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Sample records for china virus infecting

  1. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

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    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virusChina ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  2. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  3. [Clinical analysis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China].

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    Zheng, C G; Xu, Y; Jiang, H Q; Yin, Y X; Zhang, J H; Zhu, W J; Liang, X J; Chen, M X; Ye, J W; Tan, L M; Luo, D; Gong, S T

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics, outcome and diagnosis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of two cases of imported children with Zika virus infection in February 2016 in Enping People's Hospital of Guangdong. Two cases of children with imported Zika virus infection resided in an affected area of Venezuela, 8-year-old girl and her 6 year-old brother. The main findings on physical examination included the following manifestations: fever, rash, and conjunctivitis. The rash was first limited to the abdomen, but extended to the torso, neck and face, and faded after 3-4 d. The total number of white blood cells was not high and liver function was normal. The diagnosis of two cases of Zika virus infection was confirmed by the expert group of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, according to the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and Zika virus nucleic acid detection results.Treatment of Zika virus infection involves supportive care. Two Zika virus infection children had a relatively benign outcome. At present, Zika virus infection in children is an imported disease in China. No specific therapy is available for this disease. Information on long-term outcomes among infants and children with Zika virus disease is limited, routine pediatric care is advised for these infants and children.

  4. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

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    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male a...

  5. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

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    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-16

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species.

  6. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

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    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  7. Detection of viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection of children in Hubei, China.

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    Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P acute respiratory infection among children in Hubei of China were mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

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    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  9. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

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    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  10. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

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    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43% out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65% and winter (4.85%. This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  11. First report of hepatitis E virus infection in sika deer in China.

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    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65%) and winter (4.85%). This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  12. Zika virus infection in travelers returning from countries with local transmission, Guangdong, China, 2016.

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    Jia, Haimei; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Maoyu; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Jiansen; Huang, Guo; Guan, Dawei; Cen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lijie; Feng, Qiwen; Yi, Jianron; Wu, De; Zhong, Haojie; Ma, Huilai; Song, Tie

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus spreading rapidly in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. No indigenous ZIKV infection had been seen in China. We monitored ZIKV infection among travelers returning to Enping county from ZIKV transmitting countries from 1 March to 10 April 2016. We analyzed data including interviews; conducted laboratory test on blood, urine, saliva, conjunctival swab or semen specimens for evidence of ZIKV infection; evaluated household for presence of Aedes mosquitoes or larvae. A total of 925 individuals were screened, 507 (54.8%) were interviewed, 400 (43.2%) provided samples, of which 13 (3.3%) tested positive for ZIKV including 3 asymptomatic. Rash, conjunctivitis, sore throat, fever were the common symptoms; rash was more pronounced in adults than in children. ZIKV RNA was detected for 1-4 days in blood, but longer in urine and saliva (3-32 days and 2-10 days). Among interviewed, 57.0% had good knowledge about ZIKV, 45.8% were worried about ZIKV, 99.2% would go to hospital if they had infection. Aedes mosquitoes or larvae were detected in townships of infected returners. ZIKV was imported to China. Screening by symptoms alone is inadequate for detecting ZIKV infection. ZIKV surveillance, health-education, and vector control are necessary to decrease risk of ZIKV transmission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected patients in Guangdong, China.

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    Huang, S M; Cai, W P; Hu, F Y; Lan, Y; Liao, B L; Chen, Y P; Tang, X P

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HIV-infected adults at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2793 HIV-infected adults were enrolled between January 2004 and September 2011. Demographic data and laboratory parameters were collected, HBV-DNA levels were measured, and HBV genotypes were identified before ART initiation. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HIV-infected patients was 13.2%. A total of 266 HIV/HBV co-infected patients and 1469 HIV mono-infected patients were recruited. The median alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of HIV/HBV co-infected patients were higher than HIV mono-infected patients (32 U/L vs. 22 U/L, p HIV/HBV co-infected patients was lower than HIV mono-infected patients (59 cells/mm(3) vs. 141 cells/mm(3), p study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-infected adults in Guangdong. The level of CD4 cell count in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was much lower than HIV mono-infected patients, especially in patients who were HBeAg-positive and had a high level of HBV-DNA. The predominant HBV genotype in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is genotype B. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006-2012.

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    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Wu, Rui

    2018-01-31

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.

  15. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012

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    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China. PMID:28693301

  16. Molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of soybean mosaic virus infecting Pinellia ternata in China.

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    Sun, Haohua; ShenTu, Susu; Xue, Feng; Duns, Greg; Chen, Jishuang

    2008-02-01

    Twenty-nine Pinellia ternata specimens were collected from representative areas in China, including the major production provinces of Zhejiang, Henan, Shanxi, Hunan, Shandong and Hubei. Seven isolates related to soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which could be pathogenic on P. ternata and some soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars, were detected using double antibody sandwich immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR amplification performed with degenerate primer of potyviruses. It is revealed that the common potyvirus infecting P. ternata is, indeed, only SMVs rather than Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) as previously reported. Further molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein (CP) genes of these SMV isolates from P. ternata and G. max, along with some other potyvirus members, such as DsMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) reconstructed the evolutionary route on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Similarity and homology of nucleotide sequences for SMV CP genes demonstrated high host correlation and low partial habitat correlation, while those of amino acid sequences also showed that the host correlation was more notable than the habitat correlation. The amino acid sequence of conserved region within CP determines the main function, which shows high homology between species. This study outspreaded from the viruses themselves and their relationship to the infected hosts and revealed the evolutionary strategies, especially the rapid variation or recombination of SMV of P. ternata, in order to adapt itself naturally to the special host.

  17. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

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    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  18. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China.

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    Ke, Changwen; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhou, Haibo; He, Jianfeng; Guan, Wenda; Wu, Jie; Song, Wenjun; Wang, Dayan; Liu, Jiexiong; Lin, Qinhan; Chu, Daniel Ka Wing; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Nanshan; Yang, Zifeng; Shu, Yuelong; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik

    2017-07-01

    The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of low pathogenicity. We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at its hemagglutinin cleavage site (PEVPKRKRTAR/GL), a sequence suggestive of high pathogenicity in birds. Its neuraminidase also had R292K, an amino acid change known to be associated with neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. Both of these molecular features might have contributed to the patient's adverse clinical outcome. The patient had a history of exposure to sick and dying poultry, and his close contacts had no evidence of A(H7N9) disease, suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to spread.

  19. A population-based study examining hepatitis B virus infection and immunization rates in Northwest China.

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    Zhaohua Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current baseline data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infections and the immune status in hyperendemic areas is necessary in evaluating the effectiveness of ongoing HBV prevention and control programs in northwest China. This study aims to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infections, past exposure rates, and immune response profiles in Wuwei City, northwest China in 2010. METHODS: Cross-sectional household survey representative of the Wuwei City population. 28,579 participants were interviewed in the seroepidemiological survey ≥1 year of age. House to house screening was conducted using a standard questionnaire. All serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies against HBV surface antigen, and antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen. RESULTS: Among individuals ≥1 year of age, 7.2% (95%CI: 6.3-8.1% had chronic HBV infections, 43.9% (CI: 40.4-47.4% had been exposed to HBV, and 23.49% (CI: 21.6-25.3% had vaccine-induced immunity. Multi-factor weighted logistic regression analysis showed that having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 2.3-3.0 and beauty treatments in public places (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3 were the risk factors of HBV infection in whole population. Having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.2-6.5 and lack of hepatitis vaccination (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.3 were the risk factors for HBV infection in children aged 1-14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health problem in northwest China. Having household contact with HBV carriers and beauty treatments in public places represented HBV infection risk factors. Hepatitis B vaccine immunization strategies need further improvement, particularly by targeting the immunization of rural migrant workers.

  20. [Epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2017].

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    Han, D D; Han, C X; Li, L Y; Wang, M; Yang, J H; Li, M

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 virus. Methods: The published incidence data of human infection with H7N9 virus in China from March 2013 to April 2017 were collected. Excel 2007 software was used to perform the analysis. The characteristics of distribution of the disease, exposure history, cluster of the disease were described. Results: By the end of April 2017, a total of 1 416 cases of human infection with H7N9 virus were confirmed in China, including 559 deaths, the case fatality rate was 39.5%. In 2016, the case number was lowest (127 cases), with the highest fatality rate (57.5%). The first three provinces with high case numbers were Zhejiang, Guangdong and Jiangsu. The median age of the cases was 55 years and the male to female ratio was 2.3∶1. Up to 66% of cases had clear live poultry exposure history before illness onset, 31% of cases had unknown exposure history and only 3% of the cases had no live poultry exposure history. There were 35 household clusters (5 in 2013, 9 in 2014, 6 in 2015, 5 in 2016, 10 in 2017), which involved 72 cases, accounting for 5% of the total cases. Conclusions: The epidemic of human infection with H7N9 virus in China during 2013-2017 had obvious seasonality and spatial distribution. There was limited family clustering. Infection cases were mostly related to poultry contact.

  1. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

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    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  2. Unexpected infection outcomes of China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in turkeys.

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    Slomka, Marek J; Seekings, Amanda H; Mahmood, Sahar; Thomas, Saumya; Puranik, Anita; Watson, Samantha; Byrne, Alexander M P; Hicks, Daniel; Nunez, Alejandro; Brown, Ian H; Brookes, Sharon M

    2018-05-09

    The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LPAIV (A/Anhui/1/13) infection in turkeys, with efficient transmission to two additional rounds of introduced contact turkeys which all became infected during cohousing. Surprisingly, mortality was observed in six of eight (75%) second-round contact turkeys which is unusual for LPAIV infection, with unexpected systemic dissemination to many organs beyond the respiratory and enteric tracts, but interestingly no accompanying mutation to highly pathogenic AIV. The intravenous pathogenicity index score for a turkey-derived isolate (0.39) affirmed the LPAIV phenotype. However, the amino acid change L235Q in the haemagglutinin gene occurred in directly-infected turkeys and transmitted to the contacts, including those that died and the two which resolved infection to survive to the end of the study. This polymorphism was indicative of a reversion from mammalian to avian adaptation for the H7N9 virus. This study underlined a new risk to poultry in the event of H7N9 spread beyond China.

  3. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017.

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    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yi; Kang, Min; Liu, Fuqiang; Ren, Ruiqi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yiping; Li, Chao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Dan; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhou, Suizan; Iuliano, A Danielle; Havers, Fiona; Ni, Daxin; Wang, Dayan; Feng, Zijian; Uyeki, Timothy M; Li, Qun

    2017-08-01

    We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.

  4. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  5. A fatal yellow fever virus infection in China: description and lessons

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    Chen, Zhihai; Liu, Lin; Lv, Yanning; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiandong; Zhang, Yi; Di, Tian; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Jie; Qu, Jing; Hua, Wenhao; Li, Chuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Quanfu; Xu, Yanli; Jiang, Rongmeng; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Shiwen; Pang, Xinghuo; Liang, Mifang; Ma, Xuejun; Li, Xingwang; Wang, Quanyi; Zhang, Fujie; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease endemic to the tropical regions of Africa and South America. An outbreak of YF has been occurring in Angola, since the beginning of 2016. In March 2016, a 32-year-old Chinese man who returned from Angola was hospitalized and diagnosed with the first case of imported YF in China. Clinical observations, blood viral RNA detection, serological testing and treatments for the patient were performed daily. The virus was isolated in Vero cells, and the complete viral genome was sequenced and analyzed using the next-generation genomic sequencing platform. The patient presented with hemorrhagic fever, jaundice and oliguria at day 3 after onset, which rapidly progressed to multisystem organ failure with extremely elevated liver, pancreatic and myocardial enzymes. The patient died despite the intensive supportive treatments that were performed. A liver biopsy showed severe and multilobular necrosis. Viral RNA was detectable throughout the clinical course of the disease. Whole-genomic sequence analysis revealed that the virus belongs to the Angola71 genotype. Although the virus has been circulating in Angola for 45 years, only 14 amino-acid substitutions and no amino-acid changes were observed in the membrane and envelope proteins compared with the virus collected in 1971. The presence of this imported YF case in China indicated that with the increase in business travel among countries, YF outbreaks in Africa can lead to the international spread of the disease. The production and use of YF vaccines is, therefore, an urgent issue. PMID:27406389

  6. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

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    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  7. Decline in the risk of hepatitis A virus infection in China, a country with booming economy and changing lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Chang-Qing; Li, Yang-Ting; Zhuang, Fang-Chen

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the protective factors for the rapid decline in the risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in China between 1990 and 2006. Results of serological follow-up and data on annual hepatitis A incidence were analysed and correlated with economic growth and HAV vaccine output during the same period. In conclusion, both HAV vaccination and changing lifestyles associated with the booming economy contributed to the rapid risk decline. Changing lifestyles played a major role in the decline especially in the areas with booming economy.

  8. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in A Survivor who has recovered from severe H7N9 Virus Infection, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Hui Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We firstly report a patient who presented with severe complications after infection with influenza A(H1N1 pdm2009, more than one year after recovery from severe H7N9 virus infections. The population of patients who recovered from severe H7N9 infections might be at a higher risk to suffer severe complications after seasonal influenza infections, and they should be included in the high-risk populations recommended to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.

  9. The genomic and biological characterization of Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus infecting watermelon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min; Cao, Mengji; Liu, Wenwen; Ren, Yingdang; Lu, Chuantao; Wang, Xifeng

    2017-03-15

    A dsRNA virus was detected in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) samples collected from Kaifeng, Henan province, China through the use of next generation sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus is comprised of dsRNA-1 (1603nt) and dsRNA-2 (1466nt), both of which are single open reading frames and potentially encode a 54.2kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a 45.9kDa coat protein (CP), respectively. The RdRp and CP share the highest amino acid identities 85.3% and 75.4% with a previously reported Israeli strain Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus (CiLCV), respectively. Genome comparisons indicate that this virus is the same species with CiLCV, whereas the reported sequences of the Israeli strain of CiLCV are partial, and our newly identified sequences can represent the complete genome of CiLCV. Futhermore, phylogenetic tree analyses based on the RdRp sequences suggest that CiLCV is one member in the genus Deltapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. In addition, field investigation and seed-borne bioassays show that CiLCV commonly occurs in many varieties and is transmitted though seeds at a very high rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Concurrent infections of pseudorabies virus and porcine bocavirus in China detected by duplex nanoPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yakun; Liang, Lin; Zhou, Ling; Zhao, Kai; Cui, Shangjin

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) is a novel method for the simple, rapid, and specific amplification of DNA and has been used to detect viruses. A duplex nanoPCR molecular detection system was developed to detect pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine bocavirus (PBoV). Primers were selected to target conserved regions within the PRV gE gene and the PBoV NS1 gene. Under optimized nanoPCR reaction conditions, two specific fragments of 316 bp (PRV) and 996 bp (PBoV) were amplified by the duplex nanoPCR with a detection limit of 6 copies for PRV and 95 copies for PBoV; no fragments were amplified when other porcine viruses were used as template. When used to test 550 clinical samples, the duplex nanoPRC assay and a conventional duplex PCR assay provided very similar results (98.1% consistency); single PRV infections, single PBoV infections, and concurrent PRV and PBoV infections were detected in 37%, 15%, and 9% of the samples, respectively. The results indicate that the novel duplex nanoPCR assay is useful for the rapid detection of PRV and PBoV in pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Tibetan Sheep and Yaks in Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China, and tested for BTV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence of BTV was 17.34% (654/3771), with 20.3% (443/2187) in Tibetan sheep and 13.3% (211/1584) in yaks. In the Tibetan sheep group, the seroprevalence of BTV in Luqu, Maqu, Tianzhu, and Nyingchi Prefecture was 20.3%, 20.8%, 20.5%, and 19.1%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BTV in different season groups varied from 16.5% to 23.4%. In the yak group, BTV seroprevalence was 12.6%, 15.5%, and 11.0% in Tianzhu, Maqu, and Luqu counties, respectively. The seroprevalence in different seasons was 12.6%, 15.5%, 15.4%, and 9.0% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The season was the major risk factor concerning BTV infection in yaks ( P Tibetan sheep and yaks provides baseline information for controlling BT in ruminants in western China.

  12. Risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus infection among pediatric influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukai; Hua, Jun; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liling; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Genming

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics and risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children has not yet been fully understood. To address the characteristics of RSV-associated illness and risk factors of RSV infection among children under 5 years of age in Suzhou, China. From April 2011 to March 2014, we conducted a prospective surveillance among children in Suzhou, China. Nasal or throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and inpatients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI). RSV was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody assay for children with ILI and SARI, respectively. Multivariable logistic-regression models were constructed to explore risk factors and symptoms of RSV infection. Of 3267 ILI and 1838 SARI children enrolled in the study, 192 (5.9%) and 287 (15.6%) tested positive for RSV, respectively. Among ILI patients, children with RSV infections visited clinics more often (P = 0.005) and had longer duration of fever (P = 0.032) than those without RSV infection. All RSV-positive children had an increased risk of having cough (OR = 2.9), rhinorrhea (OR = 1.6), breathing difficulty (OR = 3.4), wheezing (OR = 3.3), and irritability (OR = 2.7). Children aged respiratory infections (OR = 1.3) were more likely to get infected by RSV. Children with SARI had higher positive rate of RSV than those with ILI. Cough, rhinorrhea, and wheezing were the most common symptoms in RSV infection. Children aged respiratory infections were the potential risk factors for RSV infection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

  14. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  15. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  16. A review of the burden of hepatitis C virus infection in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Heather; Waser, Nathalie; Johnston, Karissa; Kao, Jia-Horng; Lim, Young-Suk; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Lee, Youn-Jae; Wei, Lai; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sievert, William; Yuan, Yong; Li, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with substantial clinical and economic burden and is an important public health issue in Asia. The objective of this review was to characterize HCV epidemiology and related complications in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. A search of electronic databases and conference abstracts identified 71 potentially relevant articles. Of those, 55 were included in the epidemiology review and 9 in the review of HCV-related complications. HCV prevalence in the general population was 1.6% in China, 0.6-0.9% in Japan, 0.6-1.1% in South Korea and 1.8-5.5% in Taiwan. Prevalence was higher for injecting drug users (48-90%) and those with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection (32-85%) and was lower for blood donors (China was 6.01 per 100,000. HCV genotype 1b was associated with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Five-year survival for patients with liver cirrhosis was 73.8%, decreasing to 39.2% following liver transplantation; the majority of deaths were attributable to HCC. Limitations were that the majority of studies included in the epidemiology review were small, regional studies conducted in specific populations, and there was an absence of large population-based studies. Thus, estimates may not be representative of the epidemiology of HCV for each country. The prevalence HCV in China and HCV incidence in the Asian region remain largely unknown, and they are likely underestimated. Further epidemiologic and clinical data are needed to provide more precise estimates for use by public health agencies.

  17. Disease Burden from Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

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    Jianpeng Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the disease burden and financial burden attributed to hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in Guangdong Province. Methods: Based on the data of incidence, mortality and healthcare cost of HBV-related diseases and other socio-economic data in Guangdong Province, we estimated deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs and economic cost for the three HBV-related diseases—hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—in Guangdong following the procedures developed for the global burden of disease study. Then disease burden and economic cost attributed to HBV infection was estimated. Results: HBV infection was estimated to have caused 33,600 (95% confidence interval (CI: 29,300–37,800 premature deaths and the loss of 583,200 (95% CI: 495,200–671,100 DALYs in Guangdong in 2005. The greatest loss of deaths and DALYs were from liver cancer. The 45–59 years age group had the greatest burden attributable to HBV infection. The estimated total annual cost of HBV-related diseases in Guangdong was RMB 10.8 (95% CI: 8.7–13.0 billion,the direct and indirect cost were RMB 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1–3.2 and 8.2 (95% CI: 6.6–9.8 billion. Conclusions: HBV infection is a great medical challenge as well as a significant economic burden to Guangdong Province. The results suggest that substantial health benefits could be gained by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce HBV infection in Guangdong Province.

  18. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases.

  19. Human infection and environmental contamination with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus in Zhejiang Province, China: risk trend across the three waves of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Chen, En-Fu; Li, Fu-Dong; Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lin, Jun-Fen

    2015-09-21

    The third wave of H7N9 cases in China emerged in the second half of 2014. This study was conducted to identify the risk trends of H7N9 virus in human infections and environment contamination. A surveillance program for H7N9 virus has been conducted in all 90 counties in Zhejiang since March 2013. All H7N9 cases were reported by hospitals through the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Sampling sites for environment specimens were randomly selected by a multi-stage sampling strategy. Poultry-related workers for serological surveillance were randomly selected from the sampling sites for environmental specimens in the first quarter of each year. rRT-PCR and viral isolation were performed to identify H7N9 virus. A hemagglutination inhibition assay was conducted to detect possible H7N9 infection among poultry-related workers. A total of 170 H7N9 cases were identified in Zhejiang from 20 March 2013 to 28 February 2015. The proportion of rural cases increased from 42.2% (19/45) to 67.7% (21/31) with progression of the three epidemics (P markets in the territory. Poultry operations in slaughtering plants must be supervised rigorously. Prior to the closure of live poultry markets, daily cleaning and disinfecting of areas potentially contaminated by H7N9 virus, centralized collection and disposal of trash, designating certain days as market rest days, banning overnight poultry storage and other measures should be strictly carried out in both urban and rural areas.

  20. The neglected arboviral infections in mainland China.

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    Xiaoyan Gao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The major arboviral diseases in mainland China include Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. These and other newly found arbovirus infections due to Banna virus and Tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in China. Here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland China with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, phylogenetic associations, and the prevention programs associated with these agents in China.

  1. Molecular epidemiological and virological study of dengue virus infections in Guangzhou, China, during 2001–2010

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    Jiang Liyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV infection is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral infection in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Guangzhou has the ideal environment for DENV transmission and DENV epidemics have been reported in this region for more than 30 years. Methods Information for DENV infection cases in Guangzhou from 2001 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. The DENV strains were cultured and isolated from patients’ sera. Viral RNA was extracted from cell culture supernatants. cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription PCR. Phylogenetic trees of four DENV serotypes were constructed respectively. Results In total, 2478 DENV infection cases were reported; 2143 of these (86.43% occurred during 3 months of the year: August, September and October. Of these, 2398 were local cases (96.77% and 80 were imported cases (3.23%. Among the imported cases, 69 (86.25% were from Southeast Asian countries. From the 90 isolated strains, 66.67%, 3.33%, 14.44%, and 15.56% belonged to DENV serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. DENV-1 was predominant in most of the years, including during 2 outbreaks in 2002 and 2006; however, none of the strains or genotypes identified in this study were found to be predominant. Interestingly, DENV strains from different years had different origins. Moreover, the strains from each year belonged to different serotypes and/or genotypes. Conclusions Southeast Asia countries were found to be the possible source of DENV in Guangzhou. These findings suggest that there is increasing diversity in DENV strains in Guangzhou, which could increase the risk of DENV outbreaks in the near future.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  3. Comparison of the prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infections at different hospital settings in North China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Xie, Zhengde; Zhang, Tiegang; Lu, Yanqin; Fan, Hongwei; Yang, Donghong; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe; Shen, Kunling; Huang, Fang; Han, Jinxiang; Li, Taisheng; Gao, Zhancheng; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei

    2018-02-08

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays. The prevalence of respiratory viruses was determined and compared between patients at different hospital settings. A total of 3487 hospitalized cases and 6437 outpatients/Emergency Department (ED) patients were enrolled. The most commonly detected viruses in the hospitalized cases were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 33.3%) in children less than two years old, adenoviruses (13.0%) in patients 15-34 years old, and influenza viruses (IFVs, 9.6%) in patients ≥65 years. IFVs were the most common virus in outpatient/ED patients across all age groups (22.7%). After controlling for the confounders caused by other viruses and covariates, adenoviruses (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 99% confidence interval [99% CI]: 2.19-7.20) and RSV (aOR: 2.04, 99% CI: 1.34-3.11) were independently associated with increased hospitalization in children, as well as adenoviruses in adults (aOR: 2.14, 99% CI: 1.19-3.85). Additionally, co-infection of RSV with IFVs was associated with increased hospitalization in children (aOR: 12.20, 99% CI: 2.65-56.18). A substantial proportion of ARIs was associated with respiratory viruses in North China. RSV, adenoviruses, and co-infection of RSV and IFVs were more frequent in hospitalized children (or adenoviruses in adults), which might predict the severity of ARIs. Attending clinicians should be more vigilant of these infections.

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2)/Syphilis Co-Infection and HSV-2 Mono-Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: a Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Hai; Xu, Jun-Jie; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Yu, Huan; Ding, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Wang, Ning; Shang, Hong

    2017-05-24

    This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 545 HIV-positive MSM in Shenyang between February 2009 and October 2014. Participants underwent physical examinations and serological tests for HSV-2 and syphilis. A multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection. The prevalence of HSV-2 mono-infection, syphilis mono-infection, and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection (95% confidence interval) was 48.6% (44.4-52.8%), 34.3% (30.3-38.3%), and 22.9% (19.4-26.5%), respectively. After controlling within HSV-2/syphilis-seropositive cases, regression analysis revealed that the related factors for HSV-2/syphilis co-infection included age (25-50 vs. ≤ 24 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.55; > 50 vs. ≤ 24 years: aOR, 43.02), having regular female sexual partner(s) in the past 6 months (aOR, 0.43), and age at first MSM experience (≤ 18 vs. > 18 years: aOR, 2.59) (all P syphilis co-infection in HIV-positive MSM indicates a high secondary HIV transmission risk. A campaign for detection and treatment of HSV-2 and syphilis is urgently required for HIV-positive MSM in China.

  5. Bovine leukemia virus infection in cattle of China: Association with reduced milk production and increased somatic cell score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Fan, W; Mao, Y; Yang, Z; Lu, G; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; Szeto, C; Wang, C

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the individual cow effect of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk production and somatic cell score (SCS). The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) quantitative PCR established in this study and a commercial ELISA kit revealed that 49.1% of dairy cattle (964/1,963) from 6 provinces of China and 1.6% of beef cattle (22/1,390) from 15 provinces were BLV positive. In a detailed study of 105 cows, BLV was found most commonly in buffy coat samples that also had highest copy numbers (10(4.75±1.56) per mL); all cows negative for BLV in buffy coat samples were also negative in vaginal swab, milk, and fecal samples. Copy numbers of BLV were 10(2.90±0.42)/gram of feces, 10(0.83±0.62)/mL of milk, and 10(2.18±0.81) per vaginal swab. The BLV-positive cows had significantly lower milk production in the early (26.8 vs. 30.9kg) and middle stages of lactation (22.2 vs. 26.1kg) in animals with ≥4 parities than the BLV-negative cows; they also had significantly higher SCS in early and middle lactation stages (early=5.2 vs. 4.3; middle=4.9 vs. 3.9) in animals with ≥4 parities. Milk production and SCS did not significantly differ between the BLV-infected and -uninfected cows when they were in the late lactation stage or in animals with ≤3 parities. Taken together, our results indicate that BLV infections are widespread in the dairy farms of China. Vaginal secretions and feces may be involved in BLV transmission. A BLV infection may result in reduced milk yield and increased SCS in a parity and lactation stage-restricted manner. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  7. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  8. A modeling study of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 virus in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei Liu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Screening and culling infected poultry is a critical measure for preventing human H7N9 infections in the long term. This model may provide important insights for decision-making on a national intervention strategy for the long-term control of the H7N9 virus epidemic.

  9. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal disease associated with Swine Hepatitis E virus and Porcine circovirus 2 co-infection in four weaned pigs in China

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    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; Du, Fang; Liu, Can; Liu, Jianchai; Cheng, Minheng; Zhu, Rining; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Soomro, Majid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. PCV2 and HEV are both highly prevalent in pig farms in China. Case presentation In this study, we characterized the HEV and PCV2 co-infection in 2?3 month-old piglets, based on pathogen identifi...

  11. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  12. Molecular characterization of a divergent strain of calla lily chlorotic spot virus infecting celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Xiaofei

    2018-05-01

    Through sequencing and assembly of small RNAs, an orthotospovirus was identified from a celtuce plant (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) showing vein clearing and chlorotic spots in the Zhejiang province of China. The S, M, and L RNAs of this orthotospovirus were determined to be 3146, 4734, and 8934 nt, respectively, and shared 30.4-72.5%, 43.4-80.8%, and 29.84-82.9% nucleotide sequence identities with that of known orthotospoviruses. The full length nucleoprotein (N) of this orthotospovirus shared highest amino acid sequence identity (90.25%) with that of calla lily chlorotic spot virus isolated from calla lily (CCSV-calla) [China: Taiwan: 2001] and tobacco (CCSV-LJ1) [China: Lijiang: 2014]. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this orthotospovirus is phylogenetically associated with CCSV isolates and clustered with CCSV, tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), and tomato necrotic spot-associated virus (TNSaV) in a separate sub-branch. These results suggest that this orthotospovirus is a divergent isolate of CCSV and was thus named CCSV-Cel [China: Zhejiang: 2017].

  13. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of infectious mononucleosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in children in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Wei; Xie, Zheng-De; Liu, Ya-Yi; Wang, Yan; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2011-02-01

    infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a self-limited disease, but a few cases may have severe complications. This retrospective study was to explore the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of IM associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBV-IM) in children. hospitalized patients with EBV-IM were enrolled during January 2005 to October 2008 in Beijing Children's Hospital Affi liated to Capital Medical University. All patients were divided into four groups: <1 year (group I), 1 to 3 years (group II), 3 to 6 years (group III), and ≥ 6 years (group IV). The epidemiology and clinical characteristics were compared among the four groups. totally 418 patients were enrolled, with 245 boys and 173 girls. Fever, lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis were three main manifestations of the patients. The incidences of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and rash were higher in the patients aged below 6 years, and with age increment the incidences lowered. In contrast, the patients aged <1 year had the lowest incidence of tonsillopharyngitis. The total white blood cell count was higher in the infantile group than in the other groups (P=0.038). The infantile group had significantly lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase than the older groups (P=0.007 and P=0.012 respectively). The percentage of CD4(+) T cell subset decreased and the percentage of CD8(+) T cell subset increased with age increment. the incidence of EBV-IM peaked in children at age of 4 to 6 years in Northern China. Most of the patients had the classic triad of fever, lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis. Clinical symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and complications of patients varied with ages.

  14. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  15. Genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and biochemical characteristics of HCV patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Song, Yuzhu; Zhao, Ping; Feng, Yue; Wang, Binghui; Li, Zheng; Liu, Li; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-12-01

    About 2% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor (NPC1L1) was recently identified to be an important factor for HCV entry into host cells. Whether genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene are associated with HCV infection is unknown. In this study, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NPC1L1 gene were analyzed in 261 HCV-infected individuals and 265 general controls from Yunnan Province, China. No significant differences were identified in genotypes or alleles of the SNPs between the two groups. After constructing haplotypes based on the five SNPs, a significant difference between HCV-infected individuals and general controls was shown for two haplotypes. Haplotype GCCTT appeared to be a protective factor and haplotype GCCCT was a risk factor for HCV-infected individuals. Genotypes of four SNPs correlated with biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons. Genotypes of SNPs rs799444 and rs2070607 were correlated with total bilirubin. Genotype TT of rs917098 was a risk factor for the gamma-glutamyltransferase level. Furthermore, HCV-infected individuals carrying genotype GG of rs41279633 showed statistically higher gamma-glutamyltransferase levels than HCV-infected persons with GT and TT. The results of this study identified the association between genetic susceptibility of the NPC1L1 gene and HCV infection, as well as biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons in Yunnan, China. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chen, J; Yang, G; Zheng, Y X; Mao, S H; Zhu, W P; Yu, X L; Gao, Y; Pan, Q C; Yuan, Z A

    2015-07-01

    The first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Shanghai, China in March 2013. An additional 32 cases of human H7N9 infection were identified in the following months from March to April 2013 in Shanghai. Here we conducted a case-control study of the patients with H7N9 infection (n = 25) using controls matched by age, sex, and residence to determine risk factors for H7N9 infection. Our findings suggest that chronic disease and frequency of visiting a live poultry market (>10 times, or 1-9 times during the 2 weeks before illness onset) were likely to be significantly associated with H7N9 infection, with the odds ratios being 4.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-12.56], 10.61 (95% CI 1.85-60.74), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.31-10.79), respectively. Effective strategies for live poultry market control should be reinforced and ongoing education of the public is warranted to promote behavioural changes that can help to eliminate direct or indirect contact with influenza A(H7N9) virus.

  18. Projections of hepatitis A virus infection associated with flood events by 2020 and 2030 in Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Changke; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    Assessing and responding to health risk of climate change is important because of its impact on the natural and societal ecosystems. More frequent and severe flood events will occur in China due to climate change. Given that population is projected to increase, more people will be vulnerable to flood events, which may lead to an increased incidence of HAV infection in the future. This population-based study is going to project the future health burden of HAV infection associated with flood events in Huai River Basin of China. The study area covered four cities of Anhui province in China, where flood events were frequent. Time-series adjusted Poisson regression model was developed to quantify the risks of flood events on HAV infection based on the number of daily cases during summer seasons from 2005 to 2010, controlling for other meteorological variables. Projections of HAV infection in 2020 and 2030 were estimated based on the scenarios of flood events and demographic data. Poisson regression model suggested that compared with the periods without flood events, the risks of severe flood events for HAV infection were significant (OR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05-1.55), while risks were not significant from moderate flood events (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 0.72-1.87) and mild flood events (OR = 1.14, 95 % CI 0.87-1.48). Using the 2010 baseline data and the flood event scenarios (one severe flood event), increased incidence of HAV infection were estimated to be between 0.126/105 and 0.127/105 for 2020. Similarly, the increased HAV infection incidence for 2030 was projected to be between 0.382/105 and 0.399/105. Our study has, for the first time, quantified the increased incidence of HAV infection that will result from flood events in Anhui, China, in 2020 and 2030. The results have implications for public health preparation for developing public health responses to reduce HAV infection during future flood events.

  19. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in 2 million men aged 21-49 years in rural China: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic (7-8% prevalence) in rural China, causing high mortality and societal burden. Data from men of reproductive age is scarce and last reported in 2006. We assessed the seroepidemiology of men in rural China, aiming to provide updated baseline data for the prevalence of HBV infection. We established prevalence of HBV infection from data gathered through a nationwide population-based study of Chinese rural men aged 21-49 years. Data were obtained from a physical check-up programme for couples of reproductive age, the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project, that covered 31 provinces from 2010-12. We tested serological samples with ELISA and categorised participants' HBV status based on presence of HBsAg, anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc), and anti-HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs). 2 030 083 men were recruited into the database from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, and 1 966 013 men provided serum samples for analysis. 124 274 men (6%) tested positive for HBsAg, 178 559 (9%) tested positive for anti-HBc, and 583 923 (30%) tested positive for anti-HBs. Isolated anti-HBs (an indicator of vaccine-mediated immunity) were present in 527 566 men (27%). And 1 234 127 men (63%) were negative for all HBV makers (susceptible population). HBsAg prevalence was higher in men aged 25-39 years (6·35-6·47%) than in other age groups (5·54-5·78%; pChina than in the central or western regions (all pChina has changed from highly endemic into intermediate endemic in the past two decades. However, the absolute number of HBV-infected men and the susceptible population is still very large. Chinese Association of Maternal and Child Health Studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Update: Increase in Human Infections with Novel Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses During the Fifth Epidemic - China, October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, James C; Ren, Ruiqi; Liu, Liqi; Greene, Carolyn M; Roguski, Katherine; Iuliano, A Danielle; Jang, Yunho; Jones, Joyce; Thor, Sharmi; Song, Ying; Zhou, Suizan; Trock, Susan C; Dugan, Vivien; Wentworth, David E; Levine, Min Z; Uyeki, Timothy M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Jernigan, Daniel B; Olsen, Sonja J; Fry, Alicia M; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Davis, C Todd

    2017-09-08

    Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1). This report summarizes new viral and epidemiologic features identified during the fifth epidemic of Asian H7N9 in China and summarizes ongoing measures to enhance pandemic preparedness. Infections in humans and poultry were reported from most areas of China, including provinces bordering other countries, indicating extensive, ongoing geographic spread. The risk to the general public is very low and most human infections were, and continue to be, associated with poultry exposure, especially at live bird markets in mainland China. Throughout the first four epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections, only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were detected among human, poultry, and environmental specimens and samples. During the fifth epidemic, mutations were detected among some Asian H7N9 viruses, identifying the emergence of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as well as viruses with reduced susceptibility to influenza antiviral medications recommended for treatment. Furthermore, the fifth-epidemic viruses diverged genetically into two separate lineages (Pearl River Delta lineage and Yangtze River Delta lineage), with Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses emerging as antigenically different compared with those from earlier epidemics. Because of its pandemic potential, candidate vaccine viruses

  1. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. Methods A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Results Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Conclusions Though Anhui province has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children younger than 5 years, there are still several risk factors for HBsAg infection among the older population. Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B.

  2. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and its correlates in a rural area of southwestern China: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wanting; Yang, Ya; Zhou, Yibiao; Xiao, Penglei; Shi, Yan; Gao, Jianchuan; Chen, Yue; Liang, Song; Yihuo, Wuli; Song, Xiuxia; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-08-11

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in southwestern China. Our aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HCV infection and its correlates in the Yi population of this region. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate sociodemographic characteristics and other associated factors for HCV infection in a rural area of southwestern China. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to HCV. Anti-HCV positive samples were further assessed for HCV RNA. A total of 2558 participants aged ≥ 14 years were included in our analysis. Of them, 2.8% (95% CI 2.2% to 3.5%) were positive for HCV antibody. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sex (male vs female: adjusted OR (aOR)=3.30, 95% CI 1.80 to 6.07), marital status (unmarried vs married: aOR=0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.80), ever using injection drug (aOR=28.65, 95% CI 15.9 to 51.64) and ever having blood transfusion (aOR=7.64, 95% CI 1.94 to 30.16) were significantly associated with HCV infection (indicated by positive HCV antibody). Stratified analysis by HIV infection found that in HIV-negative individuals, sex (male vs female: aOR=3.84, 95% CI 1.88 to 7.85), ever using injection drug (aOR=22.15, 95% CI 8.45 to 58.04), having multiple sexual partners (aOR=2.57, 95% CI 1.26 to 5.23), and ever having blood transfusion (aOR=16.54, 95% CI 4.44 to 61.58) were significantly associated with HCV infection and in HIV-positive individuals, ever using injection drug (aOR=8.96, 95% CI 3.16 to 25.38) was associated with HCV infection. The data suggested a higher risk of HCV infection in this area when compared with the rest of China and some unique associated factors. Rapid scale-up of targeted interventions are needed to prevent further transmission and consequent morbidities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. A new trend of genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus infection in southeast China (Fujian), 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, D H; Liu, H Z; Huang, A M; Liu, X L; Liu, J F

    2015-10-01

    HBV genotypes have specific geographical distributions and can serve as epidemiological markers. Accumulated data have shown that the major HBV genotypes in China are B and C. Here, the HBV genotypes were examined from 6817 blood samples, which were collected from patients with chronic HBV infection in Fujian Province during 2006-2013; genotype B was identified in 3384 patients (49·6%), while genotype C was identified in 3430 patients (50·3%). The percentage of patients infected with genotype C gradually increased with age from 39·5% (patients aged 50 years), reaching a peak of 67·3% in the 45-50 years age group. These results clearly demonstrate that the genotype distribution of HBV in Fujian Province has significantly changed in recent years with almost equal numbers of genotype B and genotype C infections existing in the entire patient population, while higher incidence of genotype C infection exists in older patients, but genotype B is no longer dominant in the Fujian area as previously reported.

  5. [Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized children at a children's hospital and effects of climate change on the prevalence in Suzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jia; Guo, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Xue-Lan

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized children and the relationship between the prevalence and the climate change in Suzhou, China. A total of 42 664 nasopharyngeal secretions from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection at the Suzhou Children's Hospital were screened for RSV antigens using direct immunofluorescence. Monthly meteorological data (mean monthly air temperature, monthly relative humidity, monthly rainfall, total monthly sunshine duration, and mean monthly wind velocity) in Suzhou between 2001 and 2011 were collected. The correlations between RSV detection rate and climatic factors were evaluated using correlation and stepwise regression analysis. The annual RSV infection rate in hospitalized children with respiratory infection in the Suzhou Children's Hospital varied between 11.85% and 27.30% from 2001 to 2011. In the 9 epidemic seasons, each spanning from November to April of the next year, from 2001 to 2010, the RSV detection rates were 40.75%, 22.72%, 39.93%, 27.37%, 42.71%, 21.28%, 38.57%, 19.86%, and 29.73%, respectively; there were significant differences in the detection rate between the epidemic seasons. The monthly RSV detection rate was negatively correlated with mean monthly air temperature, total monthly sunshine duration, monthly rainfall, monthly relative humidity, and mean monthly wind velocity (P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that mean monthly air temperature fitted into a linear model (R(2)=0.64, P<0.01). From 2001 to 2011, RSV infection in Suzhou was predominantly prevalent between November and April of the next year. As a whole, the infection rate of RSV reached a peak every other year. Air temperature played an important role in the epidemics of RSV infection in Suzhou.

  6. Distinct risk profiles for human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus among rural and urban residents: Zhejiang Province, China, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors and source of infection leading to human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus in urban and rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a case-control investigation to identify potential exposures and risk factors. Controls were randomly selected from the same community as the cases using random digit dialing. We used exact conditional logistic regression to evaluate the exposures and risk factors, stratified by urban and rural residence. RESULTS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market was significantly associated with illness onset among both urban [48% of 25 case-patients and 12% of 125 control-persons, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 19, 95% CI: 2.3-929] and rural (33% of 18 case-patients and 8.9% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 13, 95% CI:1.5-∞ residents. In rural area, tending to home-raised poultry (56% of 18 case-patients and 10% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 57, 95% CI: 7.5-∞ and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence (28% of 18 case-patients and 5.6% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 37, 95% CI: 3.8-∞ were also significantly associated with disease onset. Presence of underlying medical conditions was a significant risk factor for urban residents (76% of 25 case-patients and 13% of 125 control-persons, AOR = 49, 95% CI: 7.1-2132. CONCLUSIONS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market is a risk factor for both urban and rural residents, tending to home-raised poultry and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence are risk factors unique for rural residents. The virus might have been in stealth circulation in the poultry population before infecting humans. We recommend strict poultry market management and multisectoral collaboration to identify the extent of poultry infection in China.

  7. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. More than a virus: a qualitative study of the social implications of hepatitis B infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J; Pitts, M; Liu, C; Lin, V; Hajarizadeh, B; Richmond, J; Locarnini, S

    2017-08-01

    China has the largest absolute number of people living with hepatitis B with up to 300,000 people estimated to die each year from hepatitis B related diseases. Despite advances in immunisation, clinical management, and health policy, there is still a lack of accessible and affordable health care for people with hepatitis B. Through in-depth interviews, this study identifies the personal, social and economic impact of living with hepatitis B and considers the role of stigma and discrimination as barriers to effective clinical management of the disease. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were held with 41 people living with hepatitis B in five Chinese cities. Participants were recruited through clinical and non-government organisations providing services to people with hepatitis B, with most (n = 32) being under the age of 35 years. People living with hepatitis B experience the disease as a transformative intergenerational chronic infection with multiple personal and social impacts. These include education and employment choices, economic opportunities, and the development of intimate relationships. While regulations reducing access to employment and education for people with hepatitis B have been repealed, stigma and discrimination continue to marginalise people with hepatitis B. Effective public policy to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis B needs to address the lived impact of hepatitis B on families, employment and educational choices, finances, and social marginalisation.

  9. Chronic Active Epstein–Barr Virus Infection

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    Li Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV infection is a systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV positive lymphoprolifetative disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, unusual pattern of anti- EBV antibodies, and/or increased EBV genomes in affected tissues. Most cases are from Asia. So far, there is hardly any adult case reported from mainland of China. We herein presented a 33-year-old man with fever, facial erythema and rash, lymphadenopathy, lower limbs weakness, splenomegaly and liver lesion. EBV VCA, EA and EBNA were all positive. EBV DNA could be found in serum and PBMC. In situ hybridization of EBV encoded RNA in skin and liver biopsy was positive. Viral load in serum decreased under interferon alpha therapy. To our knowledge, it’s the first adult case reported from mainland of China.

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Complete Genome of Three Basal-BR Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus Infecting Raphanus sativus in China

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    Fuxiang Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3′-terminal poly(A tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs, with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus. In pairwise comparison with 30 other TuMV genome sequences, these three isolates shared their highest identities with isolates from Eurasian countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey and China. Recombination analysis showed that the three isolates in this study had no “clear” recombination. The analyses of conserved amino acids changed between groups showed that the codons in the TuMV out group (OGp and OMs group were the same at three codon sites (852, 1006, 1548, and the other TuMV groups (basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B were different. This pattern suggests that the codon in the OMs progenitor did not change but that in the other TuMV groups the progenitor sequence did change at divergence. Genetic diversity analyses indicate that the PIPO gene was under the highest selection pressure and the selection pressure on P3N-PIPO and P3 was almost the same. It suggests that most of the selection pressure on P3 was probably imposed through P3N-PIPO.

  11. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  12. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  13. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  14. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  15. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tetraspanin Assemblies in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Florin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins (Tspans are a family of four-span transmembrane proteins, known as plasma membrane “master organizers.” They form Tspan-enriched microdomains (TEMs or TERMs through lateral association with one another and other membrane proteins. If multiple microdomains associate with each other, larger platforms can form. For infection, viruses interact with multiple cell surface components, including receptors, activating proteases, and signaling molecules. It appears that Tspans, such as CD151, CD82, CD81, CD63, CD9, Tspan9, and Tspan7, coordinate these associations by concentrating the interacting partners into Tspan platforms. In addition to mediating viral attachment and entry, these platforms may also be involved in intracellular trafficking of internalized viruses and assist in defining virus assembly and exit sites. In conclusion, Tspans play a role in viral infection at different stages of the virus replication cycle. The present review highlights recently published data on this topic, with a focus on events at the plasma membrane. In light of these findings, we propose a model for how Tspan interactions may organize cofactors for viral infection into distinct molecular platforms.

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  19. Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Jin, Lianmei; Lau, Eric H Y; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Tsang, Tim K; Zheng, Jiandong; Fang, Vicky J; Chang, Zhaorui; Ni, Michael Y; Zhang, Qian; Ip, Dennis K M; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Yu; Wang, Liping; Tu, Wenxiao; Meng, Ling; Wu, Joseph T; Luo, Huiming; Li, Qun; Shu, Yuelong; Li, Zhongjie; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Weizhong; Wang, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-07-13

    The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far. An integrated database was constructed with information about demographic, epidemiological, and clinical variables of laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 (130 patients) and H5N1 (43 patients) that were reported to the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention until May 24, 2013. We described disease occurrence by age, sex, and geography, and estimated key epidemiological variables. We used survival analysis techniques to estimate the following distributions: infection to onset, onset to admission, onset to laboratory confirmation, admission to death, and admission to discharge. The median age of the 130 individuals with confirmed infection with H7N9 was 62 years and of the 43 with H5N1 was 26 years. In urban areas, 74% of cases of both viruses were in men, whereas in rural areas the proportions of the viruses in men were 62% for H7N9 and 33% for H5N1. 75% of patients infected with H7N9 and 71% of those with H5N1 reported recent exposure to poultry. The mean incubation period of H7N9 was 3·1 days and of H5N1 was 3·3 days. On average, 21 contacts were traced for each case of H7N9 in urban areas and 18 in rural areas, compared with 90 and 63 for H5N1. The fatality risk on admission to hospital was 36% (95% CI 26-45) for H7N9 and 70% (56-83%) for H5N1. The sex ratios in urban compared with rural cases are consistent with exposure to poultry driving the risk of infection--a higher risk in men was only recorded in urban areas but not in rural areas, and the increased risk for men was of a similar magnitude for H7N9 and H5N1. However, the difference in susceptibility to serious illness with the two different viruses

  20. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  1. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  2. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis for evaluation of the spread of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quanli; Liu, Lin; Chen, Juan

    2017-10-24

    A large number (n = 460) of A(H7N9) human infections have been reported in China from March 2013 through December 2014, and H7N9 outbreaks in humans became an emerging issue for China health, which have caused numerous disease outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild bird populations, and threatened human health severely. The aims of this study were to investigate the directional trend of the epidemic and to identify the significant presence of spatial-temporal clustering of influenza A(H7N9) human cases between March 2013 and December 2014. Three distinct epidemic phases of A(H7N9) human infections were identified in this study. In each phase, standard deviational ellipse analysis was conducted to examine the directional trend of disease spreading, and retrospective space-time permutation scan statistic was then used to identify the spatio-temporal cluster patterns of H7N9 outbreaks in humans. The ever-changing location and the increasing size of the three identified standard deviational ellipses showed that the epidemic moved from east to southeast coast, and hence to some central regions, with a future epidemiological trend of continue dispersing to more central regions of China, and a few new human cases might also appear in parts of the western China. Furthermore, A(H7N9) human infections were clustering in space and time in the first two phases with five significant spatio-temporal clusters (p < 0.05), but there was no significant cluster identified in phase III. There was a new epidemiologic pattern that the decrease in significant spatio-temporal cluster of A(H7N9) human infections was accompanied with an obvious spatial expansion of the outbreaks during the study period, and identification of the spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic can provide valuable insights for better understanding the spreading dynamics of the disease in China.

  3. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  4. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical analysis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China%中国输入性儿童寨卡病毒感染二例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑崇广; 徐翼; 江洪清; 尹应先; 张坚洪; 朱伟金; 梁笑晶; 陈敏霞; 叶家卫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics,outcome and diagnosis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China.Method A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of two cases of imported children with Zika virus infection in February 2016 in Enping People's Hospital of Guangdong.Result Two cases of children with imported Zika virus infection resided in an affected area of Venezuela,8-year-old girl and her 6 year-old brother.The main findings on physical examination included the following manifestations:fever,rash,and conjunctivitis.The rash was first limited to the abdomen,but extended to the torso,neck and face,and faded after 3-4 d.The total number of white blood cells was not high and liver function was normal.The diagnosis of two cases of Zika virus infection was confirmed by the expert group of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention,according to the epidemiological history,clinical manifestations and Zika virus nucleic acid detection results.Treatment of Zika virus infection involves supportive care.Two Zika virus infection children had a relatively benign outcome.Conclusion At present,Zika virus infection in children is an imported disease in China.No specific therapy is available for this disease.Information on long-term outcomes among infants and children with Zika virus disease is limited,routine pediatric care is advised for these infants and children.%目的 探讨儿童寨卡病毒感染病例的临床特点、诊疗经过和转归.方法 回顾性分析广东省恩平市人民医院2016年2月收治的2例输入性儿童寨卡病毒感染病例的临床资料.结果 2例输入性寨卡病毒感染病例为姐弟,姐姐8岁,弟弟6岁,均来自寨卡病毒流行疫区.主要临床表现发热、皮疹和结膜炎.皮疹形态为密集分布红色斑丘疹,腹部最先出现,逐步蔓延至躯干、颈部和颜面;持续3~4d皮疹消退后无脱屑及色素

  6. Incidence of Co-Infections of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Syphilis in a Large Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Qi, Xiao; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Yunhua; Li, Chunrong; Luo, Fengji; Lau, Joseph T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The HIV-epidemic among MSM in China has worsened. In this key population, prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis infection and co-infection with HIV is high. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted (n = 962) in Beijing, China, with three overlapping cohorts (n = 857, 757 and 760) consisting of MSM that were free from pairs of infections of concern (i.e. HIV-HSV-2, HIV-syphilis, HSV-2-syphilis) at baseline to estimate incidence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and those of co-infection. Results The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in the overall cohort was 3.90 (95% CI = 2.37, 5.43), 7.87 (95% CI = 5.74, 10.00) and 6.06 (95% CI = 4.18, 7.94) cases per 100 person-years (PYs), respectively. The incidence of HIV-HSV-2, HIV-Syphilis and HSV-2-Syphilis co-infections was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.88), 1.02 (95% CI = 0.13, 2.17) and 1.41 (95% CI: 0.04, 2.78) cases per 100 PYs, respectively, in the three sub-cohorts constructed for this study. Conclusions The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis was very high and those of their co-infections were relatively high. Such co-infections have negative impacts on the HIV/STI epidemics. Prevention practices need to take such co-infections into account. PMID:26820145

  7. [Zika virus infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society. The viral infection increases the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is an acute autoimmune disease which causes demyelination and, in the worst cases, it can also be fatal. Yet we do not possess adequate and specific vaccination nor antiviral therapy, although, since July 2016, the effectiveness of a DNA based vaccine is being tested on humans. More than half of the world's population lives in areas contaminated by infected mosquitoes so there is a great need for the development of an effective method against the vector mosquitoes. Sadly, even the vector control strategies aren't effective enough to push back the epidemic. Pregnant or fertile women must take the highest precautions against mosquito bites, especially if they travel to regions ravaged by the epidemic. The safest solution would be to postpone both the trip and the childbearing. In Europe, the vectors aren't spread enough to cause major threat, except maybe the warmer regions bordered by the Mediterranean Sea. However, it is possible that in the near future other viruses spread by Aedes mosquitoes could appear. Naturally, the travellers and immigrants, who came from endemic regions can also contribute to the spread of the epidemic. Thanks to the changes in global weather, there were reported findings of mosquitoes of the Aedes albopictus species in Hungary, which are slowly invading the continent, although

  8. Advances in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Guofang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are transmitted through the same pathways. Therefore, the incidence of HBV in the HIV-infected population is higher than that in the healthy population, and is more obvious in China given the high HBV prevalence in the country. HIV and HBV co-infection can accelerate the disease process of HBV. Moreover, the incidence of cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is higher in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV than in patients infected HBV alone. When treating patients co-infected with HIV and HBV for HBV infection alone, care should be taken to avoid the induction of HIV resistance. HBV should be considered during drug selection for anti-retroviral treatment. Furthermore, the effective HBV treatment should be retained if anti-retroviral drugs require changing.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients in Addis ... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was collected ... of co-infection appeared to have increased compared to previous studies, 6.6%, ...

  10. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  11. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  12. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  13. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J

    2008-01-07

    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  14. Dissemination, divergence and establishment of H7N9 influenza viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Zhou, Boping; Wang, Jia; Chai, Yujuan; Shen, Yongyi; Chen, Xinchun; Ma, Chi; Hong, Wenshan; Chen, Yin; Zhang, Yanjun; Duan, Lian; Chen, Peiwen; Jiang, Junfei; Zhang, Yu; Li, Lifeng; Poon, Leo Lit Man; Webby, Richard J; Smith, David K; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, Joseph S M; Holmes, Edward C; Guan, Yi; Zhu, Huachen

    2015-06-04

    Since 2013 the occurrence of human infections by a novel avian H7N9 influenza virus in China has demonstrated the continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens. Although the first outbreak wave that was centred on eastern China was seemingly averted, human infections recurred in October 2013 (refs 3-7). It is unclear how the H7N9 virus re-emerged and how it will develop further; potentially it may become a long-term threat to public health. Here we show that H7N9 viruses have spread from eastern to southern China and become persistent in chickens, which has led to the establishment of multiple regionally distinct lineages with different reassortant genotypes. Repeated introductions of viruses from Zhejiang to other provinces and the presence of H7N9 viruses at live poultry markets have fuelled the recurrence of human infections. This rapid expansion of the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of the H7N9 viruses poses a direct challenge to current disease control systems. Our results also suggest that H7N9 viruses have become enzootic in China and may spread beyond the region, following the pattern previously observed with H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses.

  15. [Zika virus infection: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, A; Amazan, E; Aoun, A; Baubion, E; Derancourt, C

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), originally identified in 1947, is a re-emerging Flavivirus transmitted mainly through bites by Aedes mosquitos. Until the recent outbreaks in the Pacific islands and Central and South America, it was known to cause benign disease, in most cases asymptomatic or with mild and nonspecific symptoms (fever, rash, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, etc.). The unprecedented current epidemic has highlighted new modes of transmission (through blood, perinatally and sexually) as well as serious neurological complications such as congenital defects in the fetuses of infected mothers and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. This situation, coupled with the threat of worldwide spread, prompted the WHO to declare the ZIKV a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jimin; Yan, Jie; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang; Sun, Yi; Shao, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical. PMID:25061813

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Kostadinović

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 sorts of viruses are capable of causing diseases of the respiratory ways. The virus infections have become the cost to be paid for urbanization and industrialization. The acute virus infections jeopardize mankind by their complications with numerous consequences. They open up the way to super infections, they provoke endogenous infections and lead to insufficiency of the vital organs. The viruses penetrate the organism mainly through the respiratory ways, digestive and urinary-sexual organs and skin. Some viruses immediately at the place of their entrance into the organism find receptive cells in which they can multiply (herpes virus and etc.. Some viruses must get through the blood, through the lymph or the nerve fibers to the target organs that they have affinity for.The changes that primarily occur in the mouth with manifest lymphadenopathy of the surrounding area emerge with respect to the type of the acute infection dis-ease.The human herpes viruses are responsible for a great number of diseases in people; that is why it can be said that the infections they induce are a very frequent cause of people's diseases in the world. Man is natural and the only host for the types I and II of the herpes simplex virus (HSV; that is why the infected person is regarded as the source of infection. The infection transmission can be by direct contact or over the contaminated secretions during the sexual intercourse. The age and the socioeconomic status (living conditions, level of medical culture, habits, etc. affect to agreat extent epidemiology of the HSV infection. The HSV distribution in the region of Niš in the five-year period (from 1987 to 1992 was the highest in the early and late summer (June and September.

  18. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  19. Role of Poultry in the Spread of Novel H7N9 Influenza Virus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Miller, Patti J.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Susta, Leonardo; Costa-Hurtado, Mar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent outbreak of H7N9 influenza in China has resulted in many human cases with a high fatality rate. Poultry are the likely source of infection for humans on the basis of sequence analysis and virus isolations from live bird markets, but it is not clear which species of birds are most likely to be infected and shedding levels of virus sufficient to infect humans. Intranasal inoculation of chickens, Japanese quail, pigeons, Pekin ducks, Mallard ducks, Muscovy ducks, and Embden geese with 106 50% egg infective doses of the A/Anhui/1/2013 virus resulted in infection but no clinical disease signs. Virus shedding was much higher and prolonged in quail and chickens than in the other species. Quail effectively transmitted the virus to direct contacts, but pigeons and Pekin ducks did not. In all species, virus was detected at much higher titers from oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. The hemagglutinin gene from samples collected from selected experimentally infected birds was sequenced, and three amino acid differences were commonly observed when the sequence was compared to the sequence of A/Anhui/1/2013: N123D, N149D, and L217Q. Leucine at position 217 is highly conserved for human isolates and is associated with α2,6-sialic acid binding. Different amino acid combinations were observed, suggesting that the inoculum had viral subpopulations that were selected after passage in birds. These experimental studies corroborate the finding that certain poultry species are reservoirs of the H7N9 influenza virus and that the virus is highly tropic for the upper respiratory tract, so testing of bird species should preferentially be conducted with oropharyngeal swabs for the best sensitivity. IMPORTANCE The recent outbreak of H7N9 influenza in China has resulted in a number of human infections with a high case fatality rate. The source of the viral outbreak is suspected to be poultry, but definitive data on the source of the infection are not available. This

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  2. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  3. Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  5. A neonatal murine model for evaluation of enterovirus E HY12 virus infection and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Gai

    Full Text Available HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown.Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain. The minimal infection dose, the virus infection routes, the pathogenicity and tissue tropism for HY12 were determined by infecting susceptible mice with HY12 viruses, and confirmed by different approaches including virus isolation and recovery, virus detection, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry.A murine model for HY12 infection was successfully established and employed to investigate the pathogenicity of HY12 viruses. ICR mouse strain is the most susceptible strain for HY12 infection with a minimal infective dose as 2×106TCID50/mouse. HY12 viruses have the capability of infecting ICR suckling mice via all infection routes including intranasal administration, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, and intramuscular injection, which are confirmed by the isolation and recovery of viruses from HY12-infected mice; detection of viruses by RT-PCR; observations of pathological lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestine, lung, liver, and brain; uncovering of HY12 virus antigens in majority of tissues, especially in intestine, lung, and infected brain of mice by immunohistochemistry assay.A neonatal murine model for HY12 infection is successfully established for determining the susceptible mouse strain, the minimal infective dose, the infection route, the viral pathogenicity and the tropism of HY12, thus providing an invaluable model system for elucidating the pathogenesis of HY12 viruses and the elicited immunity.

  6. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  7. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  8. Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846). IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive contents is urgently needed.

  9. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus-resistant association substitutions to direct-acting antiviral agents in treatment-naïve hepatitis C genotype 1b-infected patients in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhao Li,* Zhi-wei Chen,* Hu Li, Hong Ren, Peng Hu Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Chinese Ministry of Education, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work. Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV are potent and highly efficacious. However, resistance-associated substitutions (RASs relevant to DAAs can impair treatment effectiveness even at baseline. Moreover, the prevalence of baseline RASs in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients in western China is still unclear. Materials and methods: Direct sequencing of the HCV NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions was performed in baseline serum samples of 70 DAAs treatment-naïve HCV 1b-infected patients in western China. The sequences were analyzed with MEGA version 5.05 software. Evolutionary patterns of RASs and amino-acid covariance patterns in the NS3, NS5A, and NS5B genes were analyzed by MEGA and Cytoscape (version 3.2.1, respectively.Results: The presence of at least one RAS in the NS3 region (C16S, T54S, Q80R/L, A87T, R117H, S122G, V132I, V170I was observed in 85.48% (53 of 62 of patients, RASs in the NS5A region (L28M, R30Q, Q54H, P58S/T, Q62H/R, Y93H were observed in 42.42% (28 of 66 of patients, and RASs in the NS5B region (N142S, A300T, C316N, A338V, S365A, L392I, M414L, I424V, A442T, V499A, S556G were observed in 100% (44 of 44 of patients. Evolutionary patterns of RASs and amino-acid covariance patterns for the NS3, NS5A, and NS5B genes are reported.Conclusion: The prevalence of RASs relevant to DAAs detected in the NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions of HCV 1b from DAA treatment-naïve patients is high. Therefore, more attention should be paid to RASs associated with DAAs in the upcoming DAA-treatment era in China. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, unstructured proteins, resistance

  12. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  13. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  14. Functional RNA during Zika virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, Giel P.; Abbo, Sandra R.; Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including

  15. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  16. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector.

  17. Correlations between polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 genes and infection with the hepatitis B virus in three ethnic groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; He, Yan; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tan, Kui; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chan-Juan; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and Han ethnic groups in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods The study enrolled subjects with and without HBV infection. Whole blood was used for DNA genotyping using standard techniques. The study determined the frequencies of several polymorphic alleles ( UGT1A6 [rs2070959], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], CCR5-59029 [rs1799987] and CCR5Δ32 [rs333]) and then characterized their relationship with HBV infection. Results A total of 404 subjects were enrolled in the study: 138 from the Yao group, 101 from the Yi group and 165 from the Han group. There was a significant difference in the frequency of UGT1A1 rs8175347 polymorphisms among the three groups. The rates of 7TA carriers of UGT1A1 rs8175347 in all three groups were significantly higher than the other genotypes. Individuals with genotype AA of UGT1A6 rs2070959 in the Yi group had a higher risk for HBV infection than in the Yao and Han groups. The frequency of genotype GG in CCR5-59029 in the Yao group was significantly higher than in the Yi group. The genotypes of CCR5Δ32 were not associated with HBV infection. Conclusion These findings provide genetic and epidemiological evidence for an association of UGT1A and CCR5-59029 polymorphisms with HBV infection in Chinese Yi and Yao populations.

  18. Serological evidence of ebolavirus infection in bats, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Junfa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Ebolavirus of the family Filoviridae currently consists of five species. All species, with the exception of Reston ebolavirus, have been found in Africa and caused severe human diseases. Bats have been implicated as reservoirs for ebolavirus. Reston ebolavirus, discovered in the Philippines, is the only ebolavirus species identified in Asia to date. Whether this virus is prevalent in China is unknown. Findings In this study, we developed an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for ebolavirus using the recombinant nucleocapsid protein and performed sero-surveillance for the virus among Chinese bat populations. Our results revealed the presence of antibodies to ebolavirus in 32 of 843 bat sera samples and 10 of 16 were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of any filovirus infection in China.

  19. Coxsackievirus A21, Enterovirus 68, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.

  20. Economic burden and its associated factors of hospitalized patients infected with A (H7N9) virus: a retrospective study in Eastern China, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiang; Chen, Li-Ling; Hong, Lei; Xiang, Lun-Hui; Tang, Fen-Yang; Chen, Shan-Hui; Gao, Qiang; Chen, Cong; Dai, Qi-Gang; Sun, Chuan-Wu; Xu, Ke; Dai, Wen-Jun; Qi, Xian; Li, Chang-Cheng; Yu, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Yin; Huang, Hao-Di; Pan, Xing-Yang; Xu, Chang-Sha; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Bao, Chang-Jun

    2016-09-01

    H7N9 continues to cause human infections and remains a pandemic concern. Understanding the economic impacts of this novel disease is important for making decisions on health resource allocation, including infectious disease prevention and control investment. However, there are limited data on such impacts. Hospitalized laboratory-confirmed H7N9 patients or their families in Jiangsu Province of China were interviewed. Patients' direct medical costs of hospitalization were derived from their hospital bills. A generalized linear model was employed to estimate the mean direct medical costs of patients with different characteristics. The mean direct cost of hospitalization for H7N9 was estimated to be ¥ 71 060 (95 % CI, 48 180-104 820), i.e., US$ 10 996 (95 % CI, 7 455-16 220), and was ¥12 060 (US$ 1 861), ¥136 120 (US$ 21 001) and ¥218 610 (US$ 33 728) for those who had mild or severe symptoms or who died, respectively. The principal components of the total fees differed among patients with different disease severity, although medication fees were always the largest contributors. Disease severity, proportion of reimbursement and family member monthly average income were identified as the key factors that contributed to a patient's direct medical cost of hospitalization. The direct medical costs of hospitalized patients with H7N9 are significant, and far surpass the annual per capita income of Jiangsu Province, China. The influencing factors identified should be taken into account when developing related health insurance policies and making health resource allocation. Not applicable. This is a survey study with no health care intervention implemented on human participants.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  2. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  3. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  4. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Luo, Jie; Xu, Huan; Li, Min; Zhang, Fengling; Li, Jin; Gu, Dayong; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming; Lu, Weiping

    2017-08-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis infection in humans is uncommon. We describe a case of B. thailandensis infection in a person in China, a location heretofore unknown for B. thailandensis. We identified the specific virulence factors of B. thailandensis, which may indicate a transition to a new virulent form.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic life long infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To asses the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method: Sources of information were mainly from ...

  6. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  8. Poultry farms as a source of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus reassortment and human infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Donglin; Zou, Shumei; Bai, Tian; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Liu, Hongmin; Li, Xiaodan; Yang, Xianda; Xin, Li; Xu, Shuang; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiyan; Wang, Ao; Guo, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets are a source of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. On February 21, 2014, a poultry farmer infected with H7N9 virus was identified in Jilin, China, and H7N9 and H9N2 viruses were isolated from the patient's farm. Reassortment between these subtype viruses generated five genotypes, one of which caused the human infection. The date of H7N9 virus introduction to the farm is estimated to be between August 21, 2013 (95% confidence interval [CI] June 6, 2013-Oc...

  9. Pneumothorax in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibes Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in people with Human immunodeficiency virus infection in comparison with the general population. In most cases it is secondary the underlying pulmonary disorder, especially pulmonary infections. Though Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is most common pulmonary infection associated with pneumothorax, other infections, non-infective etiology and iatrogenic causes are also encountered. Pneumothorax in these patients are associated with persistent bronchopleural fistula, prolonged hospital stay, poor success with intercostal tube drain, frequent requirement of surgical intervention and increased mortality. Optimal therapeutic approach in these patients is still not well-defined.

  10. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  11. [Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

    2006-01-01

    In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  13. The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiting Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. METHODS: All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 10,104 residents (92.4% were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000. Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7% and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR]  = 5.8, education (OR = 2.29; occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12; drug abuse (OR = 18.0; and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92. Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. CONCLUSION: HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.

  14. The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caiting; Huang, Z Jennifer; Martin, Maria C; Huang, Jun; Liu, Honglu; Deng, Bin; Lai, Wenhong; Liu, Li; Yang, Yihui; Hu, Ying; Qin, Guangming; Zhang, Linglin; Song, Zhibin; Wei, Daying; Nan, Lei; Wang, Qixing; Deng, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianxun; Wong, Frank Y; Yang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. In total, 10,104 residents (92.4%) were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000). Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7%) and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR]  = 5.8), education (OR = 2.29); occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12); drug abuse (OR = 18.0); and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92). Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.

  15. Spatial characteristics and the epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9 virus in five waves from 2013 to 2017 in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haocheng Wu

    Full Text Available The five-wave epidemic of H7N9 in China emerged in the second half of 2016. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics among the five waves, estimating the possible infected cases and inferring the extent of the possible epidemic in the areas that have not reported cases before.The data for the H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017 was obtained from the China Information Network System of Disease Prevention and Control. The start date of each wave was 16 March 2013, 1 July 2013, 1 July 2014, 1 July 2015 and 1 July 2016. The F test or Pearson's chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics of the five waves. Global and local autocorrelation analysis was carried out to identify spatial autocorrelations. Ordinary kriging interpolation was analyzed to estimate the number of human infections with H7N9 virus and to infer the extent of infections in the areas with no cases reported before.There were 45, 94, 45, 34 and 80 cases identified from the first wave to the fifth, respectively. The death rate was significantly different among the five waves of epidemics (χ2 = 10.784, P = 0.029. The age distribution (F = 0.903, P = 0.462, gender (χ2 = 2.674, P = 0.614 and occupation(χ2 = 19.764, P = 0.407 were similar in each period. Most of the cases were males and farmers. A significant trend (χ2 = 70.328, P<0.001 was identified that showed a growing proportion of rural cases. There were 31 high-high clusters and 3 high-low clusters at the county level among the five waves and 12, 8, 2, 9 and 3 clusters in each wave, respectively. The total cases infected with the H7N9 virus were far more than those that have been reported now, and the affected areas continue to expand. The epidemic in the north of Zhejiang Province persisted in all five waves. Since the second wave, the virus spread to the south areas and central areas. There was an obvious decline in the infected cases in the urban areas, and the epidemics

  16. Antibodies against severe fever with Thrombocytopenia syndrome Virus in healthy persons, China, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang Lei, Lei; Sun, J.; Yan, J.; Huakun, L.; Chai, C.Y.; Sun, Y.; Shao, B.; Jiang, J.D.; Chen, Z.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding

  17. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  18. Inhibition of Neurogenesis by Zika virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahim; Siddiqui, Amna; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sohrab, Sayed S

    2018-02-01

    The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States. Additionally, the virus can also be transmitted from males to females by sexual contact. The epidemiological investigations during the current outbreak found a causal link between infection in pregnant women and development of microcephaly in their unborn babies. This finding is a cause for grave concern since microcephaly is a serious neural developmental disorder that can lead to significant post-natal developmental abnormalities and disabilities. Recently, published data indicate that Zika virus infection affects the growth of fetal neural progenitor cells and cerebral neurons that results in malformation of cerebral cortex leading to microcephaly. Recently, it has been reported that Zika virus infection deregulates the signaling pathway of neuronal cell and inhibit the neurogenesis resulting into dementia. In this review we have discussed about the information about cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration of human neuronal cells and inhibit the neurogenesis. Additionally, this information will be very helpful further not only in neuro-scientific research but also designing and development of management strategies for microcephaly and other mosquito borne disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,PHIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (PHIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection in nephrology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaing, Lionel; Izopet, Jacques; Kamar, Nassim

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic liver disease, but also to extra-hepatic manifestations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Herein, we provide an overview of renal diseases related to HCV and their therapies, as well as the treatment options available for HCV (+)/RNA (+) dialysis patients. We will not mention, however, HCV infection-related complications in the post-kidney transplantation setting. Extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV infection include mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, and renal disease. HCV infection has been reported in association with distinct histological patterns of glomerulonephritis in native kidneys.

  1. Dendritic cells during Epstein Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMunz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV causes persistent infection in more than 90% of the human adult population and is associated with 2% of all tumors in humans. This -herpesvirus infects primarily human B and epithelial cells, but has been reported to be sensed by dendritic cells (DCs during primary infection. These activated DCs are thought to contribute to innate restriction of EBV infection and initiate EBV specific adaptive immune responses via cross-priming. The respective evidence and their potential importance for EBV specific vaccine development will be discussed in this review.

  2. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feiyan; Yu, Wenhai; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Jue; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yi; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues, and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from goat belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h, and shared a high similarity homology (>99.6%) with HEV isolated from human, swine, and cows in the same area. Results suggested that goats are a previously unrecognized HEV host. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The impact of hepatitis A virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection: a competitive exclusion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings.

  4. Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H; Harrison, B D

    1982-12-01

    Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility.

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  6. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-09-18

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

  7. Surveillance of Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Shellfish in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenyang Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV has been confirmed to be a zoonotic virus of worldwide distribution. HEV contamination in the water environment has not been well examined in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate HEV contamination in shellfish in a coastal area of China. Such contamination would be significant for evaluating public health risks. Methods: samples of three species shellfish were collected from thirteen points of estuarine tidal flats around the Bohai Gulf and screened for HEV RNA using an in-house nested RT-PCR assay. The detected HEV-positive samples were further verified by gene cloning and sequencing analysis. Results: the overall HEV-positive detection rate is approximately 17.5% per kilogram of shellfish.  HEV was more common among S. subcrenata (28.2%, followed by A. granosa (14.3% and R. philippinarum (11.5%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 13 HEV strains detected revealed that gene fragments fell into two known 4 sub-genotypes (4b/4d groups and another unknown group. Conclusions: 13 different sub-genotype 4 HEVs were found in contaminated shellfish in the Bohai Gulf rim. The findings suggest that a health risk may exist for users of waters in the Bonhai area and to consumers of shellfish.  Further research is needed to assess the sources and infectivity of HEV in these settings, and to evaluate additional shellfish harvesting areas.

  8. Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Jushi; Lu, Zijie; Liu, Lei; Yang, Wanlian; Lyu, Yanli

    2015-03-18

    Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies. The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011-2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs' serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured. Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to

  9. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Duncan R. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  10. Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Michael K; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Abrahams, Vikki M; Fikrig, Erol; Guller, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have linked antenatal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) with major adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, including microcephaly. There is a growing consensus for the existence of a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Previous studies have indicated that non-placental macrophages play a key role in the replication of dengue virus (DENV), a closely related flavivirus. As the placenta provides the conduit for vertical transmission of certain viruses, and placental Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal-placental macrophages located adjacent to fetal capillaries, it is not surprising that several recent studies have examined infection of HBCs by ZIKV. In this review, we describe congenital abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection, the role of HBCs in the placental response to infection, and evidence for the susceptibility of HBCs to ZIKV infection. We conclude that HBCs may contribute to the spread of ZIKV in placenta and promote vertical transmission of ZIKV, ultimately compromising fetal and neonatal development and function. Current evidence strongly suggests that further studies are warranted to dissect the specific molecular mechanism through which ZIKV infects HBCs and its potential impact on the development of CZS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. DAMPs and influenza virus infection in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lim, Lina H K

    2015-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a serious global health problem worldwide due to frequent and severe outbreaks. IAV causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population, due to the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and the alteration of T cell immunity with ageing. The cellular and molecular link between ageing and virus infection is unclear and it is possible that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) may play a role in the raised severity and susceptibility of virus infections in the elderly. DAMPs which are released from damaged cells following activation, injury or cell death can activate the immune response through the stimulation of the inflammasome through several types of receptors found on the plasma membrane, inside endosomes after endocytosis as well as in the cytosol. In this review, the detriment in the immune system during ageing and the links between influenza virus infection and ageing will be discussed. In addition, the role of DAMPs such as HMGB1 and S100/Annexin in ageing, and the enhanced morbidity and mortality to severe influenza infection in ageing will be highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Infection In Nigerianswith Diabetesmellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aims: Studies from mainly Caucasian populations have shown epidemiological evidence of an association between diabetes mellitus and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether any such association exists in a black African population with diabetes mellitus. Method: ...

  13. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  14. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  15. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  16. Serum neutralizing activities from a Beijing homosexual male cohort infected with different subtypes of HIV-1 in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Zhang

    Full Text Available Protective antibodies play a critical role in an effective HIV vaccine; however, eliciting antibodies to block infection by viruses from diverse genetic subtypes remains a major challenge. As the world's most populous country, China has been under the threat of at least three major subtypes of circulating HIV-1 viruses. Understanding the cross reactivity and specificities of serum antibody responses that mediate broad neutralization of the virus in HIV-1 infected Chinese patients will provide valuable information for the design of vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission in China. Sera from a cohort of homosexual men, who have been managed by a major HIV clinical center in Beijing, China, were analyzed for cross-sectional neutralizing activities against pseudotyped viruses expressing Env antigens of the major subtype viruses (AE, BC and B subtypes circulating in China. Neutralizing activities in infected patients' blood were most capable of neutralizing viruses in the homologous subtype; however, a subset of blood samples was able to achieve broad neutralizing activities across different subtypes. Such cross neutralizing activity took 1-2 years to develop and CD4 binding site antibodies were critical components in these blood samples. Our study confirmed the presence of broadly neutralizing sera in China's HIV-1 patient population. Understanding the specificity and breadth of these neutralizing activities can guide efforts for the development of HIV vaccines against major HIV-1 viruses in China.

  17. Molecular typing and epidemiology profiles of human adenovirus infection among paediatric patients with severe acute respiratory infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yamin; Zhou, Weimin; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Yanqun; Xie, Zhengde; Lou, Yongliang; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been recognised as pathogens that cause a broad spectrum of diseases. The studies on HAdV infection among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) are limited. To investigate the prevalence, epidemiology, and genotype of HAdV among children with SARI in China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) or induced sputum (IS) was collected from hospitalised children with SARIs in Beijing (representing Northern China; n = 259) and Zhejiang Province (representing Eastern China; n = 293) from 2007 to 2010. The prevalence of HAdV was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequence typing of PCR fragments that targeted the second half of the hexon gene. In addition, co-infection with other human respiratory viruses, related epidemiological profiles and clinical presentations were investigated. In total, 76 (13.8%) of 552 SARI patients were positive for HAdV, and the infection rates of HAdV in Northern and Eastern China were 20.1% (n = 52) and 8.2% (n = 24), respectively. HAdV co-infection with other respiratory viruses was frequent (infection rates: Northern China, 90.4%; Eastern China, 70.8%). The peak seasons for HAdV-B infection was winter and spring. Additionally, members of multiple species (Human mastadenovirus B, C, D and E) were circulating among paediatric patients with SARI, of which HAdV-B (34/52; 65.4%) and HAdV-C (20/24, 83.3%) were the most predominant in Northern and Eastern China, respectively. These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdV.

  18. Cells in Dengue Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansanee Noisakran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been recognized as one of the most important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases globally. Though dengue normally causes a self-limiting infection, some patients may develop a life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The reason why DHF/DSS occurs in certain individuals is unclear. Studies in the endemic regions suggest that the preexisting antibodies are a risk factor for DHF/DSS. Viremia and thrombocytopenia are the key clinical features of dengue virus infection in patients. The amounts of virus circulating in patients are highly correlated with severe dengue disease, DHF/DSS. Also, the disturbance, mainly a transient depression, of hematological cells is a critical clinical finding in acute dengue patients. However, the cells responsible for the dengue viremia are unresolved in spite of the intensive efforts been made. Dengue virus appears to replicate and proliferate in many adapted cell lines, but these in vitro properties are extremely difficult to be reproduced in primary cells or in vivo. This paper summarizes reports on the permissive cells in vitro and in vivo and suggests a hematological cell lineage for dengue virus infection in vivo, with the hope that a new focus will shed light on further understanding of the complexities of dengue disease.

  19. Animal model for hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people in the world and chronic HCV infection develops into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, the effective compounds have been approved for HCV treatment, the protease inhibitor and polymerase inhibitor (direct acting antivirals; DAA). DAA-based therapy enabled to cure from HCV infection. However, development of new drug and vaccine is still required because of the generation of HCV escape mutants from DAA, development of HCC after treatment of DAA, and the high cost of DAA. In order to develop new anti-HCV drug and vaccine, animal infection model of HCV is essential. In this manuscript, we would like to introduce the history and the current status of the development of HCV animal infection model.

  20. Genome characterization, antigenicity and pathogenicity of a novel infectious bronchitis virus type isolated from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Wenjun; Han, Zongxi; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Junfeng; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Liangliang; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-10-01

    In 2014, three infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14, γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 and γCoV/ck/China/I0118/14, were isolated and identified from chickens suspected to be infected with IBV in Guangxi province, China. Based upon data arising from S1 sequence and phylogenetic analyses, the three IBV isolates were genetically different from other known IBV types, which represented a novel genotype (GI-29). Virus cross-neutralization tests, using γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 as a representative, showed that genotype GI-29 was antigenically different from all other known IBV types, thus representing a novel serotype. Complete genomic analysis showed that GI-29 type viruses were closely related to and might originate from a GX-YL5-like virus by accumulation of substitutions in multiple genes. These GI-29 viral genomes are still evolving and diverging, particularly in the 3' region, although we cannot rule out the possibility of recombination events occurring. For isolate γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14, we found that recombination events had occurred between nsps 2 and 3 in gene 1 which led to the introduction of a 4/91 gene fragment into the γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 viral genome. In addition, we found that the GI-29 type γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate was a nephropathogenic strain and high pathogenic to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens although cystic oviducts were not observed in the surviving layer chickens challenged with γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  2. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia P; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management.

  3. Immune barriers of Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Mühlberger, Elke; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2018-02-01

    Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize how data gathered during the last 40 years in the laboratory as well as in the field have provided insight into EBOV immunity. From molecular mechanisms involved in EBOV recognition in infected cells, to antigen processing and adaptive immune responses, we discuss current knowledge on the main immune barriers of infection as well as outstanding research questions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological intervention for dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jenn-Haung; Lin, Yi-Ling; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2017-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has a considerable health impact in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Escalation of infection rates greatly increases morbidity and mortality, most commonly from deaths due to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Although the development of an effective, long-lasting vaccine has been a major aim for control and prevention of DENV infection, the currently licensed vaccine has limitations and is less than satisfactory. Thus, there remains an important need to identify effective and tolerable medications for treatment of DENV-infected patients both in the early phase, to prevent progression to fatal outcomes, and to minimize deaths after patients develop severe complications. This review will address several specific points, including (1) approaches to identify anti-DENV medications, (2) recent advances in the development of potential compounds targeting DENV infection, (3) experience with clinical trials of regimens for DENV infection, (4) some available medications of potential for clinical trials against DENV infection, (5) reasons for unsuccessful outcomes and challenges of anti-DENV treatments, and (6) directions for developing or selecting better anti-DENV strategies. This review provides useful guidance for clinicians selecting drugs for DENV-infected patients with severe manifestations or potential fatal disease progression, and for basic researchers seeking to develop effective anti-DENV regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Differences on geographic distribution of rabies virus lineages in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Li, M L; Chen, Y; Wang, B; Tao, X Y; Zhu, W Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To study the lineages of rabies virus and the epidemic characteristics in different provincial populations of China, to provide information for the development of control and prevention measures in each respective provinces. Methods: Full length N and G genes and full-genome of epidemic strains of rabies virus collected in China were downloaded from GenBank and combined with newly sequenced strains by our lab. Each strain was classified under six lineages of China rabies by constructing phylogenetic trees based on the N or G sequences. Numbers of strains and lineages in each province were counted and compared. Results: Six lineages (China Ⅰ-Ⅵ) were prevalent in China, with 4 found in Yunnan and Hunan. In 6 provinces, including Henan and Fujian, 3 lineages were found. In 8 provinces, including Shanghai and Jiangxi, 2 lineages were found Only 1 lineage, were found in Beijing, Tianjin and other 12 provinces. the China Ⅰ, was the dominant one in 25 provinces. In recent years, China Ⅲ had been found in wild animals and spread over livestock in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas. Qinghai and Tibet had been influenced by China Ⅳ, which also been found in wild animals of Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. Conclusion: There had been obvious differences in lineages and strain numbers of rabies virus identified in different provinces in China.

  6. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  7. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  8. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    During 2015-2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  9. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-01-01

    During 2015?2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  10. Photodynamic treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Hester, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of photodynamic action on in vitro herpes simplex virus infections of CV-1 monkey kidney fibroblasts or human skin fibroblasts were determined using proflavine sulfate and white fluorescent lamps. Photodynamic treatment of confluent cell monolayers prior to virus infection inactivated cell capacity, i.e. the capacity of the treated cells to support subsequent virus growth as measured by plaque formation. The capacity of human cells was more sensitive to inactivation than the capacity of monkey cells when 6 μM proflavine was used. Treated cell monolayers recovered the capacity to support virus plaque formation when virus infection was delayed four days after the treatment. Experiments in which the photodynamically treated monolayers were infected with UV-irradiated virus demonstrated that this treatment induced Weigle reactivation in both types of cells. This reactivation occurred for virus infection just after treatment or 4 days later. A Luria-Latarjet-type experiment was also performed in which cultures infected with unirradiated virus were photodynamically treated at different times after the start of infection. The results showed that for the first several hours of the virus infection the infected cultures were more sensitive to inactivation by photodynamic treatment than cell capacity. By the end of the eclipse period the infected cultures were less sensitive to inactivation than cell capacity. Results from extracellular inactivation of virus growth in monkey cells at 6 μM proflavine indicated that at physiological pH the virus has a sensitivity to photodynamic inactivation similar to that for inactivation of cell capacity. The combined data indicated that photodynamic treatment of the cell before or after virus infection could prevent virus growth. Thus, photodynamic inactivation of infected and uninfected cells may be as important as inactivation of virus particles when considering possible mechanisms in clinical photodynamic therapy for herpes

  11. Hepatitis A virus infection - shifting epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.Z.; Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Anwar, M.; Ghani, E.; Asad-Ullah

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the Study: To determine the age distribution in HAV infection and seasonal variations in the prevalence of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration: The study was carried out on the patients reporting at Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, for determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody, from July 2003 to June 2004. Patients and Methods: Altogether 626 patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus infection were referred to AFIP Rawalpindi for this test. Blood samples were collected and sera were separated and transferred to plastic aliquots that were stored at -20 deg. C in a retrievable fashion until utilized in testing. The testing for ant-HAY IgM was carried out with the help of a commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using reagent kits of Dias Orin (Germany) for HAV IgM antibodies. Results: The HAV IgM positive rate was 40.57% (252/626). Those tested included the sporadic cases as well as the patients from outbreak in two schools of Nowshera cantonment. The age of patients testing positive for HAV IgM, ranged from 03 to 27 years. There was a statistically significant seasonal difference in rate of positivity in different months of the calendar year. An outbreak of HAV infection was seen in the children of two neighboring schools of a cantonment, in which 44 children in different classes developed clinical jaundice. Conclusion: HAV infection occurs in a significant proportion of young people with a clinical suspicion of HAV infection. There is a changing trend of developing hepatitis a in the age beyond 18 years and in outbreaks, which was not there in our patients previously due to universal immunity found against HAV by the age of 18. It was because of chances of consumption of polluted food. (author)

  12. Laboratory Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise; St George, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited. Furthermore, Zika cross-reacts serologically with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Current or past infection, or even vaccination with another flavivirus, will often cause false-positive or uninterpretable Zika serology results. Detection of viral RNA during acute infection using nucleic acid amplification tests provides more specific results, and a number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests have received emergency use authorization. In addition to serum, testing of whole blood and urine is recommended because of the higher vial loads and longer duration of shedding. However, nucleic acid amplification testing has limited utility because many patients are asymptomatic or present for testing after the brief period of Zika shedding has passed. Thus, the greatest need and most difficult challenge is development of accurate antibody tests for the diagnosis of recent Zika infection. Research is urgently needed to identify Zika virus epitopes that do not cross-react with other flavivirus antigens. New information is emerging at a rapid pace and, with ongoing public-private and international collaborations and government support, it is hoped that rapid progress will be made in developing robust and widely applicable diagnostic tools.

  13. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Paquin-Proulx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome. The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial activity. MAIT cells have also been postulated to play a role in the immune response to viral infections. In this study, we evaluated MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, and function in samples from subjects with acute and convalescent DENV infection. We found that in acute DENV infection, MAIT cells had elevated co-expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR and had a poor IFNγ response following bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we found that MAIT cells can produce IFNγ in response to in vitro infection with ZIKV. This MAIT cell response was independent of MR1, but dependent on IL-12 and IL-18. Our results suggest that MAIT cells may play an important role in the immune response to Flavivirus infections.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  15. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  16. Stability of RNA silencing-based traits after virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bodil; Albrechtsen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    with constructs based on virus coat protein (CP) genes or other viral genes has been successfully used to engineer PTGS-mediated virus resistance into a large number of crop plants and some transgenic lines have been commercially exploited. However the discovery that plant viruses encode suppressors of gene...... silencing has raised concerns that virus infection of crop plants might reverse the new silencing-based traits. Most studies of virus suppression of silencing have used model systems based on silencing of reporter genes. A few studies have analysed the effects of virus infections on plants with genetically...... engineered virus resistance based on either a simple sense or an inverted repeat construct. We decided to use genetically engineered virus resistance in potato as a model system for further studies of the effect of virus infection on genetically engineered traits. We present for the first time a comparison...

  17. Mechanisms of immune evasion in Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram., A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a large DNA virus that infects over 90% of the adult world population. EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and EBV infection is associated with various malignancies. EBV establishes lifelong infections in immunocompetent hosts. To

  18. Clinical studies on hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. This thesis describes clinical aspects of hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection. Part I focuses on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This part describes immune responses of patients with acute HBV-infection,

  19. Neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility profile of human influenza viruses during the 2016-2017 influenza season in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijuan; Cheng, Yanhui; Li, Xiyan; Tan, Minju; Wei, Hejiang; Zhao, Xiang; Xiao, Ning; Dong, Jie; Wang, Dayan

    2018-06-01

    To understand the current situation of antiviral-resistance of influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in Mainland China, The antiviral-resistant surveillance data of the circulating influenza viruses in Mainland China during the 2016-2017 influenza season were analyzed. The total 3215 influenza viruses were studied to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) for oseltamivir and zanamivir using a fluorescence-based assay. Approximately 0.3% (n = 10) of viruses showed either highly reduced inhibition (HRI) or reduced inhibition (RI) against at least one NAI. The most common neuraminidase (NA) amino acid substitution was H275Y in A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, which confers HRI by oseltamivir. Two A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses contained a new NA amino acid substitution respectively, S110F and D151E, which confers RI by oseltamivir or/and zanamivir. Two B/Victoria-lineage viruses harbored a new NA amino acid substitution respectively, H134Q and S246P, which confers RI by zanamivir. One B/Victoria-lineage virus contained dual amino acid substitution NA P124T and V422I, which confers HRI by zanamivir. One B/Yamagata-lineage virus was a reassortant virus that haemagglutinin (HA) from B/Yamagata-lineage virus and NA from B/Victoria-lineage virus, defined as B/Yamagata-lineage virus confers RI by oseltamivir, but as B/Victoria-lineage virus confers normal inhibition by oseltamivir. All new substitutions that have not been reported before, the correlation of these substitutions and observed changes in IC 50 should be further assessed. During the 2016-2017 influenza season in Mainland China the majority tested viruses were susceptible to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antiviral for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ebola virus (EBOV) infection: Therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Within less than a year after its epidemic started (in December 2013) in Guinea, Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the filoviridae, has spread over a number of West-African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) and gained allures that have been unprecedented except by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although EBOV is highly contagious and transmitted by direct contact with body fluids, it could be counteracted by the adequate chemoprophylactic and -therapeutic interventions: vaccines, antibodies, siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), interferons and chemical substances, i.e. neplanocin A derivatives (i.e. 3-deazaneplanocin A), BCX4430, favipiravir (T-705), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) α-glucosidase inhibitors and a variety of compounds that have been found to inhibit EBOV infection blocking viral entry or by a mode of action that still has to be resolved. Much has to be learned from the mechanism of action of the compounds active against VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus), a virus belonging to the rhabdoviridae, that in its mode of replication could be exemplary for the replication of filoviridae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of association of diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Bukhari, M.H.; Khokhar, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: The presented study was aimed to study and determine a relationship between the relative proportions of Diabetes Mellitus in patients suffering from HCV infection. Study Design: This cross sectional study. Study Settings: Patients were registered from outdoor as well as indoor departments of different teaching hospitals (Services hospital Lahore and medical departments in Jinnah hospital, Mayo hospital, Sir Ganga Ram hospital) in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was comprised of age and sex matched 258 patients of viral hepatitis B infection and viral hepatitis C infection, conducted at Hepatitis Clinic Services Hospital, affiliated with Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Diagnosis of HBV was made with evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV infection was diagnosed if patient was sero positive for anti HCV (ELISA methods) and HCV - RNA (By PCR). Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed after fulfilling the American Diabetic Association Criteria, from November, 2000 to September, 2002. Results: A total of 318 patients were registered, out of which 258 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 164 hepatitis C infected and 94 hepatitis B infected cases, 16.46% hepatitis C infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics while 4.25% hepatitis B infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is high Association and relationship of Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatitis C virus infection as compared with Hepatitis B virus infection. (author)

  2. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  3. Congenital Zika Virus Infection: Beyond Neonatal Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Arruda, Monica B; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Suelem Taís Clementino; Batista, Alba Gean Medeiros; Ferreira, Thales; Dos Santos, Mayra Pereira; Sampaio, Virgínia Vilar; Moura, Sarah Rogéria Martins; Rabello, Luciana Portela; Gonzaga, Clarissa Emanuelle; Malinger, Gustavo; Ximenes, Renato; de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Patricia Soares; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Chimelli, Leila; Silveira, Paola Paz; Delvechio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza; Campanati, Loraine; Nogueira, Rita M R; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Voloch, Carolina Moreira; Ferreira, Orlando C; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil. We observed 11 infants with congenital ZIKV infection from gestation to 6 months in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Ten of 11 women included in this study presented with symptoms of ZIKV infection during the first half of pregnancy, and all 11 had laboratory evidence of the infection in several tissues by serology or polymerase chain reaction. Brain damage was confirmed through intrauterine ultrasonography and was complemented by magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological analysis was performed on the placenta and brain tissue from infants who died. The ZIKV genome was investigated in several tissues and sequenced for further phylogenetic analysis. Description of the major lesions caused by ZIKV congenital infection. Of the 11 infants, 7 (63.6%) were female, and the median (SD) maternal age at delivery was 25 (6) years. Three of 11 neonates died, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 27.3%. The median (SD) cephalic perimeter at birth was 31 (3) cm, a value lower than the limit to consider a microcephaly case. In all patients, neurological impairments were identified, including microcephaly, a reduction in cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, lissencephaly with hydrocephalus, and fetal akinesia deformation sequence (ie, arthrogryposis). Results of limited testing for other causes of microcephaly, such as genetic disorders and viral and bacterial infections, were negative, and the ZIKV genome was found in both maternal and neonatal tissues (eg, amniotic fluid, cord blood, placenta, and

  4. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea.

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    Imade Yolanda Nsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu76. The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods and seeds. CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  5. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  6. Autophagic flux without a block differentiates varicella-zoster virus infection from herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Erin M; Carpenter, John E; Jackson, Wallen; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M; Grose, Charles

    2015-01-06

    Autophagy is a process by which misfolded and damaged proteins are sequestered into autophagosomes, before degradation in and recycling from lysosomes. We have extensively studied the role of autophagy in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and have observed that vesicular cells are filled with >100 autophagosomes that are easily detectable after immunolabeling for the LC3 protein. To confirm our hypothesis that increased autophagosome formation was not secondary to a block, we examined all conditions of VZV infection as well as carrying out two assessments of autophagic flux. We first investigated autophagy in human skin xenografts in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of VZV pathogenesis, and observed that autophagosomes were abundant in infected human skin tissues. We next investigated autophagy following infection with sonically prepared cell-free virus in cultured cells. Under these conditions, autophagy was detected in a majority of infected cells, but was much less than that seen after an infected-cell inoculum. In other words, inoculation with lower-titered cell-free virus did not reflect the level of stress to the VZV-infected cell that was seen after inoculation of human skin in the SCID mouse model or monolayers with higher-titered infected cells. Finally, we investigated VZV-induced autophagic flux by two different methods (radiolabeling proteins and a dual-colored LC3 plasmid); both showed no evidence of a block in autophagy. Overall, therefore, autophagy within a VZV-infected cell was remarkably different from autophagy within an HSV-infected cell, whose genome contains two modifiers of autophagy, ICP34.5 and US11, not present in VZV.

  7. Immunogenicity of mumps virus vaccine candidates matching circulating genotypes in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, James; Phan, Shannon I; Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; He, Biao

    2017-07-13

    Mumps virus (MuV) causes acute infection in humans with characteristic swelling of the parotid gland. While vaccination has greatly reduced the incidence of MuV infection, there have been multiple large outbreaks of mumps virus (MuV) in highly vaccinated populations. The most common vaccine strain, Jeryl Lynn, belongs to genotype A, which is no longer a circulating genotype. We have developed two vaccine candidates that match the circulating genotypes in the United States (genotype G) and China (genotype F). We found that there was a significant decrease in the ability of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine to produce neutralizing antibody responses to non-matched viruses, when compared to either of our vaccine candidates. Our data suggests that an updated vaccine may allow for better immunity against the circulating MuV genotypes G and F. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

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    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  9. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-26

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  10. The CD8 T Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection. However, the mucosal antibody response to many respiratory viruses is not long-lasting and declines with age. CD8 T cells are critical for mediating clearance following many acute viral infections in the lung. In addition, memory CD8 T cells are capable of providing protection against secondary infections. Therefore, the combined induction of virus-specific CD8 T cells and antibodies may provide optimal protective immunity. Herein, we review the current literature on CD8 T cell responses induced by respiratory virus infections. Additionally, we explore how this knowledge could be utilized in the development of future vaccines against respiratory viruses, with a special emphasis on RSV vaccination.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of WU polyomavirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Teng; Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Wo, Ying; Zhuang, Lu; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wei, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. Altogether 122 (7.5%) of 1617 children found to be infected with WUPyV and 88 (72.1%) were coinfected with other viruses during 2012-2015. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 strains from our study formed two new clusters (Id and IIIc) within the Branch I and Branch III, respectively. WUPyV is persistently circulating in China. Surveillance on WUPyV infection in wider areas and long persistence is warranted.

  12. Zika virus infections in pregnancy: epidemics and case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih sahiner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, and is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Only a small number of cases had been described until 2007 when the first major Zika virus outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia. Approximately 80% of people infected with Zika virus do not exhibit any symptoms. Symptomatic infections are generally moderate and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. The virus has recently attracted a broad interest due to the emerging cases of microcephaly that are possibly associated with mothers infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy, and the regional increases in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome during the epidemic periods. Although the relationship between Zika virus infection and these abnormalities is not obviously understood yet, Zika virus testing is recommended for infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications whose mothers were potentially infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy. Every day, new reports are being published about the outbreaks associated with this virus; nevertheless, no new cases of this virus have been reported in Turkey. Despite this, we cannot currently exclude the possibility of the encounter with the virus because of the presence of Aedes mosquitoes, which are responsible for the spread of the virus, are prevalent in Turkey, and an increasing number of travel-related cases are being reported from different countries. In the light of the current knowledge on this virus, this review aims to discuss the course of Zika virus infections in detail, especially congenital infection, and presenting current information about the case management and preventive measures. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 143-151

  13. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Donglei; Huang, Guohong; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Tiegang; Xu, Wenbo; Pang, Xinghuo

    2013-04-18

    A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007-2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country.

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  15. Polysulfonate suramin inhibits Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Sam, I-Ching; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log 10  PFU viral reduction with IC 50 value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

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    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  17. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

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    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  19. Virus infection of a weed increases vector attraction to and vector fitness on the weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Fang, Yong; Shi, Xiaobin; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Weeds are important in the ecology of field crops, and when crops are harvested, weeds often become the main hosts for plant viruses and their insect vectors. Few studies, however, have examined the relationships between plant viruses, vectors, and weeds. Here, we investigated how infection of the weed Datura stramonium L. by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) affects the host preference and performance of the TYLCV vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q. The results of a choice experiment indicated that B. tabaci Q preferentially settled and oviposited on TYLCV-infected plants rather than on healthy plants. In addition, B. tabaci Q performed better on TYLCV-infected plants than on healthy plants. These results demonstrate that TYLCV is indirectly mutualistic to B. tabaci Q. The mutually beneficial interaction between TYLCV and B. tabaci Q may help explain the concurrent outbreaks of TYLCV and B. tabaci Q in China.

  20. No MERS-CoV but positive influenza viruses in returning Hajj pilgrims, China, 2013–2015

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    Xuezheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV. In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods and results A total of 847 returning Hajj pilgrims participated in this study. The test results indicated that of the travelers, 34 tested positive for influenza A virus, 14 for influenza B virus, 4 for metapneumo virus, 2 for respiratory syncytial virus, and 3 for human coronavirus. There was a significant difference in the rates of positive and negative influenza virus tests between Hajj pilgrims with symptoms and those without. The detection rates of influenza virus were not significantly different among the three years studied, at 5.3, 6.0 and 6.3% for 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The MERS-CoV and respiratory viruses detection results at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015 indicated that there were no MERS-CoV infection but a 5.7% positive influenza viruses in returning Chinese pilgrims.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  2. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  3. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

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    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  4. Molecular characterization of two genotypes of a new polerovirus infecting brassicas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai-Ying; Dong, Shu-Wei; Shang, Qiao-Xia; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2011-12-01

    The genomic RNA sequences of two genotypes of a brassica-infecting polerovirus from China were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to but significantly different from turnip yellows virus (TuYV). This virus and other poleroviruses, including TuYV, had less than 90% amino acid sequence identity in all gene products except the coat protein. Based on the molecular criterion (>10% amino acid sequence difference) for species demarcation in the genus Polerovirus, the virus represents a distinct species for which the name Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is proposed. Interestingly, there were two genotypes of BrYV, which mainly differed in the 5'-terminal half of the genome.

  5. Temporal Changes in the Modes of Hepatitis C Virus Transmission in the USA and Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Elizabeth; Yang, Ming; Rao, Huiying; Fu, Sherry; Feng, Bo; Fei, Ran; Lin, Andy; Fontana, Robert J; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S

    2017-08-01

    Predominant modes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission vary between countries and over time. To compare HCV transmission modes in the USA and northern China. We conducted a prospective study enrolling two cohorts of chronic HCV patients in the USA, and in China at Beijing, and at Gu'an and Kuancheng counties in Hebei. Patients self-reported the most likely source and year of infection. A total of 1957 patients were studied (1000 USA; 957 China-428 Beijing, 387 Gu'an, 142 Kuancheng). The predominant infection sources were transfusion (23.0%) and injection drug use (IDU) (32.1%) in the USA and transfusion (64.5%) in northern China. Within China, transfusion was the most common source in Beijing (62.1%) and Gu'an (88.1%), and medical procedures (35.9%) and IDU (12.0%) in Kuancheng. Infection via transfusion decreased significantly in the USA (35.1-4.6%) and Beijing (84.2-14.3%) but remained frequent in Gu'an (90.5-72.5%) over time. Infection via IDU decreased from 32.4% in those ≥61 years to 25.0% in those 41-50 years but increased to 46.5% in those ≤40 years in US patients and decreased over time from 38.7 to 1.9% in Kuancheng. Infection via medical procedures increased over time in Beijing (7.0-33.3%) and remained frequent in Kuancheng (45.2-31.1%). There are major differences in presumed HCV infection source between the USA and northern China. Favorable as well as worrisome changes in the modes of HCV transmission in both countries were observed.

  6. Comparison of Detection Rate and Mutational Pattern of Drug-Resistant Mutations Between a Large Cohort of Genotype B and Genotype C Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Yan; Xin, Shaojie; Ji, Dong; You, Shaoli; Hu, Jinhua; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xu, Dongping

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the association of prevalent genotypes in China (HBV/C and HBV/B) with HBV drug-resistant mutations. A total of 13,847 nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-treated patients with chronic HBV infection from North China were enrolled. HBV genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by direct sequencing and confirmed by clonal sequencing if necessary. HBV/B, HBV/C, and HBV/D occupied 14.3%, 84.9%, and 0.8% across the study population, respectively. NA usage had no significant difference between HBV/B- and HBV/C-infected patients. Lamivudine-resistant mutations were more frequently detected in HBV/C-infected patients, compared with HBV/B-infected patients (31.67% vs. 25.26%, p M250 V/I/L substitution (0.67% vs. 1.46%, p < 0.01). Multidrug-resistant mutations (defined as coexistence of mutation to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues) were detected in 104 patients. HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of multidrug-resistant mutation than HBV/B-infected patients (0.83% vs. 0.35%, p < 0.05). The study for the first time clarified that HBV/C-infected patients had a higher risk to develop multidrug-resistant mutations, compared with HBV/B-infected patients; and HBV/C- and HBV/B-infected patients had different inclinations in the ETV-resistant mutational pattern.

  7. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  8. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

  9. Immune Activation in the Pathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. van de Weg (Cornelia A.M.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dengue virus (DENV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus and belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes-mosquito and circulates in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The incidence of dengue has risen

  10. First Imported Case of Zika Virus Infection into Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee-Chang; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Uh Jin; Chun, June Young; Choi, Su-Jin; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Jung, Sook-In; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Nam-Joong; Choi, Eun Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don

    2016-07-01

    Since Zika virus has been spreading rapidly in the Americas from 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus infection becomes a global health emergency because it can cause neurological complications and adverse fetal outcome including microcephaly. Here, we report clinical manifestations and virus isolation findings from a case of Zika virus infection imported from Brazil. The patient, 43-year-old Korean man, developed fever, myalgia, eyeball pain, and maculopapular rash, but not neurological manifestations. Zika virus was isolated from his semen, and reverse-transcriptase PCR was positive for the virus in the blood, urine, and saliva on the 7th day of the illness but was negative on the 21st day. He recovered spontaneously without any neurological complications. He is the first case of Zika virus infection in Korea imported from Brazil.

  11. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  12. Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jason C; Druce, Julian D; Leder, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HepatitisC virus is a chronic life-long infection in themajority of patientswho are infected with the virus.Without accurate diagnosis and follow up, these children cannot be offered optimal care, and are at risk of presenting in adult life with significant liver pathology and long-term sequelae. Objective: To explore ...

  14. Hepatitis B Virus infection in Nigeria – a review | Emechebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.

  15. Transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection among sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transfusion of blood products is a recognised way of transmitting infections particularly viruses. The extent to which blood transfusion contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in transfused patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) has been found to be 20% in Lagos, Nigeria. Mamman in Zaria however ...

  16. Postmortem Findings for 7 Neonates with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q; Cavalcante, Diane I M; Franco, Luciano M; Araújo, Fernanda M C; Sousa, Emília T; Valença-Junior, José Telmo; Rolim, Dionne B; Melo, Maria E L; Sindeaux, Pedro D T; Araújo, Marialva T F; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Pompeu, Margarida M L

    2017-07-01

    Postmortem examination of 7 neonates with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil revealed microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, dystrophic calcifications, and severe cortical neuronal depletion in all and arthrogryposis in 6. Other findings were leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal inflammation and pulmonary hypoplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in liver and lungs. Findings confirmed virus neurotropism and multiple organ infection.

  17. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  18. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  19. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  20. Epidemiological analysis of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection among different population in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are retroviruses linked etiologically to various human diseases, and both of them can be transmitted by vertical route, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and intravenous drug use. Recently, some HTLV-infected cases have been reported and this virus is mainly present in the Southeast coastal areas in China, but has not been studied for the people in Central China. OBJECTIVES: To know the epidemiologic patterns among different population samples in Central China and further identify risk factor for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2011, 5480 blood samples were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by using enzyme immunoassay, followed by Western Blot. RESULTS: The prevalence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 was found with infection rates 0.13% and 0.05% among all population samples for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively. The highest percentages of infection, 0.39% and 0.20%, were found in the high risk group, while only 0.06% and 0.03% in the blood donor group. There was only one case of HTLV-1 infection (0.11% among patients with malignant hematological diseases. Of seven HTLV-1 positive cases, six were co-infected with HBV, two with HCV and one with HIV. Among three HTLV-2 positive individuals all were co-infected with HBV, one with HCV. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have been detected in the Central China at low prevalence, with the higher infection rate among high risk group. It was also found that co-infection of HTLV-1/2 with HIV and HBV occurred, presumably due to their similar transmission routes. HTLV-1/2 antibody screen among certain population would be important to prevent the spread of the viruses.

  1. Morphologic and Molecular Characterization of a Strain of Zika Virus Imported into Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Li

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV disease have caused worldwide concerns. Guangdong province is one of the commercial centers in China and communicates frequently with the epidemic areas. To date, 65.2% of the ZIKV infection cases in China were imported via port of entry in Guangdong. The continuous surveillance of imported cases is crucial for the prevention and control of potential ZIKV infection outbreak in China. In this study, a strain of ZIKV was isolated from the serum of a 6-year-old child returning from Venezuela. The morphology of the ZIKV was analyzed in vivo and in vitro by electron microscopy, and clusters of virus particles were found in the loose cytoplasmic membrane structures. The genomic sequence of the isolated ZIKV was determined, and the alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified one unique amino acid substitution occurring in the non-structural protein 4B (NS4B, and the isolated virus belonged to the Asian lineage.

  2. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  3. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  4. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Investigation of latent infections caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in koi ( Cyprinus carpio) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Qing; Bergmann, Sven M; Li, Yingying; Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Chun; Shi, Cunbin

    2017-05-01

    Although herpesviruses such as cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can establish lifelong latent infections, little is known about latency conditions in farmed koi populations in China. We used nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the TK gene and an indirect antibody ELISA to screen asymptomatic fish obtained from southern China for evidence of CyHV-3 infection. CyHV-3 DNA could be detected either in peripheral blood leukocytes or from gills of asymptomatic koi. Most koi sera did not contain anti-CyHV-3 antibodies; however, 5 samples were ELISA positive, providing evidence of prior CyHV-3 infections. These findings suggest that koi may survive CyHV-3 infections and become virus carriers.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, C S

    2012-02-01

    Recent increases in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prompted us to characterize HBV-infected children in Ireland and to audit management, by reviewing prospectively gathered data. Of 46 children (29 [63%] male), median age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 0.6-17.6), monitoring duration was 22.5 months (range 1-101), 23\\/46 (50%) were European (including 9 [19.6%] Irish), 15 (32.6%) African and 9 (19.6%) Asian. Acquisition was vertical (25\\/46 [54.3%]), horizontal (5\\/46 [10.9%]), unknown (16\\/46 [34.8%]). HBV-DNA was >100,000,000 cpm in 20\\/32 (62.5%) with chronic infection. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 32\\/44 (72.7%). We estimate that universal neonatal vaccination (UNV-HBV) could have prevented 22% of cases, and could limit further horizontal HBV spread. This supports the recent introduction of UNV-HBV.

  7. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. A 3-year prospective study of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Lin, Guang-Yu; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Lin, Chuang-Xing; Lu, Chang-Dong; Lu, Xue-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The epidemiology of local viral etiologies is essential for the management of viral respiratory tract infections. Limited data are available in China to describe the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections, especially in small-medium cities and rural areas. To determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children, a 3-year study was conducted in Shenzhen, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from eligible children were collected. Influenza and other respiratory viruses were tested by molecular assays simultaneously. Data were analyzed to describe the frequency and seasonality. Of the 2025 children enrolled in the study, 971 (48.0%) were positive for at least one viral pathogen, in which 890 (91.7%) were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 30.5%) and human rhinovirus (HRV; 21.5%). Co-infections were found in 302 cases (31.1%), and dual viral infection was dominant. RSV, HRV and IAV were the most frequent viral agents involved in co-infection. On the whole, the obvious seasonal peaks mainly from March to May were observed with peak strength varying from 1 year to another. This study provides a basic profile of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infection in hospitalized children in Shenzhen. The spectrum of viruses in the study site is similar to that in other places, but the seasonality is closely related to geographic position, different from that in big cities in northern China and neighboring Hong Kong. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated from chicken in South China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Ji, Jun; Qin, Jian-Ping; Li, Hai-Yan; Lu, Jun-Peng; Xue, Yu; Liu, Jia-Jia; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Xue, Chun-Yi; Bee, Ying-Zuo

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. Thousands of cases of IBDV infection are reported each year in South China, and these infections can result in considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To monitor variations of the virus during the outbreaks, 30 IBDVs were identified from vaccinated chicken flocks from nine provinces in South China in 2011. VP2 fragments from different virus strains were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with the published sequences of IBDV strains from China and around the world. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable regions of the VP2 (vVP2) gene showed that 29 of the isolates were very virulent (vv) IBDVs, and were closely related to vvIBDV strains from Europe and Asia. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of vVP2 showed the 29 vv isolates had high uniformity, indicated low variability and slow evolution of the virus. The non-vvIBDV isolate JX2-11 was associated with higher than expected mortality, and had high deduced aa sequence similarity (99.2 %) with the attenuated vaccine strain B87 (BJ). The present study has demonstrated the continued circulation of IBDV strains in South China, and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing IBDV surveillance.

  11. Sofosbuvir treatment and hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masato; Kanda, Tatsuo; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Shin; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious problem worldwide. The use of interferon-based therapy has made HCV eradication challenging. The recent appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed HCV therapy. Combining the use of DAAs with peginterferon and ribavirin has improved treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the combination of different orally administered DAAs has enabled interferon-free therapy with much higher efficacy and safety. In particular, sofosbuvir, a nucleotide-based NS5B inhibitor, prevents HCV RNA synthesis by acting as a “chain terminator”. Treatment with sofosbuvir has attained an extremely high rate of sustained virologic response. The current review summarizes the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir therapy. PMID:26839641

  12. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  13. HPV infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV infection among this group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001. Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001. The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%, HPV16 (7.2%, HPV11 (6.4%, HPV18 (4.7%, HPV58 (4.7%, and HPV52 (4.2%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenwei; Wang, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaoli; Xia, Xingxia

    2015-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. The hemagglutinin gene, which encodes the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, has been widely used to determine the relationship between CDV strains of different lineages circulating worldwide. We determined the full-length H gene sequences of seven CDV field strains detected in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China. A phylogenetic analysis of the H gene sequences of CDV strains from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Four of the seven CDV strains were grouped in the same cluster of the Asia-1 lineage to which the vast majority of Chinese CDV strains belong, whereas the other three were clustered within the Asia-4 lineage, which has never been detected in China. This represents the first record of detection of strains of the Asia-4 lineage in China since this lineage was reported in Thailand in 2013.

  15. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  16. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  17. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  18. Detection of Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type QX infection in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Brigitte; Tobler, Kurt; Schybli, Martina; Konrad, Leonie; Stöckli, René; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lüschow, Dörte; Hafez, Hafez M; Britton, Paul; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland.

  19. Doubled dosage of sofosbuviris expected for inhibiting Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is a new antiviral drug that has been recommended for management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for a few years. New researches support that sofosbuvir might be useful for the management of Zika virus infection. Based on the pharmacological activity, inhibiting the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or NS5 protein), sofosbuvir is proposed for its effectiveness against Zika virus infection. Here, the authors used a mathematical modelling theoretical approach to predict the expected dosage of sofosbuvir for inhibiting Zika virus infection. Based on the modeling study, if sofosbuvir is assigned for management of Zika virus infection, doubled dosage of the present dosage for hepatitis C management is recommended.

  20. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  1. Infection of endothelial cells by common human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Common human viruses were evaluated for their ability to replicate in the endothelial cells of human umbilical vein and bovine thoracic aorta in vitro. Infection occurred with most viruses. The susceptibilities of endothelial cells derived from bovine aorta, pulmonary artery, and vena cava were compared. Among the viruses studied, no differences were noted in the ability to grow in endothelial cells from these three large vessels. One virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, was evaluated for its ability to produce persistent infection of endothelial cells. Infection developed and persisted for up to 3 months. After the first week, productive infection was found in less than 1% of cells. Nevertheless, the infection markedly affected the growth and morphology of the endothelial monolayer. Infection with any of several different viruses was noted to alter endothelial cell functions, including adherence of granulocytes, production of colony-stimulating factor, and synthesis of matrix protein. In addition, herpes simplex virus type 1 induced receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and for complement component C3b. These findings indicate that common human viruses can profoundly affect the biology of the endothelium.

  2. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  3. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  4. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Four Species of Parrots in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Wei-Peng Tian, Ying-Tian Xu and Xing-Quan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibodies against avian Hepatitis E Virus (avian HEV were detected in 6.43% of examined serum samples (n=311 from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, lovebirds (Agapornis sp., cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in different parrot species varied from 0 to 7.92%. Statistical analysis of the origins of parrots demonstrated that parrots from Weifang city had a higher avian HEV seropositivity (7.84% compared with parrots from Beijing city (5.06%. The seroprevalence in parrots of different age groups varied from 4 to 7.62%. The avian HEV seroprevalence in parrots examined in spring and summer was 7.19 and 5.81%, respectively. This is the first report of avian HEV seroprevalence in four species of parrots in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of HEV infection in parrots in China.

  5. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  7. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabian recipients of renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies of recipients most of whom had been infected prior to transplantation, had yielded conflicting conclusions in regard to the clinical impact of hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection. We determined the frequency of new. HCV infection and assessed its effect on patient and graft survival and occurrence of chronic ...

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst parturients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and indeed the whole of Sub-Saharan Africa. The Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria (SOGHIN) recommends HBV screening for all Nigerians to pave way for early detection and treatment of the infection in those who are infected and ...

  11. Zika virus infection – a new epidemic threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pomorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus, like dengue and yellow fever viruses, is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, similarly as in the case of Ebola virus in 2014 and bird flu virus in 2009. Although the Zika virus commonly causes a mild flu-like illness, it can cause congenital infections in the foetus. Based on the recommendations of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee, the World Health Organization confirmed the possible relationship between the increase in the incidence of Zika virus infections and an increased number of infants with microcephaly. The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 10–20 times higher than in previous years. A total of 691 cases of travel-related Zika infections have been reported in the United States of America, including 206 pregnant women – with 11 cases of sexually transmitted infection; Guillain–Barré syndrome complication was identified in 2 cases. There is an emphasis on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminate mosquito breeding sites in the countries affected by the epidemic. Due to both, Zika virus isolation from sperm and the growing number of sexually transmitted infections, measures to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus have also been taken. There is an ongoing research to develop vaccine against the Zika virus, however, the estimated time of vaccine development is several years.

  12. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  13. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  14. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Bo; Rao, Hui-Ying; Ma, Yuan-Ji; Bai, Lang; Chen, En-Qiang; Du, Ling-Yao; Yang, Rui-Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Hong

    2016-10-12

    Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes of HBV/HCV dual infection compared with HCV monoinfection. A cross-sectional study. China. 997 patients with HCV from 28 university-affiliated hospitals in China were enrolled in this research. Patients were divided into two subgroups. The prevalence of HBV infection in patients with HCV was 4.11% (41/997). The age-specific prevalence of HBsAg was 0.70%, 3.97% and 5.85% in groups aged 18-30, 30-50 and >50 years old (p=0.057), respectively. Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection and patients with HCV monoinfection had similar HCV viral loads (5.80±0.89 vs 5.83±1.00 log10 IU/mL, p=0.904). The dominant HCV genotype was 1b in both groups (53.65% vs 56.90%, p=0.493). The protective C allele in IL-28B (rs12979860) was also the dominant allele type in both patient groups (85.36% vs 83.99%, p=0.814). Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection had a higher ratio of liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation than patients with HCV monoinfection (39.02% vs 17.69%, p=0.001; 31.70% vs 12.13%, p=0.001). The HBV burden was moderate in HCV-infected patients in China. Liver cirrhosis was more common in patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, suggesting the need for closer monitoring of dual-infected individuals. NCT01293279; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A Novel Type of Polyhedral Viruses Infecting Hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2017-07-01

    Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known viruses. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20-kDa virion protein. Lipids selectively acquired from the pool of host lipids are integral constituents of the virion. None of the major virion proteins of SPV1 show similarity to structural proteins of known viruses. However, minor structural proteins, which are predicted to mediate host recognition, are shared with other hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses infecting members of the order Sulfolobales The SPV1 genome consists of 20,222 bp and contains 45 open reading frames, only one-fifth of which could be functionally annotated. IMPORTANCE Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea display a remarkable morphological diversity, often presenting architectural solutions not employed by known viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. Here we present the isolation and characterization of Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1, which condenses its genome into a unique spherical coil. Due to the original genomic and architectural features of SPV1, the virus should be considered a representative of a new viral family, "Portogloboviridae." Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z

    2017-08-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Hannah M; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Belser, Jessica A

    2018-04-01

    Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully

  19. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  20. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, I; Guan, R; Amarapuka, D; Alexander, M J; Chutaputti, A; Chien, R N; Hasnian, S S; Leung, N; Lesmana, L; Phiet, P H; Sjalfoellah Noer, H M; Sollano, J; Sun, H S; Xu, D Z

    2000-12-01

    Of the estimated 50 million new cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection diagnosed annually, 5-10% of adults and up to 90% of infants will become chronically infected, 75% of these in Asia where hepatitis B is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Indonesia, 4.6% of the population was positive for HBsAg in 1994 and of these, 21% were positive for HBeAg and 73% for anti-HBe; 44% and 45% of Indonesian patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, were HBsAg positive. In the Philippines, there appear to be two types of age-specific HBsAg prevalence, suggesting different modes of transmission. In Thailand, 8-10% of males and 6-8% of females are HBsAg positive, with HBsAg also found in 30% of patients with cirrhosis and 50-75% of those with HCC. In Taiwan, 75-80% of patients with chronic liver disease are HBsAg positive, and HBsAg is found in 34% and 72% of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively. In China, 73% of patients with chronic hepatitis and 78% and 71% of those with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, are HBsAg positive. In Singapore, the prevalence of HBsAg has dropped since the introduction of HBV vaccination and the HBsAg seroprevalence of unvaccinated individuals over 5 years of age is 4.5%. In Malaysia, 5.24% of healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 34 years, were positive for HBsAg in 1997. In the highly endemic countries in Asia, the majority of infections are contracted postnatally or perinatally. Three phases of chronic HBV infection are recognized: phase 1 patients are HBeAg positive with high levels of virus in the serum and minimal hepatic inflammation; phase 2 patients have intermittent or continuous hepatitis of varying degrees of severity; phase 3 is the inactive phase during which viral concentrations are low and there is minimal inflammatory activity in the liver. In general, patients who clear HBeAg have a better prognosis than patients who remain HBeAg-positive for prolonged periods of

  1. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs. © FASEB.

  2. Roles for Endothelial Cells in Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Dalrymple

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses cause two severe diseases that alter vascular fluid barrier functions, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The endothelium is the primary fluid barrier of the vasculature and ultimately the effects of dengue virus infection that cause capillary leakage impact endothelial cell (EC barrier functions. The ability of dengue virus to infect the endothelium provides a direct means for dengue to alter capillary permeability, permit virus replication, and induce responses that recruit immune cells to the endothelium. Recent studies focused on dengue virus infection of primary ECs have demonstrated that ECs are efficiently infected, rapidly produce viral progeny, and elicit immune enhancing cytokine responses that may contribute to pathogenesis. Furthermore, infected ECs have also been implicated in enhancing viremia and immunopathogenesis within murine dengue disease models. Thus dengue-infected ECs have the potential to directly contribute to immune enhancement, capillary permeability, viremia, and immune targeting of the endothelium. These effects implicate responses of the infected endothelium in dengue pathogenesis and rationalize therapeutic targeting of the endothelium and EC responses as a means of reducing the severity of dengue virus disease.

  3. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615) of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  4. Virus specific antigens in mammalian cells infected with herpes simplex virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. H.; Shedden, W. I. H.; Elliot, A.; Tetsuka, T.; Wildy, P.; Bourgaux-Ramoisy, D.; Gold, E.

    1966-01-01

    Antisera to specific proteins in herpes simplex infected cells were produced by immunization of rabbits with infected rabbit kidney cells. These antisera were highly virus specific and produced up to twelve lines in immunodiffusion tests against infected cell extracts. Acrylamide electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis revealed up to ten virus specific proteins of varying size. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4288648

  5. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  6. Virus and Infections 2010 - BIT's first world congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkavenko, Olga

    2010-10-01

    The World Congress of Virus and Infections, held in Busan, South Korea, included topics reviewing the field of zoonoses. This conference report highlights selected presentations on surveillance, epidemiology and measures for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases. Topics discussed include human factors influencing zoonoses, the molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, the emerging Nipah virus, and the re-emergence of cowpox virus.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled ... 2018 Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) , Division of Viral Diseases Email Recommend ...

  9. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  10. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhab

    The broad host range of CMV and its ability to be transmitted by aphids .... development of obvious yellow color in ELISA micro plate wells. The mean ... hosts harbor the virus in asymptomatic infection (Table. 1). ... Aster subulatus Michx.

  11. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71 and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threatens of the other enteroviruses, our study genetically characterized specimens from different regions of China and yielded novel information concerning the circulating and phylogenetic characteristics of enteroviral strains from HFMD cases. Findings A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4% HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected. Conclusions The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.

  12. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Infection among Females in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 has recently been found to have synergistic effect with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and co-infection of the two presents more severe burden to the immunity of the victim. This leads to much morbidity and mortality with negative economic impact. In this study, we set out to determine ...

  14. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.

  15. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has

  16. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The study described here concerns the proteins, synthesized as a result of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) multiplication in tobacco protoplasts and in cowpea protoplasts. The identification of proteins involved in the TMV infection, for instance in the virus RNA replication, helps to elucidate

  17. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, Ronald F; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Lamont R, Sobel J, Carrington D, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic J, Vaisbuch E, Romero R. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02983.x. Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella-zoster virus pneumonia and ...

  18. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-08-01

    To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs.

  19. Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Parpia, Alyssa S; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-10-18

    Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious neurologic conditions, and fetal death, health ministries across the region have advised women to delay pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of this policy in reducing prenatal Zika virus infection has yet to be quantified. To evaluate the effectiveness of pregnancy-delay policies on the incidence and prevalence of prenatal Zika virus infection. Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. Colombia, August 2015 to July 2017. Population of Colombia, stratified by sex, age, and pregnancy status. Recommendations to delay pregnancy by 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 months, at different levels of adherence. Weekly and cumulative incidence of prenatal infections and microcephaly cases. With 50% adherence to recommendations to delay pregnancy by 9 to 24 months, the cumulative incidence of prenatal Zika virus infections is likely to decrease by 17% to 44%, whereas recommendations to delay pregnancy by 6 or fewer months are likely to increase prenatal infections by 2% to 7%. This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. Sexual transmission was not explicitly accounted for in the model because of limited data but was implicitly subsumed within the overall transmission rate, which was calibrated to observed incidence. Pregnancy delays can have a substantial effect on reducing cases of microcephaly but risks exacerbating the Zika virus outbreak if the duration is not sufficient. Duration of the delay, population adherence, and the timing of initiation of the intervention must be carefully considered. National Institutes of Health.

  20. Serious invasive Saffold virus infections in children, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Banner, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    The first human virus in the genus Cardiovirus was described in 2007 and named Saffold virus (SAFV). Cardioviruses can cause severe infections of the myocardium and central nervous system in animals, but SAFV has not yet been convincingly associated with disease in humans. To study a possible ass...... association between SAFV and infections in the human central nervous system, we designed a real-time PCR for SAFV and tested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children...

  1. Human papilloma virus infection and cervical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinte-Popescu, Alina; Costăchescu, Gh

    2012-01-01

    Pap testing is considered to be the best screening tool for cervical cancer but there is currently great interest in the possible application of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing to supplement Pap screening for cervical cancer. To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV types in the studied population and to explore the association between high-risk HPV types and cervical dysplasia. Cross-sectional study conducted at the Iasi Cuza Voda Obstetrics-Gynecology Hospital and Suceava County Hospital. 332 women who underwent colposcopy for cervical lesions between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. The overall prevalence of HPV was 57.23%. HPV prevalence differs significantly in the three age groups up to 50 years. It was highest in patients below the age of 40 and progressively lower with advancing age. The overall prevalence of cervical dysplasia was 56.62%. The prevalence of cervical dysplasia was highest in the age groups up to 40 years. The most important determinant of HPV infection is age. Persistence of HPV appears to be associated with progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion. Dysplasia is often missed in a cervical sample either because of human error in screening and interpretation, or because of suboptimal quality of Pap smear. Incorporation of HPV testing into the present Pap screening program has the potential of making screening for cervical cancer more effective, and a necessary prelude to assessing this is by determining the prevalence of the high-risk types.

  2. Risk assessment of human infection with a novel bunyavirus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus – severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV – in China.Methods: The likelihood of disease spread and the magnitude of public health impact were assessed to clarify overall risk. Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. Information on SFTSV cases and the population in six provinces under surveillance was compared.Results: SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. A widely distributed tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can act as the vector; thus the disease is likely to spread in China. Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. High-risk populations include farmers and older females. Evidence of human-to-human transmission within family and hospital has been reported. The capacity for treatment and diagnosis of SFTSV are adequate in rural communities in China, and community awareness of the disease should be high. Discussion: There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. There is potential for an increase in the number of cases reported as awareness increases and when surveillance is expanded.

  3. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Li, Tianbang; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.

  4. Autophagy in Negative-Strand RNA Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a homoeostatic process by which cytoplasmic material is targeted for degradation by the cell. Viruses have learned to manipulate the autophagic pathway to ensure their own replication and survival. Although much progress has been achieved in dissecting the interplay between viruses and cellular autophagic machinery, it is not well understood how the cellular autophagic pathway is utilized by viruses and manipulated to their own advantage. In this review, we briefly introduce autophagy, viral xenophagy and the interaction among autophagy, virus and immune response, then focus on the interplay between NS-RNA viruses and autophagy during virus infection. We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA viruses and will describe how these NS-RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection. We also review recent advances in understanding how NS-RNA viral proteins perturb autophagy and how autophagy-related proteins contribute to NS-RNA virus replication, pathogenesis and antiviral immunity.

  5. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  6. Comparative Pathology of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-30

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) cause acute, self-limiting hepatic infections that are usually spread by the fecal-oral route in humans. Naturally occurring and experimental infections are possible in a variety of nonhuman primates and, in the case of HEV, a number of other species. Many advances in understanding the pathogenesis of these viruses have come from studies in experimental animals. In general, animals infected with these viruses recapitulate the histologic lesions seen in infected humans, but typically with less severe clinical and histopathological manifestations. This review describes the histopathologic changes associated with HAV and HEV infection in humans and experimental animals. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. UV radiation and mouse models of herpes simplex virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norval, Mary; El-Ghorr, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Orolabial human infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are very common; following the primary epidermal infection, the virus is retained in a latent form in the trigeminal ganglia from where it can reactivate and cause a recrudescent lesion. Recrudescences are triggered by various stimuli including exposure to sunlight. In this review three categories of mouse models are used to examine the effects of UV irradiation on HSV infections: these are UV exposure prior to primary infection, UV exposure as a triggering event for recrudescence and UV exposure prior to challenge with virus is mice already immunized to HSV. In each of these models immunosuppression occurs, which is manifest, in some instances, in increased morbidity or an increased rate of recrudescence. Where known, the immunological mechanisms involved in the models are summarized and their relevance to human infections considered. (Author)

  8. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  9. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  10. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection

  11. Viral etiologies of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in China, 2009-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhao Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongrong; Zhang, Hong; Xiong, Yong; Gui, Xien; Zhang, Yongxi; Deng, Liping; Gao, Shicheng; Luo, Mingqi; Hou, Wei; Guo, Deyin

    2017-01-01

    CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 63.0% (34 of 54) of all causes of meningitis, 13.0% (7/54) for TB, 9.3% (5/54) for Toxoplasma gondii. Of 54 samples sent for viral PCR, 31.5% (17/54) were positive, 12 (22.2%) for CMV, 2 (3.7%) for VZV, 1 (1.9%) for EBV, 1 (1.9%) for HHV-6 and 1 (1.9%) for JCV. No patient was positive for HSV. Pathogen-based treatment and high GCS score tended to have a lower mortality rate, whereas patients with multiple pathogens infection, seizures or intracranial hypertension showed higher odds of death. CNS OIs are frequent and multiple pathogens often coexist in CSF. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent CNS disorders among AIDS. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve the diagnosis of AIDS related OIs in resource-limited developing countries, but the cost-efficacy remains to be further evaluated.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease and corresponding biosafety considerations in the China Ebola Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling; You, Jian-Ping; Mao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a potent acute infectious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Etiological and serological EBOV detection methods, including techniques that involve the detection of the viral genome, virus-specific antigens and anti-virus antibodies, are standard laboratory diagnostic tests that facilitate confirmation or exclusion of EBOV infection. In addition, routine blood tests, liver and kidney function tests, electrolytes and coagulation tests and other diagnostic examinations are important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of EVD. Because of the viral load in body fluids and secretions from EVD patients, all body fluids are highly contagious. As a result, biosafety control measures during the collection, transport and testing of clinical specimens obtained from individuals scheduled to undergo EBOV infection testing (including suspected, probable and confirmed cases) are crucial. This report has been generated following extensive work experience in the China Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Liberia and incorporates important information pertaining to relevant diagnostic standards, clinical significance, operational procedures, safety controls and other issues related to laboratory testing of EVD. Relevant opinions and suggestions are presented in this report to provide contextual awareness associated with the development of standards and/or guidelines related to EVD laboratory testing.

  14. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  15. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Femke A. E.; Prins, Maria; Thomas, Xiomara; Molenkamp, Richard; Kwa, David; Brinkman, Kees; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Schinkel, Janke; Countinho, R.; Reesink, H.; van Baarle, D.; Smit, C.; Gras, L.; van der Veldt, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that seroprevalence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among MSM is stabilizing in Amsterdam. However, little is known about the incidence of HCV re-infection in MSM who have cleared their HCV infection. We, therefore, studied the incidence of re-infection

  16. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  17. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope. TIM family proteins were recently found to enhance infections by many different viruses, including several members of the Flaviviridae family. However, their importance in HCV infection has not previously been examined experimentally. The TIM family proteins include three members in humans: TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. The findings derived from our studies demonstrate that TIM-1, but not TIM-3 or TIM-4, promotes HCV infection by functioning as an HCV attachment factor. Knockout of the TIM-1 gene resulted in a remarkable reduction of HCV cell attachment and infection. PS-containing liposomes blocked HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. HCV particles could also be precipitated with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. These findings suggest that TIM-1

  18. Infection and Proliferation of Giant Viruses in Amoeba Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first discovered giant virus with genome size and particle size much larger than previously discovered viruses, possesses several genes for translation and CRISPER Cas system-like defense mechanism against virophages, which co-infect amoeba cells with the giant virus and which inhibit giant virus proliferation. Mimiviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their stargate structure. After infection, giant virion factories (VFs) form in amoeba cytoplasm, followed by DNA replication and particle formation at peripheral regions of VF. Marseilleviruses, the smallest giant viruses, infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis or endocytosis, form larger VF than Mimivirus's VF in amoeba cytoplasm, and replicate their particles. Pandoraviruses found in 2013 have the largest genome size and particle size among all viruses ever found. Pandoraviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their mouth-like apical pores. The proliferation of Pandoraviruses occurs along with nucleus disruption. New virions form at the periphery of the region formerly occupied by the amoeba cell nucleus.

  19. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  20. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  1. Effects of interferon on cultured cells persistently infected with viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M

    1986-01-01

    The role of interferon (IFN) in viral persistence at the cellular level was investigated. Two types of persistent infections were chosen. The first type was cell lines which contained hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells) uninfected control hepatoma cells, (Mahlavu, HA22T and Hep G2 cells) or simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA (C2, C6, C11 cells) and control uninfected (CV-1 cells). In the second type of infection Vero cells persistently infected with SSPE or Sendai virus were used. The aim of this work was to determine what effect IFN had in these infections in terms of its antiviral and antiproliferative effects; which of the two major IFN-induced pathways, E enzyme or protein kinase were induced; whether there were any differences in sensitivity to IFN between the DNA and RNA virus persistent infections. The anti-viral effect of IFN was examined by its ability to inhibit Sindbis virus replication using a radioimmunoassay system. The antiproliferative effect of IFN was determined by cell counting and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. The activation of the ribonuclease F, determined by the inhibition of /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation after introduction of 2-5 actin into the cells, was variable, being activated in all cell lines with the exception of the PLC/PRF/5, Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells. Major differences between the two DNA persistent infections and the two RNA persistent infections were found. No correlation was found between the presence of HBV or SV40 persistent infections and the sensitivity of the cell lines to IFN. Both the SSPE and Sendai virus persistent infections were resistant to the antiviral and antiproliferative effect of IFN.

  2. Distribution of hepatitis B virus infection in Namibia | Mhata | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate ...

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Makerere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students in the course of their clinical work are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or transmitting it to their patients. HBV immunization for medical students in Uganda is recommended but not strictly enforced. It is important to assess the prevalence of HBV infection in medical students in ...

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Niesters, Hubert G M; van den Berg, Arie P; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Porte, Robert J; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H J; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limited course. Recently, chronic hepatitis E has been described in several immunosuppressed patients after solid organ transplantation. The prevalence of HEV infection after transplantation, however, is unknown. We studied HEV parameters [HEV

  5. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  6. Dengue virus life cycle : viral and host factors modulating infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Dengue virus (DENV 1-4) represents a major emerging arthropod-borne pathogen. All four DENV serotypes are prevalent in the (sub) tropical regions of the world and infect 50-100 million individuals annually. Whereas the majority of DENV infections proceed asymptomatically or result in self-limited

  7. Seroprevalence and Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although children comprise a small fraction of the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, which is a major global health challenge, a significant number of them develop chronic HCV infection and are at risk of its complications. Aim: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and ...

  8. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with ...

  9. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Appelman, P.; Frijstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence

  11. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; van den Berg, Arie P.; Porte, Robert J.; Benne, Cornelis A.; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H. J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limiting course. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis due to infection with HEV genotype 3, present in pig populations, are increasingly recognized. Zoonotic transmission seems infrequent. The entity of unexplained chronic hepatitis after liver

  12. Fracture risk in hepatitis C virus infected persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection and fracture risk is not well characterized. We compared fracture risk between HCV-seropositive (HCV-exposed) patients and the general population and between patients with cleared and chronic HCV-infection. METHODS...

  13. Fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an infant following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an infant following mother-to-child transmission of an e-minus HBV mutant: Time to relook at HBV prophylaxis in South ... immune responses, and its absence was probably responsible for the infant's fulminant hepatitis, due to an uncontrolled immune attack on infected liver cells.

  14. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Agboghoroma et al. HIV Infection Diagnosed in Women in Labour. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3):137. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among. Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with. Negative status ...

  15. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  16. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuo; Bi, Yuhai; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C; Gao, George F; Li, Shoujun

    2015-09-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

  19. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  20. Enhanced infectivity of bluetongue virus in cell culture by centrifugation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, D R; Mecham, J O

    1989-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation of the infection of cell culture with bluetongue virus (BTV) were investigated. Baby hamster kidney cells were infected with BTV with or without centrifugation. Viral antigen was detected by immunofluorescence at 24 h in both centrifuged and noncentrifuged cultures. However, after 24 h of infection, the production of PFU in centrifuged cell cultures was 10- to 20-fold greater than that seen in cultures not centrifuged. In addition, centrifugation enhanced the dir...

  1. Isolation of avian influenza virus (H9N2 from emu in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wenhua

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first reported isolation of avian influenza virus (AIV from emu in China. An outbreak of AIV infection occurred at an emu farm that housed 40 four-month-old birds. Various degrees of haemorrhage were discovered in the tissues of affected emus. Cell degeneration and necrosis were observed microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed round or oval virions with a diameter of 80 nm to 120 nm, surrounded by an envelope with spikes. The virus was classified as low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV, according to OIE standards. It was named A/Emu/HeNen/14/2004(H9N2(Emu/HN/2004. The HA gene (1683bp was amplified by RT-PCR and it was compared with other animal H9N2 AIV sequences in GenBank, the US National Institutes of Health genetic sequence database. The results suggested that Emu/HN/2004 may have come from an avian influenza virus (H9N2 from Southern China.

  2. Zika virus infection and its emerging trends in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin; Haszianaliza Haslan; Norshalizah Mamikutty; Nurul Hannim Zaidun; Mohamad Fairuz Azmi; Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin; Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad; Zar Chi Thent

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus.

  3. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  4. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  5. Emerging Zika virus infection:What should we know?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is a new emerging viral disease that becomes the present public health threat. At present, this infection can be seen in several countries. The clinical presentation of this infection is a dengue-like illness. Nevertheless, the new information shows that the disease can be sexually transmitted and transplacentally transmitted. In addition, the recent evidence from the recent epidemic in South America shows that the infection in pregnancy can cause neonatal neurological defect. In this short review, the author summarizes and presents interesting data on clinical features of this new emerging infection.

  6. Emerging Zika virus infection: What should we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus infection is a new emerging viral disease that becomes the present public health threat. At present, this infection can be seen in several countries. The clinical presentation of this infection is a dengue-like illness. Nevertheless, the new information shows that the disease can be sexually transmitted and transplacentally transmitted. In addition, the recent evidence from the recent epidemic in South America shows that the infection in pregnancy can cause neonatal neurological defect. In this short review, the author summarizes and presents interesting data on clinical features of this new emerging infection.

  7. Selective receptor expression restricts Nipah virus infection of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederich Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes severe diseases in animals and humans. Endothelial cell (EC infection is an established hallmark of NiV infection in vivo. Despite systemic virus spread via the vascular system, EC in brain and lung are preferentially infected whereas EC in other organs are less affected. As in vivo, we found differences in the infection of EC in cell culture. Only brain-derived primary or immortalized EC were found to be permissive to NiV infection. Using a replication-independent fusion assay, we could show that the lack of infection in non-brain EC was due to a lack of receptor expression. The NiV entry receptors ephrinB2 (EB2 or ephrinB3 were only expressed in brain endothelia. The finding that EB2 expression in previously non-permissive aortic EC rendered the cells permissive to infection then demonstrated that EB2 is not only necessary but also sufficient to allow the establishment of a productive NiV infection. This strongly suggests that limitations in receptor expression restrict virus entry in certain EC subsets in vivo, and are thus responsible for the differences in EC tropism observed in human and animal NiV infections.

  8. Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Tsui, Irena; Rossetto, Julia; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Adachi, Kristina; Valderramos, Stephanie; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Pone, Marcos Vinicius da Silva; Pone, Sheila Moura; Silveira Filho, Joel Carlos Barros; Aibe, Mitsue S; da Costa, Ana Carolina C; Zin, Olivia A; Belfort, Rubens; Brasil, Patricia; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mother-infant pairs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with suspected Zika virus infection during pregnancy were referred to our institution and had serum, urine, amniotic fluid, or placenta samples tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus. Description of eye findings, presence of microcephaly or other central nervous system abnormalities, and timing of infection in infants with confirmed Zika virus during pregnancy. Eye abnormalities were correlated with central nervous system findings, microcephaly, and the timing of maternal infection. Of the 112 with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection in maternal specimens, 24 infants (21.4%) examined had eye abnormalities (median age at first eye examination, 31 days; range, 0-305 days). Ten infants (41.7%) with eye abnormalities did not have microcephaly, and 8 (33.3%) did not have any central nervous system findings. Fourteen infants with eye abnormalities (58.3%) were born to women infected in the first trimester, 8 (33.3%) in the second trimester, and 2 (8.3%) in the third trimester. Optic nerve and retinal abnormalities were the most frequent findings. Eye abnormalities were statistically associated with microcephaly (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; 95% CI, 6.0-61.0), other central

  9. Statins Suppress Ebola Virus Infectivity by Interfering with Glycoprotein Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Flint, Mike; Bergeron, Éric; McElroy, Anita K; Chatterjee, Payel; Albariño, César G; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2018-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatments. Statins, widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic mechanisms of action and were suggested as potential adjunct therapy for Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of statin (lovastatin) on EBOV infection in vitro Statin treatment decreased infectious EBOV production in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and in the hepatic cell line Huh7. Statin treatment did not interfere with viral entry, but the viral particles released from treated cells showed reduced infectivity due to inhibition of viral glycoprotein processing, as evidenced by decreased ratios of the mature glycoprotein form to precursor form. Statin-induced inhibition of infectious virus production and glycoprotein processing was reversed by exogenous mevalonate, the rate-limiting product of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, but not by low-density lipoprotein. Finally, statin-treated cells produced EBOV particles devoid of the surface glycoproteins required for virus infectivity. Our findings demonstrate that statin treatment inhibits EBOV infection and suggest that the efficacy of statin treatment should be evaluated in appropriate animal models of EVD. IMPORTANCE Treatments targeting Ebola virus disease (EVD) are experimental, expensive, and scarce. Statins are inexpensive generic drugs that have been used for many years for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have a favorable safety profile. Here, we show the antiviral effects of statins on infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) production. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which statin regulates EBOV particle infectivity by preventing glycoprotein processing and incorporation into virus particles. Additionally, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Since inflammation and dysregulation of the immune

  10. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Characterisation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 clade 2.3.2 influenza virus isolated from swans in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Xinlun; Hu, Jiao; Gu, Xiaobing; Kai, Yan; Song, Qingqing; Sun, Qing; Liu, Jinbao; Peng, Daxin; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2012-02-01

    In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic for mammalian hosts, as evidenced by reduced infection of mice. The analysis of complete genome sequences and genetic evolution showed that A/Swan/Shanghai/10/09 (SW/SH/09) may be derived from the strain A/silky chicken/Shantou/475/2004 (CK/ST/04), which is homologous to the influenza viruses isolated from chicken, duck, pika, little egret, swan, mandarin duck and bar-headed goose in China Hunan, China Qinghai, Mongolia, Russia, Japan, Korea, Laos and Hong Kong during 2007-2011, indicating that the virus has retro-infected diverse wild birds from chicken, and significant spread of the virus is still ongoing through overlapping migratory flyways. On the basis of the molecular analysis, we also found that there was a deletion of the glycosylation site (NSS) in amino acid 156 of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein when compared with that of the other Clade 2.3.2 viruses isolated between 2007 and 2011. More importantly, the sequence analysis of SW/SH/09 virus displayed the drug-resistant mutations on the matrix protein (M2) and neuraminidase (NA) genes.

  12. Experimental Challenge of a Peridomestic Avian Species, European Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), with Novel Influenza A H7N9 Virus from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Ip, Hon S; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of H7N9 at live poultry markets. We experimentally challenged wild European Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) with the novel H7N9 virus and measured virus excretion, clinical signs, and infectious dose. We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. This abundant peridomestic bird may be a source of the novel H7N9 virus in live poultry markets and may have roles in virus transmission to poultry and humans.

  13. Experimental challenge of a peridomestic avian species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), with novel Influenza A H7N9 virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of H7N9 at live poultry markets. We experimentally challenged wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with the novel H7N9 virus and measured virus excretion, clinical signs, and infectious dose. We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. This abundant peridomestic bird may be a source of the novel H7N9 virus in live poultry markets and may have roles in virus transmission to poultry and humans.

  14. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Sarman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors. RESULTS: The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001). Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients, the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus co-infections in these patients at the earliest. PMID:17106941

  15. Social stigmatization and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Steven; Beavers, Kimberly; Theodore, Dickens; Dougherty, Karen; Batey, Betty; Shumaker, Jeremy; Galanko, Joseph; Shrestha, Roshan; Fried, Michael W

    2006-03-01

    Our aim was to assess stigmatization by evaluating the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on social interactions, feelings of rejection, internalized shame, and financial insecurity, and behavior. HCV patients suffer from slowly progressive disease. Although much research has improved the long-term prognosis of chronic HCV, quality of life may be affected by perceived social stigmatization. In a cross-sectional study, HCV patients without cirrhosis or significant comorbidities were recruited from the University of North Carolina viral hepatitis clinic. Subjects completed a questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer that assessed changes in sexual behavior, personal hygiene habits, social function, and interactions. Additionally, subjects completed validated, standardized questionnaires, the Health Status Questionnaire, and the SCL-90-R. Frequencies were calculated for the prevalence of stigmatization and altered social interaction. Correlations between education and behavior changes were assessed. A series of multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, and education were performed to assess the association between HCV acquisition risk and stigmatization. One hundred seventy-five of 217 potential subjects (81%) participated in the survey. The average age was 45.2+/-7.7 years. Fifty-five percent were men and 53% were single. Twenty-nine percent had some college education. Risk factors for HCV acquisition included transfusion (21%) and injection drug use (29%), whereas 32% had an unknown mode of infection. Among common activities, 47% were less likely to share drinking glasses, 14% were less likely to prepare food, and one-third of subjects were less likely to share a towel. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported changes in their sexual practices. Decreased frequency of kissing and sexual intercourse was reported in 20% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Almost half of the single subjects reported increased use of condoms compared with only 20

  16. Distribution and molecular diversity of three cucurbit-infecting poleroviruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qiao-xia; Xiang, Hai-ying; Han, Cheng-gui; Li, Da-wei; Yu, Jia-lin

    2009-11-01

    Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) and Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) have been found to be associated with cucurbit yellowing disease in China. Our report identifies for the first time a third distinct polerovirus, tentatively named Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV), infecting Suakwa vegetable sponge. To better understand the distribution and molecular diversity of these three poleroviruses infecting cucurbits, a total of 214 cucurbitaceous crop samples were collected from 25 provinces in China, and were investigated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Of these, 108 samples tested positive for CABYV, while 40 samples from five provinces were positive for MABYV, and SABYV was detected in only 4 samples which were collected in the southern part of China. Forty-one PCR-amplified fragments containing a portion of the RdRp gene, intergenic NCR and CP gene were cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons showed that CABYV isolates shared 78.0-79.2% nucleotide sequence identity with MABYV isolates, and 69.7-70.8% with SABYV. Sequence identity between MABYV and SABYV was 73.3-76.5%. In contrast, the nucleotide identities within each species were 93.2-98.7% (CABYV), 98.1-99.9% (MABYV), and 96.1-98.6% (SABYV). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the polerovirus isolates fit into three distinct groups, corresponding to the three species. The CABYV group could be further divided into two subgroups: the Asia subgroup and the Mediterranean subgroup, based on CP gene and partial RdRp gene sequences. Recombination analysis suggested that MABYV may be a recombinant virus.

  17. Towards antiviral therapies for treating dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Suzanne Jf; Neyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus is an emerging human pathogen that poses a huge public health burden by infecting annually about 390 million individuals of which a quarter report with clinical manifestations. Although progress has been made in understanding dengue pathogenesis, a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy against this virus is still lacking. Treatment of patients is confined to symptomatic alleviation and supportive care. The development of dengue therapeutics thus remains of utmost importance. This review focuses on the few molecules that were evaluated in dengue virus-infected patients: balapiravir, chloroquine, lovastatin, prednisolone and celgosivir. The lessons learned from these clinical trials can be very helpful for the design of future trials for the next generation of dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  19. Changing clinical scenario in Chandipura virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies are implicated as vectors due to their predominance in endemic areas, repeated virus isolations and their ability to transmit the virus by transovarial and venereal routes. Significant contributions have been made in the development of diagnostics and prophylactics, vaccines and antivirals. Two candidate vaccines, viz. a recombinant vaccine and a killed vaccine and siRNAs targeting P and M proteins have been developed and are awaiting clinical trials. Rhabdomyosarcoma and Phlebotomus papatasi cell lines as well as embryonated chicken eggs have been found useful in virus isolation and propagation. Despite these advancements, CHPV has been a major concern in Central India and warrants immediate attention from virologists, neurologists, paediatricians and the government for containing the virus.

  20. Reduced incorporation of the influenza B virus BM2 protein in virus particles decreases infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, David; Zuercher, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    BM2 is the fourth integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza B virus genome. It is synthesized late in infection and transported to the plasma membrane from where it is subsequently incorporated into progeny virus particles. It has recently been reported that BM2 has ion channel activity and may be the functional homologue of the influenza A virus M2 protein acting as an ion channel involved in viral entry. Using a reverse genetic approach it was not possible to recover virus which lacked BM2. A recombinant influenza B virus was generated in which the BM2 AUG initiation codon was mutated to GUG. This decreased the efficiency of translation of BM2 protein such that progeny virions contained only 1/8 the amount of BM2 seen in wild-type virus. The reduction in BM2 incorporation resulted in a reduction in infectivity although there was no concomitant decrease in the numbers of virions released from the infected cells. These data imply that the incorporation of sufficient BM2 protein into influenza B virions is required for infectivity of the virus particles

  1. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  4. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  5. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  6. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  7. Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Chuantian; Yan, Minghua; Xin, Xiaoguang; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-02-25

    During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  9. THE POSSIBLE COLLISIONS IN VIRUS INFECTION IMMUNODIAGNOSTICS AND VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Ab, especially natural, display multiple specificity not only due to intrinsic conformational dynamics. With computational analysis the distribution of identical and homologous peptides has been studied in surface proteins from RNA and DNA viruses of widely distributed infections. It was established that each virus protein shared the fragments homologous to other virus proteins that allowed to propose the existence of the peptide continuum of the protein relationship (PCPR. Possible manifestations of PCPR are multiple reactivity and autoreactivity in Ab and therefore it is not possible to consider the immune methods of virus identification as high reliable because of crossing interactions. The PCPR excludes the existence of 100% specificity in immune tests for virus identification. Immunodiagnostic collisions may occur either in identification of virus itself or identification of Ab to viruses. Also PCPR may be responsible for heterologous immunity and consequently the infection associated with severe pathology. The comparative analysis of peptide relationship of H1N1 influenza virus nucleoprotein and human proteins found out, beyond early described its common motif with human hypocretin receptor 2, peptides homologous to those in melanotonin and glutamate receptors and three ion channels. It allows to propose that the sleep disorder narcolepsy associated with Pandemrix vaccination (an adjuvanted, influenza pandemic vaccine and also with infection by influenza virus during the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic may be determined not only by Ab to the peptide motif common to influenza nucleoprotein and hypocretin receptor but also Ab to melanotonin and glutamate receptors and ion channels. Decreasing and even avoiding risks of complications from vaccination may be feasible by means of a computer analysis of vaccine proteins for the occurrence of epitopes homologous to the human protein those and particularly by an analysis of Ab profiles

  10. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

  11. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  12. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  13. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.

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    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Feitosa, Ian M L; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Pessoa, André; Doriqui, Maria Juliana R; Neri, Joao Ivanildo; Neto, Joao Monteiro de Pina; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Cernach, Mirlene; El-Husny, Antonette S; Pone, Marcos V S; Serao, Cassio L C; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V

    2016-01-29

    In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear

  15. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Ghazi A. Jamjoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. Methods Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939 and 37% (68/184 in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1% reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others

  18. Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

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    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Central China.A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177; 2a, 13.0% (23/177; 3b, 2.3% (4/177; 6a, 1.1% (2/177; 3a, 0.6% (1/177. Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

  19. Clinical signs, diagnosis, and case reports of Vaccinia virus infections

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    Daniela Carla Medeiros Silva

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus is responsible for a zoonosis that usually affects cattle and human beings in Brazil. The initial clinical signs of the infection are focal red skin areas, fever, and general symptoms similar to those of a cold. Then, pustules and ulcerated lesions surrounded by edema and erythema follow, as well as local lymphadenopathy that can last for weeks. Cure and healing of the lesions occur over several weeks, leaving a typical scar in the skin of people and animals affected. The infection definitive diagnosis is made through morphological characterization of the virus by use of electron microscopy, followed by PCR for specific viral genes. Since 1963, circulating orthopoxviruses in infectious outbreaks in several regions of Brazil have been reported. Later, the etiological agent of those infections was characterized as samples of Vaccinia virus. In addition, the widespread use of those viruses in research laboratories and mass vaccination of militaries have contributed to increase the cases of those infections worldwide. Thus, several epidemiological and clinical studies are required, as well as studies of viral immunology, public health, and economic impact, because little is known about those Vaccinia virus outbreaks in Brazil.

  20. Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ∼10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

  1. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matloob

    2014-12-01

    New human influenza A virus strains regularly emerge causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Lately, several zoonotic avian influenza A strains have been reported to directly infect humans. In early 2013, a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) strain was discovered in China to cause severe respiratory disease in humans. Since then, over 450 human cases of H7N9 infection have been discovered and 165 of them have died. Multiple epidemiological, phylogenetic, in vivo, and in vitro studies have been done to determine the origin and pathogenesis of novel H7N9 strain. This article reviews the literature related to the epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 strain since its discovery in February 2013 till August 2014. The data available so far indicate that H7N9 was originated by a two-step reassortment process in birds and transmitted to humans through direct contact with live-bird markets. H7N9 is a low-pathogenic avian virus and contains several molecular signatures for adaptation in mammals. The severity of the respiratory disease caused by novel H7N9 virus in humans can be partly attributed to the age, sex, and underlying medical conditions of the patients. A universal influenza vaccine is not available, though several strain-specific H7N9 candidate vaccine viruses have been developed. Further, novel H7N9 virus is resistant to antiviral drug amantadine and some H7N9 isolates have acquired the resistance to neuraminidase-inhibitors. Therefore, constant surveillance and prompt control measures combined with novel research approaches to develop alternative and effective anti-influenza strategies are needed to overcome influenza A virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nosocomial infections by respiratory syncytial virus in children

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    Maren Karina Machado Echeverría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lower respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most prevalent agent. Some viruses cause serious nosocomial infections. In Uruguay, there is no knowledge about the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections by RSV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of RSV nosocomial infections. Methodology: A descriptive study of acute lower respiratory infections caused by RSV in patients younger than two years, between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2008 at the Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, was made. Results: Were identified 59 patients who represented an annual rate lower than 2/1000 discharges. The monthly distribution of cases was similar to the respiratory infections. No outbreaks were reported. The age of the patients had an average of 8.9 months, 39 were younger than one year, 23 had one or more risk factors for severe disease. Six patients required admission to intensive care unit, all required invasive ventilation, 3 died, none had chronic respiratory failure following the RSV nosocomial infection. Conclusions: During the study period, the RSV nosocomial infections showed a low prevalence, despite it highly contagiousness. They mainly affected young children, carriers of risk factors for severe ALRI. Their evolution was similar to that reported for RSV respiratory infections community acquired. It is important to maintain standards for the control of nosocomial infections, to prevent nosocomial transmission of RSV and prevent the onset of severe disease in hospitalized patients.

  3. Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-23

    Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

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    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  5. Zero Health Worker Infection: Experiences From the China Ebola Treatment Unit During the Ebola Epidemic in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yin, Huahua; Liu, Ding

    2017-04-01

    In November 2014, a total of 164 health care workers were dispatched by the Chinese government as the first medical assistance team to Liberia. The tasks of this team were to establish a China Ebola treatment unit (ETU), to commence the initial admission and treatment of suspected and confirmed Ebola patients, and to provide public health and infection control training for relevant local personnel. Overall, during the 2-month stay of this first medical assistance team in Liberia, 112 Ebola-suspected patients presented to the ETU, 65 patients were admitted, including 5 confirmed cases, and 3 confirmed cases were cured. Furthermore, 1520 local people were trained, including health care workers, military health care workers, staff members employed by the ETU, and community residents. Most importantly, as the first Chinese medical assistance team deployed to Liberia fighting the Ebola virus on the frontline, not a single member of this team or the hired local staff were infected by Ebola virus. This highly successful outcome was due to the meticulous infection control initiatives developed by the team, thereby making a significant contribution to China's ETU "zero infection" of health workers in Liberia. The major infection control initiatives conducted in the China ETU that contributed to achieving "zero infection" of all health workers in the ETU are introduced in this report. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:262-266).

  6. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

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    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  7. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  8. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Pathogenesis of H7N9 Influenza Viruses in Five Epidemic Waves since 2013 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuo; Gu, Min; Liu, Di; Cui, Jie; Gao, George F; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-01

    H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern. In this review, we summarize and compare the different waves of H7N9 regarding their epidemiology, pathogenesis, evolution, and characteristic features, and speculate on factors behind the recent increase in the number of human cases and sudden outbreaks in chickens. The continuous evolution of the virus poses a long-term threat to public health and the poultry industry, and thus it is imperative to strengthen prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Immune regulation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Nielsen, Nick Schou

    2016-01-01

    The immunological result of infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the delicate balance between a vigorous immune response that may clear the infection, but with a risk of unspecific inflammation and, or a less inflammatory response that leads to chronic infection. In general, exhaustion...... and impairment of cytotoxic function of HCV-specific T cells and NK cells are found in patients with chronic HCV infection. In contrast, an increase in immune regulatory functions is found primarily in form of increased IL-10 production possibly due to increased level and function of anti-inflammatory Tregs...

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

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    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  11. Advances in Animal Models of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

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    Zhang Hang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection seriously affects human health. Stable and reliable animal models of HBV infection bear significance in studying pathogenesis of this health condition and development of intervention measures. HBV exhibits high specificity for hosts, and chimpanzee is long used as sole animal model of HBV infection. However, use of chimpanzees is strictly constrained because of ethical reasons. Many methods were used to establish small-animal models of HBV infection. Tupaia is the only nonprimate animal that can be infected by HBV. Use of HBV-related duck hepatitis virus and marmot hepatitis virus infection model contributed to evaluation of mechanism of HBV replication and HBV treatment methods. In recent years, development of human–mouse chimeric model provided possibility of using common experimental animals to carry out HBV research. These models feature their own advantages and disadvantages and can be complementary in some ways. This study provides an overview of current and commonly used animal models of HBV infection.

  12. Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormelink, Richard; Garcia, Maria Laura; Goodin, Michael; Sasaya, Takahide; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2011-12-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome organization, while others have just recently been/or are still classified in floating genera. In most cases, at least two striking differences can still be discerned between the animal/human-infecting viruses and their plant-infecting counterparts which for the latter relate to their adaptation to plants as hosts. The first one is the capacity to modify plasmodesmata to facilitate systemic spread of infectious viral entities throughout the plant host. The second one is the capacity to counteract RNA interference (RNAi, also referred to as RNA silencing), the innate antiviral defence system of plants and insects. In this review an overview will be presented on the negative-strand RNA plant viruses classified within the families Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Ophioviridae and floating genera Tenuivirus and Varicosavirus. Genetic differences with the animal-infecting counterparts and their evolutionary descendants will be described in light of the above processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tacaribe virus but not junin virus infection induces cytokine release from primary human monocytes and macrophages.

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    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV, in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

  14. Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection

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    Xianguo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n=245 collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections.

  15. HIV-1 diversity and drug-resistant mutations in infected individuals in Changchun, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection has been detected in all provinces of China. Although epidemiological and phylogenetic studies have been conducted in many regions, such analyses are lacking from Jilin province in northeastern China. METHOD: Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, as well as detection of drug-resistant mutations, were conducted on 57 HIV-1 infected patients from Changchun city identified and confirmed through annual surveillance by local Centers for Disease Control in Jilin province of northeastern China in 2012. RESULTS: Sexual contact was determined to be the major pathway for HIV-1 transmission in Jilin, where hetero- and homosexual activities contributed almost equally. Phylogenetic analyses detected multiple subtypes of HIV-1 including subtype G circulating in Jilin, with multiple origins for each of them. Both subtype B and CRF01_AE were dominant, and evidence of subtype B transmitting between different high-risk groups was observed. Mutations in the viral protease at position 71 indicated the presence of a selective pressure. Several drug-resistant mutations were detected, although they were predicted with low-level resistance to antiviral treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Information from this study fills the gap in knowledge of HIV-1 transmission in Changchun city, Jilin province, China. By revealing the origin and evolutionary status of local HIV-1 strains, this work contributes to ongoing efforts in the control and prevention of AIDS.

  16. Immunology and Pathology of Arena Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    the 15 guinea pigs infected with the attenuated strain (PIC3739) had measurable TNF at any time during the course. Mean serum TNF levels for adPIC...inherent replication advantage in adPIC or increased efficiency of natural immunity against the attenuated strain PIC3739. Significant changes in...Direct infection of T cells may cause frank cytolysis with induction of lymphopenia, as in parvovirus or HIV-l infections; alternatively, in non

  17. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  18. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  19. Treatment of chronic Hepatitis B virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño, N.; Moreno, D.; Sangro, B.

    2004-01-01

    El tratamiento del paciente con hepatitis crónica por virus B (VHB) debe realizarse bajo el conocimiento de que el porcentaje de pacientes infectados por el virus B que desarrollan hepatitis crónica se mantiene entre el 5-10%. De ellos, el 10-30% presentarán infección crónica con replicación viral activa, lesión hepática necroinflamatoria, evolución a cirrosis hepática y riesgo de desarrollar hepatocarcinoma. Por este motivo la meta del tratamiento es lograr la negativización del HBeAg, la se...

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinart, Mariona; Elias, Vanessa; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection in the general population and in specific population groups. Methods We searched PubMed®, Embase® and LILACS online databases from inception to 26 January 2018. We included observational epidemiological studies where laboratory testing was used to confirm positive exposure of participants to Zika virus and in which Zika virus symptom status was also recorded. We excluded studies in which having symptoms of Zika virus was a criterion for inclusion. The main outcome assessed was percentage of all Zika virus-positive participants who were asymptomatic. We used a quality-effects approach and the double arcsine transformation for the meta-analysis. Findings We assessed 753 studies for inclusion, of which 23 were included in the meta-analysis, totalling 11 305 Zika virus-positive participants. The high degree of heterogeneity in the studies (I2 = 99%) suggests that the pooled prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus-positive participants was probably not a robust estimate. Analysis based on subgroups of the population (general population, returned travellers, blood donors, adults with Guillain–Barré syndrome, pregnant women and babies with microcephaly) was not able to explain the heterogeneity. Funnel and Doi plots showed major asymmetry, suggesting selection bias or true heterogeneity. Conclusion Better-quality research is needed, using standardized methods, to determine the true prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus and whether it varies between populations or over time. PMID:29904223

  1. Autophagy interaction with herpes simplex virus type-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Douglas; Liang, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    abstract More than 50% of the U.S. population is infected with herpes simplex virus type-I (HSV-1) and global infectious estimates are nearly 90%. HSV-1 is normally seen as a harmless virus but debilitating diseases can arise, including encephalitis and ocular diseases. HSV-1 is unique in that it can undermine host defenses and establish lifelong infection in neurons. Viral reactivation from latency may allow HSV-1 to lay siege to the brain (Herpes encephalitis). Recent advances maintain that HSV-1 proteins act to suppress and/or control the lysosome-dependent degradation pathway of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) and consequently, in neurons, may be coupled with the advancement of HSV-1-associated pathogenesis. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that HSV-1 infection may constitute a gradual risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. The relationship between HSV-1 infection and autophagy manipulation combined with neuropathogenesis may be intimately intertwined demanding further investigation. PMID:26934628

  2. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Conway

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV types 1-4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions.

  3. Hepatitis A and E virus infections among children in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Enkhoyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2009-08-01

    To compare the epidemiologic profiles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in children in Mongolia, the prevalence of HAV and HEV infections was studied serologically and molecularly among 520 apparently healthy children 7-12 years of age (mean +/- standard deviation, 8.5 +/- 0.8 years) using serum samples obtained in 2004. Total antibody against HAV (anti-HAV) was detected in 438 children (84.2%), whereas IgG antibody against HEV (anti-HEV IgG) was detected in only three subjects (0.6%). All three subjects with anti-HEV IgG were negative for anti-HEV IgM and HEV RNA. The presence of HAV RNA was tested in all 520 subjects, and one child (9-year-old girl) was found to have detectable HAV RNA (subgenotype IA). In conclusion, HEV infection was uncommon, but subclinical HAV infection was highly prevalent among children in Mongolia.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Harun, Mohammad Syamsul Reza; Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells. Kal's Z test statistical analysis is used to analyze the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis is used for further transcriptional profiling of selected genes in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diagnosed cats.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Dos Ramos Silva, Sandriana; Fernandes, Elaine Raniero; Luiz, Fernanda Guedes; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Katz, Iana Suly Santos

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I). In addition, group I strains showed higher viral growth and enhanced internalization efficiency in neuroblastoma cells than group II strains. However, we observed that the dominant virus subpopulation in group II promoted efficient viral infection in the central nervous system in the new host, providing a selective advantage to the virus. Our data indicate that rabies infection in animal models depends on not only the virus strain but also the amount of virus. This study may serve as a basis for understanding the biologic proprieties of Rabies lyssavirus strains with respect to the effects on viral replication and the impact on pathogenesis, improving virus yields for use in vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Continually Evolving Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Influenza Viruses in China, 2012–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Na; Luo, Jing; Li, Yuan; Chen, Lin; Ma, Jiajun; Zhao, Lin; Yuan, Guohui; Wang, Chengmin; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yanhua; He, Hongxuan

    2017-01-01

    H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/Pavo Cristatus/Jiangxi/JA1/2016. In animal experiments, it exhibited high pathogenicity in chickens and an estimated median lethal dose in mice of ~104.3 TCID50. A phylogenetic analysis showed that JA1/2016 was clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4. FG594-like H5N6 virus from Guangdong Province was the probable predecessor of JA1/2016, and the estimated divergence time was June 2014. Furthermore, we found that H5N6 influenza viruses can be classified into the two following groups: Group 1 and Group 2. Group 2 influenza viruses have not been detected since the end of 2014, whereas Group 1 influenza viruses have continually evolved and reassorted with the “gene pool” circulating in south China, resulting in the rise of novel subtypes of this influenza virus. An increase in the number of its identified hosts, the expanding range of its distribution, and the continual evolution of H5N6 AIVs enhance the risk that an H5N6 virus may spread to other continents and cause a pandemic. PMID:28293218

  9. Genetic Characterization of Continually Evolving Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Influenza Viruses in China, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Na; Luo, Jing; Li, Yuan; Chen, Lin; Ma, Jiajun; Zhao, Lin; Yuan, Guohui; Wang, Chengmin; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yanhua; He, Hongxuan

    2017-01-01

    H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/ Pavo Cristatus /Jiangxi/JA1/2016. In animal experiments, it exhibited high pathogenicity in chickens and an estimated median lethal dose in mice of ~10 4.3 TCID 50 . A phylogenetic analysis showed that JA1/2016 was clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4. FG594-like H5N6 virus from Guangdong Province was the probable predecessor of JA1/2016, and the estimated divergence time was June 2014. Furthermore, we found that H5N6 influenza viruses can be classified into the two following groups: Group 1 and Group 2. Group 2 influenza viruses have not been detected since the end of 2014, whereas Group 1 influenza viruses have continually evolved and reassorted with the "gene pool" circulating in south China, resulting in the rise of novel subtypes of this influenza virus. An increase in the number of its identified hosts, the expanding range of its distribution, and the continual evolution of H5N6 AIVs enhance the risk that an H5N6 virus may spread to other continents and cause a pandemic.

  10. Host cell responses to dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosa Toro, Mayra

    2017-01-01

    Dengue (ook wel knokkelkoorts) is de meest voorkomende virale infectieziekte dat wordt overgedragen door muggen in de wereld met naar schatting 390 miljoen infecties per jaar. Ondanks de grote klinische impact en economische schade van het dengue virus is er nog steeds geen behandeling beschikbaar.

  11. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, A. H.; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, E. M.; Esteban, A.; Hahn, B. H.; Ochman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. H...

  12. Transient Hearing Loss in Adults Associated With Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Eriko S; Santos, Luciane A; Dias, Lislane; Andrade, Nilvano A; Bezerra, Victor H; de Carvalho, Anderson T; de Moraes, Laise; Henriques, Daniele F; Azar, Sasha R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; Andrade, Bruno B; Siqueira, Isadora C; Khouri, Ricardo; Boaventura, Viviane S

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, during the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, we identified 3 cases of acute hearing loss after exanthematous illness. Serology yielded finding compatible with ZIKV as the cause of a confirmed (n = 1) and a probable (n = 2) flavivirus infection, indicating an association between ZIKV infection and transient hearing loss. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  14. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B

    1993-01-01

    Neopterin concentrations increase in serum and urine within the first week of infection with HIV and remain increased throughout the infection. In particular, changes in neopterin concentration precede decreases in CD4 T cell numbers and the development of clinical disease, and they can be used t...

  15. The biology of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review the basic biology of infection with HIV-1 and the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The discussion will include epidemiology, general description of the retroviruses, pathogenesis of the immune deficiency, clinical consequences, treatment, and treatment outcomes. Aspects of the infection that affect protein and energy balance will be identified.

  16. Prevalence of human rhinovirus in children admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhong, Li-Li; Wang, Juan; Huang, Han; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections. This study analyzed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of three HRV groups (HRV-A, -B, and -C) among 1,165 children aged 14 years or younger who were hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China. PCR or reverse transcription-PCR was performed to detect 14 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from September 2007 to August 2008 in Changsha, China. HRV was detected in 202 (17.3%) of the 1,165 children; 25.3% of the HRV-positive children were 13-36 months of age (χ(2)  = 22.803, P = 0.000). HRV was detected year round and peaked between September and December. Fifty-three percent of the HRV-positive samples were also positive for other respiratory viruses; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common secondary virus. Phylogenetic analysis using the VP4/VP2 region grouped the HRV-positive strains as follows: 101 HRV-A (50.0%), 21 HRV-B (10.4%), and 80 HRV-C (39.6%). HRV-A infections occurred predominantly in spring and autumn, and the peak prevalence of HRV-C was in early winter and late autumn. HRV-B infections were less common in spring (χ(2)  = 31.914, P = 0.000). No significant difference in clinical severity or presentation was found between patients with HRV single infection and HRV co-detections. Furthermore, the clinical characterizations did not differ among the three HRV species. These results suggest that HRV-C is an important viral agent along with HRV-A and HRV-B and that among hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China, the three HRV genotypes have similar clinical characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Neutralizing Antibodies and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Stoll-Keller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  19. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Calvo, María; Carbonell, Alberto; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle. Recent studies have shown that plum pox potyvirus (PPV) HCPro can be replaced successfully by cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus P1b, a sequence-unrelated RSS from a virus of the same family. In order to gain insight into the requirement of a particular RSS to establish a successful potyviral infection, we tested the ability of different heterologous RSSs from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses to substitute for HCPro. Making use of engineered PPV chimeras, we show that PPV HCPro can be replaced functionally by some, but not all, unrelated RSSs, including the NS1 protein of the mammal-infecting influenza A virus. Interestingly, the capacity of a particular RSS to replace HCPro does not correlate strictly with its RNA silencing-suppression strength. Altogether, our results suggest that not all suppression strategies are equally suitable for efficient escape of PPV from the RNA-silencing machinery. The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection.

  20. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  1. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Isegawa, Naohisa [Laboratory Animal Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shirasawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: sirasawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G{sub 1} phase preferred to proliferate during S/G{sub 2} phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G{sub 1} phase than in cells infected during S/G{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases.

  2. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo; Isegawa, Naohisa; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G 1 phase preferred to proliferate during S/G 2 phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G 1 phase than in cells infected during S/G 2 phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases

  3. Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Lu, Jing; Faria, Nuno R.; Zeng, Xianqiao; Song, Yingchao; Zou, Lirong; Yi, Lina; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Kang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Guofeng; Zhong, Haojie; Bowden, Thomas A.; Raghwani, Jayna; He, Jianfeng; He, Xiang; Lin, Jinyan; Koopmans, Marion; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2013, three waves of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been detected in China. To investigate virus transmission within and across epidemic waves, we used surveillance data and whole-genome analysis of viruses sampled in Guangdong during 2013–2015. We observed a geographic shift of human A(H7N9) infections from the second to the third waves. Live poultry market interventions were undertaken in epicenter cities; however, spatial phylogenetic analysis indicated that the third-wave outbreaks in central Guangdong most likely resulted from local virus persistence rather than introduction from elsewhere. Although the number of clinical cases in humans declined by 35% from the second to the third waves, the genetic diversity of third-wave viruses in Guangdong increased. Our results highlight the epidemic risk to a region reporting comparatively few A(H7N9) cases. Moreover, our results suggest that live-poultry market interventions cannot completely halt A(H7N9) virus persistence and dissemination. PMID:27869613

  4. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  5. Persistent infection with ebola virus under conditions of partial immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manisha; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Greer, Patricia; Towner, Jonathan S; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R; Ahmed, Rafi; Rollin, Pierre E

    2004-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans is associated with high mortality; however, some infected hosts clear the virus and recover. The mechanisms by which this occurs and the correlates of protective immunity are not well defined. Using a mouse model, we determined the role of the immune system in clearance of and protection against Ebola virus. All CD8 T-cell-deficient mice succumbed to subcutaneous infection and had high viral antigen titers in tissues, whereas mice deficient in B cells or CD4 T cells cleared infection and survived, suggesting that CD8 T cells, independent of CD4 T cells and antibodies, are critical to protection against subcutaneous Ebola virus infection. B-cell-deficient mice that survived the primary subcutaneous infection (vaccinated mice) transiently depleted or not depleted of CD4 T cells also survived lethal intraperitoneal rechallenge for >/==" BORDER="0">25 days. However, all vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice depleted of CD8 T cells had high viral antigen titers in tissues following intraperitoneal rechallenge and died within 6 days, suggesting that memory CD8 T cells by themselves can protect mice from early death. Surprisingly, vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice, after initially clearing the infection, were found to have viral antigens in tissues later (day 120 to 150 post-intraperitoneal infection). Furthermore, following intraperitoneal rechallenge, vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice that were transiently depleted of CD4 T cells had high levels of viral antigen in tissues earlier (days 50 to 70) than vaccinated undepleted mice. This demonstrates that under certain immunodeficiency conditions, Ebola virus can persist and that loss of primed CD4 T cells accelerates the course of persistent infections. These data show that CD8 T cells play an important role in protection against acute disease, while both CD4 T cells and antibodies are required for long-term protection, and they provide evidence of persistent infection by Ebola virus suggesting

  6. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ohagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient’s blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail.

  7. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly: Evidence for a Causal Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Na Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association. To summarize the most recent evidence on this issue and provide perspectives for future studies, we reviewed the literature to identify existing evidence of the causal link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly within research related to the epidemics, laboratory diagnosis, and possible mechanisms.

  8. Autoimmune Neurological Conditions Associated With Zika Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Acosta-Ampudia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the tropical Americas. Aedes mosquitoes is the principal way of transmission of the virus to humans. ZIKV can be spread by transplacental, perinatal, and body fluids. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic and those with symptoms present minor illness after 3 to 12 days of incubation, characterized by a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, widespread pruritic maculopapular rash, arthralgia and myalgia. ZIKV has been linked to a number of central and peripheral nervous system injuries such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, transverse myelitis (TM, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications. Nevertheless, mechanisms of host-pathogen neuro-immune interactions remain incompletely elucidated. This review provides a critical discussion about the possible mechanisms underlying the development of autoimmune neurological conditions associated with Zika virus infection.

  9. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly: Evidence for a Causal Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Na; Ling, Feng

    2016-10-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association. To summarize the most recent evidence on this issue and provide perspectives for future studies, we reviewed the literature to identify existing evidence of the causal link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly within research related to the epidemics, laboratory diagnosis, and possible mechanisms.

  10. Special Issue: Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gregory Chinchar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses infecting and affecting humans are the focus of considerable research effort, viruses that target other animal species, including cold-blooded vertebrates, are receiving increased attention. In part this reflects the interests of comparative virologists, but increasingly it is based on the impact that many viruses have on ecologically and commercially important animals. Frogs and other amphibians are sentinels of environmental health and their disappearance following viral or fungal (chytrid infection is a cause for alarm. Likewise, because aquaculture and mariculture are providing an increasingly large percentage of the “seafood” consumed by humans, viral agents that adversely impact the harvest of cultured fish and amphibians are of equal concern. [...

  11. Zika virus infection confers protection against West Nile virus challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida

    2017-09-20

    Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America). No infected animals showed any sign of disease or died after infection. However, specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in all infected mice. Considering the rapid expansion of ZIKV throughout the American continent and its co-circulation with other medically relevant flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), the induction of protective immunity between ZIKV and WNV was analyzed. Remarkably, protection after challenge with WNV was observed in mice previously infected with ZIKV, as survival rates were significantly higher than in control mice. Moreover, previous ZIKV infection enhanced the humoral immune response against WNV. These findings may be relevant in geographical areas where both ZIKV and WNV co-circulate, as well as for the future development of broad-spectrum flavivirus vaccines.

  12. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  13. Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnebe-Agumadu U H, and Abiodun P O. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease (HbSS): Need for Intervention. Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002; 1:79-87. This is a prospective study of 213 patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years ...

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  15. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection with neurological complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Vlaminckx, B.J.; Schoondermark-Stolk, S.; Donders, R.; Meulen, M. van der; Thijsen, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Several case studies have reported on neurological complications caused by a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We aimed to investigate the viral loads and the clinical and inflammatory characteristics of this disease entity. We evaluated all 84 cases in which the EBV polymerase chain

  16. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P),

  17. Vaccination against feline immunodeficiency virus using fixed infected cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Egberink, H.F.; Hesselink, W.; Alphen, W.E. van; Joosten, I.; Boog, C.J.P.; Ronde, A. de

    1995-01-01

    Crandell feline kidney cells and feline thymocytes, either feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected or uninfected, were fixed with paraformaldehyde and used to vaccinate cats. The cells were mixed with a 30:70 water/mineral oil emulsion containing 250 mu g ml−1 N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl-beta-(1

  18. Evaluation of subunit vaccines against feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Willemse, M.J.; Stam, J.G.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Pouwels, H.; Chalmers, S.K.; Sondermeijer, P.J.; Hesselink, W.; Ronde, A. de

    1996-01-01

    Subunit vaccines prepared against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection were evaluated in two trials. First, cats were immunized with bacterial expression products of an envelope fragment that contained the V3 neutralization domain of the FIV surface protein fused to either galactokinase

  19. Role of antibodies in controlling dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    The incidence and disease burden of arthropod-borne flavivirus infections have dramatically increased during the last decades due to major societal and economic changes, including massive urbanization, lack of vector control, travel, and international trade. Specifically, in the case of dengue virus

  20. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  1. Infection of hepatitis C virus genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from rural areas of Faisalabad region. Among 179 HCC subjects, men and women were 51 and 49%, respectively. All samples positive for HCV RNA by qualitative PCR were ...

  2. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection with neurological complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, Erik; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung; Donders, Richard; Van Der Meulen, Marjon; Thijsen, Steven F. T.

    Several case studies have reported on neurological complications caused by a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We aimed to investigate the viral loads and the clinical and inflammatory characteristics of this disease entity. We evaluated all 84 cases in which the EBV polymerase chain

  3. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  4. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  5. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstein, L. G.; Sharer, L. R.; Oleske, J. M.; Connor, E. M.; Goudsmit, J.; Bagdon, L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Koenigsberger, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the neurologic manifestations of 36 children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this cohort, in 16 of 21 children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three of 12 children with AIDS-related complex, and one of three asymptomatic seropositive

  6. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  7. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  8. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  9. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  10. Health Disparity in Human Papilloma Virus Related Infections | Poku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the volume of information of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines, there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HPV infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines. The study was ...

  11. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  12. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  13. Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Nicole S

    2018-01-30

    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Viral infections during pregnancy can also be spread through blood and vaginal secretions, and during the post-natal period, via breast milk. Thus, even in the absence of vertical transmission of viral infection to the fetus, maternal health can still be compromised and threaten the pregnancy. The most common viral DNA isolates found in gestation are adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. However, with the recent pandemic of Ebola virus, and the first documented case of a neonate to survive due to experimental therapies in 2017, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the changing roles and impacts of viral infection during pregnancy needs to be better understood, while strategies to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be identified. This review focuses on the adverse impacts of viral infection during gestation, with an emphasis on Ebola virus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  15. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  16. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Boer, K.; Reiss, P.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1

  17. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of Plateau State: effective control measures still a nightmare? GTA Jombo, DZ Egah, EB Banwat. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(1) 2006: 49-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  19. Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults in resource-limited countries: Challenges and prospects in Nigeria. AG Habib. Abstract. No Abstract. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp. 26-32. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  20. Lethal Nipah virus infection induces rapid overexpression of CXCL10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Mathieu

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We further assessed some of the obtained results by in vitro and in vivo methods in a hamster model and in brain samples from NiV-infected patients. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10, an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. In NiV-infected hamsters, which develop pathology similar to what is seen in humans, expression of CXCL10 mRNA was induced in different organs with kinetics that followed NiV replication. Finally, we showed intense staining for CXCL10 in the brain of patients who succumbed to lethal NiV infection during the outbreak in Malaysia, confirming induction of this chemokine in fatal human infections. This study sheds new light on NiV pathogenesis, indicating the role of CXCL10 during the course of infection and suggests that this chemokine may serve as a potential new marker for lethal NiV encephalitis.

  1. Hepatitis B virus treatment in HIV-infected patients.

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    Thio, Chloe L

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in HIV-infected persons and is associated with increased risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Agents available to treat HBV infection in coinfected patients include lamivudine, entecavir, emtricitabine, adefovir, peginterferon alfa, and the recently approved telbivudine. Treatment decisions should take into account a number of factors, including antiretroviral therapy status, HBV genotype, prior experience of lamivudine, and the need to avoid drug resistance in both HIV- and HBV-infected persons. This article summarizes a presentation on treatment and management of HBV infection in HIV-infected patients made by Chloe L. Thio, MD, at the 9th Annual Ryan White CARE Act Update in Washington, DC. The original presentation is available as a Webcast at www.iasusa.org.

  2. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

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    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  3. Seroprevalence of avian influenza A (H5N1 virus among poultry workers in Jiangsu Province, China: an observational study

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    Huo Xiang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 to 06 Jan 2012, the number of laboratory confirmed human cases of infection with avian influenza in China was 41 and 27 were fatal. However, the official estimate of the H5N1 case-fatality rate has been described by some as an over estimation since there may be numerous undetected asymptomatic/mild cases of H5N1 infection. This study was conducted to better understand the real infection rate and evaluate the potential risk factors for the zoonotic spread of H5N1 viruses to humans. Methods A seroepidemiological survey was conducted in poultry workers, a group expected to have the highest level of exposure to H5N1-infected birds, from 3 counties with habitat lakes of wildfowl in Jiangsu province, China. Serum specimens were collected from 306 participants for H5N1 serological test. All participants were interviewed to collect information about poultry exposures. Results The overall seropositive rate was 2.61% for H5N1 antibodies. The poultry number was found associated with a 2.39-fold significantly increased subclinical infection risk after adjusted with age and gender. Conclusions Avian-to -human transmission of avian H5N1 virus remained low. Workers associated with raising larger poultry flocks have a higher risk on seroconversion.

  4. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  5. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

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    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  6. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

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    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  7. Molecular surveillance of canine distemper virus in diarrhoetic puppies in northeast China from May 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wu, Rui; Kong, Fanzhi; Zhai, Junjun; Yuan, Dongwei; Sun, Dongbo

    2018-04-24

    To trace the prevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in diarrhoetic dogs, a total of 201 stool samples were collected in the Heilongjiang province of northeastern China from May 2014 to April 2015. The 201 fecal samples were subjected to the detection of CDV by using RT-PCR targeting the partial N gene, phylogenetic analysis based on the complete H gene, and co-infection analysis. Results indicated that 24.88% (50/201) of the samples were positive for CDV. The fifty CDV samples exhibited an overall co-infection rate of 94% (47/50) with four enteric viruses (82%, 41/50) and five bacteria (72%, 36/50). The positivity rate of CDV exhibited differences among regions, seasons, ages, and immunization status. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete H genes (n=6) revealed that the CDV strains identified in our study belonged to the Asia-1 group, and showed genetic diversities. These data provide evidence that there are a number of genetically diverse CDV Asia-1 strains circulating in diarrhoetic dogs in northeastern China; the CDV-affected animals exhibit the high co-infection with other enteric viruses and bacteria.

  8. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF DENGUE INFECTION: THE FIRST PUTATIVE CASE REPORTED IN CHINA

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    Xueru YIN

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Dengue is a systemic viral infection that is commonly transmitted between humans via mosquitoes. Other modes of transmission such as the vertical one are rare and have been infrequently reported in the literature. This report investigates one case of vertical transmission of dengue in Guangzhou, China. A G1P1 lady at 39 weeks of gestation was referred to the Huzhong Hospital presenting a fever for two days. She subsequently developed a skin rash on the back and lower limb and at that time she had already experienced five days of fever. She subsequently went into labor and delivered a female neonate weighting 3,500 g at birth. The neonate developed fever on the third day of life which was associated with a systemic erythematous skin rash. There was no report or evidence of mosquito bites after birth. A complete blood count showed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia and the liver function test showed elevated AST, GGT and bilirubin. Dengue was diagnosed in the mother and the neonate by the ELISA dengue virus NS1 antigen test (Wantai, Beijing, China and dengue virus fluorogenic quantitative PCR test (Liferiver, Shanghai, China.The case report illustrates the possibility of the vertical transmission of dengue. Clinicians should be alert to this possibility and institute early treatment. Further direct evidence and research are required.

  9. Assessment of reference gene stability in Rice stripe virus and Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection rice by quantitative Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; Lu, Rongfei; Sun, Feng; Lan, Ying; Shen, Wenbiao; Du, Linlin; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Tong

    2015-10-24

    Stably expressed reference gene(s) normalization is important for the understanding of gene expression patterns by quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), particularly for Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) that caused seriously damage on rice plants in China and Southeast Asia. The expression of fourteen common used reference genes of Oryza sativa L. were evaluated by RT-qPCR in RSV and RBSDV infected rice plants. Suitable normalization reference gene(s) were identified by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. UBQ 10 + GAPDH and UBC + Actin1 were identified as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization under RSV and RBSDV infection, respectively. When using multiple reference genes, the expression patterns of OsPRIb and OsWRKY, two virus resistance genes, were approximately similar with that reported previously. Comparatively, by using single reference gene (TIP41-Like), a weaker inducible response was observed. We proposed that the combination of two reference genes could obtain more accurate and reliable normalization of RT-qPCR results in RSV- and RBSDV-infected plants. This work therefore sheds light on establishing a standardized RT-qPCR procedure in RSV- and RBSDV-infected rice plants, and might serve as an important point for discovering complex regulatory networks and identifying genes relevant to biological processes or implicated in virus.

  10. Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats

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    Wendy S. Sprague

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases.

  11. Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals.

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    Mansfield, Karen L; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others. The impact of JEV infection is particularly apparent in pigs. Although infection in adult swine does not result in symptomatic disease, it is considered a significant reproductive problem causing abortion, still-birth and birth defects. Infected piglets can display fatal neurological disease. Equines are also infected, resulting in non-specific signs including pyrexia, but occasionally leading to overt neurological disease that in extreme cases can lead to death. Veterinary vaccination is available for both pigs and horses. This review of JEV disease in livestock considers the current diagnostic techniques available for detection of the virus. Options for disease control and prevention within the veterinary sector are discussed. Such measures are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First case of imported Zika virus infection in Spain.

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    Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous retroviruses mobilized during friend murine leukemia virus infection.

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    Boi, Stefano; Rosenke, Kyle; Hansen, Ethan; Hendrick, Duncan; Malik, Frank; Evans, Leonard H

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated in a mouse model that infection with a retrovirus can lead not only to the generation of recombinants between exogenous and endogenous gammaretrovirus, but also to the mobilization of endogenous proviruses by pseudotyping entire polytropic proviral transcripts and facilitating their infectious spread to new cells. However, the frequency of this occurrence, the kinetics, and the identity of mobilized endogenous proviruses was unclear. Here we find that these mobilized transcripts are detected after only one day of infection. They predominate over recombinant polytropic viruses early in infection, persist throughout the course of disease and are comprised of multiple different polytropic proviruses. Other endogenous retroviral elements such as intracisternal A particles (IAPs) were not detected. The integration of the endogenous transcripts into new cells could result in loss of transcriptional control and elevated expression which may facilitate pathogenesis, perhaps by contributing to the generation of polytropic recombinant viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Animal Models of Zika Virus Infection, Pathogenesis, and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas E; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-04-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has received global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features, including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This past year has witnessed an intensive effort by the global scientific community to understand the biology of ZIKV and to develop pathogenesis models for the rapid testing of possible countermeasures. Here, we review the recent advances in and utility and limitations of newly developed mouse and nonhuman primate models of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. A systematic review of hepatitis E virus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Valsan Philip; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted, seeking all literature relevant to the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in children. Transmission is thought to be primarily from fecal-oral transmission, with the role of transmission from animal reservoirs not being clear in children. Worldwide, seroprevalence is hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, with most cases being subclinical. However, HEV differs from HAV in that infectivity is lower, perinatal transmission can result in neonatal morbidity and even mortality, and a chronic carrier state exists, accounting for chronic hepatitis in some pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. THE MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF THE MOST DANGEROUS EMERGING VIRUS INFECTIONS

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    Popov NN

    2016-03-01

    barriers and infect new hosts. Really, many recently emerged human diseases are caused by viruses that display active recombination or reassortment. The continual shuffling of genes of influenza A represents a example of the key role of reassortment for the new virus emergence. Available data demonstrate the possible origin of SARS-CoV from recombination of different bat SL-CoVs viruses strains. However in other cases the emergence of a specific virus cannot be directly attributed to its ability to recombine. For example, although SIV recombines at a high rate in natural reservoirs, there is no evidence that recombination assisted the cross-species transfer of the virus from the chimpanzee into humans. But mutagenesis and recombination actively shape the further molecular history of HIV in humans. Also it is not proved that recombination precede the cross-species jump of the Ebola virus. In summary, the available data suggest that although recombination, reassortment and mutagenesis is sometimes directly involved to the process of cross-species transmission, it is not a necessary precursor to successful viral emergence. Further investigations are required to reveal the role of genetic change in the history of virus emergence. We believe that comprehensive description of molecular evolution of new viruses has led to a better understanding of the causes and predictability of infection emergence.

  17. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

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    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  18. Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding

    2013-09-27

    An epizootic with severe mortality has emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in China since 2009, and caused huge economic loss. The signs and epidemiology background of the disease were investigated. Parasite examination, bacteria and virus isolation were carried out for pathogen isolation. The causative pathogen was obtained and identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) by experimental infection, electron microscopy, cell culture, PCR assay and sequence alignment, designated as CyHV-2-JSSY. Experimental infection proved the high virulence of CyHV-2-JSSY to healthy gibel carp. Electron microscopy revealed that the viral nucleocapsid was hexagonal in shape measuring 110-120 nm in diameter with a 170-200 nm envelope. The virus caused significant CPE in Koi-Fin cells at the early passages, but not beyond the fifth passages. Sequence alignment of the partial viral helicase gene (JX566884) showed that it shared 99-100% identity to the published sequences of other CyHV-2 isolates. This study represented the first isolation and identification of CyHV-2 in cultured gibel carp in China and laid a foundation for the further studies of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  20. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

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    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of Herpes simplex virus antibody: correlation with ganglionic infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forghani, B.; Klassen, T.; Baringer, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolation from a series of human post-mortem trigeminal thoracic and sacral ganglia were correlated with HSV antibody type(s) detected in the sera by radioimmunoassay (RIA). HSV type I was isolated from trigeminal ganglia of 44 out of 90 individuals, from thoracic ganglia of 1 out of 25, and from sacral ganglia of 1 out of 68 cases. HSV type was recovered from sacral ganglia of 8 out of 68 individuals. In all cases in which an HSV was isolated from ganglia and was available for testing, homologous, type-specific antibody was demonstrable, and in a few instances antibody to the heterologous HSV was also detected. In those individuals in which HSV type I was isolated from trigeminal ganglia and HSV type 2 from sacral ganglia, antibody to both virus types was present in the sera, indicating that simultaneous latent infections with each of the two viruses can occur, and that antibody is produced to each virus independently. Antibody to HSV type 1, 2 or both types was demonstrated in 8 out of 10 cases in which virus isolation attempts were negative, suggesting either a higher sensitivity of RIA for detecting HSV infection, or the presence of latent HSV at some other site in the body which was not sampled. (author)

  2. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D.; Miller, Lynn J.; Wiley, Michael R.; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C.; Norris, Sarah L.; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Kimmel, Adrienne E.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Valdez, Stephanie M.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Principe, Lucia M.; Bellanca, Stephanie A.; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H.; Pratt, William D.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M. Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present. PMID:28548637

  3. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D; Miller, Lynn J; Wiley, Michael R; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C; Norris, Sarah L; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Kimmel, Adrienne E; Bloomfield, Holly A; Valdez, Stephanie M; Sprague, Thomas R; Principe, Lucia M; Bellanca, Stephanie A; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H; Pratt, William D; Palacios, Gustavo F; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

  4. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

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    Milly M Choy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.

  5. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2018-01-01

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  6. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced experimental infectivity and transmissibility of intercontinental H5 (H5N8 and H5N2) compared to Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for chickens, turkeys, and Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus (HPAIV) emerged in 1996 in Guangdong China and has since spread to infect and cause deaths in wild birds, poultry and humans in over 63 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa; and more recently a reassortant H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus has spread ...

  8. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and...

  9. Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1 Virus Infection on Migrating Whooper Swans Fecal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China. Here, we describe the first fecal microbiome diversity study of H5N1-infected migratory birds. By investigating the influence of H5N1 infection on fecal bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals, we found that H5N1 infection shaped the gut microbiota composition by a difference in the dominance of some genera, such as Aeromonas and Lactobacillus. We also found a decreased α diversity and increased β diversity in infectious individuals. Our results highlight that increases in changes in pathogen-containing gut communities occur when individuals become infected with H5N1. Our study may provide the first evidence that there are statistical association among H5N1 presence and fecal microbiota compositional shifts, and properties of the fecal microbiota may serve as the risk of gut-linked disease in migrates with H5N1 and further aggravate the disease transmission.

  10. Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection on Migrating Whooper Swans Fecal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Supen; Li, Hongyi; Liu, Shelan; Li, Meng; Luo, Jing; Su, Wen; He, Hongxuan

    2018-01-01

    The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China. Here, we describe the first fecal microbiome diversity study of H5N1-infected migratory birds. By investigating the influence of H5N1 infection on fecal bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals, we found that H5N1 infection shaped the gut microbiota composition by a difference in the dominance of some genera, such as Aeromonas and Lactobacillus . We also found a decreased α diversity and increased β diversity in infectious individuals. Our results highlight that increases in changes in pathogen-containing gut communities occur when individuals become infected with H5N1. Our study may provide the first evidence that there are statistical association among H5N1 presence and fecal microbiota compositional shifts, and properties of the fecal microbiota may serve as the risk of gut-linked disease in migrates with H5N1 and further aggravate the disease transmission.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection occupational post ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, health care workers who are occupationally exposed to HIV infection must have immediate access to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). The risk of HIV transmission through the route of injury sustained must be assessed and adequate management given. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) should be commenced ...

  12. Characterization of Lethal Zika Virus Infection in AG129 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever, which often is accompanied by maculopapular rash, headache, and myalgia. During the current outbreak in South America, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been hypothesized to cause microcephaly and other diseases. The detection of ZIKV in fetal brain tissue supports this hypothesis. Because human infections with ZIKV historically have remained sporadic and, until recently, have been limited to small-scale epidemics, neither the disease caused by ZIKV nor the molecular determinants of virulence and/or pathogenicity have been well characterized. Here, we describe a small animal model for wild-type ZIKV of the Asian lineage.Using mice deficient in interferon α/β and Ɣ receptors (AG129 mice, we report that these animals were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection and disease, succumbing within seven to eight days. Rapid viremic dissemination was observed in visceral organs and brain; but only was associated with severe pathologies in the brain and muscle. Finally, these results were consistent across challenge routes, age of mice, and inoculum doses. These data represent a mouse model for ZIKV that is not dependent on adapting ZIKV to intracerebral passage in mice.Foot pad injection of AG129 mice with ZIKV represents a biologically relevant model for studying ZIKV infection and disease development following wild-type virus inoculation without the requirement for adaptation of the virus or intracerebral delivery of the virus. This newly developed Zika disease model can be exploited to identify determinants of ZIKV virulence and reveal molecular mechanisms that control the virus-host interaction, providing a framework for rational design of acute phase therapeutics and for vaccine efficacy testing.

  13. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Perkins, Jeremy G.; Swenson, Dana L.; Deal, Emily M.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Aman, M. Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Young, Howard A.; Bavari, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injectio...

  14. Outbreak of hepatitis C virus infection associated with narcotics diversion by an hepatitis C virus-infected surgical technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy E; Schaefer, Melissa K; Patel, Priti R; Drobeniuc, Jan; Xia, Guoliang; Lin, Yulin; Khudyakov, Yury; Vonderwahl, Candace W; Miller, Lisa; Thompson, Nicola D

    2015-01-01

    Drug diversion by health care personnel poses a risk for serious patient harm. Public health identified 2 patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who shared a common link with a hospital. Further investigation implicated a drug-diverting, HCV-infected surgical technician who was subsequently employed at an ambulatory surgical center. Patients at the 2 facilities were offered testing for HCV infection if they were potentially exposed. Serum from the surgical technician and patients testing positive for HCV but without evidence of infection before their surgical procedure was further tested to determine HCV genotype and quasi-species sequences. Parenteral medication handling practices at the 2 facilities were evaluated. The 2 facilities notified 5970 patients of their possible exposure to HCV, 88% of whom were tested and had results reported to the state public health departments. Eighteen patients had HCV highly related to the surgical technician's virus. The surgical technician gained unauthorized access to fentanyl owing to limitations in procedures for securing controlled substances. Public health surveillance identified an outbreak of HCV infection due to an infected health care provider engaged in diversion of injectable narcotics. The investigation highlights the value of public health surveillance in identifying HCV outbreaks and uncovering a method of drug diversion and its impacts on patients. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  16. Chayote mosaic virus, a New Tymovirus Infecting Cucurbitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J J; Jiménez, I; Moreno, M; Hord, M; Rivera, C; Koenig, R; Rodríguez-Cerezo, E

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Chayote mosaic virus (ChMV) is a putative tymovirus isolated from chayote crops in Costa Rica. ChMV was characterized at the host range, serological, and molecular levels. ChMV was transmitted mechanically and induced disease symptoms mainly in Cucurbitaceae hosts. Asymptomatic infections were detected in other host families. Serologically, ChMV is related to the Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and the Eggplant mosaic virus (EMV), both members of the genus Tymovirus infecting solanaceous hosts in the Caribbean Basin and South America. The sequence of the genomic RNA of ChMV was determined and its genetic organization was typical of tymoviruses. Comparisons with other tymoviral sequences showed that ChMV was a new member of the genus Tymovirus. The phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein gene were consistent with serological comparisons and positioned ChMV within a cluster of tymoviruses infecting mainly cucurbit or solanaceous hosts, including APLV and EMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the replicase protein gene confirmed the close relationship of ChMV and EMV. Our results suggest that ChMV is related to two tymoviruses (APLV and EMV) of proximal geographical provenance but with different natural host ranges. ChMV is the first cucurbit-infecting tymovirus to be fully characterized at the genomic level.

  17. Molecular Biology and Infection of Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a viral pathogen transmitted primarily via fecal-oral route. In humans, HEV mainly causes acute hepatitis and is responsible for large outbreaks of hepatitis across the world. The case fatality rate of HEV-induced hepatitis ranges from 0.5 to 3% in young adults and up to 30% in infected pregnant women. HEV strains infecting humans are classified into four genotypes. HEV strains from genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic, whereas those from genotype 1 and 2 have no known animal reservoirs. Recently, notable progress has been accomplished for better understanding of HEV biology and infection, such as chronic HEV infection, in vitro cell culture system, quasi-enveloped HEV virions, functions of the HEV proteins, mechanism of HEV antagonizing host innate immunity, HEV pathogenesis and vaccine development. However, further investigation on the cross-species HEV infection, host tropism, vaccine efficacy and HEV-specific antiviral strategy is still needed. This review mainly focuses on molecular biology and infection of HEV and offers perspective new insight of this enigmatic virus.

  18. Modeling Powassan virus infection in Peromyscus leucopus, a natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwanika Mlera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flavivirus, Powassan virus (POWV causes life-threatening encephalitis in humans in North America and Europe. POWV is transmitted by ixodid tick vectors that feed on small to medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, which may serve as either reservoir, bridge or amplification hosts. Intraperitoneal and intracranial inoculation of 4-week old Peromyscus leucopus mice with 103 PFU of POWV did not result in overt clinical signs of disease. However, following intracranial inoculation, infected mice seroconverted to POWV and histopathological examinations revealed that the mice uniformly developed mild lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and microgliosis in the brain and spinal cord from 5 to 15 days post infection (dpi, suggesting an early inflammatory response. In contrast, intracranial inoculation of 4-week old C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice was lethal by 5 dpi. Intraperitoneal inoculation was lethal in BALB/c mice, but 40% (2/5 of C57BL/6 mice survived. We concluded that Peromyscus leucopus mice infected i.c. with a lethal dose of POWV support a limited infection, restricted to the central nervous system and mount an antibody response to the virus. However, they fail to develop clinical signs of disease and are able to control the infection. These results suggest the involvement of restriction factors, and the mechanism by which Peromyscus leucopus mice restrict POWV infection remains under study.

  19. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  20. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Suzuki, Chie; Awashima, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yasuhiro; Yewdell, Jonathan; Kuroda, Kazumichi

    2003-01-01

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  1. Case report: microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Ojeda, Carolina; Arboleda, Janna; Arrieta, German; Bosch, Irene; Botia, Ingrid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Perez-Yepes, Carlos; Gerhke, Lee; Montero, German

    2017-06-13

    Recently there has been a large outbreak of Zika virus infections in Colombia, South America. The epidemic began in September 2015 and continued to April 2017, for the total number of Zika cases reported of 107,870. For those confirmed Zika cases, there were nearly 20,000 (18.5%) suspected to be pregnant women, resulting in 157 confirmed cases of microcephaly in newborns reported by their health government agency. There is a clear under-estimation of the total number of cases and in addition no prior publications have been published to demonstrate the clinical aspects of the Zika infection in Colombia. We characterized one Zika presentation to be able to compare and contrast with other cases of Zika infection already reported in the literature. In this case report, we demonstrate congenital microcephaly at week 19 of gestation in a 34-year-old mother who showed symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection from Sincelejo, State of Sucre, in the Colombian Caribbean. Zika virus RNA was detected in the placenta using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At week 25, the fetus weigh estimate was 770 g, had a cephalic perimeter of 20.2 cm (5th percentile), ventriculomegaly on the right side and dilatation of the fourth ventricle. At week 32, the microcephaly was confirmed with a cephalic perimeter of 22 cm, dilatation of the posterior atrium to 13 mm, an abnormally small cerebellum (29 mm), and an augmented cisterna magna. At birth (39 weeks by cesarean section), the head circumference was 27.5 cm, and computerized axial tomography (Siemens Corp, 32-slides) confirmed microcephaly with calcifications. We report a first case of maternal Zika virus infection associated with fetal microcephaly in Colombia and confirmed similar presentation to those observed previous in Brazil, 2015-2016.

  2. An evaluation of asymptomatic Dengue infections among blood donors during the 2014 Dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  4. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1.Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China.The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  5. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  6. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  7. Epidemiology and Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Megan G; Foster, Monique A; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2018-04-30

    There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996. In recent years, however, outbreaks have occurred among an increasingly susceptible adult population. Although HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, it is rarely diagnosed in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.

  9. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  10. Nipah virus infection and glycoprotein targeting in endothelial cells

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    Maisner Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV causes fatal respiratory and brain infections in animals and humans. The major hallmark of the infection is a systemic endothelial infection, predominantly in the CNS. Infection of brain endothelial cells allows the virus to overcome the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and to subsequently infect the brain parenchyma. However, the mechanisms of NiV replication in endothelial cells are poorly elucidated. We have shown recently that the bipolar or basolateral expression of the NiV surface glycoproteins F and G in polarized epithelial cell layers is involved in lateral virus spread via cell-to-cell fusion and that correct sorting depends on tyrosine-dependent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of the glycoproteins. Since endothelial cells share many characteristics with epithelial cells in terms of polarization and protein sorting, we wanted to elucidate the role of the NiV glycoprotein targeting signals in endothelial cells. Results As observed in vivo, NiV infection of endothelial cells induced syncytia formation. The further finding that infection increased the transendothelial permeability supports the idea of spread of infection via cell-to-cell fusion and endothelial cell damage as a mechanism to overcome the BBB. We then revealed that both glycoproteins are expressed at lateral cell junctions (bipolar, not only in NiV-infected primary endothelial cells but also upon stable expression in immortalized endothelial cells. Interestingly, mutation of tyrosines 525 and 542/543 in the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein led to an apical redistribution of the protein in endothelial cells whereas tyrosine mutations in the G protein had no effect at all. This fully contrasts the previous results in epithelial cells where tyrosine 525 in the F, and tyrosines 28/29 in the G protein were required for correct targeting. Conclusion We conclude that the NiV glycoprotein distribution is responsible for

  11. Post-infection immunodeficiency virus control by neutralizing antibodies.

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    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs, primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The inoculums for passive immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239-specific neutralizing activity were prepared by purifying polyclonal immunoglobulin G from pooled plasma of six SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques with NAb induction in the chronic phase. Passive immunization of rhesus macaques with the NAbs at day 7 after SIVmac239 challenge resulted in significant reduction of set-point plasma viral loads and preservation of central memory CD4 T lymphocyte counts, despite the limited detection period of the administered NAb responses. Peripheral lymph node dendritic cell (DC-associated viral RNA loads showed a remarkable peak with the NAb administration, and DCs stimulated in vitro with NAb-preincubated SIV activated virus-specific CD4 T lymphocytes in an Fc-dependent manner, implying antibody-mediated virion uptake by DCs and enhanced T cell priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence indicating that potent antibody induction post-infection can result in primary immunodeficiency virus control and suggest direct and indirect contribution of its absence to initial control failure in HIV infections. Although difficulty in achieving requisite neutralizing titers for

  12. Etiology and clinical characterization of respiratory virus infections in adult patients attending an emergency department in Beijing.

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    Xiaoyan Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED. Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in Beijing, a 1-year consecutive study was conducted from May, 2010, to April, 2011. Nose and throat swab samples from 416 ARTI patients were checked for 13 respiratory viruses using multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR assays for common respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses (Flu A, B, and adenoviruses (ADVs, picornaviruses (PICs, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs 1-3, combined with real-time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human coronaviruses (HCoVs, -OC43, -229E, -NL63, and -HKU1. Viral pathogens were detected in 52.88% (220/416 of patient samples, and 7.21% (30/416 of patients tested positive for more than one virus. PICs (17.79% were the dominant agents detected, followed by FluA (16.11%, HCoVs (11.78%, and ADV (11.30%. HMPV, PIVs, and FluB were also detected (<3%, but not RSV. The total prevalence and the dominant virus infections detected differed significantly between ours and a previous report. Co-infection rates were high for HCoV-229E (12/39, 30.76%, PIC (22/74, 29.73%, ADV (12/47, 25.53% and FluA (15/67, 22.39%. Different patterns of clinical symptoms were associated with different respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of RV involvement in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in China differs from that previously reported. The high prevalence of viruses (PIC, FluA, HCoVs and ADV reported here strongly highlight the need for the development of safe and

  13. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  14. Homogeneity of Powassan virus populations in naturally infected Ixodes scapularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackney, Doug E.; Brown, Ivy K.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV, Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is the sole North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis complex and consists of two distinct lineages that are maintained in ecologically discrete enzootic transmission cycles. The underlying genetic mechanisms that lead to niche partitioning in arboviruses are poorly understood. Therefore, intra- and interhost genetic diversity was analyzed to determine if POWV exists as a quasispecies in nature and quantify selective pressures within and between hosts. In contrast to previous reports for West Nile virus (WNV), significant intrahost genetic diversity was not observed. However, pN (0.238) and d N /d S ratios (0.092) for interhost diversity were similar to those of WNV. Combined, these data suggest that purifying selection and/or population bottlenecks constrain quasispecies diversity within ticks. These same selective and stochastic mechanisms appear to drive minor sequence changes between ticks. Moreover, Powassan virus populations seem not to be structured as quasispecies in naturally infected adult deer ticks.

  15. Virus load in chimpanzees infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effect of pre-exposure vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Haaft, P.; Cornelissen, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Koornstra, W.; Dubbes, R.; Niphuis, H.; Peeters, M.; Thiriart, C.; Bruck, C.; Heeney, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Many reports indicate that a long-term asymptomatic state following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with a low amount of circulating virus. To evaluate the possible effect of stabilizing a low virus load by non-sterilizing pre-exposure vaccination, a quantitative

  16. [Reactivation of herpes zoster infection by varicella-zoster virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetković, D; Jovanović, J; Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, I; Brkić, S; Bogdanović, M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in varicella-zoster virus in the middle of the twentieth century. Virus isolation in 1958 had made it possible to find out the complete DNA sequence of the varicella-zoster virus. Molecular identify of the causative agents of varicella and shingles had been proved. ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND HISTOPATHOLOGY: Varicella-zoster virus is a member of the Herpesviridae family. After primary infection which results in varicella, the virus becomes latent in the cerebral or posterior root ganglia. Some of these individuals develop shingles after several decades because of virus reactivation. It is caused by decline of cellular immune response. Circumstances such as old age, hard work, using of steroids or malignancies contribute to the appearance of shingles. Histopathological findings include degenerative changes of epithelial cells such as ballooning, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions. Shingles occur sporadically, mainly among the elderly who have had varicella. There is no seasonal appearance of shingles. Individuals suffering from shingles may be sometimes contagious for susceptible children because of enormous amount of virus particles in vesicle fluid. Clinically, shingles is characterized at first by pain or discomfort in involved dermatome, usually without constitutional symptoms. Local edema and erythema appear before developing of rash. Maculopapular and vesicular rash evolves into crusts. The most commonly involved ganglia are: lumbar, thoracic, sacral posterior root ganglia, then geniculate ganglion of the VIIth cranial nerve and the trigeminal ganglion. The most common complication, postherpetic neuralgia, may last for as long as two or three weeks, sometimes even one year or more. Other complications that may be seen in shingles, but more rarely, are ocular (keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma, loss of sight), neurological (various motor neuropathies, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome

  17. Validation of reference genes for quantifying changes in gene expression in virus-infected tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eseul; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate quantification of gene expression changes in virus-infected tobacco plants, eight housekeeping genes were evaluated for their stability of expression during infection by one of three systemically-infecting viruses (cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus X, potato virus Y) or a hypersensitive-response-inducing virus (tobacco mosaic virus; TMV) limited to the inoculated leaf. Five reference-gene validation programs were used to establish the order of the most stable genes for the systemically-infecting viruses as ribosomal protein L25 > β-Tubulin > Actin, and the least stable genes Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) genes were EF1α > Cysteine protease > Actin, and the least stable genes were GAPDH genes, three defense responsive genes were examined to compare their relative changes in gene expression caused by each virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  19. Indigenous West Nile virus infections in horses in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berxholi, K; Ziegler, U; Rexhepi, A; Schmidt, K; Mertens, M; Korro, K; Cuko, A; Angenvoort, J; Groschup, M H

    2013-11-01

    Serum samples collected from 167 equines of 12 districts in Albania were tested for West Nile virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, using WNV lineage 1 and 2. In addition, 95 bird serum samples from Albania and 29 horse samples from Kosovo were tested in ELISA. An overall seroprevalence rate of 22% was found in horses from Albania, whereas no specific antibodies were found in the equine samples from Kosovo and the bird samples. This is the first report indicating WNV infections in animals in Albania, and the first reported seroprevalence study conducted for Kosovo. These results provide evidence for widespread infections of WNV in Albania. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

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    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.