTURAL STYLE AND TIMING OF UPLIFT OF THE AILAOSHAN-DIANCANG RANGE, WEST YUNNAN,CHINA%滇西点苍山—哀牢山隆升构造样式和隆升时限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙; 季建清; 罗清华; 龚俊峰; 庆建春

    2012-01-01

    滇西高原的隆起是新生代晚期青藏高原构造域重要的地质事件.点苍山—哀牢山地区的地层分布、沉积建造等资料表明:该区的区域地层面理产状存在明显的变化,山脉东侧以陡倾角的构造面理发育为主,西侧以缓倾的层状面理发育为主;变质变形程度从东北向西南逐渐减弱,依次为高角闪岩相变质的花岗质片麻岩、低角闪岩相和绿片岩相的片岩-千枚岩-板岩组合以及弱变形的中生界沉积岩系;山脉NE侧发育的断层三角面和正断层面上发育的假玄武玻璃,指示山脉东侧边界是一条快速运动的构造边界.通过40Ar/39Ar和磷灰石裂变径迹测试揭示,点苍山在3~5Ma经历了快速冷却事件.综合研究认为,点苍山—哀牢山的隆升为掀斜式,东部隆升幅度大,西部隆升幅度小;其隆升最新时限为距今3 ~5Ma,为上新世以来隆起形成的山脉.%The uplift of West Yunnan plateau is one of the late Cenozoic great geological events in the Qing-hai-Tibet Plateau tectonic domain,and the Ailaoshan-Diancangshan Range uplift is the key to understanding this tectonic process. In the former researches, many researchers mainly emphasized on the strike-slip movements and times of the Ailaoshan-Red River shear zone. The formation of Ailaoshan-Diancang Range has been widely considered to be the result of the strike-slip movements of the Ailaoshan-red River shear zone. Usually,the formation of geomorphic unit is the result of latest tectonic activity, for the time scale of topography-shaping process is much smaller than that of tectonic movement in the study of tectonic geomorphology. Based on the collection of detailed evidences, the structural style and timing of the uplift of Ailaoshan-Diancangshan Ranges are studied. Detailed evidences are as follows: First of all, the primary structural foliations in the study region have obvious distinctness. On the east side of the Ailaoshan-Diancang Ranges

  17. 云南香格里拉山地自然风景区蚤类多样性的研究%FLEAS FAUNA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN FIVE NATURAL LANDSCAPE AREAS OF SHANGRI-LA,YUNNAN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军旗; 龚正达; 栗冬梅; 刘起勇; 和耀兰

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are considered as the most common and important external parasites on small mammals , which can spread a variety of viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases to humans, such as bubonic plague and typhus.Investigation of flea fauna is an important work in natural landscape area for their biting on visitors which may raise the risk of spreading vector-borne diseases.To investigate the flea fauna and distinguish the differences among different natural landscape areas, researches were performed during autumn of 2005 in five main mountain areas: Hutiao Gorge, Haba Snow Mountain, Baishuitai Terraces, Qianhu Mountain and Red mountain.The results showed: (1) A total of 633 fleas identified as 34 species belonging to 4 genera and 19 families were collected from small rodents trapped , including 10 new recorded species (subspecies) in Shangri-La, among which Stenoponia and Stenoponia himalayana are first trapped in Yunnan province, implying that there existed abundant species of fleas in natural landscape areas in Shangri-La.(2) Both the species richness and Shannon-Wienor index of fleas increased along with the increase of altitude, which were highest in Red mountain with an altitude of 3 500-4 200 m, and lowest in Hutiao Gorge with an altitude of 1 800-1 900 m.(3) The 5 natural landscape areas were classified into two groups based on the Jaccard indexes and cluster analysis, one is Hutiao Gorge, Haba Snow Mountain and Baishuitai Terraces, another one is Qianhu Mountain and Red mountain.It is indicated that, compared with the vegetation and humidity , human disturbance may play a more important role in flea diversity of natural landscape areas . (4) Both the species richness and Shannon-Wienor index of fleas showed no relation with that of small mammal, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were 0.24 and 0.60, respectively.%蚤类是传播多种自然疫源性疾病的重要媒介昆虫,人类在自然风景区户外活动时存在被其叮咬而感染虫媒

  18. KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF THE FRESHWATER DUGESI4 PLANARIANS FROM YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%中国云南三产地淡水三角涡虫核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 田士瑞; 刘涛; 刘德增

    2011-01-01

    利用空气干燥法,对采自云南省丽江市束河古镇、保山市龙王塘和香格里拉市小中甸3产地淡水三角涡虫(Dugesia sp.)的染色体和核型进行分析,结果表明:丽江市束河古镇淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以16条为主,为二倍体(2n=2x=16=16m);保山市龙王塘淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以24条为主(2n=3x=24=24m),少数为16条(2n=2x=16=16m),为三倍体和为二倍体的混合倍体;值得注意的是:香格里拉市小中甸淡水三角涡虫体细胞的染色体数目以极少见的26条为主(2n=3x+2=24+2=21m+3st+2m),少数为25条(2n=3x+1=24+1=21m+3st+1m)和24条(2n=3x=24=21m+3st),为三倍性混合倍体.研究根据核型结果对上述三产地淡水三角涡虫的分类和染色体非整倍性进行了分析.%In order to provide evidence for taxonomy, evolutionary biology, biogeography and phylogenetics of the genus Dugesia, the chromosomes and karyotypes of the freshwater planarians, Dugesia sp., collected from Shuhe town in Lijiang City, Longwangtang pond in Baoshan City, and Xiaozhaongdian town in Xianggelila City, Yunnan Province,were studied. The adult planarians, 15-20 mm in length and 1.5-2.0 mm in width, were used. After starving for a week, each planarian was transversally cut into five pieces, the planarian pieces were cultured in distilled water for three or four days to regenerate. For the karyological analysis, the metaphase chromosomes were prepared from regenerating blastemas by an air-drying method. Chromosome numbers of over 100 well-spreaded cells were counted and the chromosomes were photographed using Leica DMLB light microscope. The karyotype parameters of five well-spreaded metaphase plates from five individuals were measured. Relative length (r.l.) was calculated as chromosome length × 100/total length of haploid genome. Centromeric index (c.i.) was calculated as length of the short arm× 100/total length of the chromosome. Arm ratio (a.r.) was calculated

  19. 云南墨江镍金矿床主要控矿因素分析与研究%RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ON ORE-CONTROLLING FACTORS FOR MOJIANG-YUANJIANG NICKEL-GOLD DEPOSITS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 谢桂青; 漆亮; 苏文超

    2001-01-01

    Based on research and analysis on ore-controlling factors and analysis of tectono-lithostratigraphic units to shed light on Ni-Au metallogenic processes, it is suggested that the main ore-controlling factors for the Mojiang-Yuanjiang Ni-Au deposits in Yunnan Province include strata-controlling and tectonics-controlling. In the Mojiang-Yuanjiang Ni-Au mine, the Upper Devonian Jinchang Formation consists of low-grade metamorphic volcano-sedimentary rocks formed in a deep-water, volcanic-related hydrothermal depositional basin. This Formation is composed of slate, chert, palimpsest siltstone and sandstone interbeded with tuff mudstone, volcanic lava and tuff. Three tectono-lithostratigraphic units (the Lanshan, Sishibaliangshan and Mahudong) can be recognized in the Jinchang Formation. The Lanshan unit (D3jy1) was formed by volcanism and volcanic-related hydrothermal deposition and is referred to as the volcanic-exhalative-genetic unit. Nickel-gold-bearing pyritic cherts in the Mojiang deposit occur in the lower part of the Lanshan rock-unit, ranging in age from 358±8.6 (2σ) Ma (Sm-Nd isochron dating) to 354.7±0.72 (2σ) Ma (Rb-Sr isochron dating). The Sishibaliangshan unit (D3jy2) consisting of slate, chert, palimpsest siltstone and sandstone, volcanic lava rock and tuff, is also referred to as the volcanic-exhalative-genetic unit. The Mahudong unit (D3jy3) is composed mainly of a suite of fine-grained turbidite rocks with acidic volcanic lava and violet-red sandstones at its top.    The ring-like clayized zone and the tectono-lithostratigraphic sequence of hydrothermal deposits are located at hydrothermal-water vents that are one of the main ore-host structures. The Yanshanian brittle-ductile shear zones that are another main type of ore-host structures are typified by the proximately horizontal tension cracks, sinistral shear fractures, close-off brittle-ductile shear zones, and Cr-illite was formed at 178 Ma to 76 Ma. The Himalayan brittle tension cleavages

  20. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  1. The observation of exoplanet transit events in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang X.-S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a research project on the exoplanet transit events at Yunnan Observatory. By using CCD cameras attached to 1m telescope of Yunnan Observatory and 85cm telescope of Xinglong station, NAOC, a group of exoplanet systems with transit events have been observed photometrically. By means of MCMC method, the preliminary results of the systems WASP-11 and XO-2 are derived. Finally, we give out the future plan on this research topic in China.

  2. Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  3. ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量%Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  4. The impact of land use on soil properties in a karst agricultural region of Southwest China: a case study of Xiaojiang watershed, Yunnan%典型岩溶农业区土地利用变化对土壤性质的影响——以云南小江流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勇军

    2006-01-01

    Supported by RS and GIS, the land use change from 1982 to 2003 were analyzed and the impacts of land use changes on pH value, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P, and available K in soil of Xiaojiang watershed, a typical karst agricultural region of Yunnan Province, Southwest China were assessed. The following aspects are concluded. (1) The total land use converted during the past 20 years in Xiaojiang watershed covers an area of 610.12 km2, of which 134.29 km2 of forestland was converted into cultivated land, and 210 km2 of unused land was converted into cultivated land. (2) The rapid growth of population and the economic development were the main driving forces of land use change. (3) With the change in land use, the soil properties have been changed significantly. The pH, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P and available K in soil in 1982 were 6.3, 38.02 g kg-1, 1.86 g kg-1, 1.63 g kg-1, 10.94 g kg-1, 114.42 g kg-1, 11.65 mg kg-1 and 64.69 mg kg-1g, respectively; and those in 2003 were 6.73, 25.26 g kg-1, 1.41 g kg-1, 0.99 g kg-1, 12.6 g kg-1, 113.43 mg kg-1, 11.11 mg kg-1 and 151.59 mg kg-1, respectively. Pared samples t-test of the tested indices of soil properties indicate that those indices have changed significantly during the last 20 years. But the soil properties changed differently, due to the differences in land use change. (4) Also, with the change in land use and management measures of soil, the modifications in soil properties which developed from carbonate rocks were more sensitive than those in the soil developed from sandstone.

  5. Checklist of Fishes of Yunnan%云南鱼类名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小勇

    2013-01-01

    Based on extant literatures and taking into accounts updated results of taxonomy and phylogeny,we have updated this checklist of fishes present in Yunnan,including the number of taxa and drainage areas.As of 2013,there were 13 orders,42 families,198 genera and 620 valid species recorded in Yunnan Province,of which 586 were native species,34 alien species,254 species endemic to Yunnan,and 152 species only occuring in Yunnan within China.The number of species in Yunnan accounts for 39.17% of China's total fish species (of which there are 1 583 recorded freshwater fish species according to data present in Fishbase),and of these 6 families and 66 genera only occur in Yunnan.The number of fish species of the six major drainages in Yunnan were as follows:202 in Pearl River,183 in Lancangjiang River (upper Mekong),142 in Jinshajiang River (upper Yangtze),120 in Red River,84 in Irrawaddy Drainage,77 in Nujiang-Salween Drainage.There are also 99 endangered species of fish occurring in Yunnan,among them 23 species protected by the national and/or the provincial govemmnent,including 2 species of national key protected animal class one,4 species of national key protected animal class two,17 species of Yunnan provincial protected animal.Totally,43 species were listed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals,Pisces; 73 species were listed in China Species Red List Vol.1;50 species were listed in endangered categories of IUCN Red List; and 3 species were listed in the Appendix 2 of CITES.The Chinese name,Latin name,synomyns,distribution and literatures of the 620 species of fishes in Yunnan are listed.%该文在《云南鱼类志》等文献基础上,参照最新分类学和分子系统学成果,对云南鱼类名录进行整理,对各分类阶元、水系进行统计,并列出了云南鱼类分布及主要参考文献.至2013年,云南省共记录鱼类13目42科198属620种,占中国淡水鱼类种数(1 583种)的39.17%,居全国各省之首.其中,土著种586

  6. From a Yunnan mountain to a Tibetan highland——the story of a hundred years of cosmic ray research in China%从乌蒙山到念青唐古拉——百年宇宙线研究的中国故事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭有恒

    2013-01-01

    百年前,宇宙线的发现曾极大地开阔了人们对宇观和微观世界的眼界,促成了粒子物理学的诞生.新中国成立之初,早年在国外在此领域业已成果卓著的几位前辈,组织起了中国本土第一支宇宙线研究队伍,在云南乌蒙山中建成了中国第一个宇宙线实验室,十年中收获了一系列高水平的实验成果.不幸,此后近20年的磋跎岁月扩大了中国与日新月异的国际新技术之间的差距,中国的宇宙线研究落到了自我边缘化的境地.幸好国家的改革开放政策为奋起直追提供了机会,中国第二代的宇宙线研究者经过种种摸索,选择了高海拔广延大气簇射观测的路线去实现我国宇宙线研究的复兴.20多年的埋头苦干,在海拔4300m的西藏念青唐古拉山脚下建成了一个现代化、国际化的宇宙线实验基地,完成了中国的宇宙线研究从云雾室、手工化向规模化、信息化的历史性转型,并以其特有的低阈能、高事例率、全天候、宽视场优势和国际合作,开展着多项前沿性的科研项目,迎来了丰收的季节.随着国家的日益富强,中国宇宙线研究的年青一代,必将从更高的起点出发,创造出中国宇宙线研究的更大的辉煌.%The discovery of cosmic rays a hundred years ago opened a new field of view to the universe and the mysterious particle world, leading to the birth of particle physics. Cosmic ray research in China was started in the early 50' s of the last century by several senior scientists who had already distinguished themselves abroad in this subject. The first cosmic ray observatory in China was built on a mountain in Yunnan province, and many high level results were obtained in the ensuing ten years.Then after almost twenty years of political unrest, the national "Reform & Opening up" policy provided a good opportunity to stimulate development and to narrow the wide gap caused by long term stagnation. The second generation

  7. Disaster Overview of Yunnan Earthquakes in 2011%2011年云南地震灾害综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂华; 卢永坤; 刘丽芳

    2012-01-01

    The frequent seismic activity and heavy earthquake disaster in Yunnan cause 25 deaths, 338 wounded and the direct economic loss of 320 billion Yuan in 2011. Combining with the earthquake disaster assessment by Earthquake Administration of Yunnan Province, we sort out the earthquake disaster data of Yunnan in 2011 and get their feature. The results show that the earthquake disaster loss of Yunnan is the highest in China in 2011. The proportion of the economic loss, the number of death and injured people in Yunnan against that of China is 52. 4% , 78. 1% , 66. 8% respectively. The feather of earthquake disaster is that earthquake occurred beneath the city causes serious disaster, earthquake disaster superposition is obvious, and the rural house and middle and primary school buildings in rebuilding are still keep well after the earthquake and take the role of earthquake preparedness and disaster reduction. Finally we list the data of earthquake disaster from 1992 to 2011 in Yunnan, and make the brief comparison of them.%2011年云南地震活动频繁,地震灾情较重,地震共造成25人死亡,338人受伤,直接经济损失32亿元.结合云南省地震局的地震灾害评估资料,对2011年云南地震灾害的主要数据进行统计并总结其特性.结果表明:2011年云南省震害造成的损失位居全国第一位,经济损失、死亡及受伤人数分别占全国同期的52.4%、78.1%、66.8%,其特征表现为城市直下型地震危害严重;震害叠加现象明显;民生工程取得明显防震减灾效益.同时列出1992~2011年云南地震灾害的相应数据,并进行了简要对比.

  8. A Study of the Tourism Development along the Yunnan-Vietnam Border%“桥头堡”战略下滇越边境旅游发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙良涛; 李继云; 冯万荣

    2012-01-01

    The Yunnan section of the China-Vietnam boundary line is 1353 kilometers in length,Yunnan is linked together to Vietnam with mountains and rivers,possesses the enormous geographical superiority.In recent years,the border tourism along Yunnan-Vietnam border has been developing prospectively.With the implementation Yunnan's "bridgehead fortress" strategy,Yunnan should use fully its geographical superiority,develops vigorously the border tourism,give active play to the border tourism on promoting the economics and trade cooperation as well as foreign cultural exchange and so on in Yunnan.This article analyzes the status of the Yunnan-Vietnam border tourism,conducts a deep analysis of the superiority and opportunities of developing the tourism along Yunnan-Vietnam border,finally give the proposal to speed up the Yunnan-Vietnam border tourism.%中越边界线云南段长1353公里,云南与越南山水相连,具有极大的区位优势。近年来,滇越边境旅游发展的如火如荼。随着云南"桥头堡"战略的实施,云南应充分利用其区位优势,大力发展边境旅游,发挥边境旅游在云南对外经贸合作以及对外文化交流等方面的积极作用。本文分析了滇越边境旅游发展的现状,对发展滇越边境旅游的优势和面临的机遇进行了深入分析,最后对加快滇越边境旅游发展提出建议。

  9. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  10. Exploring that Zhou Bao-zhong Who be a well-educated and trained and legendary possessed a concept of knowledge about Yunnan ethnic affairs after the founding of China%探析建国后周保中对云南民族事务的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳春

    2014-01-01

    Zhou Bao-zhong Who was born in a Wangqiao village of Dali prefecture of Yunnan province on February 7 , 1902 was a Bai people .Most of his life was spent in a military career and made a great contribution to the cause of China’ s revolution and nation ,so he was be honoured as a Bai son general .After the peaceful liberation of Yunnan province ,Zhou Bao-zhong actually presided over the work about daily affairs and military control commission of Yunnan province .As a director position of Yunnan ethnic affairs commission ,his understanding of yunnan ethnic affairs mainly reflected his speech in the second conference of southwest ethnic affairs committee on February 2 ,1951 .%周保中,1902年2月7日出生于云南省大理县湾桥村,白族人。他的大部分人生是在戎马生涯中度过的,对中国的革命和民族事业做出了很大贡献,被誉为“白子将军”。云南和平解放后,周保中实际主持着云南省日常事务和军事管制委员会的工作。而身兼云南省民族事务委员会主任职务的周保中,他对云南民族事务的认识主要体现于他在1951年2月2日西南民族事务委员会第二次委员会议的讲话上。

  11. 滇黔北探区YQ1井页岩气的发现及其意义%Significance of Discovery of Shale Gas From Well YQ-1 in Northern Yunnan-Guizhou Provinces,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兴; 叶熙; 张朝; 张介辉; 舒红林

    2014-01-01

    YQ1井钻遇的龙马溪组—五峰组优质黑色页岩单层厚度大,有机碳含量高,有机质成熟度较高,微孔隙、微裂缝发育。分析化验结果表明,YQ1井页岩层甲烷吸附气含量随埋藏深度、地层压力、有机质及黏土含量的增加而增大,含气量达1.0∼3.0 m3/t,证实龙马溪组底部是本区页岩气勘探的现实目的层,为具有商业开采价值的优质页岩气层。针对“强改造、高演化”的中国南方海相勘探领域,页岩气成藏赋存具有“构造沉积控局势→保存条件控气藏→岩性物性控甜点”的地质特色,落实富有机质、超常地层压力、脆性微孔缝发育的页岩气甜点区是页岩气勘探评价的第一要务,寻找构造变形较弱、远离通天断层、区域盖层发育和整体保存良好的宽阔向斜区是海相构造坳陷页岩气甜点区评价优选的首要因素。%The high quality shale of Wufeng-Longmaxi formations that was encountered by well YQ-1 during the drilling pro-cess is characterized by thick single layer,high TOC content,high organic matter maturity,and well developed microscopic pore and cracks. The analysis results reveal that the absorbed methane content of core shale from well YQ-1 increases with the rise of burial depth,formation pressure,content of organic matter and clay minerals. The gas in place(GIP)of the shale reservoirs ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 m3/t,indicating that the shale horizon of the basal of Longmaxi formation and Wufeng forma-tion is the first target stratum with commercial development value. The marine gas shale in Southern China is characterized of“intensive reformation,and high maturity”,and because the occurrence of shale gas resources is characterized by the control factors on distribution,gas pool,and sweet pot that are controlled by tectonics,storage condition and physical properties of rocks respectively. The emergency mission on shale gas exploration is to identify

  12. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  13. The Path Analysis of Farmers’ Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtian; XIAO; Yu; CUI; Lijia; HU

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers’ income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture,countryside and farmers,so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper,we use the statistics concerning farmers’ income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012,to perform the path analysis of components of farmers’ income in Yunnan Province,study the path of influence of components of farmers’ income on farmers’ net income,and then set forth the policy recommendations for increasing farmers’ income in Yunnan Province.

  14. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  15. 中国梦视阙下人民内涵的新解读%The New Interpretation of the People f rom the Perspective of China Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云平

    2015-01-01

    In the theory elaboration of China Dream ,the People is its important content .At pres‐ent ,there are some improper phenomena that the expression of the connotation of the people is generalized (expanded) ,solidified(static) and virtual (nihility) .In the process of Marxism sinici‐zation ,the evolution of the people’s subject position results from the constant guarantee of the people’s rights and the continued concern for the people’s interests .Based on the theory elabora‐tion of China Dream ,this paper analyses the essence of the improper expression of the connota‐tion of the people and makes a new interpretation about it so as to offer the people real economic benefits that can be seen and felt ,to give more concern for low income groups and to make sure that the people’s appeal can be effectively solved .%在中国梦的理论阐述中,人民是其重要内容。当前对人民内涵的表述存在将其泛化(扩大化)、固化(静止化)、虚化(虚无化)的不恰当现象。马克思主义中国化进程中人民主体地位的演变,是人民权利不断得到保障,人民利益不断受到重视的结果。文章以中国梦的理论阐述为基础,剖析对人民内涵的不恰当表述的实质,对其进行新的解读,以期给予人民看得见、摸得着的现实经济利益,给予低收入群体更多的关注,确保人民诉求得到有效解决。

  16. Interpretability formalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Joost Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form

  17. On New Landscape Agriculture in Yunnan Flatland Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; YANG; Wufu; QI; Qun; LIU

    2014-01-01

    With the support of national policy of building Yunnan into a gateway in China’s opening up to the Southwest,Yunnan Province offered the great opportunity for second time of starting an undertaking for tourism,and the landscape agriculture welcomes a new development opportunity. On the basis of regional natural and cultural resources,Yunnan Province has created diversified agricultural operating types and colorful farming culture. Thus,it has significant comparative advantage in developing the landscape agriculture,but it should avoid homogeneous competition in construction methods. The landscape agriculture of Yunnan Province should set foot on special features of rural landscape,stick to its " local characteristics",raise core competitiveness of characteristic landscape,and take the ecological and characteristic development road.

  18. 腾冲新生代火山区温泉CO2气体排放通量研究%CO2 flux estimations of hot springs in the Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field, Yunnan Province, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成智慧; 郭正府; 张茂亮; 张丽红

    2012-01-01

    近期研究表明,不仅火山喷发期会向当时的大气圈输送大量的温室气体,火山间歇期同样会释放大量的温室气体.在火山活动间歇期,火山区主要以喷气孔、温(热)泉以及土壤微渗漏等形式向大气圈释放温室气体.腾冲是我国重要的新生代火山区,同时也是重要的水热活动区,那里出露大量的温泉,然而目前未见腾冲火山区温泉气体排放通量的研究报道.本文利用数字皂膜通量仪测量了腾冲新生代火山区温泉中CO2的排放通量.研究结果表明,腾冲新生代火山区温泉向当今大气圈输送的CO2通量达3.58×103t· a-1,相当于意大利锡耶纳Bassoleto地热区温泉中CO2的排放规模.腾冲火山区温泉的CO2释放通量主要受深部岩浆囊、断裂分布、地下水循环、围岩成分等多方面因素的影响.本文根据温泉中CO2的排放特征,将腾冲温泉分为南北两区,南区温泉CO2通量远高于北区的温泉,热海地热区的通量为腾冲CO2通量的最大值.在北温泉区,CO2通量主要受控于断裂的分布;而在南温泉区,除受到断裂控制外,热海地热区底部的岩浆囊及其与围岩的相互作用成为CO2气体的重要物质来源,同时高温的岩浆囊为温泉及CO2的形成提供了重要热源.%Recent research results have indicated that, beside volcanic eruption periods, dormant periods in the intermittent between the volcanic activities can emit a large amount of the greenhouse gases into atmosphere. In the intermittent between volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases are erupted from the volcanic eruptive fields in the forms of fumaroles, hot springs, soil micro-seepage and so oa Tengchong volcanic and geothermal system is one of the most important Cenozoic volcanic activity fields in China whereas the estimates of the greenhouse gases emitted from Tengchong have been poorly understood. Using a new apparatus named digital bubble flowmeter, we have measured the flux of

  19. Development Prospect of Aromatherapy Industry in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Ziyun; LI, Dantong; Rui CHEN; Qian, Min; Chen, Yiqi; YANG, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced domestic and foreign supply of products processed by aromatherapy plant. On the basis of predicting market demand of aromatherapy plant, it analyzed current development situation of the plant in Yunnan Province. It arrived at the conclusion that the industry has broad market prospect. Then, it analyzed competitive advantages and risk factors of aromatherapy plant in Yunnan Province. There are climate, location and price advantages, but due to lack of product stan...

  20. Characteristics of coda wave attenuation in Yunnan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic of seismic coda wave attenuation in Yunnan area in 7 frequency-bands range from 1 Hz to 20 Hz was estimated by using the local earthquake's waveform data recorded from 22 Yunnan digital seismic stations.Coda attenuation Q-c1 of each station was firstly calculated by single scattering method. Then, mean free path Le and seismic albedo Bo of each station were calculated, and scattering attenuation Q-1s and intrinsic attenuation Q-1i were separated from total attenuation Q-1t by multiple lapse time window analysis based on the multiple scattering model in uniform random isotropic scattering medium. The attenuating characteristics in Yunnan show that most value of Le are in 10~30 km, with maximal within 2~6 Hz;Bo are about 0.5 at 1~2 Hz, but less than 0.5at other frequency-bands, which means Q-1i is comparable with Q-1s at 1~2 Hz, and after 1~2 Hz, Q-1i is greater than Q-1s and dominates the attenuation process. Q-1c is close to Q-1i at other frequency bands except 1~2 Hz.Results show that Q-1 especially Qs-1 varies spatially, Q-1 in eastern Yunnan zone is a bit higher than in northwestern Yunnan zone;northwestern Yunnan zone higher than southwestern Yunnan zone. Comparing with other results in global, Qs-1 in Yunnan is lower than the global average value among these results, Q-1i is higher than the global average value, and Q-1t lies the middle among these results.

  1. THE INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL VARIABILITY OF PRECIPITATION FOR YUNNAN PROVINCE IN RAINY SEASON AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH TROPICAL UPPER LAYER HEAT CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春怡; 黄菲; 普贵明

    2003-01-01

    Based on the monthly precipitation data of 126 observation stations from 1961 to 2000 in Yunnan Province, the interannual and decadal variability of precipitation in rainy seasons are studied by using wavelet analysis. It is shownthat there is a 2 - 6 year oscillation at the interannual time scales and a quasi-30 year oscillation at the decadal time scales. These periodic oscillations relate to the distribution of tropical heat content. When the precipitation is much more (less) than normal, the upper seawater is colder (warmer) in almost all the tropical Indian Ocean, and warmer (colder) in the western Pacific as well ascolder (warmer) in the eastern Pacific. The key areas of the anomaly heat content distribution that have significant correlation to the Yunnan precipitation inrainy season are in the southern hemispheric Indian Ocean with a dipole patternin the winter as well as in the deep basin of the South China Sea (SCS) before the Yunnan rainy season begins. Therefore, the anomalous distributions of the heat content in the southern Indian Ocean and the SCS in winter are good indicators for predicting drought or flood in Yunnan Province in the following rainy season.

  2. New species and records of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 (Odonata, Gomphidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Kosterin, Oleg E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 are described from Southwestern China: B. apricus sp. nov. from Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province; B. magnus sp. nov. from Huayudong, Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, Yunnan Province, B. dentatus sp. nov. from Zhangjiang River in Xiaoqikong scenic spot, altitude 400 m, Libo County, Guizhou Province, and B. latescens sp. nov. from Sifangjing, Mengding Town, Gengma County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. New records of Burmagomphus spp. in China are provided, with B. asahinai and B. williamsoni williamsoni for the first time reported from China. A revised checklist of Burmagomhus spp. of China is provided which includes 14 species. A doubtful record of B. arboreus and relations of the newly described species are discussed. All types are deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. PMID:26250326

  3. PESTALOTIOPSIS KARSTENII, A NEW RECORD OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM CAMELLIA SASANQUA IN CHINA%中国茶梅内生真菌一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦继光; 徐同

    2003-01-01

    @@ In survey of diversity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis associated with Theaceae in Nanning, Guangxi Province and Kunming, Yunnan Province, Pestalotiopsis karstenii, a dominant endophytic fungus isolated from stem of Camellia sasanqua, is a new record in China.

  4. Geochemical Characteristics of the Langdu High-K Intermediate-Acid Intrusive Rocks in the Zhongdian Area,Northwest Yunnan Province, P.R. China%云南中旬地区浪都高钾中酸性侵入岩的地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任涛; 钟宏; 陈金法; 朱维光; 张兴春

    2011-01-01

    中甸地区浪都中酸性侵入岩在空间上与浪都夕卡岩型铜矿床共生,主要由石英二长斑岩、石英闪长斑岩和花岗闪长斑岩组成.这些侵入岩大多表现出高钾(K2O大于3%)的特征,在K2O-SiO2图上所有样品均落入高钾钙碱性和钾玄岩区域.在稀土元素球粒陨石标准化图上表现为轻稀土富集、重稀土亏损(LaN/YbN=14.3~21.2)、铕弱负异常至无异常(δEu=0.77~1.00);在原始地幔标准化微量元素蛛网图上,K、Rb、Sr、Ba等元素表现出正异常,而Nb、Ta和Ti等元素表现出负异常的特征.浪都侵入岩的87Sr/86Sr初始值为0.7044-0.7069,εsd(t)值为-2.8~2.2.结合主量、微量元素及Sr-Nd同位素组成,本研究认为浪都岩浆来源于交代地幔,很可能受到了俯冲带流体交代和地壳物质混染的影响,表明浪都中酸性侵入岩的形成与甘孜-理塘洋的俯冲有关.%The Langdu high-K calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province,China are spatially associated with the Langdu skarn copper deposit. These rocks consist mainly of quartz-diorite porphyry, granodiorite and quartz-monzonite porphyry. The K2O content of majority is higher than 3%, and in the K2O-SiO2 diagram, all the samples fall into the high-K talc alkaline to shoshonitic fields. They are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE (La/Yb) N = 14. 3 ~ 21.2), and show negative to no Eu anomaly ( δEu = 0. 77 ~ 1.00). In the primitive-mantle normalized spidergram, they are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba,-but depleted Nb, Ta and Ti. The samples have relatively enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with ( 87 Sr/86 Sr) i ratios from 0. 7044 to 0. 7069 and εNd(t) values from -2. 8 to -2. 2. In combination of the above elemental and isotopic characteristics, it is suggested that the L angdu intrusives were derived from a metasomatized mantle source generated by subduction-released fluids and involvement of crustal material, which are related to

  5. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南部分小兽体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 董文鸽

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.%应用系统聚类分析方法对云南省境内24种主要小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类进行了研究.研究中将每一种小兽体表的所有吸虱昆虫定义为一个相应的吸虱群落单位.结果表明,小兽体表吸虱群落结构简单,物种多样性很低.多数小兽有固定的吸虱种类寄生,其吸虱的宿主特异性高.在动物分类上隶属同一个属的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似程度高,在系统聚类分析中大多被归为一类.在动物分类上近缘的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似,优势虱种相同或相似,此情形尤其表现在鼠属、白腹鼠属、姬鼠属和绒鼠属.吸虱群落相似性大小与相应小兽宿主在动物分类地位上的近缘性高低呈现高度一致.从生态学角度来看,吸虱昆虫与其所寄生的小兽

  6. Researches on Plants from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation in the Qujing District, Eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 郝守刚; 刘振锋

    2002-01-01

    Fossil plants Hedeia sinica Hao et Gensel 1998, Huia gracilis Wang et Hao 2001 andGuangnania cuneata Wang et Hao are described from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation, the Qujingdistrict, eastern Yunnan, China. They contribute to our knowledge of the flora in this district. Based on theoccurrence of common plants (Hedeia, Huia, Guangnania and Zosterophyllum australianum) and their horizons,it is proved for the first time that the mid-lower assemblage of the Xujiachong flora is comparable with theEarly Devonian ((late) Pragian) Posongchong flora of southeastern Yunnan and the upper Baragwanathia floraof Australia. In view of this fact and the stratigraphic sequence, the mid-lower part of the Xujiachong Formationis considered to be of (late) Pragian age. Through comprehensive analyses of plant, bivalve and fishassemblages and the lithology, the upper part of the Xujiachong Formation is dated to be of early Emsian age.The Xujiachong flora belonged to the northeastern Gondwana palaeophytogeographic unit during the EarlyDevonian. The early Emsian assemblage of this flora inherited the characters of the Posongchong flora and alsoexhibited the endemic elements. Belonging to different phytogeographic units, the Xujiachong and Posongchongfloras differ from the coeval flora of the Laurussian palaeocontinent. The Xujiachong flora is comparativelysimple in composition, while the Posongchong flora has abundant and highly diversified endemics. Thedisparity between them has resulted from the different environments.

  7. Implications of International Manorial Economy for Development of Characteristic Manorial Economy in Yunnan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Lu; FENG; Xiaobo; DONG; Yuan; YUAN; Xuelin; LI; Liangzheng; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized experience of Vietnam and Taiwan in developing modern agricultural manorial economy. The manorial economy of Vietnam is characterized by intensive and specialized operation and high marketization and wide employment of labors,while the experience of Taiwan can be outlined as " government launching,agricultural association promoting,and farmers acting". Then,it analyzed existing problems of modern agricultural manorial economy in China and opportunities and challenges of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area. Finally in line with these problems and combining experience of international manorial economy,it came up with systematic recommendations for healthy and sustainable development of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area:(i) perfecting organization leadership,improving planning guidance,and enhancing standardized management;(ii) putting forth effort on innovation of system and mechanism for land,fund and technology,to break bottleneck of manorial economic development;(iii) increasing input and comprehensively building the service support system to promote long-term development of manorial economy.

  8. Coexistence and Competition between Tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytinae in Yunnan Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig (Coleoptera: Scolytinae were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside.

  9. Contrasts in variations of the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of travertines formed in pools and a ramp stream at Huanglong Ravine, China: Implications for paleoclimatic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Zaihua

    2014-01-01

    Water samples and modern endogenic (thermogene) travertine calcite deposited on plexiglass substrates in travertine pools and a ramp stream were collected along the Huanglong Ravine, Sichuan, SW China at regular ∼10 day intervals from early May to early November in 2010, including both wet and dry conditions. Temporal and spatial variations in the δ13C and δ18O values of the modern travertine were examined to understand their potential for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretations. It was found that δ13C and δ18O of travertine formed in the ramp stream were low in the warm rainy season and high in the cold dry season. Their positive correlation was mainly due to dilution and rainfall seasonal effects on δ13C and δ18O values, respectively, i.e., low δ13C values were caused by dilution by overland flow with depleted δ13C values and reduced CO2-degassing in the warm rainy season while low δ18O values of travertine were because of low δ18O values of water induced by seasonal variation in oxygen isotopic ratios of rainwater. Meanwhile, kinetic effect on oxygen isotopic fractionation during ramp travertine deposition existed and reduced this positive correlation. In contrast, the δ13C and δ18O values of the pool travertines displayed a converse behavior which was caused mainly by the temperature effect. Low δ18O values and high δ13C values in the warm rainy season were correlated chiefly with the higher water temperatures. Therefore, the δ13C and δ18O values of the travertine may be used for paleo-rainfall or paleotemperature reconstruction respectively. This study demonstrates that endogenic travertine, like epigenic (meteogene) tufa, may be a suitable candidate for high-resolution paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, since travertines deposited under differing hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., pools with still water contrasted to fast flow streams) have different climatic responses, it is necessary to check the

  10. Tourism in China: representing the nation to English speaking tourists: A historical study of the development of tourism and the interpretive media encountered at five Beijing tourist sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koerts

    2015-01-01

    Since 1978, tourism in China has grown rapidly in terms of numbers of tourists and revenues. Although China is set to become the world’s major tourist receiving and tourist generating country, domestic tourism is presently the mainstay with over three billion visits in 2013. Tourism is not only of e

  11. New Eusauropod Dinosaur from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Yuanmousaurusjiangyiensis gen. et sp. nov. is erected based on an incomplete skeleton.It is characterized by more complex structures of the neural arches in the dorsal vertebrae than those in Omeisaurus, but less complex than those of Euhelopus; the dorsal vertebra bears 9laminae, forming three cavities on the lateral surface of the neural arch; the dorsal vertebral neural spines with dorsoventrally-oriented cavities are similar to those of Omeisaurus and Patagosaurus. Yuanmousaurus is more primitive than Euhelopus, but more derived than Omeisaurus. The similar dorsal vertebral structure between Yuanmousaurus and Patagosaurus may indicate that they have a close relationship to each other.

  12. Bucket wheel excavators VABE 550 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In June 1989, China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CNM Corp.) and Voest-Alpine Bergtechnik (VA-Bergteknik) signed a contract for the engineering and delivery of 3 bucket wheel excavators type VABE 550 to be used in a large open pit brown coal mine in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. This article provides technical data relating to the excavators and discusses the results of a performance test conducted after completion of erection and commissioning. 2 photos.

  13. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  14. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  15. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in cerebrovascular diseases of the Chinese Naxi populations from Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu; Qihong Yuan; Xijun Fan; Guoqiang He

    2011-01-01

    Currently it is not well known whether apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a genetic susceptibility factor for cerebrovascular diseases in the Chinese Naxi population. The present study detected and sequenced ApoE polymorphisms of 90 patients with cerebrovascular diseases (58 cases of cerebral infarction and 32 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage), and 50 normal people of Naxi nationality from Yunnan province, China. The populations were used to analyze the relationship of ApoE polymorphisms with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. Results showed an association between ApoE gene polymorphism and the onset of cerebral infarction, and a possibility that the ε4 allele is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebral infarction. However, there was no evidence of a relationship between the ApoE gene polymorphism and cerebral hemorrhage.

  16. DIAGNOSES OF THE SEVERE DROUGHT OVER YUNNAN AREA IN THE EARLY SUMMER OF 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; ZHAO Er-xu; YANG Shu-qun; PENG Gui-fen

    2007-01-01

    High temperature and drought occurred in Yunnan province during the late spring and early summer in 2005, which was the most severe event in this region since 1950's. Based on the observational data and relevant diagnoses, this extreme weather event was studied and discussed. The results show that the occurrence of this event could be due to the following observational facts that happened in 2005. (1) The seasonal adjustment of middle-high-leveled atmospheric circulation was delayed. (2) The cold air activity center was deviated north. (3) The onset of summer monsoon over South China Sea was delayed. (4) The tropical convection activity was much weaker than usual. (5) The subtropical high over the western Pacific was located southwestwards and relatively strong.

  17. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Lamprophyres in Laowangzhai Gold Orefield, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Lamprophyres, widely distributed in the Laowangzhai gold orefield, Yunnan Province, China, and closely related to gold mineralization in time and space, can be distinguished into three kinds: the fresh(weakly altered), the altered, and the mineralized lamprophyres. These lamprophyres in the orefield are similar in the range of REE contents and REE patterns, but definitely different in parameters of LRE/HRE, NLa/Yb etc. The geochemistry of REE in fresh lamprophyre shows that the rock is a product of different partial melting of the enriched mantle. Calculation results of mass balance of REE activity regularity in the process of alteration and mineralization of the lamprophyres in the orefield shows that the altering fluids and mineralizing fluids contain REE, and these fluids are mainly the products of mantle degassing and magma degassing during the lamprophyric magmatism.

  18. Biodiversity and taphonomy of the Early Cambrian Guanshan biota,eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; STEINER

    2010-01-01

    The Guanshan biota from eastern Yunnan(Cambrian Series 2,early Stage 4) is a Burgess Shale-type fossil biota with abundant exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils after the discovery of the well-known Cambrian Chengjiang fauna and Kaili biota in South China.The geological settings,sedimentology,taphonomy,and the fossil assemblage of the Guanshan biota are briefly summarized here.The Guanshan biota consists of about 60 taxa belonging to more than 10 metazoan groups and algae,among which the lobopods,eldonids,hyolithids with helens,and green algae are reported for the first time.The common occurrence of soft-bodied preservation in many groups,notably the trilobites and brachiopods,makes the Guanshan biota a significant fossil lagersttte for understanding the metazoan evolution during Cambrian explosion and taphonomy of the Burgess Shale-type fossils.

  19. Interpretability Logic

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretations are much used in metamathematics. The first application that comes to mind is their use in reductive Hilbert-style programs. Think of the kind of program proposed by Simpson, Feferman or Nelson (see Simpson[1988], Feferman[1988], Nelson[1986]). Here they serve to compare the strength of theories, or better to prove conservation results within a properly weak theory. An advantage of using interpretations is that even if their use should -perhaps- be classified as a prooftheoret...

  20. Blocking the Path of Feral Pigs with Rotten Bamboo : The Role of Upland Peoples in the Crisis of a Tay Polity in Southwest Yunnan, 1792 to 1836

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper challenges James Scott's thesis of state evasion and state prevention as the basic features of lowland-upland relationships. It scrutinizes the validity of Scott's assumptions by examining the case of prolonged violent conflict in a tiny Tay polity feudatory to China during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Civil war broke out in the Mäng2 Khön1 polity (Mangshi, Dehong Autonomous Region in southwest Yunnan, China) due to mismanagement by the monarch of two upland ...

  1. Initial Assessment on Large and Medium Sized Terrestrial Mammal Assemblage Using Camera Trapping in Nangunhe Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China%云南南滚河自然保护区大中型陆生哺乳动物初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve BOHNETT; Philip RIORDAN; 时坤

    2015-01-01

    During surveys for wild felids in Nangunhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan province, China, we conducted a wider mammal survey of the core nature reserve area, using camera trapping techniques. Forty motion-triggered digital camera traps had been set in oldest forest tract of protected area to conduct a species inventory. The total camera trapping effort of 2460 camera trap nights yielded 232 digital photographs of mammals represented by 17 species in ifve orders. The species photographed include rare and elusive species and those that are of high conservation value, such as IUCN endangered species Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), and Phayre’s leaf monkey (Trachypit hecus phayrei). In addition, IUCN vulnerable species including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), sambar (Rusa unicolor), northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonine), and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata), and more common species were found. Al mammals were also listed as key protected wild animals by the State Forestry Administration of China. Of particular importance were the carnivores, with 7 different species recorded. Ungulates and other taxa forming a prey base for these predators,such as rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac), sambar, wild boar (Sus scrofa), and Chinese serow (Capricornis milneedwardsi), were found to be the most frequently photographed and most widespread species. Opportunities for local people to develop standardized monitoring designs for targeted species were identiifed by these initial assessment results. Local nature reserve staff lacked technical ability to produce standardized survey designs, yet a by product of this type of non-standardized data collection can be very informative and produce inventory information that gives a species richness analysis, as well as initial estimates for occupancy and detection probability for abundant species to drive future standardized survey designs and efforts.%在云南省南滚河自然保护区进行猫

  2. Review on studies of Eupatorium adenophorum--an important invasive species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXiao-yu; LUZhao-hua; SANGWei-guo

    2004-01-01

    Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. was introduced in Yunnan Province of China around 1940. Since then it has been spreading rapidly, particularly in the southern and southwestern parts of China and caused serious economic loss. The biological research and integrated control on E. adenophorum were carried out from 1980's in Yunnan Province. Together with other 15 invasive external species, the weed has been listed in the White Paper by The State Environmental Protection Administration of China. This paper briefly reviews thestudies on natural distribution, biological character, ecological character, chemical component, hazard, potential application and the control of E. adenophorum. The research direction for this invasive external species in future was also discussed.

  3. An Interpretation of “China Dream”from the Birthright in“Analects of Confucius”%从《论语》“正名”思想解读“中国梦”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 张凤丽

    2014-01-01

    The idea of birthright proposed by Confucius in the "Analects" is to clarify the link between things, and contains a profound dialectics and systematic view, which is helpful for us to interpret"China Dream".%“正名”是孔子在《论语》中提出的思想,阐明了事物之间是联系的,包含着深刻的辩证法与系统观,对我们解读“中国梦”具有借鉴意义。

  4. Influence of the Kunlun Mountain Ms8.1 Earthquake on Horizontal Crustal Deformation in the Sichuan and Yunnan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to track the space-time variation of regional strain field holistically (in a large scale)and to describe the regional movement field more objectively, the paper uses a nonlinear continuous strain model focused on extracting medium-low frequency strain information on the basis of a region with no rotation. According to the repeated measurements (1999 ~ 2001 ~2004) from GPS monitoring stations in the Sichuan and Yunnan area obtained by the Project of "China Crust Movement Measuring Network", and with the movement of 1999 ~ 2001 (stage deformation background) as the basic reference, we separated the main influencing factors of the Kunlun Mountain Ms8. 1 earthquake in 2001 from the data of 2001 and 2004, and the results indicate: (1) the Kunlun Mountain Ms8.1 earthquake has a discriminating effect on the Sichuan and Yunnan area, moreover, the deformation mode and background had not only certain similitude but also some diversity; (2) The movement field before the earthquake was very ordinal, while after the earthquake, order and disorder existed simultaneously in the displacement field; The displacement quantities of GPS monitoring stations were generally several millimeters; (3) The principal strain field before earthquake was basically tensile in an approximate EW direction and compressive in the SN direction, and tension was predominant.After the earthquake, the principal strain field in the Sichuan area was compressive in the EW direction and tensile in the SN direction, and the compression was predominant. In the Yunnan area, it was tensional in the NE direction and compressive in the NW direction, and tension was predominant; (4) The surficial strain before the earthquake was dominated by superficial expansion, the contractive area being located basically in the east boundary of Sichuan and Yunnan block and its neighborhood. After the earthquake, the Sichuan area was surface contractive (the further north, the greater it was), and south of it was

  5. Arthropod trace fossils from the Zhujiaqing Formation (Meishucunian, Yunnan) and their palaeobiological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernd WEBER1; ZHU Maoyan

    2003-01-01

    Along with several non-arthropod ichnotaxa and rather non-specific scratchmarks, the Upper Phosphate of the Zhujiaqing Formation (Early Meishucunian Stage) in Eastern Yunnan yielded well-preserved resting and digging traces of the Rusophycus-type interpreted as resting traces of unknown large arthropods (ca. 3~6 cm in length). The discernible morphological details of these trace fossils enable a rough estimation of the body plan characteristics of the trace originators placing the latter doubtless into the early arthropods, if not euarthropods. The spectrum of the Meishucunian ichnoassemblage, especially the different types of arthropod repichnia point to the existence of a complex benthic ecosystem consisting of animals with different behavioural patterns and life styles already during the earliest Cambrian (Nemakit-Daldyn), and demands the assumption of a longer evolutionary past history of the benthic life on earth before the so-called "Cambrian Explosion" of the metazoans.

  6. A study on the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013%云南省德宏州2011-2013年预防艾滋病、梅毒和乙型肝炎母婴传播效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; 王娟; 孙江平; 段松; 郭云松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture , Yunnan province,China from 2011 to 2013.Methods Data were collected mainly from the continuous HIV surveillance system and prevention of mother-to-child transmission ( PMTCT ) reporting system of Dehong prefecture , and supplemented by annual reported data on HIV , syphilis, and hepatitis B PMTCT to know the general demographic characteristics , HIV testing and counseling service , PMTCT service, and other medical services.Data were presented as absolute numbers and proportions.Results From 2011 to 2013,the number of pregnant women participating in HIV ,syphilis,and hepatitis B testing in Dehong prefecture increased and the HIV testing rates were 99.2%( 18 694/18 854 ) , 99.9%( 22 047/22 060 ) and 99.9%( 21 751/21 756),the syphilis testing rates were 56.0%(10 550/18 854),99.6%(21 980/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756),and the hepatitis B testing rates were 60.2%(11 358/18 854),99.6%(21 974/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756).From 2011 to 2013, the HIV positive rates were 0.87%(327/37 787), 0.82%(319/38 817) and 0.85%(315/37 261),the syphilis positive rates were 0.05%(10/18 520), 0.12%(43/36 817) and 0.11%(40/35 888),the hepatitis B positive rates were 2.46%(456/18 520), 2.23%(794/35 547) and 2.14%(739/34 468),respectively.The rates of HIV-positive pregnant women giving birth in hospitals were 99.2%(128/129),100.0%(141/141) and 100.0%(141/141).From 2011 to 2013,the proportions of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy were 99.2%(128/129),99.3%(140/141) and 99.3%(140/141),respectively.And the treatment rate of syphilis-positive pregnant women were 71%(5/7),89%(16/18) and 97%(32/33).The rates of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection among new-borns of hepatitis B-positive pregnant women were 92.9%(263/283),99.7%(612/614) and 99.4%(629/633).The estimated rates of mother-to-child transmission

  7. “中国发展”影响力的一种解读%Interpretation of the Powerful Influence of China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海林; 郭朝先

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of China's economic development, utilization of resources and environment and soft power, the paper draws the following conclusions. The overall influential power of "China development" in the world is misinterpreted. What we see is the role of "China Factor" in different fields. In the process of economic globalization, the market economic system of capitalism sees the cheap labor power of China, the favorable environment of economic system, the misuse of resources and environment without restriction in the early period and the large consumption market and population bonus. In the global financial crisis and Asian financial crisis, the other countries merely pay attention to China's foreign exchange reserves. In the global management and crisis management, the international world requires China to take the obligation and responsibility but does not give China the discourse rights. Those listed above are indeed the influences in particular fields that China is reluctantly recognized. It will take a long time for China to play the active and positive roles by the efforts of several generations. China used to be one of the most influential countries in the world. The rise of China is a normal process. Too much emphasis on China's influences does not mean China's true power.%通过对中国经济发展、资源环境利用以及软实力的分析,对“中国发展”产生的影响作出了基本判断:“中国发展”在国际社会中的整体影响力被误认,我们看到的依然是“中国因素”在不同领域发挥的作用.在经济全球化过程中,资本主义市场经济体系看到的是“中国低廉的劳动力”、“中国宽松的经济制度环境”、“早期没有限制的资源环境滥用”以及“中国广阔的消费市场与人口红利”;在全球或亚洲金融危机中,其他国家看重的是中国多年积累的“外汇”;在全球治理或危机处理中,国际社会期望的是没有话语权

  8. 云南省抗疟药品质量状况分析%Quality analysis of anti-malarials drug in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志鑫; 姜典财; 黄志禄; 范兵; 李哲媛; 刘继华; 王幸

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对云南省流通领域抗疟药的抽样、检验和结果分析,考察云南省市场流通的抗疟药品质V状况,探讨我国抗疟药目前存在的主要质量问题,并提出对策和建议.%By analysis of the sampling and testing result of anti - malarials in Yunnan Province, the quality of markted anti - malarials in Yunnan Province were studied, and main quality problems currently existed of anti - malarials in China were discussed, also some suggestions and strategies were presented.

  9. Review of the planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae) with descriptions of three new species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The tropiduchid planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber, 1875 is reviewed to include six species in China: O. binotatus Fieber, 1875 (Taiwan), O. chinsanensis Muir, 1913 (Hong Kong, Macao, Guangdong), O. fuscus sp. nov. (Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan), O. lateralis sp. nov. (Yunnan, Guizhou), O. lofouensis Muir, 1913 (Guizhou, Shandong, Shanxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan) and O. trimaculatus sp. nov. (Yunnan). Except O. chinsanensis and O. binotatus, four species are described or redescribed and illustrated. The generic characters are redefined. A checklist and key to all species in the genus are provided.  PMID:25284656

  10. Description of a new species of Pseudomegischus van Achterberg from China (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huayan, Chen; Chun-dan,Hong; van Achterberg, Kees; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pseudomegischus van Achterberg, Pseudomegischus yunnanensis sp. n., is described and illustrated from Yunnan Province, China. This is the second species of the genus reported from China. A modified section of the identification key to species of Pseudomegischus is added to include the new species.

  11. China's First Satellite Tracking of Migration Route of Black-necked Cranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with colleagues at home and abroad, CAS scientists launched China's first ever satellite tracking project on Black-necked Cranes in late February at the National Dashanbao Black-necked Crane Natural Reserve in southwest China's Yunnan Province. Its objective is to understand the migration route of the crane's eastern population so as to better protect this rare species.

  12. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  13. Interpreting Yunnan Memories and Its Influence on Ruan' s Development—— A Case Study of the Third Movement%《云南回忆》解析及其对阮发展的影响——以第三乐章为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓丽

    2012-01-01

    Yuanan Memories is the first zhongruan (one kind of national music instnnnents) concerto in China, which has become a model for the reform of national music creation as it combines the modem composition and orchestration with tender sounds of the instrument. Its appearance ends various tunings and unregulated playing of zhongruan, whose rich styles of playing techniques and unique sound effects have elevated ruan' s position and playing and turned out to be an important landmark in the history of ruan s development.%《云南回忆》作为我国第一首中阮协奏曲,它把现代的作曲、配器法与中阮柔美的声音相结合,成为民族器乐创作改革的典范之作。《云南回忆》的出现结束了阮定弦多样、演奏缺乏规范的局面,其丰富多样的演奏技巧和个性化的音响效果,不但提高了阮的地位和演奏水平,而且成为阮发展史上的一个重要里程碑。

  14. 国家艾滋病支出评估方法在云南德宏州某县艾滋病防治经费支出评估中的应用%The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; Sante Michael; 叶润华; 项丽芬; 杨跃诚; 任达; 孙江平; Yakusik Anna; 陈仲丹; 袁建华; 李涛; 段松; 杨杏; 韦梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010.Methods Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December,2011,and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units.Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0,and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis.Results The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of (¥) 16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010.Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure ( (¥) 15 630 937),followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% ( (¥) 484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% ((¥) 120 432 ).Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas,and expenditure on Care & Treatment was (¥) 12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure),followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% ( (¥) 2 325 707 ),Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% ( (¥) 1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% ( (¥)240 342).The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV),accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure.((¥) 13 753 428),followed by 4.8% for high risk population,including female sex workers and their partners ((¥) 297 333 ),injection drug users and their partners ( (¥) 293 143 ),men having sex with men and their partners ( (¥) 185 136) and 1.5% ( (¥)241 429) for the general population.Conclusion The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient.The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding.Care and treatment was the first spending priorityin the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be

  15. Distribution of drug-resistance and mechanism of fluoroqninolones-resistance of Shigella isolates in Dali Region, Yunnan Province, China%大理地区志贺菌耐药性分布及其对氟喹诺酮类药物的耐药机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 薛士鹏; 吴利先

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of drug-resistance and mechanism of fiuoroqninolones-resistance of Shigella isolates in Dali Region,Yunnan Province,China. Methods Fecal specimens were collected from various hospitals in Dali Region in 2010 ~ 2011,from which Shigella strains were isolated,cultured and identified for serotype. The resistances of Shigella isolates to 12 routine antibacterial drugs were analyzed by K-B agar diffusion test. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ceflriaxome and nalidixic acid to drug-resistant Shigella strains were determined by E-test. The gene mutations of drug-resistant strains were analyzed by PCR and DMA sequencing. The relationship between resistance to fluoroqninolones and R plastnid mediation was evaluated by R plasmid conjugation test. Results A total of 68 Shigella strains were isolated,including 41 Shigella flexner strains,25 Shigella sonnei strains and 2 Shigella boydii strains. The resistance rate of Shigella to nalidixic acid was the highest,followed by those to sulfal