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Sample records for china undergo screening

  1. Adenoma detection in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures shown to improve the adenoma detection during colonoscopy (excellent bowel preparation, cecal intubation, cap fitted colonoscope to examine behind folds, patient position change to optimize colon distention, trained endoscopy team focusing on detection of subtle flat lesions, and incorporation of optimum endoscopic examination with adequate withdrawal time) are applicable to clinical practice and, if incorporated are projected to facilitate comprehensive colonoscopy screening program for colon cancer prevention. To determine adenoma and serrated polyp detection rate under conditions designed to optimize quality parameters for comprehensive screening colonoscopy. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a comprehensive colon cancer screening program designed to optimize quality parameters. Academic medical center. Three hundred and forty-three patients between the ages of 50 years and 75 years who underwent first screening colonoscopy between 2009 and 2011 among 535 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Comprehensive colonoscopy screening program was utilized to screen all patients. Cecal intubation was successful in 98.8% of patients. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale for quality of colonoscopy was 8.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 8.94, 9.00). The rate of adenoma detection was 60% and serrated lesion (defined as serrated adenomas or hyperplastic polyps proximal to the splenic flexure) detection was 23%. The rate of precancerous lesion detection (adenomas and serrated lesions) was 66%. The mean number of adenomas per screening procedure was 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) and the mean number of precancerous lesions (adenomas or serrated lesions) per screening procedure was 1.6 (1.4, 1.8). Retrospective study and single endoscopist experience. A comprehensive colonoscopy screening program results in high-quality screening with high detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas, serrated adenomas, and multiple adenomas

  2. China on the Silver Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    The author evaluates several intermediate/secondary-level films about China--past and present--and suggests criteria to use in evaluating others. Avoidance of stereotypes is emphasized. Sources and prices are provided for the cited films. One of several articles on China studies in this journal issue. (SJL)

  3. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  4. Value of Ultrasonographic Mass Screening for Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients Undergoing a Breast Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the value of mass screening for thyroid cancer by ultrasonography. We evaluated the incidence of thyroid nodules and the detection rate of malignant nodules in 2856 patients who underwent screening thyroid ultrasonography while undergoing breast ultrasonography. We also analyzed the ultrasonographic characteristics of nodules in the screening (34 patients) and clinical (48 patients) groups which were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid nodules detected by ultrasonography was 39% and the detection rate of thyroid cancer was 1.19% in the screening group and 17% in the clinical group. The mean size of nodules in clinical group was larger than that in the screening group (p<0.05) and the prevalence of nodules with ill-defined margin in the screening group was higher than that in the clinical group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in internal echogenicity, shape, presence of internal calcifications, lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension between the two groups. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer was low, sonographic screening for thyroid cancer while undergoing breast ultrasonography could be valuable

  5. Individual doses for women undergoing screening mammography examinations in Poland in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure doses to women undergoing screening mammography examinations should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, but they should ensure high enough image quality for adequate diagnosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the radiation risk according to the 'European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis', fourth edition (European Commission 2006). Materials for this study were obtained from data from 250 screening mammography facilities in Poland. For every mammography facility, a standard average glandular dose for routine exposure was calculated. Furthermore, average glandular doses for individual mammography examinations obtained according to the methods proposed by Dance et al (2000 Phys. Med. Biol. 45 3225–40) were calculated. The average glandular doses determined for 250 mammography facilities ranged from 0.12 to 14.56 mGy (the mean values ranged from 0.62 to 4.53 mGy). Only for 39 mammography facilities were all exposures found to be below the acceptable level for an average glandular dose, and for only 18 mammography facilities did no exposures exceed the achievable levels for an average glandular dose. Average glandular doses to women undergoing mammography screening attained unnecessary high values, and they were found to depend on the technical parameters of the mammography equipment and maintenance of mammography units by personnel in various mammography facilities.

  6. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

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    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  7. Diagnostic value of symptom screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in China.

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    Jun Cheng

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptom screening for tuberculosis (TB case finding defined in National Tuberculosis Control Program in China (China NTP among elderly people(≥65 years and younger people(<65 years.We made a secondary analysis in a population-based TB prevalence survey in China in 2010. Questionnaire including information for cough and haemoptysis was completed by face to face interview, and then chest radiography was conducted in all eligible participants. Sputum smear and culture were followed for all TB suspects. We calculated the odds ratios (OR, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of using different symptoms for screening to detect bacteriologically positive TB in subpopulations stratified by age 65, to evaluate the performance of symptom screening for TB.Of 315 newly diagnosed bacteriologically positive TB, 131 patients (41.59% were elderly, and 48.57% of TB patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 50% patients did not present cough of any duration, and less than half present cough more than 2 weeks, a defined suspected symptom in China NTP. Cough of any duration was reported more in patients aged under 65 than those in elderly, especially for the acute cough (9.78% vs 6.87%. Those symptoms defined by China NTP were reported by less than half participants in two subpopulations. Acute cough (<2 weeks was an independent predictor of TB in people aged under 65 (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.0-5.5, but not in those aged 65 and above (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.9. The specificity for each symptom was significantly higher in participants aged under 65 (P<0.01, and sensitivities of most symptoms were significantly higher among elderly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. When compared with cough for 2 weeks and more, using cough of any duration for symptom screening increased the sensitivity from 42.9% to 51. % for all

  8. Mean glandular doses for women undergoing mammographic breast screening in Oyo state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, thermoluminescent dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs) of patients undergoing mammographic screening at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) were also calculated using the measured ESDs. The results showed that the ESDs ranged from 0.26 mGy to 21.26 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) views and 0.08 mGy to 5.36 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) views. The calculated MGD ranged from 0.07 mGy to 3.57 mGy for the MLO views and 0.02 mGy to 0.98 mGy for the CC views. The possible reasons for the large variations in the individual ESD values and MGD values for both views are discussed using patients' data, equipment specific data and the technical parameters used for the examinations. Comparison showed that the mean ESD values and MGD values reported in this work are below published values. The mean of the calculated MGD values is also found to be lower than the recommended guidance level of 3.0 mGy when using grid. 92.5% of the patients had MGD values that are less than 2.5 mGy, hence a national reference MGD value of 2.5 mGy is proposed for Nigeria. Implementation of a dose reduction program in mammographic screening is also suggested because of the observed large variations in patients MGD values.

  9. Investigation and analysis of incidence of awareness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; YUE Yun; SUN Yong-hai; WU An-shi; WU Qi-wei; ZHANG Yong-qian; FENG Chun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Awareness under general anesthesia is a serious complication which leads to psychiatric disorders. The incidence of awareness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has been reported in as many as 1.5%-23% in foreign countries. But so far, medical literature about awareness during cardiac surgery is still rare in China. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of awareness in patients undergoing different kinds of cardiac surgery, the phases when awareness occured and the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the incidence of awareness in coronary artery bypass grafting in Beijing.Methods Patients' recall of awareness during cardiac surgery was assessed. One hundred patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, one hundred patients undergoing CABG and one hundred patients undergoing valve replacement or septal defect repair in Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, were interviewed 3-6 days after surgery. Every report obout patients on recall of awareness was recorded. An independent research team, blinded to patients' surgery and anesthesia, assessed every report of awareness.Results The incidence of awareness of patients received CABG under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), off -pump CABG, septal repair or valve replacement under CPB was 4.7% (5 of 106 cases), 9.6% (9 of 94 cases) and 4% (4 of 100 cases), respectively. CPB did not greatly affect the incidence of awareness during the period of CABG (P>0.05). The incidence of awareness of patients who received CABG under CPB did not increase significantly, in comparison with that of patients who received septal repair or valve replacement under CPB in Fuwai Hospital (P>0.05). Awareness easily occurred before bypass grafting or CPB.Conclusions Awareness mainly occurs before bypass grafting or CPB in cardiac surgery. Most cases with awareness have auditory perceptions. CPB is not a main factor which affects the incidence of awareness of CABG. Surgical types do not affect the

  10. Association of adipokines and adhesion molecules with indicators of obesity in women undergoing mammography screening

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    Isoppo de Souza Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1 and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. Design Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. Results In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight.

  11. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the kinetic and morphological presentation of normal breast tissue on DCE-MRI in a large cohort of asymptomatic women, and to relate these characteristics to breast tissue density. 335 consecutive breast MR examinations in 229 asymptomatic women undergoing high-risk screening evaluations based on recommendations from the American Cancer Society including strong family history and genetic predisposition were selected for IRB-approved review (average age 49.2 ± 10.5 years). Breast tissue density was assessed on precontrast T2-weighted images. Parenchymal enhancement pattern (PEP) was qualitatively classified as minimal, homogeneous, heterogeneous or nodular. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal enhancement kinetics (PEK) was performed, including calculation of initial and peak enhancement percentages (E1, Epeak), the time to peak enhancement (Tpeak) and the signal enhancement ratio (SER). 41.8% of examinations were classified as minimal, 13.7% homogeneous, 23.9% heterogeneous and 21.2% nodular PEP. Women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts exhibited a higher proportion of nodular PEP (44.2% (27/61)) and significantly higher E1, and Epeak (p < 0.003) compared with those with less dense breasts. Qualitative and quantitative parenchymal enhancement characteristics vary by breast tissue density. In future work, the association between image-derived MR features of the normal breast and breast cancer risk should be explored. (orig.)

  12. The Rates of Undergoing Cancer Screening Among Family Physicians Aged 40 and Older Working in Ankara Province

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    Ayşe Selda Tekiner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Family physicians, as role models for their patients, self health behaviors are important. We aimed to investigate the rate of undergoing cancer screening among family physicians. Methods: This is a descriptive and questionnaire-based study. Although we aimed to interview 1100 family physicians aged 40 or older working at family health centers of Ankara, the study was performed with 453 physicians. The questionnaire form comprised of the doctors’ opinions about cancer screening tests, and the situations of undergoing screening tests. Results: The rates of mammography and Pap smear test were 60% and 59% respectively among female doctors. The rates of fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy were 2.7% and 8.6% respectively. The physicians’ responses to the question “family physicians should be responsible for cancer screening tests in populations they serve” were: “I totally agree": 9.3%; “I agree ": 23.6%; “I am undecided": 21.6%; “I disagree": 36.9%; "I strongly disagree": 8.6% Conclusion: Family physicians who have the responsibility of public health should also undergo screening tests regularly. The importance of protecting own health should be stressed at both undergraduate and postgraduate training programs. Special permits granted by administrators for health checks may also be encouraging.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

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    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  14. The Rates of Undergoing Cancer Screening Among Family Physicians Aged 40 and Older Working in Ankara Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Selda Tekiner; Gülseren Lale; A. Gülsen Ceyhun Peker2

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Family physicians, as role models for their patients, self health behaviors are important. We aimed to investigate the rate of undergoing cancer screening among family physicians. Methods: This is a descriptive and questionnaire-based study. Although we aimed to interview 1100 family physicians aged 40 or older working at family health centers of Ankara, the study was performed with 453 physicians. The questionnaire form comprised of the doctors’ opinions about cancer s...

  15. Breast dose variability in a bi-racial population undergoing screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated individual and population dose variability during screening mammography among 570 white and black women in South Carolina, USA. Aspects of dosimetry that were considered include compressed breast thickness (CBT), number of films per screening session, and dose in previous or subsequent sessions. Breast dose was log-normally distributed in the population, with a geometric mean of 6.6 mGy per session. Doses were significantly higher for black women, for women with high CBT or who receive more than two views per breast, and for the mediolateral oblique, compared to the craniocaudal view. No relationship was observed between age and dose. Total dose per breast varied by a factor of 20 across the study population, but the individual's dose varied little among repeat screening sessions, especially after adjusting for the number of films received per session. These results may inform assessments of the projected risks of inducing breast cancer from screening mammography. (author)

  16. Accuracy of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) screening tool in patients undergoing surgery for upper gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R; Mitchell, Alex J; Dietrich, Laura; Gusani, Niraj J

    2015-01-01

    Distress is common in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Most conventional scales are too long for routine clinic use. We tested the Emotion Thermometers (ET) tool, a brief visual-analogue scale. There are four emotional upset thermometers: distress, anxiety, depression, and anger. Sixty-nine surgical patients were recruited from an academic hospital clinic in 2012; 64 had complete data for Beck depression inventory and ET. The sample size was modest due to the specialist nature of the sample. We examined sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operator-curve. A dimensional multi-domain approach to screening for emotional disorders is preferable to using the distress thermometer alone and can be achieved with little extra time burden to clinicians. The ET is a diagnostic tool that is primarily designed for screening to identify cancer patients who would benefit by enhanced psychosocial care. PMID:25396697

  17. A comprehensive geriatric assessment screening questionnaire (CGA-GOLD) for older people undergoing treatment for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, AK; Kalsi, Tania; Babic-Illman, G; Wang, Yanzhong; Fields, Paul; Ross, Paul; Maisey, Nick; Hughes, Simon; Kwan, WH; Harari, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Oncology services do not routinely assess broader needs of older people with cancer. This study evaluates a comprehensive geriatric assessment and comorbidity screening questionnaire (CGA-GOLD) covering evidence-based domains and quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Patients aged 65+ attending oncology services were recruited into (1) Observational cohort (completed CGA-GOLD, received standard oncology care), (2) Intervention cohort (responses categorised ‘low-risk’, ‘high-risk’, ‘possible need’ ...

  18. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Yang; Wen-Qiang Wei; Jin Niu; Zhi-Cai Liu; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.METHODS:Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies.Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age,screening frequencies,and follow-up intervals.Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China,published literatures,and surveillance data.RESULTS:Compared with non-screening outcomes,all strategies with hypothetical 100 000 subjects saved life years.Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis,screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52).Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e.,six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06).Compared with six times(40)fstrategy,screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV,but the same BCR.CONCLUSION:EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China.Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit,population acceptance,and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.

  20. Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening

    OpenAIRE

    Taís Daiene Russo Hortencio; Roberto José Negrão Nogueira; Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson; Gabriel Hessel; José Dirceu Ribeiro; Antônio Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program...

  1. Local anaesthetic eye drops for prevention of pain in preterm infants undergoing screening for retinopathy of prematurity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are performed routinely in the neonatal intensive care unit and are a recognised cause of pain in the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of instillation of topical anaesthetic eye drops compared with placebo or no treatment on pain in infants undergoing ROP screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2010). We identified relevant studies by searching the following: (1) computerised bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1988 to October 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to March 2010; (2) the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We searched electronically abstracts from PAS from 2000 to 2010 and handsearched abstracts from ESPR from 2000 to 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised, or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or randomised cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies for inclusion. Both studies were randomised cross-over trials performed in single centres. Both studies used the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score as a measure of pain response. Different methods of evaluating PIPP scores are presented including the absolute PIPP score, a PIPP score > 10 or > 12 and an increase in PIPP >\\/= 4 from the baseline value. There is a nonsignificant reduction in pain scores at one minute and a nonsignificant increase at five minutes post insertion of the speculum. PIPP score > 12 at one minute resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients who experienced pain (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; typical risk difference (RD) -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.86; number needed to treat to

  2. Effect of listening to music and essential oil inhalation on patients undergoing screening CT colonography: A randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koichi, E-mail: Nagata7@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, 929 Higashi-cho, Kamogawa, Chiba 296-8602 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Cancer Screening Technology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iida, Nao, E-mail: n.iida-xray@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Kanazawa, Hidenori, E-mail: r0713hk@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masanori, E-mail: m_fujiwara@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Mogi, Tomohiro, E-mail: mogi-xray@kameda.jp [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Mitsushima, Toru, E-mail: mitsushima@kameda.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Kameda Medical Center Makuhari, 1-3, Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8501 (Japan); Lefor, Alan T., E-mail: alefor@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Sugimoto, Hideharu, E-mail: sugimoto@jichi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Music does not decrease patients’ perceived pain or acceptance during CTC. • Aromatherapy does not affect patients’ perceived pain or experience during CTC. • Music and aroma had little effect on vital signs during CTC. • More participants who listened to music requested music during the next CTC. • More participants who inhaled aroma requested aroma during the next CTC. - Abstract: Objective: To prospectively evaluate the effect of listening to music and inhaling aroma oil on patients undergoing screening computed tomography colonography. Materials and methods: Two hundred and twenty four participants were randomly allocated to one of the four groups including: (1) combined music and aroma, (2) music alone, (3) aroma alone, and (4) control. The visual analog scale for pain and a questionnaire were used for subjective outcomes. We also used a pre-test–post-test design to compare the differences in blood pressure and heart rate as objective outcomes. Results: There were no statistical differences between the control group and other groups in the visual analog scale or changes in heart rate. Changes in blood pressure were similar. Participants reported good overall experiences. There were no differences in terms of overall satisfaction, pain rating, willingness to repeat the computed tomography colonography procedure in the future, or preference between colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography. More participants using music and/or aroma requested music and/or aroma during the next computed tomography colonography (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although audio and olfactory intervention had little effect on perceived pain or discomfort and vital signs, participants who listened to music and inhaled aroma during the computed tomography colonography preferred music and aroma during the next computed tomography colonography.

  3. Effect of listening to music and essential oil inhalation on patients undergoing screening CT colonography: A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Music does not decrease patients’ perceived pain or acceptance during CTC. • Aromatherapy does not affect patients’ perceived pain or experience during CTC. • Music and aroma had little effect on vital signs during CTC. • More participants who listened to music requested music during the next CTC. • More participants who inhaled aroma requested aroma during the next CTC. - Abstract: Objective: To prospectively evaluate the effect of listening to music and inhaling aroma oil on patients undergoing screening computed tomography colonography. Materials and methods: Two hundred and twenty four participants were randomly allocated to one of the four groups including: (1) combined music and aroma, (2) music alone, (3) aroma alone, and (4) control. The visual analog scale for pain and a questionnaire were used for subjective outcomes. We also used a pre-test–post-test design to compare the differences in blood pressure and heart rate as objective outcomes. Results: There were no statistical differences between the control group and other groups in the visual analog scale or changes in heart rate. Changes in blood pressure were similar. Participants reported good overall experiences. There were no differences in terms of overall satisfaction, pain rating, willingness to repeat the computed tomography colonography procedure in the future, or preference between colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography. More participants using music and/or aroma requested music and/or aroma during the next computed tomography colonography (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although audio and olfactory intervention had little effect on perceived pain or discomfort and vital signs, participants who listened to music and inhaled aroma during the computed tomography colonography preferred music and aroma during the next computed tomography colonography

  4. Factors influencing Chinese male's willingness to undergo circumcision: a cross-sectional study in western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: Of the respondents (n = 2,219, 44.6% (989/2,219 reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%, redundant foreskin (59.4%, prevention of penile cancer (50.2%, enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%, and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%. The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR = 15.98, residing in Xinjiang province (OR = 3.69, being younger than 25 (OR = 1.60, knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR = 1.78, and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR = 1.36. CONCLUSION: The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China.

  5. Evaluation of a risk factor scoring model in screening for undiagnosed diabetes in China population*

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Lou, Neng-jun; Zhao, Jia-jun; Zhang, Zhong-wen; Qiu, Lu-lu; Zhou, Ying; Liao, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a risk scoring model for screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods: A total of 5348 subjects from two districts of Jinan City, Shandong Province, China were enrolled. Group A (2985) included individuals from east of the city and Group B (2363) from west of the city. Screening questionnaires and a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were completed by all subjects. Based on the stepwise logistic regression analysis of Group A, variabl...

  6. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as a Predictor of Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Sun; Xin-Juan Kong; Xue Jing; Run-Jun Deng; Zi-Bin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background The nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002) has been applied increasingly in patients who underwent abdominal surgery for nutritional risk assessment. However, the usefulness of the NRS 2002 for predicting is controversial. This meta-analysis was to examine whether a preoperative evaluation of nutritional risk by NRS 2002 provided prediction of postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods A systematic literature search for published papers was conducted us...

  7. Screening and intervention of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in poverty zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Han, Xiuxia; Ma, Aiguo;

    2012-01-01

    The merging epidemics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been raised concerns by many experts but no large scale screening and intervention have been launched yet, especially in low-income areas. The current study aims to understand the prevalence of DM in active PTB ...... patients and evaluate the outcomes of diet and living habit intervention in poverty zones in China....

  8. Integrated syphilis/HIV screening in China: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yue-Pin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has seen enormous advances in HIV treatment and care, but how to implement scaled up HIV testing, prevention, and treatment in low-income areas still presents a formidable public health challenge. South China faces expanding syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV epidemics, but health systems characteristics important for scaling up syphilis and HIV testing have not been defined. Methods A purposive sample to ensure public, private, and public-private hybrid STI clinic inclusion was selected in a South China city. Eight key informant interviews were conducted with the STI clinic manager, followed by eight focus group discussions with physicians. Data collection relied on a semi-structured format that included questions in each of the following domains: 1 clinical facilities; 2 laboratory capacity with a focus on syphilis/HIV diagnosis; 3 clinic personnel; 4 physical space with a focus on locations to disclose confidential results; 5 financial support. Results Public STI clinics had free syphilis testing/treatment and laboratory facilities to perform essential syphilis and HIV tests. However, despite serving a large number of STI patients, private STI clinics lacked nontreponemal syphilis testing, HIV testing, and had fewer connections to the public health infrastructure. Formally trained assistant physicians were 2.5 times as common as physicians at STI clinics. Only one of the 8 sites had onsite voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services available. Conclusion These STI case studies reveal the potential for expanding integrated syphilis/HIV services at public STI clinics in China. More health services research is needed to guide scale-up of syphilis/HIV testing in China.

  9. Non- or full-laxative CT colonography vs. endoscopic tests for colorectal cancer screening: A randomised survey comparing public perceptions and intentions to undergo testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Wardle, Jane; Von Wagner, Christian [University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Boone, Darren [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    Compare public perceptions and intentions to undergo colorectal cancer screening tests following detailed information regarding CT colonography (CTC; after non-laxative preparation or full-laxative preparation), optical colonoscopy (OC) or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). A total of 3,100 invitees approaching screening age (45-54 years) were randomly allocated to receive detailed information on a single test and asked to return a questionnaire. Outcomes included perceptions of preparation and test tolerability, health benefits, sensitivity and specificity, and intention to undergo the test. Six hundred three invitees responded with valid questionnaire data. Non-laxative preparation was rated more positively than enema or full-laxative preparations [effect size (r) = 0.13 to 0.54; p < 0.0005 to 0.036]; both forms of CTC and FS were rated more positively than OC in terms of test experience (r = 0.26 to 0.28; all p-values < 0.0005). Perceptions of health benefits, sensitivity and specificity (p = 0.250 to 0.901), and intention to undergo the test (p = 0.213) did not differ between tests (n = 144-155 for each test). Despite non-laxative CTC being rated more favourably, this study did not find evidence that offering it would lead to substantially higher uptake than full-laxative CTC or other methods. However, this study was limited by a lower than anticipated response rate. (orig.)

  10. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928

  11. Non- or full-laxative CT colonography vs. endoscopic tests for colorectal cancer screening: A randomised survey comparing public perceptions and intentions to undergo testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compare public perceptions and intentions to undergo colorectal cancer screening tests following detailed information regarding CT colonography (CTC; after non-laxative preparation or full-laxative preparation), optical colonoscopy (OC) or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). A total of 3,100 invitees approaching screening age (45-54 years) were randomly allocated to receive detailed information on a single test and asked to return a questionnaire. Outcomes included perceptions of preparation and test tolerability, health benefits, sensitivity and specificity, and intention to undergo the test. Six hundred three invitees responded with valid questionnaire data. Non-laxative preparation was rated more positively than enema or full-laxative preparations [effect size (r) = 0.13 to 0.54; p < 0.0005 to 0.036]; both forms of CTC and FS were rated more positively than OC in terms of test experience (r = 0.26 to 0.28; all p-values < 0.0005). Perceptions of health benefits, sensitivity and specificity (p = 0.250 to 0.901), and intention to undergo the test (p = 0.213) did not differ between tests (n = 144-155 for each test). Despite non-laxative CTC being rated more favourably, this study did not find evidence that offering it would lead to substantially higher uptake than full-laxative CTC or other methods. However, this study was limited by a lower than anticipated response rate. (orig.)

  12. Genotypic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cytology findings in 5906 Thai women undergoing cervical cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Sritana, Narongrit; Sricharunrat, Thaniya; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Teerayathanakul, Narongchai; Taepisitpong, Chantanee; Saeloo, Siriporn; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Krongthong, Waraphorn; Arnamwong, Arpaporn

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Thai women. Nevertheless, the preventive strategy such as HPV vaccination program has not been implemented at the national level. This study explored the HPV prevalence and genotypic distribution in a large cohort of Thai women. Methods A hospital-based cervical cancer screening program at Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok and a population-based screening program at a rural Pathum Thani Province were conducted using liquid...

  13. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  14. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-...

  15. Improvement of Contrast in Digital X-ray Images Considering Exposure Dose for Stout Patients Undergoing Fluorography Chest Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to high level of tuberculosis in Ukraine, the fluorography chest screening is the most frequent diagnostic procedure which is performed annually for adult population and contributes to collective effective dose. During the diagnostic examination, the people with high body mass index obtain higher exposure dose, compared to average patients. The higher exposure dose is required for receiving diagnostic X-ray images with sufficient visual quality parameters. In present study, the approach in reduce of exposure dose for patients with high body mass index was explored in close to clinical fluorography examination conditions with application of contrast improvement methods

  16. Distress screening using distress thermometer in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and evaluation of causal factors predicting occurrence of distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distress is commonly seen in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Causal factors of distress are multifactorial; which encompasses physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential factors with complex interrelationship among the factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy were included in the study. Patients were screened for pain scores, distress scores, physical and psychological symptoms, and spiritual and emotional distress. Results: Significant increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and on completion of radiotherapy treatment (all P′s < 0.001 compared to pretreatment. Those who had chemotherapy (CT along with radiation had significantly greater pain score (t = 5.54, P = 0.03 and distress score (t = 3.9, P = 0.05 at 2 weeks into radiotherapy compared to those who did not receive CT. There was significantly higher grade of skin toxicity in those with spiritual distress (Somers′ d = 0.36, P = 0.02 and higher grade of mucositis in those with existential distress (d = 0.34, P = 0.02 at 4 weeks into radiotherapy. Conclusion: Positive correlation between distress score and pain score and occurrence of physical symptoms. Increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and completion of radiotherapy treatment compared to pretreatment. Increase in distress score in those with existential and spiritual distress.

  17. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes’ power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers’ baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals’ lung cancer risks. Objective This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized

  18. Fetal Nasal Bone Status In Iranian Women Undergoing First-Trimester Screening For Trisomy 21: A Review and an Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureisa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Failed visualization of the fetal nasal bone (NB by ultrasound at 11 - 14 weeks of gestation is strongly associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Meanwhile, the incidence of the absent fetal NB in normal fetuses in the first trimester in mothers of different ethnic origins differs significantly. It is, therefore, important to assess ethnic variations in the first-trimester visualization of the fetal NB before introducing this marker into routine screening programs for aneuploidy. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the NB length and the prevalence of the NB absence as well as calculating the likelihood ratio (LR for the absence of the NB in normal fetuses of Iranian women undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. Patients and Methods In 767 normal fetuses, the fetal profile was examined by ultrasound for the absence/presence of the NB. The NB length was also measured, and the LR for the NB absence was also determined. Results The NB was absent in 2/767 (0.26% of the fetuses. The mean length of the NB was 3.6 ± 0.69 mm for the fetuses of 11 - 14 weeks gestational age. The LR value of the absent NB was equal to 250 in the normal fetuses of the Iranian population living in the North-West provinces. Conclusion The low prevalence of the NB absence in normal fetuses in the present study is compatible with the larger size of the NB in Iranian people compared to other communities. Meanwhile, the reference range of the NB length in normal Iranian fetuses was established so that basic data could be recorded for further studies regarding the absence or presence of the NB in screening for chromosomal abnormalities (Down syndrome within the Iranian population.

  19. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as a Predictor of Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Sun

    Full Text Available The nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002 has been applied increasingly in patients who underwent abdominal surgery for nutritional risk assessment. However, the usefulness of the NRS 2002 for predicting is controversial. This meta-analysis was to examine whether a preoperative evaluation of nutritional risk by NRS 2002 provided prediction of postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.A systematic literature search for published papers was conducted using the following online databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, EBSCO, CRD databases, Cinahl, PsycInfo and BIOSIS previews. The pooled odds ratio (OR or weight mean difference (WMD was calculated using a random-effect model or a fix-effect model.Eleven studies with a total of 3527 patients included in this study. Postoperative overall complications were more frequent in nutritional risk patients versus patients without nutritional risk (the pooled OR 3.13 [2.51, 3.90] p<0.00001. The pooled OR of mortality for the nutritional risk group and non-nutritional risk group was 3.61 [1.38, 9.47] (p = 0.009. Furthermore, the postoperative hospital stay was significant longer in the preoperative nutritional risk group than in the nutritional normal group (WMD 5.58 [4.21, 6.95] p<0.00001.The present study has demonstrated that patients at preoperative nutritional risk have increased complication rates, high mortality and prolonged hospital stay after surgery. However, NRS 2002 needs to be validated in larger samples of patients undergoing abdominal surgery by better reference method.

  20. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  1. Evaluation of a risk factor scoring model in screening for undiagnosed diabetes in China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-jun DONG; Neng-jun LOU; Jia-jun ZHAO; Zhong-wen ZHANG; Lu-lu QIU; Ying ZHOU; Lin LIAO

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop a risk scoring model for screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.Methods:A total of 5348 subjects from two districts of Jinan City,Shandong Province,China were enrolled.Group A (2985) included individuals from east of the city and Group B (2363) from west of the city.Screening questionnaires and a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTr) were completed by all subjects.Based on the stepwise logistic regression analysis of Group A,variables were selected to establish the risk scoring model.The validity and effectiveness of this model were evaluated in Group B.Results:Based on stepwise logistic regression analysis performed with data of Group A,variables including age,body mass index (BMI),waist-to-hip ratio (WHR),systolic pressure,diastolic pressure,heart rate,family history of diabetes,and history of high glucose were accepted into the risk scoring model.The risk for having diabetes increased along with aggregate scores.When Youden index was closest to 1,the optimal cutoff value was set up at 51.At this point,the diabetes risk scoring model could identify diabetes patients with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 66.5%,making the positive predictive value 12.83%and negative predictive value 98.53%.We compared our model with the Finnish and Danish model and concluded that our model has superior validity in Chinese population.Conclusions:Our diabetes risk scoring model has satisfactory sensitivity and specificity for identifying undiagnosed diabetes in our population,which might be a simple and practical tool suitable for massive diabetes screening.

  2. A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Evaluation of Different Screening Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP in Beijing, North China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different ROP screening criteria, we conducted a prospective cohort study in a single-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. A total of 2997 premature infants with birth weight (BW ≤ 2000 g and/or gestational age (GA ≤ 34 weeks had completed ROP screening. ROP was diagnosed in 356 (11.9% infants. The mean GA was 30.46 ± 1.98 weeks and the mean BW was 1477.35 ± 371.29 g. Of the 59 (2.0% infants receiving treatment, the mean GA was 29.37 ± 2.10 weeks, and the mean BW was 1240.80 ± 330.71 g. The incidence of ROP declined from 14.7% in 2009 and 11.1% in 2010 to 9.5% in 2011. The United Kingdom (UK criteria could reduce the screening number by 40.8%, and 3 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, but none in 2011. The United States (US criteria could reduce the screening number by 66.5%, and 10 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, including one in 2011. So the UK criteria may be appropriate for screening of ROP in our NICU in 2011. Future multisite epidemiologic studies are required to establish suitable ROP screening criteria in China.

  3. A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Evaluation of Different Screening Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Ruijuan; Tang, Hongyi; Chen, Haihua; Feng, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in Beijing, North China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different ROP screening criteria, we conducted a prospective cohort study in a single-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 2997 premature infants with birth weight (BW) ≤ 2000 g and/or gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks had completed ROP screening. ROP was diagnosed in 356 (11.9%) infants. The mean GA was 30.46 ± 1.98 weeks and the mean BW was 1477.35 ± 371.29 g. Of the 59 (2.0%) infants receiving treatment, the mean GA was 29.37 ± 2.10 weeks, and the mean BW was 1240.80 ± 330.71 g. The incidence of ROP declined from 14.7% in 2009 and 11.1% in 2010 to 9.5% in 2011. The United Kingdom (UK) criteria could reduce the screening number by 40.8%, and 3 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, but none in 2011. The United States (US) criteria could reduce the screening number by 66.5%, and 10 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, including one in 2011. So the UK criteria may be appropriate for screening of ROP in our NICU in 2011. Future multisite epidemiologic studies are required to establish suitable ROP screening criteria in China. PMID:27382487

  4. A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Evaluation of Different Screening Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Ruijuan; Tang, Hongyi; Chen, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in Beijing, North China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different ROP screening criteria, we conducted a prospective cohort study in a single-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 2997 premature infants with birth weight (BW) ≤ 2000 g and/or gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks had completed ROP screening. ROP was diagnosed in 356 (11.9%) infants. The mean GA was 30.46 ± 1.98 weeks and the mean BW was 1477.35 ± 371.29 g. Of the 59 (2.0%) infants receiving treatment, the mean GA was 29.37 ± 2.10 weeks, and the mean BW was 1240.80 ± 330.71 g. The incidence of ROP declined from 14.7% in 2009 and 11.1% in 2010 to 9.5% in 2011. The United Kingdom (UK) criteria could reduce the screening number by 40.8%, and 3 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, but none in 2011. The United States (US) criteria could reduce the screening number by 66.5%, and 10 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, including one in 2011. So the UK criteria may be appropriate for screening of ROP in our NICU in 2011. Future multisite epidemiologic studies are required to establish suitable ROP screening criteria in China. PMID:27382487

  5. Validation of four different risk stratification models in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in a single center in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-xiao; XU Jian-ping; GE Yi-peng; WEI Yu; YANG Yan; LIU Feng; SHI Yi

    2011-01-01

    Background Several risk stratification models have been developed for cardiac surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of four existing risk stratification models, the Fuwai System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (FuwaiSCORE), the Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk model for isolated valve surgery (the STS model), the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and the initial Parsonnet's score (the Parsonnet model) in predicting prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay in Chinese patients undergoing heart valve surgery. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from records of 1333 consecutive patients who received heart valve surgery in a single center between November 2006 and December 2007. Prolonged ICU stay was defined as not less than 124 hours. Calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) goodness of fit test. Discrimination was assessed using the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve area. Results The FuwaiSCORE showed good calibration and discrimination compared with other risk models. According to the H-L statistics, the value of the FuwaiSCORE was 12.82, P>0.1. The area under ROC curve of the FuwaiSCORE was 0.81 (95%C/0.78-0.84). Conclusions Our study suggests that the FuwaiSCORE is superior to the other three risk models in predicting prolonged length of ICU stay in Chinese patients with heart valve surgery. Having fewer variables, the system is much easier for bedside use than other systems.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a national neonatal hearing screening program in China: conditions for the scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyan Gai Tobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Health recommended scale-up of routine neonatal hearing screening - previously performed primarily only in select urban hospitals - throughout the entire country. METHODS: A decision analytical model for a simulated population of all live births in china was developed to compare the costs and health effects of five mutually exclusive interventions: 1 universal screening using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE and Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR; 2 universal OAE; 3 targeted OAE and AABR; 4 targeted OAE; and 5 no screening. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs were calculated for health effects. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Based on the cost-effectiveness and potential health outcomes, the optimal path for scale-up would be to start with targeted OAE and then expand to universal OAE and universal OAE plus AABR. Accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services significantly affect decision of the options. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, to achieve cost-effectiveness and best health outcomes of the NHS program, the accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services should be expanded to reach a larger population. The results are thus expected to be of particular benefit in terms of the 'rolling out' of the national plan.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening behavior and willingness: An outpatient survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Xin Deng; Jie Gao; Wei An; Jie Yin; Quan-Cai Cai; Hua Yang; Zhao-Shen Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identity the factors influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior and willingness among Chinese outpatients. METHODS: An outpatient-based face-to-face survey was conducted from August 18 to September 7, 2010 in Changhai Hospital. A total of 1200 consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years were recruited for interview. The patient's knowledge about CRC and screening was pre-measured as a predictor variable, and other predictors included age, gender, educational level, monthly household income and health insurance status. The relationship between these predictors and screening behavior, screening willingness and screening approach were examined using Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of these outpatients, 22.5% had undergone CRC screening prior to this study. Patients who had participated in the screening were more likely to have good knowledge about CRC and screening (OR: 5.299, 95% CI: 3.415-8.223), have health insurance (OR: 1.996, 95% CI: 1.426-2.794) and older in age. Higher income, however, was found to be a barrier to the screening (OR: 0.633, 95% CI: 0.467-0.858). An analysis of screening willingness showed that 37.5% of the patients would voluntarily participated in a screen at the recommended age, but 41.3% would do so under doctor's advice. Screening willingness was positively correlated with the patient's knowledge status. Patients with higher knowledge levels would like to participate in the screening (OR: 4.352, 95% CI: 3.008-6.298), and they would select colonoscopy as a screening approach (OR: 3.513, 95% CI: 2.290-5.389). However, higher income level was, again, a barrier to colonoscopic screening (OR: 0.667, 95% CI: 0.505-0.908). CONCLUSION: Patient's level of knowledge and income should be taken into consideration when conducting a feasible CRC screening.

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and prediabetes and associated risk factors: a community-based screening in Zhuhai, Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Dong-feng; SHI Yan-lin; CHEN You-ming; LIU Hong-mei; DING Ya-nan; LIU Xin-yu; LI Yong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and prediabetes has increased in China,and at different rates in different locations.Therefore a community-based screening research was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of CKD and prediabetes,and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD and prediabetes in a city of Southern China.Methods A total of 7801 community residents aged 18 year and older from 6 communities were screened by a stratified random cluster sampling method.An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),albuminuria,fasting plasma glucose (FPG),and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured.Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by the direct method with the use of data on the population distribution in China in 2006.Multivariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of CKD and prediabetes,and association of insulin resistance (IR) with CKD and prediabetes was analyzed.Results The age-standardized prevalence of CKD was 12.5%,eGFR <60 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 was 2.7% and ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g was 10.3%.The age-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 12.1%.Logistic regression suggests that IR was a common independent risk factor of CKD and prediabetes.Further analysis show that HOMA-IR was increased with the aggravation of kidney injury and FPG.Conclusion CKD and prediabetes have become a major public health problem in Zhuhai,Southern China; insulin resistance may be an important risk factor.

  9. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing. With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender ...

  10. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  11. Quality control and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus antibody assays used for screening donated blood in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU CHUN WANG; XIU HUA LI; AI JING SONG; CHUN TAO ZHANG; SI HONG XU; FENG ZHANG; HONG ZHANG YIN

    2006-01-01

    During 2004, a total of 124 batches of HIV antibody ELISAs from domestic and overseas manufacturers, comprising approximately 60 million tests, were tested for quality and released for screening blood in China. The inter- and intra-batch variation, specificity, and sensitivity were evaluated using a laboratory panel and clinical samples. The inter-batch variation was less than 15% and only 2 of 12 assays had intra-batch variation of less than 20% for 4 dilutions of a control specimen.257 samples confirmed positive for HIV antibody and 4826 negative samples from different regions in China were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. The results showed that the sensitivity is in the range from 93.7% to 100% for assays sampled directly from the manufacturers,and 91.4%-99.6% for those retrieved from the consumers; the specificity was in the range from 97.88% to 99.97%. The testing environment may vary in different regions of China. Therefore, manufacturers should provide robust assays to satisfy the requirements of these diverse environments, and especially reduce the intra-assay variation and improve the stability of the kits.

  12. Optimal Cut-Off Points for Two-Step Strategy in Screening of Undiagnosed Diabetes: A Population-Based Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhen; Cong, Liming; Ding, Gangqiang; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying; Wu, Jianjun; Fang, Le; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jie; He, Qingfang; Su, Danting; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Lixin; GONG, WEIWEI

    2014-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in screening of undiagnosed diabetes in Chinese people, data were selected from two cross-sectional studies of Metabolic Syndrome in Zhejiang Province of China, Zhejiang Statistical Yearbook (2010), and published literatures. Two-step strategy was used among 17437 subjects sampled from population to screen undiagnosed diabetes. Effectiveness (proportion of cases identified), costs (including medical and non-med...

  13. Fetal Nasal Bone Status In Iranian Women Undergoing First-Trimester Screening For Trisomy 21: A Review and an Observational Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Poureisa; Daghighi; Mazaheri Khameneh; Salehi Majd

    2015-01-01

    Background Failed visualization of the fetal nasal bone (NB) by ultrasound at 11 - 14 weeks of gestation is strongly associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Meanwhile, the incidence of the absent fetal NB in normal fetuses in the first trimester in mothers of different ethnic origins differs significantly. It is, therefore, important to assess ethnic variations in the first-trimester visualization of the fetal NB before introducing this marker into routine screening programs f...

  14. Screening of Nutritional Risk and Nutritional Support in General Surgery Patients: A Survey from Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Jun; Tong, Da-Nian; Peng, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Liu, Wei-Jie; Xia, Yang; Qin, Huan-Long

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nutritional risk in surgical departments and to evaluate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes. The nutritional risk in different surgical diseases and the different way of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk remain unclear. Hospitalized patients from general surgical departments were screened using the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 questionnaire on admission. Data were collected on nutritional risk, ...

  15. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; XIANG, GUANGXIN; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles ...

  16. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  17. Screening Strategies for Thyroid Disorders in the First and Second Trimester of Pregnancy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hong; Shao, Minglong; Chen, Liangmiao; Chen, Qingshou; Yu, Lechu; Cai, Lingqiao; Lin, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, but whether all women should be screened for thyroid disorders during pregnancy remains controversial. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the targeted high risk case-finding approach for identifying women with thyroid dysfunction during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Methods Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TP...

  18. Prognostic value of dipyridamole thallium-201 screening to minimize perioperative cardiac complications in diabetics undergoing kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, B.M.; Solomon, H.; Hoff, J.; Aridge, D.L.; Lindsey, L.M.; Garvin, P.J. [Saint Louis Univ. Health Sciences Center, Div. of Abdominal Transplant, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Bastani, B. [Saint Louis Univ. Health Sciences Center, Div. of Nephrology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chaitman, B.R. [Saint Louis Univ. Health Sciences Center, Div. of Cardioiogy, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    1998-04-01

    To minimize perloperative cardiac events, we utilize a screening protocol consisting of intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial imaging (DPT), with the selective use of coronary angiography based on the presence of reversible defect(s) on DPT test. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prognostic value of this protocol and to identify any clinical parameters predictive of an abnormal DPT test. To accomplish this, a detailed chart analysis of 176 consecutive kidney (n = 89) and kidney-pancreas (n = 87) transplant recipients who had undergone pre-transplant DPT testing was performed. The results of the DPT test were interpreted as normal in 111, fixed defect in 15, and reversible defect(s) in 50 patients. Forty-two of the 50 patients with reversible defect(s) underwent coronary angiography. Twelve of the 27 patients with significant coronary artery disease (CAD, > 50% stenosis in one or more coronary arteries) underwent pre-transplant revascularization and the remaining 15 were treated medically. Cardiac events (documented acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death) within 6 wk of transplant were stratified by the results of this protocol. Also, various clinical parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal (fixed and reversible defect) DPT tests. Only one of the 111 (0.9%) transplant recipients with a normal DPT test had a perioperative cardiac event. None of the 15 (0%) patients with a fixed defect and none of the 15 (0%) patients with reversible defect(s), but a nonsignificant (<50% narrowing) coronary angiogram, had a perioperative cardiac event. Three of the 27 (11.1%) patients with reversible defect(s) and significant disease on coronary angiography, who had undergone pre-transplant revascularization of were managed medically, had a perioperative coronary event. Of 14 recipients parameters analyzed, age > 50 yr was the only variable predictive of an abnormal DPT test. (au) 33 refs.

  19. In vitro screening of traditionally used medicinal plants in China against Enteroviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Peng Guo; Ji Pang; Xin-Wei Wang; Zhi-Qiang Shen; Min Jin; Jun-Wen Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To search for new antiviral agents from traditional Chinese medicine, specifically anti-enterovirosuses agents.METHODS: The aqueous extracts (AE) of more than 100 traditionally used medicinal plants in China were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Coxsackie virus B3 activities with a NTT-based colorimetric assay.RESULTS: The test for AE of 16 plants exhibited antiCoxsackie virus B3 activities at different magnitudes of potency. They can inhibit three steps (inactivation,adsorption and replication) during the infection. Among the 16 plants, Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. et Wils., Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep., Paeonia veitchii Lynch, Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. and Cyrtomium fortunei J. sm. also have activity against other enterovirus, including Coxsackie virus B5, Polio virus I, Echo virus 9 and Echo virus 29. Cell cytotoxic assay demonstrated that all tested AE had CC 50 values higher than their EC50 values.CONCLUSION: The sixteen traditionally used medicinal plants in China possessed antiviral activity, and some of them merit further investigations.

  20. Evaluation of primary HPV-DNA testing in relation to visual inspection methods for cervical cancer screening in rural China: an epidemiologic and cost-effectiveness modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yoon-Jung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new lower-cost rapid-throughput human papillomavirus (HPV test (careHPV, Qiagen, Gaithersburg, USA has been shown to have high sensitivity for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods We assessed the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of careHPV screening in rural China, compared to visual inspection with acetic acid, when used alone (VIA or in combination with Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI. Using data on sexual behaviour, test accuracy, diagnostic practices and costs from studies performed in rural China, we estimated the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER and associated lifetime outcomes for once-lifetime and twice-lifetime screening strategies, and for routine screening at 5-yearly, 10-yearly and IARC-recommended intervals. The optimal age range for once-lifetime screening was also assessed. Results For all strategies, the relative ordering of test technologies in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality was VIA (least effective; VIA/VILI; careHPV@1.0 pg/ml and careHPV@0.5 pg/ml (most effective. For once-lifetime strategies, maximum effectiveness was achieved if screening occurred between 35-50 years. Assuming a participation rate of ~70%, once-lifetime screening at age 35 years would reduce cancer mortality by 8% (for VIA to 12% (for careHPV@0.5 over the long term, with a CER of US$557 (for VIA to $959 (for careHPV@1.0 per life year saved (LYS compared to no intervention; referenced to a 2008 GDP per capita in Shanxi Province of $2,975. Correspondingly, regular screening with an age-standardised participation rate of 62% (which has been shown to be achievable in this setting would reduce cervical cancer mortality by 19-28% (for 10-yearly screening to 43-54% (using IARC-recommended intervals, with corresponding CERs ranging from $665 (for 10-yearly VIA to $2,269 (for IARC-recommended intervals using careHPV@1.0 per LYS. Conclusions This modelled analysis suggests that primary careHPV screening

  1. Cadmium exposure via diet and its implication on the derivation of health-based soil screening values in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jiang, Lin; Han, Dan; Xia, Tian-Xiang; Yao, Jue-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Yang; Peng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The cadmium (Cd) intake rates via diet of adults from different regions in China were between 0.160 and 0.557 μg/(kg BW·day), which were less than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (0.833 μg/(kg BW·day)) issued by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization in 2010, but higher than the one (0.365 μg/(kg BW·day)) issued by the European Food Safety Authority in 2011, to protect children, vegetarians and people living in heavily contaminated regions, and the intake rate of children (1.007 μg/(kg BW·day)) at the national scale was higher than the values recommended by the above institutes and those of adults. Vegetables were the critical contributors, followed by rice, flour, meats and aquatic products. Cd concentration in vegetable was the most sensitive factor in calculating the intake rate, followed by its contents in rice and aquatic products, and the intake rate of flour, indicating that more attention should be given to these parameters in future total diet surveys. When dietary exposure was incorporated, the derived national screening value of Cd under commercial scenario was reduced from 825 to 458 mg/kg, while the values of the north, south, Beijing and Shanghai were reduced to 627, 365, 693 and 489 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that the hazard would be underestimated if dietary exposure was not taken into account, especially for the south. The great variance between the screening values was due to the varied Cd intake rates, which indicated that deriving a screening value for each specific area based on its corresponding exposure characteristics was more appropriate. The national screening level for the residential scenario derived theoretically based on the dietary exposure characteristics of children was a negative value, meaning that the dietary intake rate was above the tolerable value. The method used in the United Kingdom to derive soil guideline values when non-soil exposure accounted for more than half of

  2. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  3. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  4. 输血患者1337例行意外抗体筛检临床研究%Research on the Effect of 1337 Patients with Transfusion Undergoing Unexpected Antibody Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁石; 罗薛莲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究红细胞意外抗体筛检在临床输血治疗中的应用价值。方法选择2011年1月至2014年3月公安县人民医院收治的1337例行意外抗体筛检的输血患者作为观察组,分析其意外抗体的分布情况;另选取同期未行意外抗体筛检的输血患者620例为对照组,观察两组患者的输血反应。结果观察组共检出抗-c抗体2例,抗-C抗体1例,抗-D抗体4例,抗-e抗体3例,抗-E抗体5例,总阳性率为1.12%。其中男性阳性检出率低于女性(0.28%比2.04%,P<0.05),无妊娠史患者阳性检出率低于有妊娠史患者(0.06%比2.66%,P<0.05),输血1次患者阳性检出率为0.14%、输血2次阳性检出率为1.86%、输血3次阳性检出率为2.60%,输血1次患者阳性检出率低于输血2次和输血3次,观察组患者输血反应发生率显著低于对照组(0.07%比2.02%,P<0.05)。结论多次输血和妊娠会产生意外抗体,患者于输血前行意外抗体筛检能有效提高输血的安全性。%Objective To investigate the application value of unexpected antibody screening of red blood cell in the clinical transfusion.Methods A total of 1337 patients with transfusion undergoing unex-pected antibody screening admitted to Gong′an County People′s Hospital from Jan.2011 to Mar.2014 were selected into the observation group,and the distribution of unexpected antibody of the patients were analyzed, and another 620 patients with transfusion who did not undergo unexpected antibody screening were included into the control group,transfusion reactions of the two groups were observed.Results A total of 2 case of anti-c antibody,1 case of anti-C antibody and 4 cases of anti-D antibodies,3 cases of anti-e antibodies and 5 cases of anti-E antibodies were detected, the total positive rate was 1.12%.Among them, the positive detection rate of men was lower than women ( 0.28% vs 2.04%, P <0.05 ) , and

  5. A cross-sectional study to assess the feasibility of a short message service to improve adherence of outpatients undergoing sedation gastrointestinal endoscopy in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng XQ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoqian Deng, Ling Ye, Yuting Wang, Tao Zhu Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Adherence to the prescribed preparation regimen for patients scheduled for sedation gastrointestinal endoscopy (SGIE often fails to meet health care providers’ expectations. Therefore, the feasibility of using mobile phones to improve the adherence of outpatients was assessed among outpatients scheduled for SGIE.Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional study using survey questionnaires. Outpatients who would be undergoing SGIE were enrolled. The main outcomes included proportions of outpatients who have access to mobile phones, and the use of text-messaging among outpatients. Willingness to receive text messages and personal opinions about short message service (SMS were also investigated. Characteristics of outpatients, including socio-demographic factors, with a mobile phone (or those who could receive and read messages compared with those without a mobile phone (or those who could not receive and read messages were compared using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to analyze significant contributing factors associated with mobile phone ownership and the use of text messages.Results: A large majority of outpatients owned personal mobile phones (94.9% and could receive and read the messages (78.9%. Most of the outpatients were willing to receive a pre-procedure education via text message (81.9%. Outpatients aged 16–39 years old and those with a college education or higher were more likely to use mobile phones and read SMS than outpatients aged 60–80 years old and those with only a primary education level (P<0.0001. Outpatients who lived in an urban setting were more likely to own a mobile phone than outpatients who lived in a rural setting (P=0.002.Conclusion: The accessibility of mobile phones and the frequent use of message functions

  6. Association of HER2 status with prognosis in gastric cancer patients undergoing R0 resection: A large-scale multicenter study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guo-Shuang; Zhao, Jiu-Da; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Ma, Xin-Fu; Du, Feng; Kan, Jie; Ji, Fa-Xiang; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Fang-Chao; Wang, Zi-Yi; Xu, Bing-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the positive status of human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) can be regarded as an effective prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer (GC) undergoing R0 resection. METHODS: A total of 1562 GC patients treated by R0 resection were recruited. HER2 status was evaluated in surgically resected samples of all the patients using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Correlations between HER2 status and clinicopathological characteristics were retrospective analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by age, gender, tumor location and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, with additional adjustment for potential prognostic factors. RESULTS: Among 1562 patients, 548 (positive rate = 35.08%, 95%CI: 32.72%-37.45%) were HER2 positive. Positive status of HER2 was significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.004), minority (P analysis, although stratified analyses showed marginally statistically significant associations both in disease free survival and overall survival, especially among patients aged factors for both disease free survival and overall survival. CONCLUSION: The positive status of HER2 based on IHC staining was not related to the survival in patients with GC among the Chinese population. PMID:27340357

  7. Investigation of mental health and its influence on Chinese cancer patients using a multidisciplinary screening flow:an epidemiological survey in the west of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huan; LI Jin; LU You; DENG Lei; SUN Xue-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite psycho-oncological concerns and studies having thrived these past decades,sparse reports illustrate to what extent Chinese cancer patients are involved and influenced by comorbid mental health problems.To investigate the mental health condition of cancer patient,as well as its possible impacts on prognosis,the first large-scale survey was performed in the west of China.Methods For standardizing and facilitating the assessment of mental illness in inpatients with cancer,a multidisciplinary rating flow was designed and established.On the basis of this system,between May 1st and 31st 2009,2279 cancer inpatients from nine medical centers received preliminarily screening executed by oncologists using screening scales Mental Health Screening Questionnaire (MHSQ),Zung self-rating depression scales (SDS),Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS),and posttraumatic stress disorder checklist-civilian version (PCL-C).Further analyses of the ones screened positively were conducted by psychiatrists applying corresponding symptom-rating scales (HAMA/HAMD/BPRS).We summarized the overall proportion of patients with impaired mental health based on the data acquired from preliminary screening,and then calculated occurrence rates of each clinical syndrome of mental disorder according to symptom conclusions.The impact of comorbid mental illness was evaluated through the follow-up scheduled 1 year later,by comparing the survival rate,progression of disease,and quality of life (QoL) between subgroup patients with or without clinical syndrome of mental disorder.Results In preliminary screenings,26.1% (595/2279) yielded positive results.Further symptom conclusions confirmed 15.8% (359/2279) with clinical syndrome of mental disorder.Regarding specific type of syndrome,the occurrence rates of depression,anxiety,psychotic symptoms,and stress-related disorders were 13.3%,10.2%,2.8%,and 1.4%,respectively.Follow-up assessments were successfully performed in 1918

  8. 77 FR 70782 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... patients who undergo screening by FIT or colonoscopy until it reaches a target number of responses. Targets... comprehensive assessment of all the costs associated with CRC screening, especially indirect and non-medical... cancer. Based on scientific evidence which indicates that regular screening with fecal occult...

  9. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY, WORKING GR

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  10. Performance of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in Screening Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged and Old Women in the Chengdu Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Yuan; Song, Wen-Zhong; Zeng, Hui-Rong; Huang, Mei; Wen, Qun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) for screening middle-aged and old healthy women in the Chengdu region of China. OSTA scores were used to evaluate the effect of age on the development of osteoporosis. A total of 15,752 healthy women older than 40 yr, who reside in the Chengdu region, were assigned to 9 age groups divided by 5-yr intervals. Bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae, L1-L4, and the left hip was measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry system (GE Healthcare, Cincinnati, OH). All subjects were classified into 3 categories according to OSTA cutoff values. The OSTA values used to define the categories were ≥-1, >-4 and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The detection rate of osteoporosis and osteopenia at the lumbar vertebrae and the femur was found to increase with age. Furthermore, the sensitivity of OSTA value for detection of osteoporosis also gradually enhanced with subject age. In contrast, the specificity gradually decreased with age. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the OSTA index for detecting osteoporosis gradually increased with higher OSTA cutoff values, and the specificity and positive predictive value appeared to gradually decline. It was concluded that the OSTA is a useful screening tool to detect osteoporosis in middle-aged and old women in the Chengdu region of China. Furthermore, specific OSTA cutoff values should be selected for screening individuals who belong to different age groups. PMID:25833193

  11. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  12. Bibliometic analysis on the prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down' s syndrome in China%国内唐氏综合征产前筛查及诊断研究文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云香; 王书平; 王坤; 惠文; 李雪; 吴华章

    2013-01-01

    目的 系统分析国内关于唐氏综合征产前筛查和产前诊断研究的文献,为制定适合我国国情的产前筛查方案提供参考.方法 以“唐氏综合征”或“DS”、“产前筛查”和“产前诊断”为主题词,对中国期刊全文专题数据库等的文献进行检索,检索年限为1987-2012年.并对符合纳入标准的文献进行数据提取和统计分析.结果 检索到符合纳入标准的文献90篇.统计分析结果显示我国产前筛查的策略主要是孕中期的血清学二联筛查,产前诊断的取样方法主要是羊膜腔穿刺,诊断方法主要为染色体核型分析.结论 选择合适的筛查策略及截断值是目前产前筛查的重要研究方向,增加筛查指标及采用孕早期联合筛查将是我国未来产前筛查的趋势.%Objective To systematically analyze the domestic articles about prenatal screening and diagnosis of down's syndrome and provide basis for formulating new prenatal screening plan suitable for current conditions in China. Methods We searched the full text databases of China with subject terms containing "down's syndrome"/ "DS", " prenatal screening" and "prenatal diagnosis" and defining the published year between 1987 and 2012. After that, the data from the articles meeting the criteria was extracted and analyzed statistically. Results Totally 90 articles were included in the study. Statistical analysis showed that the strategy of prenatal screening in China is mainly in the second-trimester with serological double marker screening, prenatal diagnosis sampling method is mainly amniocentesis(AC), diagnosis methods mainly the analysis of the chromosome karyotypes. Conclusions Choosing appropriate screening strategies and truncation value are currently important research directions of prenatal screening, increasing the screening indexes and screening in the first-trimester will be the trend of prenatal screening in the future in China.

  13. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  14. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Linfeng Xu; Yuanzhi Lao; Yanhui Zhao; Jian Qin; Wenwei Fu; Yingjia Zhang; Hongxi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode o...

  15. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Chung; Yi-Lan Liu; Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...

  16. Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayalakshmi A; Ravichandiran V; Malarkodi Velraj; Nirmala S; Jayakumari S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods: Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results: The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 μg/mL). Conclusions: From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity.

  17. Screening of different sample types associated with sheep and cattle for the presence of nematophagous fungi in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kui-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Long-Jie; Chen, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Ming-Wang; Wu, Jia-Yan; Li, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Jing; Wei, Shuan; Chen, Chun-Rong; Ma, Zhong-Ren; Xu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Feng; Hu, Qian-Lin; Fang, Wen-Xiu; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhu, Wen-Long; Li, Dan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Bing; Wang, Fan; Yang, Zai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1502 samples, including feces of sheep (793) and cattle (348), pasture soil (118), dung compost (147) and barn soil (96), were examined between October 2012 and August 2014 to discover potential strains of nematophagous fungi for the biological control of livestock-parasitic nematodes. These samples were collected from 87 sites located in 48 counties of 20 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) of China. Fungi were identified down to a species level. Four hundred and seventy-seven isolates, which were distributed in 8 genera and 28 taxa, were identified as nematophagous fungi. Nematode-trapping fungi included 17 species and one unidentified species of Arthrobotrys, two of Dactylella, Drechslerella dactyloides, and Duddingtonia flagrans. Five identified species and two unidentified species of endoparasitic fungi were isolated. The predominant species from all regions were Arthrobotrys oligospora, followed by Arthrobotrys musiformis, Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) thaumasiun, and Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) microscaphoides. Species with adhesive networks were the most frequently isolated. Among the endoparasitic fungi, Podocrella harposporifera (Harposporium anguillulae) was the most common species, followed by Harposporium lilliputanum and Harposporium arcuatum. Based on Shannon diversity index, the diversity levels of nematophagous fungi were relatively higher in samples associated with cattle, barn soil, and subtropical monsoon climate zone. Three species isolated from this study, namely, Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys salina (Monacrosporium salinum), and Arthrobotrys oligospora var. sarmatica, are newly recorded in China, and 20 species (including one unidentified species) are newly recorded in sheep and cattle barn soils worldwide. PMID:26344826

  18. A Climate Change Screening Tool for Assessment of Adaptation in Water Sector: a case study in the Haihe River Basin(China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Jinxia; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-04-01

    The impending of climate changes has already presented risks to the efficiency and effectiveness of development investments globally. In order to minimize negative impacts and maximize opportunities, adaptations to climate changes play a crucial role in development planning and project management increasingly. But before the adaptation designing and implementation, it should be evaluated. An interdisciplinary screening frame work was developed to evaluate the adaptations in this paper. It includes 6 parts, which are project description, problems analysis, identifying climate-sensitive components, semi-quantitative analysis, benefit-cost analysis and multi criteria analysis. In this paper, we selected the "Water Conservation Project of China" funded by World Bank as case study. One of the main objectives of this project is to reduce the scarcity in Haihe River Basin in North China. The applying of modified CAPSIM-PODIUM illustrated, in 2030, climate change will significantly impact on water demand, supply and scarcity in Haihe River Basin. To rebalance the water scarcity caused by climate change, a mixing price policy, which is easier to bring into effect than other price policy was selected. The result of evaluation showed it will be both economic efficiency based on benefit-cost analysis, and technologic possible when we take irrigation efficiency into consideration in future. For "do nothing policy" is also a choice responding to climate change, we used multi criteria analysis, which is an important compensation of Benefit-Cost analysis , to compare it with "mix water pricing policy". The score of "mix water pricing policy" was higher than "do nothing policy" in this case study, which means it's a feasible policy to reduce water scarcity caused by economic development and climate change in Haihe River Basin.

  19. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity.

  20. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  1. Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section (CS) was introduced in the hospital in 1995. This study audited the use of tinzaparin prophylaxis in a nested cohort of women who screened negative for diabetes mellitus at 28 weeks gestation. All the women had their weight measured and BMI calculated at the first antenatal visit. Of the 284 women, 68 (24%) had a CS and all received tinzaparin. Of the 68, however, 94% received a dose lower than recommended. Compliance with prophylaxis was complete but compliance with the recommended dosage was suboptimal, which may result in venous thromboembolism after CS despite thromboprophylaxis.

  2. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  3. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  4. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health Stories Screening Newborns for Critical ... Quality Assurance Program Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative Newborn ... Stay Connected Twitter Facebook ...

  5. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  6. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  7. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ling Liang; Zheng Zhang; Min Wu; Yuan Wu; Jia-Xun Feng

    2014-01-01

    From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36...

  8. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  9. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  10. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  11. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic.

  12. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  13. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.``

  14. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.

  15. Gastric cancer screening in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region: a mass screeningreport from a high risk area of stomach cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Wei Gong; Rong Tian Xu; Xuan Jie Wang; Hua Gao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the comprehensive prevention and treatment of gastric cancer among high-risk population inthe high risk areas.METHODS A gastrocarcinoma mass screening was performed in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region. About50 000 population were involved and 3033 cases aged above 35 suffering from gastric diseases, and/or hadfamily history of gastric cancer were screened. Clinical epidemiological investigation, double-contrast X-ray,serum pepsinogen monitor, gastroscopic biopsies and histopathologic examinations were adopted in thescreening.RESULTS The ratio of the examined patients with gastric disorder reached up to 82% and 32 patients withgastric cancer were detected (1.06%) and 18 cases were early gastric cancer (56.25%). Patients with gastriccancer were treated successively. Aside from gastric cancer, several gastric lesions were also detected, whichlaid a good foundation for further interventional treatment. It was also found in the examination that93.97% of the local residents were addicted to salted pork and more than 60% of the residents had Hpinfection.CONCLUSION Gastric diseases, Hp infection of gastric mucosa and eating salted pork are very common inZhuanghe region. These are very dangerous factors causing gastric cancer. It is feasible to quit eating saltedpork and eradicate Hp infection and cure precancerous diseases.

  16. Screening of priority-control organic pollutants in coastal water in China%我国近岸海域优先控制有机污染物的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆景利; 王菊英; 张志锋

    2011-01-01

    针对当前我国海洋环境中有机污染现状和监测评价的需求,本文借鉴国内外研究经验,以我国近岸海域有机污染物的环境分布浓度、污染物的急慢性毒性和理化性质为评价赋值指标,建立了基于环境暴露指数和环境效应指数为基础的优先控制有机污染物定量筛选方法.利用本筛选方法,尝试性的提出了我国近岸海域优先控制有机污染物名单,以此为海洋管理部门在有机污染物排放控制和监测管理方面提供参考.%In view of the demand on environmental monitoring and assessment and the pollution status of organic compounds in marine environment of China,an approach to screen and evaluate the priority-control organic pollutants of marine environment was proposed on the base of studying the relative methods and achievements. In the approach,the novel assessment indices "the environmentsl exposure index and environmental effect index" were established for calculating the integrated environmental risk index, those indices involved a series of parameters including environmental concentrations, acute and chronic toxicity data, and physicochemical property of organic compounds. Finally,in order to evaluate this approach, the monitoring data and toxicity data of compounds were used to tentatively propose the lists of priority-control organic pollutants in coastal water in China. We wish that present results list may help to evaluate hazard potential of organic pollutants and to provide a guidance for marine environment management.

  17. Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Stuart K; Hinton, Cynthia F; Held, Patrice K; Jones, Elizabeth; Harry Hannon, W; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-11-01

    Routine second screening of most newborns at 8-14 days of life for a panel of newborn conditions occurs in 12 U.S. states, while newborns in the other states typically undergo only a single routine newborn screen. The study objective was to evaluate screening consequences for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in one- and two-screen states according to laboratory practices and medical or biochemical characteristics of screen-positive cases. Individual-level medical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2251 primary CH cases in one-screen (CA, WI) and two-screen (AL, DE, MD, OR, TX) states. Aggregate data were collected and analyzed for medical and biochemical characteristics of all screened newborns in the states. Among the states evaluated in this study, the detection rate of primary CH was higher in the one-screen states. In the two-screen states, 11.5% of cases were detected on the second screen. In multivariate analyses, only race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of cases identified on the first versus second screen, which likely reflects a physiologic difference in primary CH presentation. Newborn screening programs must heed the potential for newborns with CH not being detected by a single screen, particularly newborns of certain races/ethnicities. If the two-screen states converted to a single screen using their current algorithms, newborns currently identified on the routine second screen would presumably not be detected, resulting in probable delayed diagnosis and treatment. However, based on the one-screen state experiences, with appropriate modifications in screening method and algorithm, the two-screen states might convert to single screen operation for CH without loss in performance. PMID:26293295

  18. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 μg), thorium (103 μg) and lead (1,870 μg). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 μg) and nickel (667 μg), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 μg). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 μg/g) and strontium (190 μg/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method. PMID:21523506

  19. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  20. China takes to the roads.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, I.

    1995-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...

  1. Clinical utility of Liqui-PREP™ cytology system for primary cervical cancer screening in a large urban hospital setting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshou Hao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid based cytology (LBC has been reported to increase the sensitivity of cervical cytology, in comparison with conventional cytology Pap smear (CPS. Most LBC systems though require expensive automated devices. Aims: To evaluate the efficiency of a new and inexpensive LBC system - LPT cytology system. Materials and Methods: Cervical screening was performed on 31500 patients utilizing the LPT cytology system test from January 2006 to May 2007. A similar number (n = 31500 of CPS were performed from January 2004 to July 2006. All cytology positive patients underwent colposcopy and cervical biopsy with histopathology examination. Fifty cases positive both on cytology and biopsy were submitted to the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV L1 protein (HR-HPV L1 tests. Results: The LPT cytology system adequately preserved cellular structure for morphologic evaluation. There was a significant difference of the histology/cytology diagnosis concordant rate between that of the CPS and LPT systems [93.6 vs. 78.4%, p=0.001]. The significant higher concordant rate was also seen in the low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL (95.4 vs. 78.9%, p=0.001 and in high grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL (90.2 vs. 76.1%, p=0.001 cytology diagnosis. There was no statistical difference in rate in atypical glandular cells (AGC (61.5 vs. 60% and glandular cell carcinoma (GCC (83.3 vs. 80%. LPT resulted in a marked increased global detection over the CPS. Nuclear expression of HPV L1 was seen in 34% (17/50 of cases. Conclusions: LPT showed an increase in detection rate compared to CPS (P = 0.001 and a significantly higher histological versus cytological concordant referral rate.

  2. Transnational Higher Education and Challenges for University Governance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kok Chung; Chan, David K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education in China is currently undergoing a process of re-orientation. This paper focuses specifically on the development of transnational higher education (TNHE) in China over the last decade, as well as its implications for university governance. Major features of TNHE programmes in China will be explored, and a corresponding typology…

  3. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  4. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  5. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  6. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident

  7. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  8. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  9. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  10. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  11. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  12. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  13. Carotid Artery Sonography Findings in 291 Patients Undergoing Cabg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Dehghan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doppler ultrasonography (DUS is the most preferable method for screening of carotid artery disease in patients undergoing CABG. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of carotid artery disease and determine the relation between known risk factors of atherosclerosis and rate of carotid artery narrowing in order to identify high-risk groups among patients scheduled for isolated elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG procedures. Methods: Two-hundred ninety-one patients (222 males and 69 females undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were preoperatively evaluated by carotid artery Doppler ultrasomography and the morphology of carotid artery was determined. Age, sex, cervical bruit, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, history of cerebrovascular event (CVE and coronary angiographic findings were investigated to define the high-risk group for carotid artery disease. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and P60 years (P=0.84, female sex (P=0.730, and left main coronary disease (P=0.390 were not identified as high-risk factors for carotid artery stenosis greater than 50%. But positive MI history (P=0.025, and cervical bruit (P=0.002, were significantly related to 50% carotid artery stenosis. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, we can not suggest DUS as a routine screening method in all patients undergoing CABG, except for patients with history of MI and cervical bruit. Another important finding was that 56.4% of patients posted for CABG had different degrees of carotid artery stenosis which requires a long term CVA prophylaxis program.

  14. Tuberculosis in children undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargah Tahar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gargah Tahar1, Goucha-Louzir Rim2, Lakhoua Mohamed Rachid11Department of Pediatric Nephrology, 2Department of Nephrology, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem in Tunisia. Its incidence is higher in immunocompromised hosts than in the general population. In children and during hemodialysis, TB is characterized by the frequency of extrapulmonary localizations and diagnostic difficulties. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the incidence of TB in Tunisian children undergoing hemodialysis and to determine its clinical features as well as the results of chemotherapy.Method: This retrospective study includes seven TB children among 112 children on hemodialysis at the pediatric nephrology department in Charles Nicolle Hospital from 2002 to 2008. The diagnosis of TB was established by a combination of clinical, radiological, biochemical, microbiological, and histological examinations. Treatment with anti-TB drugs, the results of therapy, and the outcome of patients were noted.Results: There were four girls and three boys aged 10 to 16 years (mean, 13 years. They had been on hemodialysis for 2 to 5 years (mean, 3 years. Noted clinical features were weight loss and fever in five cases, chest pain in one case, cervical lymph node in one case, and spinal pain in one case. The organ systems involved were pleural in two cases, pulmonary in one case, peritoneal in one case, cervical lymphatic in one case, and spinal in one case. One patient was treated empirically with a good response. Diagnosis was made by isolation of mycobacterium TB in three cases, by specific histological signs observed in a lymph node biopsy in one case, in peritoneal biopsy in one case, and in discovertebral biopsy in one case. In the remaining patient, the clinical and radiological presentations were compatible with pulmonary TB. All patients received four anti-TB drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide

  15. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  17. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  18. 中美青少年科技竞赛筛选机制的比较研究%A Comparative Study on Screening Mechanism of the Youth Science and Technology Competitions in China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬晖; 胡咏梅

    2012-01-01

    CASTIC and APFS are two youth science and technology competitions of great importance in China. ISEF and STS ale. two important competitions in America. This paper makes a Sino-US comparative study of the screening mechanism. On the basis of the study, some suggestions have been put forward. (1) To simplify the assessment part of our competitions and improve the effectiveness of the overall quality assessment. (2) To refine evaluation criteria, extend assessment dimensions and set the dimensions' weights with the scientific method. (3) To expand the provincial assessor scope of CASTIC and share provincial assessors as soon as possible. (4) To strengthen the provincial assessor training to ensure the orderly and efficient conducting of assessment.%青少年科技创新大赛、"明天小小科学家"奖励活动是中国最具影响力的两个青少年科技赛事,英特尔国际科学与工程学大赛、美国科学人才选拔赛是美国的两大知名赛事。本研究从竞赛阶段类型、筛选形式、评审环节和评审标准4个角度,对以上竞赛的筛选机制进行了深入比较,并在此基础上提出如下建议:(1)简化竞赛的评审环节,提高综合素质考察环节的有效性;(2)细化评审标准,扩展评审维度,科学设定各维度权重;(3)扩大省赛评委的选择范围,实现各省评委的共享;(4)加强省赛评委的培训。

  19. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  20. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  1. Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening in Asian and Latina University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C.; Durvasula, Ramani S.

    2008-01-01

    Preventative screening in the form of clinical breast examinations remains among the best protections against breast cancer. Despite the benefits that regular examinations confer, many women fail to obtain screening tests. Because ethnic minority women are particularly unlikely to undergo regular screening, and experience increased mortality and…

  2. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  3. Radiation risk for women undergoing mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: The application of X-rays in mammography examinations requires not only constant control of physical and technical parameters of the equipment used, but also an evaluation of the radiation risk for patients, particularly in mammography screening programs. There exist a number of methods of dose evaluation in mammography. Some of them are included in the dosimetry protocols. The tolerances for measured values, limiting the dose to the patients have also been established. One of the methods, proposed by Dance, applies to establishing the doses to individual patients. It requires the knowledge clinical and exposition parameters. Another method, recommended by the E.C., requires establishing the phantom dose for reference exposition, as part of quality control tests. This approach is simpler but less precise, because at most mammography facilities the conditions of reference exposition are different than those of routine clinical exposition as it was shown in an exercise of quality control tests in a group of 32 mammography facilities in Poland. The method proposed in this study is an intermediate solution recommending measurement of phantom dose for the routine clinical exposition. Material and Methods: The material contains the data of 230 expositions performed in 6 mammography facilities Poland. This data was used to establish individual dose for ever y patient undergoing mammography examination according to the method proposed by Dance. For each mammography facility the mean glandular dose (M.G.D. F.) was established for reference and routine expositions according to the E.C. Dosimetry Protocol. The limits for phantom dose were established, which, according to the E.C. protocol, depend on the optical density (over background) of the image of the PMMA phantom 4.5 cm thick. Results and Discussion: The phantom dose determined for each mammography facility were below the limits. The lowest value of the mean dose received

  4. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  5. Croatia:Promote More Exports to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Croatia, a transitional country, is lo cated both in mid-Europe and Mediterranean, which boasts inborn geographical advantages. It is currently undergoing dynamic changes in its economic and social structure. Among the reform, it focuses on enlarging exports,especially the export to China, the world large and potential market. In this regard,recently, our report interviewed H.E.Boris Velic, Ambassador of Croatia to China.

  6. Croatia:Promote More Exports to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yun

    2005-01-01

      Croatia, a transitional country, is lo cated both in mid-Europe and Mediterranean, which boasts inborn geographical advantages. It is currently undergoing dynamic changes in its economic and social structure. Among the reform, it focuses on enlarging exports,especially the export to China, the world large and potential market. In this regard,recently, our report interviewed H.E.Boris Velic, Ambassador of Croatia to China.……

  7. Comparison on the Developmental Trends between Chinese Students Studying Abroad and Foreign Students Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a new period of political stability, cultural prosperity, and social harmony since its reform and opening-up in the late 1970s. At the same time, the number of Chinese students studying abroad (CSSA) and foreign students studying in China (FSSC) has grown rapidly and steadily in the past three decades. With China's…

  8. Financial analysis of Serbian companies undergoing privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Vesković

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a financial analysis of companies undergoing the process of privatization in the Republic of Serbia (RS. A total of 182 of such companies were examined and compared to an equal number of randomly chosen companies of comparable size. The results revealed a significant gap between the financial performances of the two samples. For that reason, the companies undergoing privatization need to undergo radical changes for the purpose of achieving a higher level of profitability and preventing further losses. Given that these companies pose a significant challenge for the Serbian economy, the author believes that this study will serve as a reference for further research. In addition, this manuscript shall present the comparative analysis of the total net loss of the observed companies and the gross domestic product of the RS, as well as between the corresponding number of employees for the year 2013.

  9. Obesitas bij kinderen in China: prevalentie, determinanten en gezondheid = Childhood obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Yanping,

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has been undergoing rapid socio-economic and nutrition transitions. Along with these transitions, childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious public health problems in China. However, no national figures on the occ

  10. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  11. Neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmpols, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal screening (NS) is a medical act in the context of preventive medicine aimed at the early identification of infants affected by certain conditions that threaten their life and long-term health, for which a timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities. It emerged three decades ago in the context of prevention of mental retardation. Since then, around 600 inborn metabolic disorders have been described and technological progress has been impressive; nevertheless only around 5% of the disorders have been the object of NS. The most frequently cited reasons for the limitation are low prevalence and the lack of treatment. The tandem mass spectrometry has come in place in recent years across the globe, expanding NS to include several disorders of intermediary metabolism. This has shown, in addition to a prevalence much higher than previously thought, the benefits of early detection. The present work is a review of NS, not only from the point of view of technological/medical achievements, but also considering other factors which will affect specific disease selection, according to the social and organizational infrastructure that may expand the borders of NS. PMID:12921292

  12. Influence of Continuous Nursing on the Psychological State and Coping Style of Patients Undergoing Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients undergoing pacemaker implantation often experience anxiety and fear. As such, studies have focused on the mechanisms that relieve the negative emotions caused by the intervention. Continuous nursing is a safe and effective nursing mode. In this study, continuous nursing intervention was provided for elderly patients undergo-ing pacemaker implantation and an empirical investigation was performed to determine the effects of their negative emotion and disease-coping ability.Methods: Overall, 114 (68 males and 46 females elderly patients who were undergoing pacemaker implantation from Harbin City (China, were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, namely, the control group and the intervention group, based on different nursing methods. Routine nursing was applied to the control group; continuous nursing support was provided for the intervention group from January 2014 to January 2015. The nursing results of the two groups were compared. These results were also evaluated using self-rating depression scale, self-rating anxiety scale, and trait coping style questionnaire.Result: The effects of depression and anxiety intervention were significant in the intervention group (P<0.05. Com-pared with the control group, the intervention group did not significantly differ. The coping style of the intervention group elicited significant effects. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was significantly different (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Continuous nursing can relieve the negative emotion and improve the negative coping style of patients undergoing pacemaker implantation.

  13. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010...

  14. Obesitas bij kinderen in China: prevalentie, determinanten en gezondheid = Childhood obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yanping

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has been undergoing rapid socio-economic and nutrition transitions. Along with these transitions, childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious public health problems in China. However, no national figures on the occurrence of childhood obesity, its determinants and its relationship with metabolic syndrome were available in China, until now. Data of  44880 youngsters aged 7-17 years from the nationally represe...

  15. Assessing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wein, Lawrence M.; YANG, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    To address growing concerns over childhood obesity, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently recommended that children undergo obesity screening beginning at age 6 [1]. An Expert Committee recommends starting at age 2 [2]. Analysis is needed to assess these recommendations and investigate whether there are better alternatives. We model the age- and sex-specific population-wide distribution of body mass index (BMI) through age 18 using National Longitudinal Survey of ...

  16. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  19. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Improved design of electrophoretic equipment for rapid sickle-cell-anemia screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, J. M.; Hirsch, I.

    1974-01-01

    Effective mass screening may be accomplished by modifying existing electrophoretic equipment in conjunction with multisample applicator used with cellulose-acetate-matrix test paper. Using this method, approximately 20 to 25 samples can undergo electrophoresis in 5 to 6 minutes.

  1. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  2. Hyperaldosteronism: Screening and Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Chiara; Fallo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common secondary cause of hypertension, accounting for 10 % of hypertensives and 20 % of those with drug-resistant hypertension. Aldosterone excess is associated with the development of adverse cardiovascular, renal and metabolic effects that are partly independent of its effect on blood pressure. Guidelines recommended wider screening for PA in an effort to maximize detection of patients who may benefit from optimal, specific management. All patient groups with increased prevalence of PA, including hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those with obstructive sleep apnea, should be carefully screened for PA. Screening with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the most practical and informative initial test. Subsequent confirmatory tests are: (1) oral salt loading; (2) saline infusion; (3) captopril challenge and (4) fludrocortisone suppression test. Confirmation of PA can avoid that patients with a false positive ARR would inappropriately undergo costly and harmful lateralization procedures. If confirmatory testing is positive, further investigations are directed toward determining the subtype of PA, as the treatment differs for each subtype. PMID:26971505

  3. Coeliac disease in China: a field waiting for exploration Enfermedad celiaca en Chica: Un campo pendiente de ser explorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: no systematic studies on the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD have been reported from China. In western populations CD is more common in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS. We have screened patients with these conditions presenting to the outpatient department of a large hospital of "Traditional Chinese Medicine" (TCM in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, P.R. China. Methods: we tested sera of 78 unrelated Han Chinese patients (5 IDDM and 73 D-IBS, using ELISA serological tests for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (IgG-AGA and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG. Results: six out of 78 patients (7.7% were positive for IgG-AGA (two men and four women and two (2.6% were positive for IgA-tTGs. One of the latter patients was negative for IgG-AGA. Besides, one patient had a dubious IgA-tTG antibody and a positive IgG-AGA. None of the six patients agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Two out of these six patients followed a gluten-free diet for one year. In one patient the diarrhoea ceased and his body weight increased. Another stopped losing weight. Conclusions: this study previously published as a letter in GUT (Wu J, Xia B, von Blomberg BME, Zhao C, Yang XW, Crusius JBA, Peña AS. Coeliac disease: emerging in China? Gut 2010; 59(3: 418-9 demonstrated that CD may exist in the Jiangsu province of P.R. China. The present article draws attention to the difficulties of following a standard protocol in China such as established in western countries and highlights important factors less well known in the west in relation to the development of CD in China. Wheat production became significant in China between 1600 and 1300 B.C. After the Han dynasty (500-200 B.C., wheat was one of the main cereals in China. One the major wheat fields in China is located in the Jiangsu province where the research for this article was performed. A review of Chinese literature

  4. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  5. Anti-ENA antibody profile in hepatitis C patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G Batchoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is increasing all over the world, especially among hemodialysis patients. HCV is one of the major autoantibody inducing viruses, where anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA, anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA, anti-liver kidney microsome antibodies (LKM-1, and rheumatoid factor (RF have been related to HCV. Few studies have investigated the presence of anti-extractable nuclear antigens (ENA antibodies in chronic liver diseases, especially in chronic hepatitis C cases, but none investigated its immunostimulation role in hemodialysis units. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HCV among chronic kidney disease- Stage 5 (CKD5 patients undergoing hemodialysis and the prevalence of ENA antibodies among them. Sera of 134 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis, were screened for HCV antibodies and ENA antibodies profile, using ELISA and Immunoblot technique. 41 HCV-positive blood bank donors were used as controls. Sixty-four (47.7% of 134 patients undergoing hemodialysis were infected with HCV. Thirty-three (51.6% of 64 patients with HCV infection undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies: 9 (27.3% showed anti-SSA antibodies and 22 (66.7% had anti-SSB antibodies. The prevalence of anti-ENA antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with HCV infection, undergoing hemodialysis, compared with both control groups (hepatitis C-positive blood bank donors and hepatitis C-negative patients undergoing hemodialysis. Seventeen of 33 HCV antibodies-positive males undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies, compared with 16 of 31 females, indicating no sex related difference. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection in our hemodialysis patients, comparable to that of other Middle Eastern countries, but higher than Western ones. A strong association was observed between anti-HCV positivity and hemodialysis duration, as well as anti-ENA antibody profile. However

  6. Design inspections for systems undergoing design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has conducted direct inspections (integrated design inspections) of the technical aspects of the nuclear plant design process for several plants under construction. It has also evaluated independent design verification programs and engineering assurance programs at a number of other plants under construction. Many of the lessons learned from these construction phase efforts are directly applicable to operating plants undergoing major modifications. This has been confirmed by IE direct inspections of the design aspects of safety systems outage modifications, which have identified significant potential safety-related deficiencies. The paper discusses methodology for design inspections; failure to maintain up-to-date design basis documentation; and lessons learned common to plants under construction and undergoing major modifications

  7. Cervical screening: do gynecologists themselves practice what they preach? a study based in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of self-compliance to cervical screening guidance among the sexually active female gynecologists in tertiary care hospitals. To identify the possible barriers to effective screening in those who do not undergo cervical screening. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of various tertiary care hospitals of Lahore from 1st Jun 2012 to 30th Nov 2012. Patients and Methods: Total 157 female gynecologists, serving in various positions in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore were interviewed by using a structured self reporting performa. The performa was designed to find out the number of gynecologists undergoing pap screening, and in those who fail to undergo screening the single most important barrier presumed to be preventing them from undergoing screening was also evaluated. Results: In this study, only 3.1% of the subject population was found to be undergoing pap-screening, which reflects the national level of screening in urban areas, in sharp contrast to the studies being conducted in developed countries, with screening coverage rates of more than 80%. Conclusion: The prevalence of pap screening in the subject population is disappointingly low and drastic steps are needed to bring about a change in attitude of the subject population which cannot be brought about without changing the current culture of self-negligence and least prioritization for self, in the feminine part of our society. (author)

  8. Specialised care in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gouma, D. J.; Busch, O.R.C.; Tol, J.A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies the controversies in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy and determines different factors that will improve this management and thereby the postoperative outcomes. The studies were performed in both the pre-, peri- and postoperative phase. The improvement of preoperative care is analysed by studying the impact of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) by using metal stents instead of plastic stents, whether the type of stent infl...

  9. Perioperative Education of Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandros Zacharis; Aikaterini Kampourelli

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of patients undergoing cardiac surgeries is steadily increasing. In Greece, approximately 10,500 patients per year are admitted to some kind of cardiac operation. Constant evolution of heart surgery techniques calls for adaptation of the perioperative nursing care given. Patient education, as an important part of the perioperative care, is directly related to the reduction of postoperative complications and stress management, thus promoting the patient's overall po...

  10. Voluntary counseling and willingness to screen among Nigerian long distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Aniebue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is an important preventive strategy in the control of HIV/AIDS and Long distance truck drivers (LDTD have been identified as an important group in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to assess knowledge and perception of Nigerian long distance truck drivers on HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing and their willingness to undergo HIV screening. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven LDTD in Enugu, Nigeria were surveyed using pre tested structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (94.9% amongst the drivers and the media was their commonest source of information. Similarly the awareness of VCT was high (94.4%. One hundred and eight (54.8% respondents were willing to undergo HIV screening test if offered freely and 86 (43.7% others have previously been screened. Educational status was a significant determinant of willingness to undergo HIV screening p<0.05. The reasons for screening were mainly doctors′ recommendation (19.3% and voluntary self screening (18.8%. The commonest reasons for not wanting to undergo screening were the feeling of not being at risk (27.9%, fear of a positive result (10.2% and cost of screening test (9.6%. Conclusion: There is a critical need to improve HIV screening participation amongst Long distance drivers in Nigeria.

  11. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  12. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. PMID:24794266

  13. Cartilage Aggrecan Can Undergo Self-Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lin; Dean, Delphine; Daher, Laura A.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Here it is reported that aggrecan, the highly negatively charged macromolecule in the cartilage extracellular matrix, undergoes Ca2+-mediated self-adhesion after static compression even in the presence of strong electrostatic repulsion in physiological-like solution conditions. Aggrecan was chemically end-attached onto gold-coated planar silicon substrates and gold-coated microspherical atomic force microscope probe tips (end radius R ≈ 2.5 μm) at a density (∼40 mg/mL) that simulates physiolo...

  14. Care of patients undergoing external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anxiety and associated depression suffered by most patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed and the possibilities open to the nurse to encourage and reassure patients thus facilitating physical care are considered. The general symptoms of anorexia, nausea, tiredness, skin problems, alopecia, bonemarrow depresssion and rapid tumour destruction are described and nursing care prescribed. The side-effects which may occur following radiation of the brain, head and neck region, eyes, oesophagus, lung, abdomen, pelvis, bones, skin, spine, and spinal cord are considered from the nursing standpoint. The specialised subject of radiotherapy in children is discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  15. Dermatillomania: In patient undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatillomania is a disorder in which a person habitually picks their skin, and this is a form of self-injury. It can involve any part of the body, but usually involves the face, neck, arms and shoulders. Symptoms often follow an event that has caused severe emotional distress. A dermatillomania or compulsive skin picking episode may be a conscious response to anxiety or depression but is frequently done as an unconscious habit. In this case report, a patient undergoing orthodontic treatment was found to be suffering from dermatillomania and was treated using psychological counseling.

  16. Enhancing parameter precision of optimal quantum estimation by quantum screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huang; You-Neng, Guo; Qin, Xie

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme of quantum screening to enhance the parameter-estimation precision in open quantum systems by means of the dynamics of quantum Fisher information. The principle of quantum screening is based on an auxiliary system to inhibit the decoherence processes and erase the excited state to the ground state. By comparing the case without quantum screening, the results show that the dynamics of quantum Fisher information with quantum screening has a larger value during the evolution processes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374096), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grants No. 2015A030310354), and the Project of Enhancing School with Innovation of Guangdong Ocean University (Grants Nos. GDOU2014050251 and GDOU2014050252).

  17. Acquisition of Subsidiaries by PetroChina and Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Qunfeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Three subsidiary companies acquired by their parent company PetroChina On November 14, 2005, Liaohe Oilfield Company,Jinzhou Petrochemical Company and Jilin Chemical Company directly under PetroChina announced that PetroChina will contribute RMB 6.15 billion to buy back the marketable A & H shares and American Depository Receipts (ADR) held by the above three companies,meaning that PetroChina is undergoing integration of its subsidiary companies listed on stock markets, the prologue of searching listing in a whole piece is pulling open silently.

  18. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  19. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PIANO--WIRE PROBABILITY SCREEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵跃民; 陈清如

    1991-01-01

    The Probability Sizing Screen (PSS) developed by China University of Mining and Technology has been used since 1980 for the screening of moist fine raw coal. More than 600PSS's have been installed in Chinese coal mines, bringing about economic benefits to both coal producers and consumers in terms of reduced energy saving, transpertation cost reduction,and environmental protection. While the PSS treats some high-moisture fine raw coal, the mesh apertures may be blinded by the fine particles stuck on the mesh wire of the screen. Recently, the authors have developed the Piano-wire Probability Screen, a new screen which screens moist fine raw coal. This screen assimilates advantages of PSS, having large deck inclination, large aperture and multideck. In addition the new screen uses piano-wire decks which have a new structure, great open area, and no blinding. The results of sizing fine moist raw coal in Lugou Coal Mine, Henan Province,show that the Piano-wire Probability Screen has a large capacity and high efficiency and is an efficient screen for separating moist raw coal with diameter of 6mm. This paper describes the results of fundamental studies on the Piano-wire Probability Screen. and also includes data from pilot-plant studies.

  1. Ultrasound Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis Detection: A Prospective Evaluation of 200 Plastic Surgery Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Swanson, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our understanding of the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism is largely based on the experience of orthopedic patients undergoing total joint replacement. Little is known regarding the natural history of venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery outpatients. Today, ultrasound screening, including compression and Doppler color flow imaging, represents the standard for detecting deep venous thromboses. Methods: Ultrasound screening was offered to 200 consecutive plastic sur...

  2. Unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem A.M. Elbiaa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse. Material and methods : Eighty women with asymptomatic utero-vaginal prolapse were included in this prospective study for vaginal hysterectomy after preoperative preparation and after written informed consent. Women included in this study were screened preoperatively by high vaginal swab, Pap smear, endometrial biopsy and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Surgically removed uteri and ovaries were sent for histopathological examination. Results of histopathological examination as gold standard were compared with conventional gynecological screening methods. Results : Histopathological examination of surgically removed uteri and ovaries after vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse showed abnormal findings in 61.25% (49/80 of studied cases (10 chronic cervicitis; 20 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-1 [CIN-1]; 5 CIN-2; 2 CIN-3; 10 simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and 2 simple serous ovarian cyst. Also, histopathological examination showed premalignant changes in 33.75% (27/80 of studied cases (20 CIN-1; 5 CIN-2 and 2 CIN-3, which mean 50% sensitivity of pre-operative Pap smear to detect premalignant cervical changes. Conclusions : Asymptomatic women with utero-vaginal prolapse may have associated premalignant lesions which may not be detected by conventional screening methods, and this should be explained preoperatively for women undergoing surgery, especially if conservative management was considered.

  3. Early detection of lung cancer: A statement from an expert panel of the Swiss university hospitals on lung cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Frauenfelder, T.; Puhan, Milo A.; Lazor, R; von Garnier, C; Bremerich, J; Niemann, T.; Christe, A; Montet, X; Gautschi, O.; Weder, W; Kohler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion about setting up a program for lung cancer screening was launched with the publication of the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, which suggested reduced mortality in high-risk subjects undergoing CT screening. However, important questions about the benefit-harm balance and the details of a screening program and its cost-effectiveness remain unanswered. A panel of specialists in chest radiology, respiratory medicine, epidemiology, and thoracic surgery representing all...

  4. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  5. Association of Arterial Stiffness and Osteoporosis in Healthy Men Undergoing Screening Medical Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam Lee; Jang, Ha Min; Kim, Sul Ki; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background Association of arterial stiffness and osteoporosis has been previously reported in women. However, this association is still controversial for men. Therefore, we investigated correlation of arterial stiffness and osteoporosis by measuring brachial-ankle (ba) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We reviewed medical charts of 239 people (women: 128, men: 111) who visited the Health Promotion Center, retrospectively. ba-PWV was measured by automatic wave a...

  6. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  7. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  8. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  9. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  10. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  13. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen...... practice in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...

  14. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  16. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  17. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  18. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghag, Chamkaur [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  19. Genomic futures of prenatal screening: ethical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W J; Page-Christiaens, G C M L; de Wert, G M W R

    2016-05-01

    The practice of prenatal screening is undergoing important changes as a result of the introduction of genomic testing technologies at different stages of the screening trajectory. It is expected that eventually it will become possible to routinely obtain a comprehensive 'genome scan' of all fetuses. Although this will still take several years, there are clear continuities between present developments and this future scenario. As this review shows, behind the still limited scope of screening for common aneuploidies, a rapid widening of the range of conditions tested for is already taking shape at the invasive testing stage. But the continuities are not just technical; they are also ethical. If screening for Down's syndrome is a matter of providing autonomous reproductive choice, then why would providing the choice to have a full fetal genome scan be something entirely different? There is a clear need for a sustainable normative framework that will have to answer three challenges: the indeterminateness of the autonomy paradigm, the need to acknowledge the future child as an interested stakeholder, and the prospect of broad-scope genomic prenatal screening with a double purpose: autonomy and prevention. PMID:26178686

  20. Phase structures of holographic screen thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Jian-Long

    2014-07-01

    Holographic screens are the generalization of the event horizon of a black hole in entropic force scheme, which are defined by setting Newton potential ϕ constant, i.e. e2ϕ = c = const. We demonstrate that the integrated first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the (r-r) component of Einstein equations, so that we strengthen the correspondence between thermodynamics and gravity. We show that there are not only the first law of thermodynamics, but also kinds of phase transitions of holographic screens. These phase transitions are characterized by the discontinuity of their heat capacities. In (n+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) spacetime, we analyze three kinds of phase transitions, which are of the holographic screens with Q = 0 (charge), constant Φ (electrostatic potential) and nonzero constant Q. In the Q = 0 case, only the holographic screens with 0≤c<1 can undergo phase transition. In the constant Φ case, the constraints become as 0<= c+16˜ {Γ }2Φ 2<1, where ˜ {Γ } is a dimensional-dependent parameter. By verifying the Ehrenfest equations, we show that the phase transitions in this case are all second order phase transitions. In the constant Q case, there might be two, or one, or no phase transitions of holographic screens, depending on the values of Q and c.

  1. Low background screening capability in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment

  2. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  3. Hindi translation of Berlin questionnaire and its validation as a screening instrument for obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Gupta; Ramjan Ali; Mohan Dhyani; Sourav Das; Ashwini Pundir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common problem with adverse health consequences. However, any screening questionnaire is not available in Hindi to screen sleep apnea. Materials and Methods: Subjects undergoing video-synchronized in laboratory attended polysomnography were requested to participate in this study. They were screened with the help of Hindi version of Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Outcome of the BQ was tested against the gold standard polysomnography. Descriptiv...

  4. USE OF NEURAL NETWORK SIMULATION TO MONITOR PATIENTS UNDERGOING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lukyanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most common malignancy in men. A screening system identifies a tumor process at clinical stages. Current technologies allow one to create nomograms — neural network systems that determine 5-year survival, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle lesions and actively monitor patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Based on neural network simulation, the Department of Urology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, has developed an accounting prognostic system to monitor the postoperative course of PC, which is being actively introduced into the work of the urological units of the Botkin City Clinical Hospital.

  5. USE OF NEURAL NETWORK SIMULATION TO MONITOR PATIENTS UNDERGOING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lukyanov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most common malignancy in men. A screening system identifies a tumor process at clinical stages. Current technologies allow one to create nomograms — neural network systems that determine 5-year survival, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle lesions and actively monitor patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Based on neural network simulation, the Department of Urology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, has developed an accounting prognostic system to monitor the postoperative course of PC, which is being actively introduced into the work of the urological units of the Botkin City Clinical Hospital.

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  7. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  8. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  9. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Identification and characterization of locus specific methylation patterns within novel loci undergoing hypermethylation during breast cancer pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Thestrup, Britta Boserup;

    2014-01-01

    . Analysis of the screening results showed that all DMRs tested displayed significant gains of methylation in the cancer tissue compared to the levels in control tissue. Interestingly, we observed two types of locus-specific methylation, with loci undergoing either predominantly full or heterogeneous...... regions (DMRs) were validated using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) in a case-control study on a panel of breast carcinomas (n = 275) and non-malignant controls (n = 74). RESULTS: On the basis of microarray results, we selected 19 DMRs for large-scale screening of cases and controls...... methylation during carcinogenesis. Almost all tested DMRs (17 of 19) displayed low-level methylation in nonmalignant breast tissue, independently of locus-specific methylation patterns in cases. CONCLUSIONS: Specific loci can undergo either heterogeneous or full methylation during carcinogenesis, and loci...

  11. [Shared decision making in the colorectal cancer screening program in the canton of Vaud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Selby, Kevin; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Nichita, Christina; Dorta, Gian; Ducros, Cyril; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The colorectal cancer screening program of the canton of Vaud aims to facilitate screening for this cancer for the population aged 50 to 69 years old. The two screening modalities offered are fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. The decision to undergo screening and the screening modality is based on an individual medical encounter with a primary care physician. Both screening modalities are reimbursed through basic health coverage in Switzerland. The participation to the screening program allows the exemption of the deductible for the medical encounter and the chosen screening modality. A copay of 10% is maintained for all costs. Communication tools were developed on the basis of recommendations in the literature to facilitate shared decision-making in a medical encounter. PMID:26742350

  12. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  13. Peripheral artery disease in korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: prevalence and association with coronary artery disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Song, Pil Sang; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Duk-kyung; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 ± 0.15 and 0.73 ± 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P ABPI-based PAD screening should be implemented in all patients undergoing PCI with CAD, especially in severe cases. PMID:23341717

  14. Periprocedural Myocardial Injury and Long-term Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Di Serafino, Luigi; Borgia, Franscesco; Maeremans, Joren; Pyraxas, Stylianos A.; De Bruyne, Bernard; Wijns, William; Heyndrickx, Guy R; Dens, Jo; di Mario, Carlo; Barbato, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) might occur more frequently during challenging procedures such as PCI of chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO). The prognostic implication of PMI in CTO-PCI remains unclear. METHODS: From January 2006 to September 2012, a total of 715 consecutive patients undergoing CTO-PCI were screened at three centers. Only patients with available pre-PCI and post-PCI troponin (cTn) were included (n ...

  15. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  16. The prevalence and prevention of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Mei Cao; Malcolm J. Simons; Chao-Nan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has remarkable epidemiological features, including regional, racial,and familial aggregations. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of NPC and to propose possible causes for the high incidence patterns in southern China. Since the etiology of NPC is not completely understood, approaches to primary prevention of NPC remain under consideration. This situation highlights the need to conduct secondary prevention, including improving rates of early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment in NPC patients. Since the 1970's, high-risk populations in southern China have been screened extensively for early detection of NPC using anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serum biomarkers. This review summarizes several large screening studies that have been conducted in the high-incidence areas of China. Screening markers, high-risk age range for screening,time intervals for blood re-examination, and the effectiveness of these screening studies will be discussed.Conduction of prospective randomized controlled screening trials in southern China can be expected to maximize the cost-effectiveness of early NPC detection screening.

  17. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  18. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  19. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  20. Construction Path of the Alleviation Dynamic Screening Mechanism Object for China's Rural Poverty%我国农村扶贫对象动态甄别机制的构建路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇阳

    2014-01-01

    构建高效准确的贫困对象甄别机制,是扶贫开发工作顺利进行的前提和基础。针对当前我国扶贫工作中存在资源配置集中、扶贫监测滞后、贫困统计多口径等造成的扶贫对象甄别有偏,导致扶贫资源配置错位问题,从贫困对象“进入”和“退出”角度,构建了扶贫对象自愿申报、政府部门自动识别、脱贫对象主动退出、公众参与评议“四位一体”的动态甄别机制,实现贫困群体由“甄别有偏”向“高度匹配”转变,提高扶贫资源配置效率。%The construction of poor object discrimination mechanism efficiently and accurately ,is the premise and foundation to begin the poverty alleviation w ork .In view of the current poverty alleviation work in our country having poor screening resources allocation ,poverty alleviation monitoring lag ,con-centrated poverty statistics caliber w hich caused more biased ,w hich result in poor resource allocation problem ,and based on the dislocation ,this paper ,from the perspective of poor objects’“entrance”and“exit” ,constructed a dynamic supervision of“four in one” that include helping the poor voluntary declaration , automatic screening poverty alleviation for government departments ,poverty object voluntary exit ,and public participation in the appraisal object ,in order to turn the poverty groups “biased by screening” to be “height matching”,and improve the efficiency of the allocation of resources for poverty alleviation .

  1. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  2. Impact of Cardiovascular Counseling and Screening in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on health-related quality of life (HRQL). As part of a phase 2 screening study using computed tomography angiography (CTA) among HL survivors, an HRQL analysis was done to evaluate the emotional and practical burden and perceived benefits of screening and the effect of CVD-specific counseling on patient satisfaction. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in the screening study also took part in the HRQL study. The impact of undergoing screening was evaluated with a 9-item questionnaire, and impact on HRQL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire C30, version 3.0. The effect of counseling of CVD on perceived provision of information was evaluated with EORTC INFO-25. All questionnaires were completed at baseline and after screening. Results: Baseline questionnaires were received from 48 participants, and 43 completed questionnaires after screening. Mean age was 47 years, and mean time since diagnosis was 21 years. Of the total, 93% of subjects were content with participating, and 80% did not find the emphasis placed on late effects burdensome, although screening did have a small impact on social functioning and global quality of life. Perceived information on disease, medical tests, and treatment increased significantly after screening (P<.01). Differences were clinically relevant. There were no differences in perceived information between patients with and without screen-detected CVD. Conclusions: Screening was evaluated favorably, whether CTA showed abnormalities or not. Extensive counseling resulted in substantially increased provision of information and improved information satisfaction. Screening by

  3. Impact of Cardiovascular Counseling and Screening in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniëls, Laurien A., E-mail: l.a.daniels@lumc.nl [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Krol, Stijn D.G. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Graaf, Michiel A. de [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Scholte, Arthur J.H.A. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Veer, Mars B. van ' t [Department of Hematology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Putter, Hein [Department of Medical Statistics and Bio-informatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, Albert de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Schalij, Martin J. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de [Research Department Comprehensive Cancer Center South, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Creutzberg, Carien L. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on health-related quality of life (HRQL). As part of a phase 2 screening study using computed tomography angiography (CTA) among HL survivors, an HRQL analysis was done to evaluate the emotional and practical burden and perceived benefits of screening and the effect of CVD-specific counseling on patient satisfaction. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in the screening study also took part in the HRQL study. The impact of undergoing screening was evaluated with a 9-item questionnaire, and impact on HRQL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire C30, version 3.0. The effect of counseling of CVD on perceived provision of information was evaluated with EORTC INFO-25. All questionnaires were completed at baseline and after screening. Results: Baseline questionnaires were received from 48 participants, and 43 completed questionnaires after screening. Mean age was 47 years, and mean time since diagnosis was 21 years. Of the total, 93% of subjects were content with participating, and 80% did not find the emphasis placed on late effects burdensome, although screening did have a small impact on social functioning and global quality of life. Perceived information on disease, medical tests, and treatment increased significantly after screening (P<.01). Differences were clinically relevant. There were no differences in perceived information between patients with and without screen-detected CVD. Conclusions: Screening was evaluated favorably, whether CTA showed abnormalities or not. Extensive counseling resulted in substantially increased provision of information and improved information satisfaction. Screening by

  4. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  5. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  6. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  7. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  8. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  9. The Intelligent Automation Demands of Taiwanese Companies with Businesses in Taiwan and China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Mei Tai

    2014-01-01

    Most Taiwanese companies invest in Mainland Mainland Mainland Mainland China due to its cheap and a great deal of labor force, or production flexibility. Facing that Mainland China's labor conditions undergo sudden discontinuity, Taiwanese firms with businesses in Taiwan and Mainland China have to change their business models in order to overcome the current difficulties, and create new opportunities. This study shows that the "manufacturing process of the manufacturing industry" is the most ...

  10. Government Intervention and Performance of the Housing Sector in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hongyu

    1998-01-01

    The housing system in urban China is now undergoing a process of transition. Housing policy is one of the most popular topics under public discussion. This paper gives a brief review of the recently implemented housing policies and provides some basic information about the current situation of the housing market and housing system reform in urban China. It appears that China is very successful in improving the housing conditions of urban residents. However, there are still a number of problem...

  11. The non-western challenger? The rise of a Sino-centric China

    OpenAIRE

    Forsby, Andreas Bøje

    2011-01-01

    What are the implications of China's rapid rise for international order? This report seeks to answer the question from an identity perspective. The key argument is that China is currently undergoing an identity shift towards Sino-centrism, that is, a self-centering tendency to turn narrative attention towards the internally generated, specifically Chinese hallmarks associated with China's civilizational past and cultural heritage. The bulk of the report analyzes the four identity markers of S...

  12. Individualized Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy with Curative or Palliative Intent: Who Participates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Vassbakk-Brovold

    Full Text Available Knowledge about determinants of participation in lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, particularly with palliative intent, remains poor. The objective of the present study was to identify determinants of participating in a 12 month individualized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, mental stress and smoking cessation, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with curative or palliative intent. The secondary objective was to identify participation determinants 4 months into the study.Newly diagnosed cancer patients starting chemotherapy at the cancer center in Kristiansand/Norway (during a 16 month inclusion period were screened. Demographic and medical data (age, sex, body mass index, education level, marital status, smoking status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG, diagnosis, tumor stage and treatment intention was analyzed for screened patients.100 of 161 invited patients participated. There were more females (69 vs. 48%; P = 0.004, breast cancer patients (46 vs. 25%; P = 0.007, non-smokers (87 vs. 74%; P = 0.041, younger (mean age 60 vs. 67 yrs; P 70 years were less likely to participate at baseline and 4 months.Individualized lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy appear to facilitate a high participation rate that declines with increasing age; both during the enrollment process and completing the intervention. Neither oncologic nor socioeconomic variables deterred participation.

  13. Preoperative information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Aoife

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy with reference to content of information, method of delivery, information providers and timing of information provision. BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy can be anxiety provoking for children and preoperative preparation programmes are long recognised to reduce anxiety. However, few have been designed from the perspectives of children and to date little is known about how best to prepare children in terms of what to tell them, how to convey information to them, who can best provide information and what is the best timing for information provision. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHOD: Data were collected from nine children (aged 6-9) using interviews supported by a write and draw technique. Data were coded and categorised into themes reflecting content, method, providers and timing of information. RESULTS: Children openly communicated their information needs especially on what to tell them to expect when facing a tonsillectomy. Their principal concerns were about operation procedures, experiencing \\'soreness\\' and discomfort postoperatively and parental presence. Mothers were viewed as best situated to provide them with information. Children were uncertain about what method of information and timing would be most helpful to them. CONCLUSION: Preoperative educational interventions need to take account of children\\'s information needs so that they are prepared for surgery in ways that are meaningful and relevant to them. Future research is needed in this area. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Practical steps towards informing children about having a tonsillectomy include asking them what they need to know and addressing their queries accordingly. Child-centred information leaflets using a question and answer format could also be helpful to children.

  14. Perioperative Education of Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Zacharis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of patients undergoing cardiac surgeries is steadily increasing. In Greece, approximately 10,500 patients per year are admitted to some kind of cardiac operation. Constant evolution of heart surgery techniques calls for adaptation of the perioperative nursing care given. Patient education, as an important part of the perioperative care, is directly related to the reduction of postoperative complications and stress management, thus promoting the patient's overall postoperative well-being. Aim: The aim of this review was to present the most important aspects of the patient's perioperative education and the role that the nurse has to play in it. Methods: Data from selected articles were extracted from Pubmed, Chinahl and Cohrane, as well as from non-electronically published scientific studies ranging from 1998-2010 and 2003-2008 respectively. Results: According to the literature, perioperative patient education can be implemented in various ways, such as through verbal updates, the use of audiovisual means and the provision of informative leaflets. The teaching topics can be divided into those of the preoperative and postoperative phase. Stress management prepares the patients psychologically and also enhances the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. The teaching of breathing techniques and isometric exercises of the lower limbs, the cessation of smoking, the diet to be followed, as well as the management of medication, aim in the patients' physical preparation, in order to optimize their postoperative course. Conclusion: Perioperative patient education, regardless of how it is implemented, constitutes both an integral part of the nursing care and an independent nursing intervention per se, which strengthens the nurses' autonomy and improves the patient's postoperative course.

  15. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  16. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  17. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  18. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  19. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  20. Focus Shift in Brand Promotion in China's Garment Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-shen; GU Qing-liang

    2007-01-01

    After an introduction to the history of brand promotion in China, the paper points out that China's garment industry is undergoing the change from branding manufacturing to innovation. The shift is going along with the transition in the industry from comparative advantage to competitive advantage. After analyzing the relationship between independent innovation and brand building with the Smiling Curve, we can get the result that the key to China's garment industry is two-fold: brand promotion by means of independent innovation and competitive advantage in the international garment industry chain.

  1. 77 FR 55478 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... screening portion and are then screened out of the sample. Some additional respondents complete the screener... chronic conditions and risk factors related to health such as arthritis, asthma, osteoporosis,...

  2. [The decision to undergo tubal ligation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, J G

    1984-07-01

    approve the definitive contraception that her past deprivation caused her to desire, even though it would prevent her in the future from fulfilling herself through motherhood. A review of the literature from the past decade on psychological aspects of sterilization indicates that sterilization has no therapeutic effect in the sense of making psychiatric problems disappear. A psychological evaluation should be sought if the candidate is young, feels ambivalent about the sterilization, or feels obligated to undergo sterilization for some reason. PMID:6485177

  3. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  4. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  5. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  7. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  8. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  9. The Rise of the "Priceless" Child in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengshu

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how the meaning of the child and parent-child relationships have changed in urban China undergoing rapid modernization. It draws on life history interviews with Beijing post-1990s ("jiulinghou") youth in their last secondary school year, their parents, and their grandparents. Chinese urban children have become…

  10. Screening and monitoring of MRI patients in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Australia radiographers are responsible for screening patients for contra-indications prior to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures. Likewise, the monitoring of patients during and after MRI procedures is often the duty of radiographers. However the methods employed for performing these tasks vary from radiographer to radiographer and from site-to-site depending upon a variety of factors. This paper reports upon a survey into the practices of Australian radiographers in relation to screening and monitoring patients undergoing MR procedures. In particular the study highlights aspects of practice relating to safety issues that are not universally performed despite being advocated by relevant professional bodies. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  11. Randomized Trial of a Computerized Touch Screen Decision Aid to Increase Acceptance of Colonoscopy Screening in an African American Population with Limited Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Sheryl B; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith; Wolak, Caitlin; Gordon, Thomas F

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a touch screen decision aid to increase acceptance of colonoscopy screening among African American patients with low literacy, developed and tailored using perceptual mapping methods grounded in Illness Self-Regulation and Information-Communication Theories. The pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a theory-based intervention on patients' acceptance of screening, including their perceptions of educational value, feelings about colonoscopy, likelihood to undergo screening, and decisional conflict about colonoscopy screening. Sixty-one African American patients with low literacy, aged 50-70 years, with no history of colonoscopy, were randomly assigned to receive a computerized touch screen decision aid (CDA; n = 33) or a literacy appropriate print tool (PT; n = 28) immediately before a primary care appointment in an urban, university-affiliated general internal medicine clinic. Patients rated the CDA significantly higher than the PT on all indicators of acceptance, including the helpfulness of the information for making a screening decision, and reported positive feelings about colonoscopy, greater likelihood to be screened, and lower decisional conflict. Results showed that a touch screen decision tool is acceptable to African American patients with low iteracy and, by increasing intent to screen, may increase rates of colonoscopy screening. PMID:26940369

  12. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  13. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  14. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  16. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  17. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  18. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  19. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  20. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  1. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  2. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  3. Designed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's embrace ofthe automobile over the past decade has been staggering.A total of 13.6 million vehicles were sold in China in 2009,when China overtook the United States as world's largest car market.

  4. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  5. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the spinal column and brain (called neural tube defects). This test is a screening test, so it ... Absence of part of the brain and skull (anencephaly) Defect in the baby's intestines or other nearby ...

  6. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  8. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are ... over. Suggest other activities, such as family board games, puzzles, ... active. Be a good role model as a parent. Decrease your own ...

  9. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  10. Anal screening cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiman Gladwyn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This issue of CytoJournal contains an article on screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk male patients. This accompanying Editorial focuses on current understanding of this relatively new disease entity, with insights as to the potential role of screening cytopathology in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of this HIV and HPV related anal lesion, which predominates in male patients living long-term with AIDS. Mention is made of techniques of obtaining samples, methods of preparation, and morphologic classification. Issues of anoscopic confirmation, as well as topical and surgical management are emphasized. The similarity of initial experiences in anal screening to problems encountered early in cervical cancer screening programs several decades ago, are highlighted.

  11. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  12. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  14. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  15. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  16. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  17. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  18. Green screen -tekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkko-Jaakkola, Aappo

    2013-01-01

    Elokuvateollisuudessa syntyi tarve kahden tai useamman videokuvan tai elementin toisiinsa yhdistämiselle, kun haluttiin toteuttaa jotain, mitä normaalisti kuvaamalla ei voitu toteuttaa. Green screen -tekniikan avulla on mahdollista erottaa kuvattava kohde taustastaan ja lisätä kohde johonkin toiseen videokuvaan. Tällä tavoin mahdottomia kuvaustilanteita tai -paikkoja voidaan toteuttaa tietokoneavusteisesti. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia, miten Green screen -tekniikka on kehi...

  19. Colony screening by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Matt Lewis ### Notes This is the fastest way to screen bacterial colonies. Our PCR machine takes 24 tubes so I routinely screen 22 colonies + 1 negative + 1 positive control. ### Choosing the primers Ideally you want a primer pair that can only work if the correct construct is present eg. a vector flanking primer and a gene specific primer. However, this may not allow you a positive control (essential) so you might have to use both vector flanking primers instead. If y...

  20. SYARIAH COMPLIANT SCREENING PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mondher bellalah; Asma Abdul Rehman; Omar Masood

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the shariaa compliant screening methods that are practiced by prominent Islamic finance users in terms of qualitative and quantitative screening. This research uses the comparative analysis to recognize the similarities and differences of methods among 15 users. Analysis reveals that there is a need to set the universal standards not only for the investors but also to discourage the misunderstanding between investors and scholars. After analysis of qualitative and quanti...

  1. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  2. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  3. Do Patients Fear Undergoing General Anesthesia for Oral Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Elmore, Jasmine R.; Priest, James H.; Laskin, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.

  4. Experiense with remineraling means in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanova Ye.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using bracket-technology a high risk of caries development. The algorithm of preventive interventions for the prevention of hair demineralization of enamel of the teeth

  5. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hee Jin; Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2015-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and...

  6. Effect of Trimetazidine in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the metabolism of the myocardium is a new strategy for patients with ischemic heart disease. Many studies have reported beneficial effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the clinical prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease, but whether these beneficial effects are extended to patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains uncertain. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of TMZ on patients undergoing PCI. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane databases, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biological Medicine Database to identify randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed according to the Jadad scale score, and the meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane Collaboration RevMan 5.2 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Dichotomous data were analyzed using relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with effect size indicated by the 95% confidence interval (CI), and continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMD) with effect size indicated by the 95% CI. Sensitivity analysis was performed by changing the statistical methods and effect model. Nine studies involving a total of 778 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Additional use of TMZ significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (WMD: 3.11, 95% CI: [2.26, 3.96]) and reduced elevated cardiac troponin Ic level (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: [0.48, 0.99]), angina attacks during PCI (OR: 0.16, 95% CI: [0.07, 0.38]), and ischemic ST-T changes on the echocardiogram during PCI (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: [0.59, 0.98]). However, no significant difference was observed in serum BNP level 30 days after PCI between the experimental and control group. Additional use of TMZ for patients undergoing PCI may reduce myocardial injury during the procedure and improve cardiac function. PMID:26367001

  7. Effect of Trimetazidine in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Optimizing the metabolism of the myocardium is a new strategy for patients with ischemic heart disease. Many studies have reported beneficial effects of trimetazidine (TMZ on the clinical prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease, but whether these beneficial effects are extended to patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI remains uncertain. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of TMZ on patients undergoing PCI. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane databases, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biological Medicine Database to identify randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed according to the Jadad scale score, and the meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane Collaboration RevMan 5.2 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Dichotomous data were analyzed using relative risk (RR or odds ratio (OR with effect size indicated by the 95% confidence interval (CI, and continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMD with effect size indicated by the 95% CI. Sensitivity analysis was performed by changing the statistical methods and effect model. Nine studies involving a total of 778 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Additional use of TMZ significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (WMD: 3.11, 95% CI: [2.26, 3.96] and reduced elevated cardiac troponin Ic level (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: [0.48, 0.99], angina attacks during PCI (OR: 0.16, 95% CI: [0.07, 0.38], and ischemic ST-T changes on the echocardiogram during PCI (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: [0.59, 0.98]. However, no significant difference was observed in serum BNP level 30 days after PCI between the experimental and control group. Additional use of TMZ for patients undergoing PCI may reduce myocardial injury during the procedure and improve cardiac function.

  8. Relevance of semen polymerase chain reaction positive for tuberculosis in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar Regmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Male partners of infertile women with genital tuberculosis (TB are often screened for genital TB. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of a positive screening semen polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis test (TB-PCR in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation and determine the need for a detailed investigation and treatment for TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2012 and January 2013, male partners of 15 infertile women with a diagnosis of genitourinary TB (GUTB as the cause of infertility, tested positive either on semen PCR for TB (13 cases, or Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube-960 test (2 cases. These asymptomatic men underwent infertility evaluation along with evaluation for GUTB. Diagnosis of GUTB was based on standard clinical criteria, which included a high index of suspicion along with clinical, laboratory, and/or radiological evidence of GUTB. Men who had no clinical evidence of GUTB were followed up with clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and repeat semen PCR for TB after 6 months. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects consented for inclusion in the study. One had a history of pulmonary TB 20 years earlier. Another patient was found to have mediastinal lymphadenopathy (tubercular. All except one had a normal semen analysis. None of the patients met the standard clinical criteria for GUTB diagnosis. 8 patients followed up at 6 months with repeat semen analysis, which was similar to the baseline values and no clinical evidence of TB. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic men with positive screening semen PCR for TB do not have clinical evidence of TB. Male partners of women with infertility and GUTB should not be screened if they have no symptoms.

  9. Massage for Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Qualitative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Sara L.; E. Anne Lown; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Dunn, Elizabeth A.; Abrams, Donald I; Horn, Biljana N.; Marcia Degelman; Cowan, Morton J.; Mehling, Wolf E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both p...

  10. Orofacial complications in children undergoing cancer therapy in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, RG; Chu, CH; Chan, GCF

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the orofacial complications in children undergoing cancer therapy and to increase their awareness of oral health. Methods. A randomly selected convenient sample of 46 children aged below 18 years undergoing combination chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or solid tumors at Queen Mary Hospital were recruited. Clinical examination and a parental questionnaire survey were performed. Parents were taught about oral health and received a talk that focused on the c...

  11. Analysis of mean transcutaneous capnography in consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Cesare Pinnola; Patrícia Souza Bastos

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous capnography is a noninvasive method useful for analysis of the behavioral tendency of transcutaneous CO2 pressure (PtcCO2) in patients undergoing polysomnography, to evaluate respiratory sleep disorders. Objective Determine normative PtcCO2 values in normal patients undergoing polysomnography. Method One hundred seventy-nine patients who underwent polysomnography with simultaneous PtcCO2 measurement were assessed by means of a transcutaneous capnograph (TCM4 series from Radi...

  12. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beli...

  13. Investigation of Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lavdaniti; Nikolaos Tsitsis

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most important problems in patients undergoing chemotherapy, despite the recent improvements in the administration of antiemetic drugs. Through a review of the literature, we found that there are several nursing researches focusing on the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the symptom of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study also invest...

  14. Relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevuk U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Utkan Sevuk,1 Erkan Baysal,2 Nurettin Ay,3 Yakup Altas,2 Rojhat Altindag,2 Baris Yaylak,2 Vahhac Alp,3 Ertan Demirtas4 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 2Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 3Department of General Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Liv Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and is independently associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and higher costs. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms and affects up to 40% of elderly people. The relationship between cobalamin deficiency and the occurrence of delirium after cardiac surgery has not been examined in previous studies. We examined the relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery.Material and methods: A total of 100 patients with cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG were enrolled in this retrospective study. Control group comprised 100 patients without cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG. Patients aged 65 years or over were included. Diagnosis of delirium was made using Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Delirium severity was measured using the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98.Results: Patients with cobalamin deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of delirium (42% vs 26%; P=0.017 and higher delirium severity scores (16.5±2.9 vs 15.03±2.48; P=0.034 than patients without cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin levels were significantly lower in patients with delirium than patients without delirium (P=0.004. Delirium severity score showed a moderate correlation with cobalamin levels (Ρ=-0.27; P=0.024. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that

  15. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  16. HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was ass...

  17. Fragment screening: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Andrew R; Hann, Michael M; Burrows, Jeremy N; Griffen, Ed J

    2006-09-01

    There are clearly many different philosophies associated with adapting fragment screening into mainstream Drug Discovery Lead Generation strategies. Scientists at Astex, for instance, focus entirely on strategies involving use of X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, AstraZeneca uses a number of different fragment screening strategies. One approach is to screen a 2000 compound fragment set (with close to "lead-like" complexity) at 100 microM in parallel with every HTS such that the data are obtained on the entire screening collection at 10 microM plus the extra samples at 100 microM; this provides valuable compound potency data in a concentration range that is usually unexplored. The fragments are then screen-specific "privileged structures" that can be searched for in the rest of the HTS output and other databases as well as having synthesis follow-up. A typical workflow for a fragment screen within AstraZeneca is shown below (Figure 24) and highlights the desirability (particularly when screening >100 microM) for NMR and X-ray information to validate weak hits and give information on how to optimise them. In this chapter, we have provided an introduction to the theoretical and practical issues associated with the use of fragment methods and lead-likeness. Fragment-based approaches are still in an early stage of development and are just one of many interrelated techniques that are now used to identify novel lead compounds for drug development. Fragment based screening has some advantages, but like every other drug hunting strategy will not be universally applicable. There are in particular some practical challenges associated with fragment screening that relate to the generally lower level of potency that such compounds initially possess. Considerable synthetic effort has to be applied for post-fragment screening to build the sort of potency that would be expected to be found from a traditional HTS. However, if there are no low-hanging fruit in a screening

  18. Towards high throughput screening of nanoparticle flotation collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Carla; Yang, Songtao; Pelton, Robert H

    2015-12-15

    To function as flotation collectors for mineral processing, polymeric nanoparticles require a delicate balance of surface properties to give mineral-specific deposition and colloidal stability in high ionic strength alkaline media, while remaining sufficiently hydrophobic to promote flotation. Combinatorial nanoparticle surface modification, in conjunction with high throughput screening, is a promising approach for nanoparticle development. However, efficient automated screening assays are required to reject ineffective particles without having to undergo time consuming flotation testing. Herein we demonstrate that determining critical coagulation concentrations of sodium carbonate in combination with measuring the advancing water contact angle of nanoparticle-saturated glass surfaces can be used to screen ineffective nanoparticles. Finally, none of our first nanoparticle library based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEG-methacrylate) were effective flotation collectors because the nanoparticles were too hydrophilic. PMID:26319325

  19. Ion channel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John; Bowlby, Mark; Peri, Ravikumar; Tawa, Gregory; LaRocque, James; Soloveva, Veronica; Morin, John

    2008-08-01

    Ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery with recent estimates indicating that voltage and ligand-gated channels account for the third and fourth largest gene families represented in company portfolios after the G protein coupled and nuclear hormone receptor families. A historical limitation on ion channel targeted drug discovery in the form of the extremely low throughput nature of the gold standard assay for assessing functional activity, patch clamp electrophysiology in mammalian cells, has been overcome by the implementation of multi-well plate format cell-based screening strategies for ion channels. These have taken advantage of various approaches to monitor ion flux or membrane potential using radioactive, non-radioactive, spectroscopic and fluorescence measurements and have significantly impacted both high-throughput screening and lead optimization efforts. In addition, major advances have been made in the development of automated electrophysiological platforms to increase capacity for cell-based screening using formats aimed at recapitulating the gold standard assay. This review addresses the options available for cell-based screening of ion channels with examples of their utility and presents case studies on the successful implementation of high-throughput screening campaigns for a ligand-gated ion channel using a fluorescent calcium indicator, and a voltage-gated ion channel using a fluorescent membrane potential sensitive dye. PMID:18694388

  20. Prevalence and mode of inheritance of major genetic eye diseases in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, D N

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence and mode of inheritance of major genetic eye diseases have been investigated in China since the establishment of the Section of Ophthalmic Genetics of the Chinese Society of Genetics. Mass screening of genetic eye diseases has been undertaken in many districts in China, covering more than 700,000 people, and more than 5000 pedigrees of genetic eye diseases have been collected and analysed all over China. Based on these data, the prevalence and mode of inheritance of dyschromato...

  1. Hypovitaminosis D in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Single-Center Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkrott, Bradley P; Koberling, Jessica L; Noel, Curtis R

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is recognized as an essential component in bone health, muscle function, and immune system regulation. This study sought to characterize the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), and shoulder hemiarthroplasty (HA). Between September 2013 and December 2014, a total of 218 patients undergoing TSA, RSA, and HA by a single surgeon were screened for hypovitaminosis D and retrospectively reviewed. Demographic variables and risk factors were recorded. Overall, 93 shoulder arthroplasty patients (43%) were vitamin D insufficient (<30 ng/mL) and 24 patients (11%) were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL). Body mass index (BMI) had a significant effect on vitamin D levels; BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or greater was associated with lower vitamin D levels (31.5±12.1 ng/mL) compared with patients with a BMI of less than 30 kg/m(2) (36.2±15.7 ng/mL, P ≤.01). The absence of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium prior to serum testing was the most significant risk factor for hypovitaminosis D (odds ratio [OR], 8.234, P<.001). Age, gender, race, smoking status, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, procedure, and surgical indication were not significant. This is the largest cohort of shoulder arthroplasty patients screened for hypovitaminosis D. Almost half (43%) of the study population was insufficient, and both the absence of supplementation prior to serum testing and BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or greater were found to be predictive of lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Given the extent of vitamin D involvement in normal musculoskeletal physiology, routine preoperative evaluation is merited. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e651-e656.]. PMID:27286046

  2. Evaluation of effective dose received by patients undergoing Cardiac Angiography Computed Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac Angiography is a field of studies that utilizes the energy of radiation to study the coronary arteries of the heart. Patients undergoing this procedure has a probability of receiving an over dose of radiation that may further cause stochastic effect. The main objective of this research is to compare and clarify an approach for minimal effective dose receive by patients between procedures of Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography. Based on this study, the patients recorded are based in Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. The Dose-Length-Product (DLP) was extracted from the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI); meanwhile the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) was extracted from the modalities console screen. These relevant data are the means to clarify the effective dose receive by patients. The result shows that patients who undergo Conventional Angiography had a mean effective dose of 8.50 ± 6.41 mSv. Meanwhile, as for Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography, the patients had a mean effective dose of 7.08 ± 2.42 mSv. A significant difference in effective dose was seen between the two procedures. Cardiac Angiography CT provides high accurate diagnostic information with less radiation dose to patients compared to Conventional Angiography. (author)

  3. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music...... attractiveness of the Chinese market. Mandopop and rock music are carefully integrated, while national/international artists and companies engage in self-censorship and thereby support the mainstream ideology. The transformation of Chinese pop reflects necessary steps towards cultural liberalism, yet it is based...

  4. Prevalence and correlates of Willis-Ekbom's disease/restless legs syndrome in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Nitik; Ahmad, Sohaib; Gupta, Ravi; Ahmad, Shahbaj

    2016-01-01

    Willis-Ekbom's disease/restless legs syndrome (WED/RLS) has been described in subjects undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Different studies have reported varying prevalence rates and different factors associated with this condition; however, the results are inconsistent. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of WED/RLS in patients undergoing HD. Another aim of the study was to identify if any comorbidities or biochemical factors were associated with this condition. A total of 194 adult patients undergoing maintenance HD were included in this study. They were screened for WED/RLS using International RLS Study Group criteria on the face-to-face interview and clinical examination. Most recent laboratory parameters were gathered from the medical records. In addition, seroreactivity to hepatitis B and C was also recorded. The mean age of all the subjects included in the study was 54.4 ± 15 years (range: 18-92 years); 58.2% were males. The mean duration on HD was 36.6 ± 19.3 months. WED/RLS was seen in 5.2% of the study subjects. Subjects with and without WED/RLS were comparable with regard to gender (P = 0.23), adequacy of dialysis (P = 0.82), shift of dialysis (P = 0.93), presence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.91), hypertension (P = 0.26), smoking (P = 0.22), alcohol use (P = 0.45), and reactivity to hepatitis C (P = 0.19) and hepatitis B (P = 0.80), as well as various hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of WED/RLS of 5% in the HD group was higher than in the general population. However, this study could not find any correlation between RLS and any biochemical parameters or comorbidities. This is an important area to be considered in future and requires more work with larger sample size. PMID:27424684

  5. 77 FR 4044 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... immunization, hepatitis B, and/or tuberculosis; asthma; and infant mortality. Priority populations for the... various risk factors associated with chronic diseases, deficits in breast and cervical cancer screening... name respondents responses per response (in respondent hours) Screening Interview........ 14,700 1...

  6. 77 FR 28881 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... screening standards for cervical cancer include an annual Pap test until a woman has had three consecutive normal Pap tests, at which time the Pap test frequency is reduced to every three years. An alternative cervical cancer screening strategy involves administration of both the Pap test and a human...

  7. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  8. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  9. Directed evolution and solid phase enzyme screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylina, Edward J.; Grek, Christina L.; Coleman, William J.; Youvan, Douglas C.

    2000-03-01

    A new digital imaging spectrophotometer and a series of colorimetric solid phase arrays have been developed to screen bacterial libraries expressing mutagenized enzymes undergoing directed evolution. This high-throughput solid- phase array system (known as `Kcat Technology') can detect less than a 20% difference in enzyme rates within microcolonies grown at a nearly confluent density of 500 colonies per cm2 on an assay disk. Each microcolony is analyzed simultaneously at single-pixel resolution (1.5 megapixels; 75 micron/pixel), requiring less than 100 nanoliters of substrate per measurement, a 1000-fold reduction over conventional liquid phase assays. Here we report the successful identification of variants of Agrobacterium (beta) -glucosidase--a glycosidase with broad substrate specificity that favors cleavage of glucosides over galactosides--by simultaneously assaying two different substrates tagged with spectrally distinct chromogenic reporters.

  10. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  11. Dance on screen

    OpenAIRE

    Roichman, Limor

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores dance on screen from the artist's point of view following the making of the video GAIA - Mysterious Rhythms (20 min,Digital Betacam). The video and the thesis together form the PhD submission. The interaction of practice and theory, through a process of creative work, analysis and reflection resulted in the structuring of a model with which I claim the autonomy of dance on screen as a hybrid art form, a form which like other creative forms, such as painting, sculpture ...

  12. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  13. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  14. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  15. Ethical and policy issues in newborn screening of children for neurologic and developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-06-01

    Genetic testing for neurologic and developmental disorders spans the spectrum from universal newborn screening for conditions like phenylketonuria to diagnostic testing for suspected genetic conditions, to predictive genetic testing for childhood-onset conditions. Given that virtually all children in the United States undergo genetic screening in the newborn period, this article focuses on 3 actual case studies of neurologic and developmental disorders that have been included or proposed for inclusion in newborn screening programs: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (a neuromuscular disorder), Krabbe disease (a neurodegenerative disorder), and fragile X syndrome (a neurodevelopmental disorder). PMID:26022175

  16. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  17. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  18. Screening and merger activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Banal-Estañol; P. Heidhues; R. Nitsche; J. Seldeslachts

    2010-01-01

    In our paper, the target of a proposed merger, by setting a reserve price, is able to screen prospective acquirers according to their (expected) ability to generate merger-specific synergies. Both empirical evidence and many merger models suggest that the difference between high and low-synergy merg

  19. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...

  20. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  1. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  2. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  3. Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellström, Bengt C; Jardine, Alan G; Schmieder, Roland E; Holdaas, Hallvard; Bannister, Kym; Beutler, Jaap; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chevaile, Alejandro; Cobbe, Stuart M; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; De Lima, José J; Lins, Robert; Mayer, Gert; McMahon, Alan W; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Samuelsson, Ola; Sonkodi, Sandor; Sci, D; Süleymanlar, Gultekin; Tsakiris, Dimitrios; Tesar, Vladimir; Todorov, Vasil; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Gottlow, Mattis; Johnsson, Eva; Zannad, Faiez

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective...... trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke......: In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the initiation of treatment with rosuvastatin lowered the LDL cholesterol level but had no significant effect on the composite primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. (ClinicalTrials.gov number...

  4. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  5. SCREEN photometric property detection system based on area CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu-cai; Ye, Wei; Xu, Yu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu-wei

    2011-08-01

    The photometric property detection of screen display is crucial for screen display quality test. Traditional photometry detection technologies were based on photoelectric sensors such as silicon photocell, photo-electric multiplier and CdS, which can detect only some isolated points. To break the limitation of randomness, incompleteness and detection accuracy in current technologies, we designed a screen photometric detection system based on area CCD. The system consists of photometric image sensor, photometric image acquisition hardware and photometric image analyzing software. The photometric image sensor, which adopts optical lens, optical filters and area CCD, adapts its spectrum response property to fit the spectrum luminous efficiency curve V (λ) by adjusting the thickness and quantity of appropriate optical filters. photometric image acquisition hardware adopts the DSP as a core processor to drive the area CCD, to sample, acquire , process and save the image from image sensor, to transmit the image to computer. For real-time performance of transmitting, the hardware system adopts the transmission protocol of USB2.0. The uploaded image will be processed by photometric image analyzing software, and then displayed in real time with detection results. The screen photometric detection technology based on area CCD can detect specifications of the whole screen such as luminance, contrast, onoff ratio and uniformity, breaks the limitation of randomness and incompleteness in current detection technology, exactly and fully reflects the integrated display quality of the whole screen. According to the test results, the accuracy of this system has reached the accuracy level one in China.

  6. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Tracking a Screen and Detecting Its Rate of Change in 3-D Video Scenes of Multipurpose Halls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Charara; I.Jarkass; M.Sokhn; O.AbouKhaled; E.Mugellini

    2014-01-01

    An automatic approach is presented to track a wide screen in a multipurpose hall video scene. Once the screen is located, this system also generates the temporal rate of change by using the edge detection based method. Our approach adopts a scene segmentation algorithm that explores visual features (texture) and depth information to perform efficient screen localization. The cropped region which refers to the wide screen undergoes salient visual cues extraction to retrieve the emphasized changes required in rate-of-change computation. In addition to video document indexing and retrieval, this work can improve the machine vision capability in the behavior analysis and pattern recognition.

  8. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  9. Nutritional status and its impact on outcome in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation and an experimental trial to improve the supply of a specific micronutrient

    OpenAIRE

    Urbain, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The first two studies investigated the course of the nutritional status in patients un-dergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and the validity of nutritional markers as independent risk factors for outcome. In line with others, we detected an overall good nutritional status before alloHCT by employing quick screening tools such as BMI and the SGA questionnaire for identifying malnutrition. However, upon closer inspection, we observed unintentional weight loss previo...

  10. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China. PMID:26911012

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  12. Progress in site selection for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) worked out an R and D program called DG program for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The site selection process for China's HLW repository has been carried out since then according to this program. Granite is considered as the candidate host rock for the repository. The general siting criteria are based on the principle that, under the effect of natural and human activities, the long term (100,000 years) safety of the repository can be reasonably obtained and the disposed radioactive waste can be avoided from entering the biosphere and harming human beings. During siting, two types of factors are considered: (1) social factors, including the nuclear industry distribution population, economic potential and environmental protection etc.; (2) natural factors, including geographic, meteorological and geological (crustal stability, host rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology). The site selection process is divided into 4 stages: (1) nationwide screening, (2) regional screening; (3) district screening; and (4) site screening. During the first stage (1985--1986) the following were considered as potential regions: (1) southwest China, (2) Guangdong area, (3) Inner Mongolia, (4) east China and (5) northwest China. During the second stage (1986--1988), 21 districts were selected for further investigation. Since 1989 most efforts have been focused on the Beishan area, Gansu province, northwest China, which is considered as the most potential district for the repository

  13. Environmental problems in the People`s Republic of China: Current magnitude and possible control options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadtti, N.; Biang, C.A.; Poch, L.A.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been undergoing rapid economic development over the past several decades. This development has taken place with little or no attention being paid to its environmental consequences. This situation has resulted in severe contamination of the air, water, and soil resources of China, with attendant damage to human and natural populations. This report determines the major causes of air, water, and soil pollution in China and assesses their extent and magnitude. It then examines the impacts of the pollutants on various components of the human and natural environment. It identifies possible regulatory and ameliorative options available to China to deal with these pollution problems and provides information on specific strategies and the costs associated with their implementation. The objective is to shed light on China`s pollution control and remediation requirements in the near future.

  14. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  15. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  16. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  17. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  18. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you bring your ... from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time they are born. ...

  19. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  20. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  1. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  2. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  3. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  4. Home-based HPV self-sampling improves participation by never-screened and under-screened women: Results from a large randomized trial (iPap) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Drennan, Kelly T; Mullins, Robyn; Brotherton, Julia M L; Wrede, C David; Heley, Stella; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M

    2016-07-15

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether HPV self-sampling increases participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened (not screened in past 5 years) women when compared with a reminder letter for a Pap test. Never- or under-screened Victorian women aged 30-69 years, not pregnant and with no prior hysterectomy were eligible. Within each stratum (never-screened and under-screened), we randomly allocated 7,140 women to self-sampling and 1,020 to Pap test reminders. The self-sampling kit comprised a nylon tipped flocked swab enclosed in a dry plastic tube. The primary outcome was participation, as indicated by returning a swab or undergoing a Pap test; the secondary outcome, for women in the self-sampling arm with a positive HPV test, was undergoing appropriate clinical investigation. The Roche Cobas® 4800 test was used to measure presence of HPV DNA. Participation was higher for the self-sampling arm: 20.3 versus 6.0% for never-screened women (absolute difference 14.4%, 95% CI: 12.6-16.1%, p Pap test as recommended. HPV self-sampling improves participation in cervical screening for never- and under-screened women and most women with HPV detected have appropriate clinical investigation. PMID:26850941

  5. Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Lu; Yongshou Fu; Duojie Tashi; Erzi T. Ma; Jianchu Xu; David Melick

    2005-01-01

    China is undergoing economic growth and expansion to a free market economy at a scale and pace that are unprecedented in human history. This is placing great pressure on the country’s environment and cultural diversity. This paper examines a number of case histories in China, focusing on the culturally varied and ecologically diverse southwest region of the country. We show how developments in recent Chinese history have devalued and in some cases eliminated indigenous knowledge and pra...

  6. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xiaohang; Dib Hassan H; Pan Xilong; Zhang Hong

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs) have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to ide...

  7. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  8. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiele, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery.

  9. 76 FR 45256 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... instrument will undergo cognitive testing before dissemination. The Web-based NSPCP will collect information.... Approximately 900 physicians will participate in each cycle of data collection (baseline and follow-up). On an...) Physician Cognitive Testing 5 1 75/60 Interview Guide. Medical Secretary NSPCP Screener 1,333 1...

  10. 77 FR 72867 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction....C. 242k), as amended, authorizes that the Secretary of Health and Human Services (DHHS), acting..., hepatitis, epilepsy, HIV testing, neighborhood characteristics, financial worries, sleep issues, and...

  11. 78 FR 69855 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Campaign Resource Center (MCRC) and producing reports in conjunction with the Office of the Surgeon General... recruitment by allocating 20,000 additional respondents, and 667 additional burden hours, to the...

  12. 78 FR 42079 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... violence, and (2) reflect the behaviors of interest and theory of change of Expect Respect. The...

  13. 78 FR 52771 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... days of this notice. Proposed Project Public Health Systems, Mental Health and Community...

  14. 76 FR 29245 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of these requests, call the CDC Reports... amounts of insulin to regulate blood sugar. Reports of increasing frequency of both type 1 and type...

  15. 77 FR 65191 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of these requests, call the CDC Reports... vegetable consumption, and avoidance of sugar-sweetened beverages. These efforts provide a ]...

  16. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality, myo...

  17. Monitoring Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Breet

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and thienopyridines is the cornerstone in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and in those undergoing PCI with stent-implantation.However, the magnitude of on-treatment platelet reactivity is not uniform among individuals, d

  18. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  19. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; M; Hassany; Ehab; F; Abdou; Moustafa; Mohamed; El; Taher; Afaf; Adel; Abdeltwab; Hubert; E; Blum

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts:(1) personal information regarding the physician(name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and(2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development(screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus(HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development(P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis(P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health(MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt(P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening(P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo(P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation.CONCLUSION: In Egypt, physicians

  20. Second trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in mainland China :a multi-center prospective study%对孕中期妇女行血清学二联指标筛查胎儿唐氏综合征的多中心前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边旭明; 朱宝生; 王和; 许争锋; 潘小英; 廖灿; 蔡艳; 王华; 王泽; 朱军; 胡娅莉; 刘俊涛; 戚庆炜; 蒋宇林; 李岩; 刘善英; 郝娜; 周京; 吕时铭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance characteristics of the second trimester double-marker test for the detection of fetal Down's syndrome in mainland China. Methods This prospective national multi-centered study used alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin( free β-hCG)as the serum markers. From May 2004 to September 2006, 11 centers participated in the collection and analysis of maternal serum AFP and free β-hCG between 14 and 20+6 weeks of pregnancy. The screening results were calculated using the standard algorithm based on the standard database provided with the analytic software. Patients with an increased risk of Down's syndrome pregnancy (≥1/270) were offered genetic anmiocentesis. Outcomes of all pregnancies were obtained.Results A total of 66 132 singleton pregnancies were included in the study. The median maternal age was 27 years. At a cut-eft of 1 in 270, the detection rate (DR) based on a Caucasian database was 72% corresponding to a false positive rate (FPR) of 5%, and the DR based on the Chinese database was raised to 76% corresponding to an FPR of 5%. Conclusion The double-marker test using AFP and free β-hCG is an effective screen strategy for second-trimester detection of fetal Down's syndrome in mainland China. Ethnic variance exists between the Caucasian and Chinese populations. The accuracy of screening is increased by the use of race-specific medians.%目的 建立中国孕妇孕中期血清学二联指标筛查胎儿唐氏综合征的数据库,探讨适合中国大陆孕妇筛查胎儿唐氏综合征的策略.方法 应用有区域代表性的多中心前瞻性研究方法,收集2004年5月至2006年9月期间在北京协和医院等11家医疗单位就诊的、孕周为14~20周+6并同意接受产前筛查的66 132例妊娠单活胎孕妇(平均年龄27岁)行血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)和游离人绒毛膜促性腺激素B亚单位(freeβ-Hcg)二联指标检测,将二联指标测定值输入以高加

  1. Blood Screening for Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Hourfar, Michael Kai; Themann, Anna; Eickmann, Markus; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Laue, Thomas; Seifried, Erhard; Schmidt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

  2. Screening for helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Thomas, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to assess whether a screening programme for Helicobacter pylori will be both successful and cost-effective. Method: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; MEDLINE; EMBASE; SilverPlatter, Biological Abstracts and Science Citation Index-Expanded. We used the search terms Helicobacter pylori and (diagnos$ or identif$ or find$) and (syst...

  3. Screen translations in Rango

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Xenia Østerby

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates two Danish screen translations of the animated film “Rango” (2011) centrering on translational strategies. The focus of the project is to research to what extent the two translations, subtitles and dubbing, appear to have been produced with specific translational micro- and macrostrategies in mind, and whether the identified patterns can be said to reflect deliberate choices on the part of the translators, or if they rather seem to be influenced by media constraints....

  4. Screened Anode N2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, M. Montaser Foad

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of screening the discharge channel on the output energy is presented. It has been found that a screened anode nitrogen laser generates higher output energy than that of a screened cathode, and also higher than that when both cathode and anode are unshielded at higher pressures.

  5. What Screening Tests Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  6. Virtual colonoscopy - changes for screening examination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, virtual colonoscopy is capable to be used as method for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), even if the accuracy of the method and radiation exposure are matters discussion in the radiological community. Virtual colonoscopy is able to detect any pathology which is relevant for early detection of CRC especially when using multislice CT, but also with single slice CT. The diagnosis of small lesions, less than 7 mm in diameter (polyps and flat lesions) is still problematic as it is in conventional colonoscopy. The exposure to x-rays in asymptomatic patients, without any increased risk of developing cancer is highly problematic and should be reduced to a minimum. Using special post processing filters on the volume dataset it can be shown that a tube current of 20 mAs is sufficient without any loss in accuracy. Measurements on the Alderson-phantom showed, that an effective dose exposure of 1.2 mSv is obtained using these reduced mAs values. It has to be differentiated between virtual colonoscopy for early detection of polyps and CRC in individual patients or as a screening examination of a large population. Virtual colonoscopy as a screening examination necessitates reduction of radiation dose, a high degree of automatisation in 3D reconstructions as well as the assessment of the entire mucosa. High risk patients, whom refuse fibreoptic colonoscopy should undergo virtual colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy has a good chance to become an accepted tool for general screening, if efficient dose reduction, complete visualization of the colon mucosa and automatisation of the post processing procedures can be achieved. (orig.)

  7. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  8. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  9. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  10. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  11. Geoinformatics Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Gong, J; Yue, P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by th...

  12. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported

  13. Analysis of eutrophication state and trend for lakes in China

    OpenAIRE

    JIN XIANGCAN

    2003-01-01

    The article analyzes the present state and trend of eutrophication of lakes in China and concludes that lakes throughout the country are commonly undergoing the process of eutrophication: most of urban lakes are facing hypertrophication, many mediumsized lakes are of eutrophic state, some lakes even approaching to hypertrophic level. The five large freshwater lakes are in the condition of eutrophication, especially Lake Caohu and Lake Taihu are already in the state of eutrophication, water qu...

  14. Psychological barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening: a French qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgiane Bridou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants.

  15. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  16. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  17. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  18. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  19. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  20. Soilless culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhilong

    2003-01-01

    Soilless culture in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The area of soilless culture in China was about0.1 ha in 1985, 117 ha in 1995, but in 2002 the area reached to 865 ha. This paper introduced the brief history of soillessculture in China, and the main soilless culture systems. The present situation and problems are also discussed in thispaper.

  1. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  2. Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography.......To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography....

  3. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  4. Effects of screening on the propagation of graphene surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken-Ichi; Kumada, Norio

    2015-03-01

    We investigated surface plasmons in epitaxial graphene, while paying particular attention to the effect of interface states and resistivity on the transport properties. The propagation velocity of the surface plasmons is much slower than the electron Fermi velocity when the screening effect provided by interface states is taken into account. Furthermore, slow-moving surface plasmons undergo a strong diffusion when the Fermi energy is near the Dirac point. This is shown by a numerical simulation of an RLC circuit model and its continuum approximation known as the telegrapher's equation. We could explain recent experimental results for the surface plasmons satisfactorily.

  5. Breast Cancer Disparities: A Multicenter Comparison of Tumor Diagnosis, Characteristics, and Surgical Treatment in China and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasubramaniam, Priya G.; Zhang, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jennifer S.; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Yang, Hong-jian; He, Jian-Jun; Hui LI; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer continue to rise in the People’s Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in characteristics of breast malignancies between China and the U.S. Chinese women were diagnosed at younger ages with higher stage and larger tumors and underwent more aggressive surgical treatment. Prospective trials should be conducted to address screening, surgical, and tumor discrepancies between China and the U.S.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma: putting the cart before the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillon A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain BraillonGRES, Public Health, Amiens, FranceRuggeri has recently reviewed the cost-effectiveness of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.1 However, evidence for effectiveness is still lacking, with only two randomized trials available, both from China, one of which is negative and the other positive but with several major flaws.2 Only observational studies are available from developed countries, and conclude that screening improves survival, despite raw data showing that screened patients die younger than nonscreened patients, (length time and lead time biases.3 The National Cancer Institute recommends that “based on fair evidence, screening would not result in a decrease in mortality from HCC … based on fair evidence, screening would result in rare but serious side effects”.4View original paper by Ruggeri.

  7. Analysis of mean transcutaneous capnography in consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cesare Pinnola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous capnography is a noninvasive method useful for analysis of the behavioral tendency of transcutaneous CO2 pressure (PtcCO2 in patients undergoing polysomnography, to evaluate respiratory sleep disorders. Objective Determine normative PtcCO2 values in normal patients undergoing polysomnography. Method One hundred seventy-nine patients who underwent polysomnography with simultaneous PtcCO2 measurement were assessed by means of a transcutaneous capnograph (TCM4 series from Radiomiter. Results The group classified as normal (N=53 presented a apnea/hypopnea index (AHI <5 events/per hour of sleep and their age groups varied between 7 and 76 years of age. Conclusion Global mean values of PtcCO2 in the normal group had a Gaussian distribution that varied between 33.1 and 50.0 mmHg (SD 4,363. Such findings allowed the establishment of normative PtcCO2 values for normal individuals.

  8. Sedation versus general anaesthesia in paediatric patients undergoing chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: CT of the chest in paediatric patients often requires sedation or general anaesthesia to minimize motion artefacts. Both sedation and general anaesthesia are associated with atelectasis which obscures the underlying pulmonary pathology. We conducted a prospective study to compare these two methods with respect to degree of motion artefacts and extent of atelectasis. Material and Methods: Nineteen patients undergoing 22 chest CT examinations were randomly selected for either sedation or general anaesthesia. The total area of atelectasis and the degree of motion artefacts were measured. Results: The mean percentage of atelectasis was 6.67% for general anaesthesia and 0.01% for sedation (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the quality of the images between the sedation patients and the general anaesthesia patients. Conclusion: Whenever the clinical condition permits it, sedation rather than general anaesthesia should be given to paediatric patients undergoing chest CT. (orig.)

  9. To screen or not to screen: What factors influence complex screening decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Catena, Andrés; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened. Young adults (N = 347) received information about a disease for which a screening test was available and numerical information about the benefits and harms from screening. Results showed that comprehension and perceptions of benefits are central to decisions; however, lay perceptions of harms along the screening cascade require further study. Numeracy, science literacy, and emotions can promote informed decision making by facilitating comprehension of the evidence. At the same time emotions and beliefs resulting from persuasive campaigns can have strong effects on screening intentions beyond the available evidence. To apply to screening procedures where informed decision making is recommended, theoretical models of screening decisions need to include comprehension of benefits and harms, and account for how cognitive skills, emotions, and beliefs influence comprehension and decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295468

  10. Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M.; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation an...

  11. PULMONARY PHYSIOTHERAPY EFFECT ON PATIENTS UNDERGOING OPEN CARDIAC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Kazem Shakuri; Yaghoub Salekzamani; Ali Taghizadieh; Hamed Sabbagh-Jadid; Jamal Soleymani; Leyla Sahebi

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives — Respiratory complications after open heart surgeries are common problems which can lead to death if not properly managed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation before and after surgery for reducing the risk of pulmonary complications after surgery also correlations of the six-minute walk test and respiratory following open heart surgery. Material and Methods — In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients undergoing heart surgery...

  12. Fluvastatin and perioperative events in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Olaf; Boersma, Eric; Hoeks, Sanne; Benner, Robbert; Urk, Hero; Sambeek, Marc; Verhagen, Hence; Khan, Nisar Ahmed; Dunkelgrun, Martin; Bax, Jeroen; Poldermans, Don

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Adverse cardiac events are common after vascular surgery. We hypothesized that perioperative statin therapy would improve postoperative outcomes. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who had not previously been treated with a statin to receive, in addition to a beta-blocker, either 80 mg of extended-release fluvastatin or placebo once daily before undergoing vascular surgery. Lipid, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein...

  13. Respiratory management of the obese patient undergoing surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Luke E.; Murphy, Patrick B; Hart, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    As a reflection of the increasing global incidence of obesity, there has been a corresponding rise in the proportion of obese patients undergoing major surgery. This review reports the physiological effect of these changes in body composition on the respiratory system and discusses the clinical approach required to maximize safety and minimize the risk to the patient. The changes in respiratory system compliance and lung volumes, which can adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange, combined wit...

  14. Nutritional consequences in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Skolin, Inger

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy has side effects that may interfere with food intake. Children suffering from a malignant disease are subjected to treatment with chemotherapy. They may therefore become at risk of undernutrition during the period of treatment. This in turn may increase the risk of infections, delayed therapy and influence the outcome of treatment. Few studies have investigated how children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer perceive food and eating. Attempts to improve food intake an...

  15. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  16. Luxury Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, the level of capital income is expanding significantly. The size of the rich population in China is becoming larger than ever. At the same time, the luxury market of China is also showing great vitality. There is no doubt that China is already the luxury market with the most growth potential. With increasing numbers of high-end consumer goods now being sold, the consumption gap between China and the world is being gradually shortened. And Chinese...

  17. Utility of an Australasian registry for children undergoing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of an Australasian registry ('the Registry') for children undergoing radiation treatment (RT). Children under the age of 16years who received a course of radiation between January 1997 and December 2010 and were enrolled on the Registry form the subjects of this study. A total of 2232 courses of RT were delivered, predominantly with radical intent (87%). Registrations fluctuated over time, but around one-half of children diagnosed with cancer undergo a course of RT. The most prevalent age range at time of RT was 10–15years, and the most common diagnoses were central nervous system tumours (34%) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (20%). The Registry provides a reflection of the patterns of care of children undergoing RT in Australia and a mechanism for determining the resources necessary to manage children by RT (human, facilities and emerging technologies, such as proton therapy). It lacks the detail to provide information on radiotherapy quality and disease outcomes which should be the subject of separate audit studies. The utility of the Registry has been hampered by its voluntary nature and varying needs for consent. Completion of registry forms is a logical requirement for inclusion in the definition of a subspecialist in paediatric radiation oncology.

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-ping; YANG Lu; BI Shan-shan; LU Wei; ZHANG Xian-hua; ZHAI Suo-di; DUAN Li-ping

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud Little is known about the influence of liver transplantation on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic drugs. The goal of this study was to study the population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in the different phases of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and the influence of relevant factors.Methods Thirteen adult patients undergoing OLT were enrolled. A single bolus infusion of remifentanil 5 μg/kg was administered during the preanhepatic, anhepatic and neohepatic phases of OLT. Arterial blood samples of 1.5 ml were collected at 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes after drug administration. Remifentanil concentration was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM).Results The pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in patients undergoing OLT was best described by a two-compartment open model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were not influenced by age, gender, operative phase, blood temperature, rehydration volume, or blood loss volume during sampling. The volume of distribution in the central compartment (V1) and the volume of distribution in the peripheral compartment (V2) were influenced by body weight. Conclusions The population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in patients undergoing OLT can be well described by a two-compartment open model. The functional status of the liver does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil, but the body weight is an influential factor of V1 and V2.

  19. Excitons and Two-dimensional Screening: Critical Screening Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy, Christian

    2001-01-01

    A beautiful and intriguing relationship has recently been proposed to express the critical screening lengths associated with the apparition of new bound states for the two-dimensional statically screened Coulomb potential. Semiclassical quantum theory show that this relationship is unfortunately not strictly exact. These results are confirmed by a variational calculation, which provides upper bounds for the critical screening lengths in the case $l \\geq 1$.

  20. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  1. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  2. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: nigel.maybee@hfpacoustical.com; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email: Vincent.Chow@AltaLink.ca

    2011-07-01

    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  3. Prenatal detection of congenital heart disease in a low risk population undergoing first and second trimester screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ditte E S; Vejlstrup, Niels; Jørgensen, Connie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prenatal detection rate of congenital heart disease (CHD) is low compared with other fetal malformations. Our aim was to evaluate the prenatal detection of CHD in Eastern Denmark. METHODS: Fetuses and infants diagnosed with CHD in the period 01.01.2008-31.12.2010 were assessed...

  4. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency discriminates cardiovascular risk factors accumulation in peri-pubertal boys undergoing overweight screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nisio, Andrea; De Toni, Luca; D'Addato, Elvio; Pizzo, Maria R; Sabatino, Pasquale; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between cardiometabolic risk factors accumulation and vitamin D status in a cohort of Italian normal weight and overweight male children. 108 boys enrolled in an andrological health prevention project underwent physical examination, anthropometric measurements, and fasting blood sampling. Serum blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for age. Lean and overweight subjects differed in terms of waist circumference (P < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.001), triglycerides (P = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002). Both groups had similar mean 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.160) and were below the sufficiency threshold: indeed only 24 % of normal weight had 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/ml, and even less in the overweight/obese group (8 %, P = 0.03 vs. normal weight). A significant accumulation of risk factors in course of 25(OH)D insufficiency was detected in both the whole cohort and in the normal weight group (P = 0.003 and P = 0.04, respectively) with odd ratios of 1.31 (1.16-1.49 95%CI) and 1.41 (1.18-1.69 95%CI), respectively. In course of vitamin D deficiency, the odd ratios were 2.24 (1.34-3.77 95%CI, P = 0.003) in the whole cohort and 2.40 (1.27-4.82 95%CI, P = 0.03) in lean subjects. We reported a considerable occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in course of hypovitaminosis D in overweight/obese boys and even in lean subjects, which normally would not have been further evaluated by considering the sole BMI-related parameters. In this regard, 25(OH)D levels appear as a potential discriminating parameter able to identify male children at higher health risk. PMID:26323345

  5. Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Agnes G; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Verkerk, Marian A; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; Plantinga, Mirjam; van Langen, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    We explored the dilemma between patients' right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients' right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers. PMID:25564039

  6. Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Agnes G; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Verkerk, Marian A; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; Plantinga, Mirjam; van Langen, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the dilemma between patients' right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients' right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers. PMID:25564039

  7. Celiac disease during pregnancy: to screen or not to screen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rachel; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-01-01

    Permanent intolerance to gluten, known as celiac disease, affects both fertility and pregnancy outcomes when left untreated. Recent research on celiac disease and reproduction urge increased screening for celiac disease. While this may be beneficial for couples facing idiopathic infertility or those from particular risk groups, screening involves its own risks and expenses, and has not been consistently proven effective for the general population while pregnant. The present editorial discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of screening during pregnancy and examines when screening may be helpful. PMID:18818937

  8. How China's Leaders Think The Inside Story of China's Past, Current and Future Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Robert Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    How China’s next generation of leaders think and what that means for its future China will soon undergo a complete change of senior leaders and this book covers that new generation’s background and ideas based on personal interviews with member of China’s ruling party. It covers the future of state media, culture, the press, religion, science and technology, healthcare, agricultural, and economic and financial issues. For anyone who wants to understand China’s future, this book offers valuable insight.

  9. Screening for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgau, M M; Narayan, K M; Herman, W H

    2000-10-01

    Definitive studies of the effectiveness of screening for type 2 diabetes are currently not available. RCTs would be the best means to assess effectiveness, but several barriers prevent these studies from being conducted. Prospective observational studies may characterize some of the benefits of screening by creating screened and unscreened groups for comparison. The availability of better data systems and health services research techniques will facilitate such comparisons. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the results of such studies is extremely problematic. Several screening tests have been evaluated. Risk assessment questionnaires have generally performed poorly as stand-alone tests. Screening with biochemical tests performs better. Venous and capillary glucose measurements may perform more favorably than urinary glucose or HbA(1c) measurements, and measuring postprandial glucose levels may have advantages over measuring fasting levels. However, performance of all screening tests is dependent on the cutoff point selected. Unfortunately, there are no well-defined and validated cutoff points to define positive tests. A two-stage screening test strategy may assist with a more efficient use of resources, although such approaches have not been rigorously tested. The optimal interval for screening is unknown. Even though periodic, targeted, and opportunistic screening within the existing health care system seems to offer the greatest yield and likelihood of appropriate follow-up and treatment, much of the reported experience with screening appears to be episodic poorly targeted community screening outside of the existing health care system. Statistical models have helped to answer some of the key questions concerning areas in which there is lack of empirical data. Current models need to be refined with new clinical and epidemiological information, such as the UKPDS results (200). In addition, future models need to include better information on the natural history

  10. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  11. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2016-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem. PMID:27031395

  12. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  13. Comparison of General Well-being of Patients Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) with Patients Under-going Naltrexone Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Sayyah; Mehrdad Sharifi; Parisa Rokni

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug abuse is a problem that causes a wide array of social, emotional, and physical problems and involves both patients and the society. Helping the addicted has always been a priority for physicians and especially psychiatrists. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the effects of methadone and naltrexone in general well-being of patients undergoing these treatments. Methods: Forty-six patients who were taking either methadone or naltrexone were selected and evaluat...

  14. 78 FR 26032 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... survey will be conducted among English and/or Spanish speaking male and female adults (18 years and older) living in the United States. There are no costs to respondents other than their time. The total estimated... responses responses per response (in respondent hours) Households Screened 44,896 1 3/60 Surveyed 9,200 1...

  15. 78 FR 35272 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... knowledge, awareness, screening, and prevention behaviors and could simultaneously work to reduce stigma... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of these requests, call (404) 639-7570 or... and action can be taken to protect children and to develop new ] ways to help women have...

  16. 77 FR 76044 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... program. These data, called the minimum data elements (MDE), include data elements that describe risk... MDE to CDC electronically. The estimated burden per response for Screening and Assessment MDE is 16 hours, and the estimated burden per response for Lifestyle Intervention MDE is 8 hours....

  17. 76 FR 22902 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... comprehensive health surveillance, including chest radiography, spirometry, and blood pressure screening. Under... often miss important lung disease. For this reason, spirometry, a simple breathing test, is an... history and spirometry tests have been recommended by NIOSH for both surface and underground coal...

  18. Ethics of dental health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  19. Comparison of General Well-being of Patients Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT with Patients Under-going Naltrexone Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sayyah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is a problem that causes a wide array of social, emotional, and physical problems and involves both patients and the society. Helping the addicted has always been a priority for physicians and especially psychiatrists. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the effects of methadone and naltrexone in general well-being of patients undergoing these treatments.Methods: Forty-six patients who were taking either methadone or naltrexone were selected and evaluated for a period of 5 months using a 28-item questionnaire about their general health.Results: In spite of the fact that patients undergoing methadone treatment had more severe symptoms and prognoses regarding their age, duration of drug abuse, and number of treatment attempts, these patients showed better general health and social functioning comparing to patients undergoing naltrexone treatment during the 6-month period of this study (P<0.000.Conclusion: Methadone might be regarded as an effective and useful medicine in treatment of addiction.

  20. Recent Progress on Rice Genetics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Long-Biao Quo; Qian Qian

    2007-01-01

    Through thousands of years of evolution and cultivation, tremendously rich genetic diversity has been accumulated in rice (Oryza sativa L.), developing a large germplasm pool from which people can select varieties with morphologies of interest and other important agronomic traits. With the development of modern genetics, scientists have paid more attention to the genetic value of these elite varieties and germplasms, and such rich rice resources provide a good foundation for genetic research in China. Approximately 100 000 accessions of radiation-, chemical- or insertion-induced mutagenesis have been generated since the 1980s, and great progress has been made on rice molecular genetics. So far at least 16 variant/mutant genes including MOC1, BC1, SKC1, and Rf genes have been isolated and characterized in China. These achievements greatly promote the research on functional genomics, understanding the mechanism of plant development and molecular design breeding of rice in China. Here we review the progress of three aspects of rice genetics in China: moving forward at the molecular level, genetic research on elite varieties and germplasms, and new gene screening and genetic analysis using mutants. The prospects of rice genetics are also discussed.

  1. Prevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Zheng, D; Cai, Q; Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is now recognized as an important public health problem in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia. Although B. pseudomallei has been detected in various water and soil samples in southeast China, the enviromental distribution of B. pseudomallei in China is unclear. In the winter months of 2007, 154 and 130 soil and water samples, respectively, were collected from several locations in Guangxi, China. The samples were screened for B. pseudomallei by bacterial culture and identification and confirmed by PCR for species-specific 16S rDNA and flagellin genes. B. pseudomallei was detected in 8.4% of the soil samples but in none of the water samples. All positive samples were confined to a single low-lying region from rice paddy fields. Counts of B. pseudomallei ranged from 23 to 521 c.f.u./g soil. This is the first geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei in soil in Guangxi, China, and the data are of importance for further evaluating the impact of this pathogen on melioidosis in this region. PMID:19538822

  2. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  3. A brief review on current progress in neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Min; WU BeiBei; LIU Ying

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience has been undergoing a rapid development in China since the beginning of the 21 st century.Chinese scientists are working on neuroscience and getting more and more important results.As described by Poo Mu-ming [1],the increasing funding support,the flood of returning overseas researchers and numerous international conferences held in China give birth to the springtime of neuroscience in China.The development of nervous system and neural cells The nervous system is a complex network of axonal projections and synaptic connections [2].At the early stage of neural development,besides generation of neurons and glial cells,synapse formation is the foundation of neuronal circuits and the basis of functions of nervous system including learning and memory.

  4. Preliminary investigation on the coastal rogue waves of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As an eye-catching issue, rogue waves have been undergoing different stages from theory to practice gradually, whose occurrence always brings about severe threat to not only ships and sailors but also coastal structural integrity. Due to the scarce wave observations in coastal zone and meager study in Mainland China, the discussion specifically aimed at observed coastal rogue waves in China was at elementary stage. Based on the measured data from Xiangshui station of Jiangsu, China, the characteristics including occurrence probability and nonlinearity are investigated, which is a supplement to the previous research works. Surprisingly, the outcomes tend to refute rather than confirming some of the traditional conceptions about rogue waves. A new concept for the classification of coastal rogue waves is proposed afterwards.

  5. Epidemiology of human alveolar echinococcosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Globally human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare zoonotic helminthic disease confined to the Northern Hemisphere as sporadic infections in rural populations, principally in some areas of North America, west-central Europe, the Near East, Siberia, Central Asia, Japan and China. In China the first human cases were reported from western regions in the 1960s, but most hospital records remain fragmented and inadequate. From the mid-1990s mass screening surveys using portable ultrasound scanners recorded higher prevalences (up to 6% by county) than in any other areas of the world with some village rates as high as 15%. Risk factors identified for AE cases included ethnicity, sex, age and occupation. The role of the dog in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis to humans now appears to be significant and may be one of the most important risk factor, in combination with landscape/land-use features conducive to maintaining wildlife host populations. PMID:16338167

  6. Does health status influence intention regarding screening mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)

  7. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  8. Breast cancer screening with mammography as part of our comprehensive medical check-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the breast cancer screening program adopted by our hospital's Health Care Center as part of a comprehensive medical check-up, mammography (MMG) is performed in addition to a clinical breast examination to provide better screening quality. The clinical breast examination is performed by our surgeons. Two-view MMG is performed for women in their 40's and one-view MMG for the others. If any abnormality is detected in the clinical breast examination, or if MMG reveals abnormalities of category 3 or over, a more thorough diagnostic work-up is recommended. Each year, 1,400 or more women undergo breast cancer screening at the center, with an average recall rate of 12% and an average breast cancer detection rate of 0.14%. The high recall rate indicates the need for improvement of screening accuracy. Although the breast cancer detection rate and positive predictive value are somewhat low, the majority of the detected cases are early-stage breast cancer, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the screening. Herein, we describe the current state of MMG screening in our comprehensive medical check-up, along with a discussion of the screening procedure. However, further efforts are needed to improve screening accuracy. (author)

  9. Comments on Gaugino Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Wecht, Brian

    2012-02-15

    Gauge mediated models of supersymmetry breaking often exhibit 'gaugino screening,' where to leading order in F, gaugino masses are unaffected by higher dimensional Kahler potential interactions between the supersymmetry breaking spurion and the messengers. We provide a derivation of this phenomenon which utilizes the gaugino counterterm originally proposed in the context of anomaly mediation by Dine and Seiberg. We argue that this counterterm is present when there are non-zero messenger F-terms, and can cancel the leading order Feynman diagram contribution to the gaugino mass. We provide a nontrivial check of the regulator independence of our results by performing the computation using both dimensional reduction and Pauli-Villars. This analysis reconciles an apparent contradiction between diagrammatics and analytic continuation into superspace.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  11. The evaluation of CT screening findings for asbestos related thoracic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos-related diseases have become social problem in Japan. As a result, many applicants who are suspected of having exposure to asbestos undergo CT screening. But there have been few reports of CT screening for asbestos related diseases. Therefore we evaluate the CT screening findings for asbestos related thoracic diseases. CT screening was performed for 100 applicants (88 male and 12 female). 93 of 100 patients have a history of asbestos exposure in occupation. 63 of 100 applicants had pleural plaques detected by CT. The majority of thickness of plaques was less than 3 mm, and were mostly detected in middle lung region and postero-medial region. Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma was detected in one case. (author)

  12. Beyond design basis issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, SSCs covered by the AMP for LTO are screened based on the principles spelled out in an IAEA publication (see Ref. [9]). Only key SSCs are selected and included in the scope of the AMP for LTO. The vast majority of the SSCs beyond those included in the scope of the AMP are managed by the general maintenance plan. Although lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident may have a limited impact on the AMP for LTO, there are some challenges originating from the analysis of events beyond design basis, especially external events, that will dictate some specific ageing programmes not previously included in the AMP

  13. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong

    2000-01-01

    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  14. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  15. The impact of patients controlled analgesia undergoing orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluane Silva Dias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The currently common musculoskeletal disorders have been increasingly treated surgically, and the pain can be a limiting factor in postoperative rehabilitation. RATIONALE: Patient controlled analgesia (PCA controls pain, but its adverse effects can interfere with rehabilitation and in the patient discharge process. This study becomes important, since there are few studies evaluating this correlation. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes of patients who used and did not use patient controlled analgesia in postoperative orthopedic surgery with respect to pain, unscheduled need for O2 (oxygen, and time of immobility and in-hospital length of stay. METHODS: This is an observational, prospective study conducted at Hospital Abreu Sodré from May to August 2012. The data was daily obtained through assessments and interviews of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA, thoracolumbar spine arthrodesis (long PVA, cervical spine arthrodesis (cervical AVA and lumbar spine arthrodesis (lumbar PVA. RESULTS: The study showed some differences between groups, namely: the painful level was higher in the group undergoing lumbar PVA without PCA compared with the group with PCA (p = 0.03 and in the group of long PVA without PCA in the early postoperative period. This latter group used O2 for a longer time (p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: In this study, PCA was useful for analgesia in patients undergoing lumbar PVA and probably would have influenced the usage time of O2 in the group of long PVA in face of a larger sample. The use of PCA did not influence the time of leaving the bed and the in-hospital length of stay for the patients studied.

  16. Perioperative physiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in

  17. Platelet reactivity in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvin, Katia; Eisen, Alon; Perl, Leor; Zemer-Wassercug, Noa; Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Lev, Eli I; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Thromboembolic events, primarily stroke, might complicate transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) procedures in 3-5 % of cases. Thus, it is common to administer aspirin and clopidogrel pharmacotherapy for 3-6 months following TAVI in order to prevent those events. The biologic response to the dual anti platelet treatment (DAPT) is heterogeneous, e.g. low response, known as high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) may be associated with adverse thromboembolic events. Little is known about the prevalence of HTPR among patients undergoing TAVI. To assess the variability in response and rates of residual platelet reactivity in patients undergoing TAVI. We examined platelet reactivity in response to clopidogrel and aspirin in 40 consecutive patients (mean age 81.7 ± 6.5 years, 66.7 % women) who underwent successful TAVI using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and the multiple electrode aggregometry assay (Multiplate analyzer) in response to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid respectively, at different time points before and following TAVI. Before TAVI, the majority of patients were on antiplatelet therapy (68.5 % aspirin, 12.5 % clopidogrel, 12.5 % DAPT). Following the procedure all patients were on DAPT or clopidogrel and warfarin. Among analyzed patients, 41 % had HTPR for clopidogrel and 12.5 % for aspirin at baseline, which did not significantly change 1-month following the procedure (p = 0.81 and p  = 0.33, respectively). In conclusion, patients undergoing TAVI for severe aortic stenosis and treated with DAPT have high rates of residual platelet reactivity during the peri-procedural period and up to 1-month thereafter. These findings may have clinical implications for the anti-platelet management of TAVI patients. PMID:26695072

  18. Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Changhyun Roh

    2012-01-01

    Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl ...

  19. Serum C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Elective Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Battistelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sensitivity and the specificity of different methods to detect periprosthetic infection have been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin (PCT in patients undergoing uncomplicated elective total hip arthroplasty (THA, to provide a better interpretation of their levels in noninfectious inflammatory reaction. Methods. A total of 51 patients were included. Serum CRP and PCT concentrations were obtained before surgery, on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days and after discharge on the 14th and 30th days and at 2 years. Results. Both markers were confirmed to increase after surgery. The serum CRP showed a marked increase on the 3rd postoperative day while the peak of serum PCT was earlier, even if much lower, on the first day. Then, they declined slowly approaching the baseline values by the second postoperative week. PCT mean values never exceed concentrations typically related to bacterial infections. Conclusions. CRP is very sensitive to inflammation. It could be the routine screening test in the follow-up of THA orthopaedic patients, but it should be complemented by PCT when there is the clinical suspicion of periprosthetic infection.

  20. THE BENEFITS OF IVP AND BARIUM ENEMA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HYSTERECTOMY FOR BENIGN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Azhar

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of500 cases was undertaken in order to identify which patients undergoing hrsterectomy for benign disease weresubjected topreoperative intravenous pyelogram (lVP and/ or barium enema (BE, and what abnormalities couldbe anticipatedbythese procedures as a surgical screen."nOver 80% ofthe cases reviewed underwent trans-ahdominal hysteredomy, and the remainder hadvaginal hysterectomy. Close to one-third of the patients were admitted with the diagnosis offibroid; and one-sixth with uterine prolapse. Miscellaneous benign conditions included adnexal masses, ovarian cysts, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Twentytwo patients (4.4% had IVP preoperatively, while eight patienls (1.6% were given both lIP and barium enema prior to hysterectomy. Over three-fourth ofthe 22 patients revealed normal IVP, while one-half who had received both IVP and/or BE had an unremarkable roentgenogram interpretation. None of the subiects who had unusual findings in either group were ofclinical significance on the pathology report Post-operative coursefor the patients was also quite unremarkable. This review indicates that when benign disease is clear-cut and hysteredomy is indicated there is no needfor IVP and barium enema.

  1. Polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V,VII in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耕; 金国栋; 傅国胜; 马骥; 单江; 王建安

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V, VII could predispose an individual to increase risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese. Methods: We screened coagulation factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A),VII (R353Q and HVR4) genotype in 374 patients undergoing coronary angiography by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results: The R353Q and HVR4 genotype of the factor VII distribution was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of FVII genotype or allele did not show statistically significant differences between CAD group and controls or between male and female. The frequencies of the Q allele and (RQ+QQ) genotype were significantly higher among the CAD patients without myocardial infarction (MI) history than among those with MI history (P<0.05). However, HVR4 polymorphism was not significantly different within groups. We only find one normal control of factorII(G20210A) mutation. No coagulation factor V(G1691A) mutation was found in the CAD patients and controls. Conclusion: The factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A) mutation is absent and may not be a major genetic factor for CAD and/or MI; the Q allele of the R353Q polymorphism of the factor VII gene may be a protective genetic factor against myocardial infarction in Chinese.

  2. APOLLO 16 ASTRONAUTS UNDERGO SIMULATED LUNAR TRAVERSE DURING TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 flight crew, astronauts Charles M. Duke, Jr., and John W. Young, prepare to undergo a simulated lunar traverse in the training area. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Apollo 16, the eighth Apollo Lunar landing, is scheduled to land in the mountainous highland region near the crater Descartes to explore the area for a three day period collecting surface material. Making geological observations, and deploying the fourth geophysical station on the Moon. The flight crew of the mission are: John W. Young, commander; Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot.

  3. Anesthetic considerations for adults undergoing fontan conversion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Motta, Pablo; Vener, David F

    2013-06-01

    There are currently in North America more adults with congenital heart disease than children. This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in adults with single-ventricle physiology and prior repairs who present for Fontan conversion surgery as a demonstration of the challenges of caring for adults undergoing interventions for the repair of congenital heart defects. The care of these patients requires an understanding of the impact of passive pulmonary blood flow and single systemic ventricular physiology. The perioperative morbidity in this patient population remains high. PMID:23711650

  4. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency...... neoplasm seen in 29 centers of 10 European Countries. RESULTS: Of 5129 patients undergoing VCE, 124 (2.4%) had small-bowel tumors (112 primary, 12 metastatic). Among these patients, indications for VCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (108 patients), abdominal pain (9), search for primary neoplasm...

  5. Knowledge about osteoporosis prevention among women screened by bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlej, Ewelina; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Dziedzic, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is an illness characterized by the handicapped endurance of the bones, causing an increased risk of fracture. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to establish the level of knowledge about osteoporosis prevention among women screened by bone densitometry and to answer the question whether the level of knowledge is dependent on socio-demographic factors. Material and methods The research was realized by means of a survey method, a poll technique in 2014. The study involved 292 women aged 51-83. The examined women were patients undergoing bone densitometry in the healthcare centres in Lublin. The osteoporosis knowledge test (OKT, revised 2011) by Phyllis Gendler was used as a research tool. Gathered material was subject to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey's test, t-Student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. A statistical significance level was set at α = 0.05. Results and conclusions Respondents presented the basic exercise knowledge (M = 9.97) and low knowledge concerning risk factors, screening and treatment of osteoporosis (M = 7.87). The calcium knowledge remained on an average level (M = 14.03). Better educated women, city inhabitants as well as women having very good or good social and welfare conditions showed a significantly higher level of knowledge about osteoporosis prevention. Even women undergoing bone densitometry examination present insufficient knowledge about osteoporosis prevention.

  6. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping the...... world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  7. Application of breast cancer screening for rural women in China in early diagnosis of breast cancer and status of knowledge, attitude and practice%乳腺癌筛查在我国农村妇女早期乳腺癌诊断中的作用及知信行现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旦平; 张红丹; 符炜; 汪波; 商江峰; 宋佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate application of breast cancer screening in early diagnosis of breast cancer, under-stand the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of age women in rural areas, aimed to explore suitable ser-vice mode of breast cancer screening in rural areas. Methods With the method of cluster sampling, rural women in Xinzhuang District of Changshu City were selected as screening objects. During January 2013 to December 2014, the breast cancer screening and status of KAP were analyzed through breast screening based on the linkage of community-hospital and KAP questionnaire, and the relevant information between preliminary screening population and multiple screening population was comparatively analyzed. Results Of 2098 women in rural areas, 82 cases of breast cancer were detected, the detection rate was 3.91%. The detection rates in preliminary screening group and multiple screening group were 2.23%, 4.43%, with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of breast cancer screening was 91.8%, 96.3% and 94.3% respectively. The scores of knowledge, attitude and practice in preliminary screening group were significantly higher than those in multiple screening group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Screening model based on community health service center-hospital, can effectively improve the rates of early diagnosis and early treatment of breast cancer in age women in rural areas, at the same time the propaganda and education of prevention knowledge to breast cancer should be strengthened.%目的:分析乳腺癌筛查在早期乳腺癌诊断中的应用,了解农村适龄妇女乳腺癌筛查的知信行(KAP)现状,旨在探讨适合农村妇女乳腺癌筛查的服务模式。方法2013年1月~2014年12月采用整群抽样的方式选取常熟市辛庄地区农村妇女为筛查对象,通过社区-医院联动的乳腺筛查及乳腺癌预防KAP问卷调查的方式分析乳腺癌筛查及KAP现状,并

  8. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  9. Screening College Students for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigel, Harris C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes one college's mandatory mass cholesterol screening for new students. Each year, over 30 beginning students with unknown hypercholesterolemia were detected. The program suggests that mass screening efficiently and economically identifies students who would benefit from cholesterol reduction, a modifiable risk in coronary artery disease.…

  10. Congenital hypothyroidism missed on screening.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, G. A.; Carson, D. J.; Reid, M. M.(Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK); Hutchinson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with congenital hypothyroidism missed on routine screening due to normal low thyrotrophin concentrations in the neonatal period presented in later childhood. Clinicians should remain aware of hypothyroidism as a cause of morbidity in early childhood despite a national screening programme.

  11. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  12. Non-participation in screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bjerregaard, Beth;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history.......To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history....

  13. Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam

  14. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  15. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  16. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  17. Governing uranium in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patton Schell, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is playing an increasingly prominent role in China's long-term strategic energy calculus. In response, China is responding by producing more uranium domestically, buying more uranium on the international market, and investing heavily in overseas uranium properties. At the same time, China has been updating its nuclear regulations over the last three decades, resulting in a myriad of regulatory agencies with widely varying responsibilities related to implementing uranium regulati...

  18. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  19. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  20. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  1. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  2. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  3. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  4. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities. PMID:23331785

  5. Health economic analysis of screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauth, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified. Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects.

  6. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  7. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  8. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  9. All Fish for China?

    OpenAIRE

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A.; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China’s seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961–2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish...

  10. Sony Style in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aince the normalization of the diplomatic ties between China and Japan,the bilateral economic relations have deepened continually.According to the statistic of Japan,China passed U.S.to become Japan's top trade partner as well as is the second Iargest export market for Japan and is the largest import resource for Japan.Japan companies such as Mitsui,Sumitomo,Sony and Panasonic,have set the subsidiaries in China and explored their scales.This year 2008 marks the 30th anniversary of the signing of the China Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

  11. The nutritional status and health related behaviour of school adolescents in Jinangsu Province China : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Background: China is undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. While malnutrition is still a problem in rural and low-income urban groups, adolescent obesity is becoming a major nutrition problem in urban areas and is needing special attention. Research on adolescents nutrition in China is erratic and insufficient. No research has been reported in the field of weight concerns and related food habits. Objective: To collect information on nutritional status and associated factors such as d...

  12. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization and Industrial Transformation on Water Resources in China: An Integrated Hydro-Economic CGE Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jiang; Feng Wu; Yu Liu; Xiangzheng Deng

    2014-01-01

    Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model), we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nin...

  13. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peng Xue,1 Ziyu Wu,2 Kunpeng Wang,1 Chuanquan Tu,1 Xiangbo Wang1 1Department of Urology, First People’s Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, 2Department of Urology, No 2 Hospital of Huaian, Huaian, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP and to identify those factors associated with delirium.Methods: From July 2010 to February 2015, 358 patients, aged ≥65 years and undergoing TURP were prospectively enrolled. Personal, medical and cognitive data, laboratory assessments, pain intensity, preoperative medications, and details of hemodynamic control were collected as predictors of delirium. POD was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method.Results: In the present study, POD occurred in 28 out of 358 cases (7.8% after TURP, with duration of 1–4 days. The multivariate analysis showed that old age and visual analog scale pain scores were associated with POD. Marital status, body mass index, education, alcohol consumption, smoking history, preoperative psychotropic medication usage, activities of daily living scores, preoperative Mini-Mental Status Examination score, anesthesia type, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, or hypotensive episodes during surgery did not significantly correlate with the occurrence of POD.Conclusion: Old age and pain intensity after surgery were found as the risk factors for the development of delirium in elderly patients undergoing TURP. These findings might help develop preventive strategies to decrease POD through targeted evaluation. Keywords: elderly, postoperative delirium, risk factors, transurethral resection of prostate

  14. Marfan syndrome in children and adolescents: an adjusted nomogram for screening aortic root dilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Rozendaal, L; Groenink, M; Naeff, M.S.J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.; Hart, A.A.M.; Wall, van der, E.E.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To construct an adjusted nomogram for the echocardiographic screening of aortic root diameter in children with possible Marfan disease.
Design—In 91 children (42 boys, 49 girls, age range 3.2 to 18.4 years) undergoing Marfan screening from 1983 until 1996, the diagnosis Marfan syndrome and any other aortic pathology was definitely ruled out. These served as a control population to set appropriate reference standards.
Results—Compared with a standard Dutch reference population, body ...

  15. China's Post Accession WTO Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Mallon; John Whalley

    2004-01-01

    We discuss China's stance in the WTO post-accession, noting the many issues with implementation of China's accession terms by 2007. We evaluate how much benefit China can realistically receive from WTO membership given current problems with dumping actions against China and trade restrictions against textile and apparel exports. We discuss emerging WTO and non-WTO trade disputes involving China, and China's now extensive regional trade initiatives which raise issues of multilateral regional b...

  16. Hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi; Najafi; David; Faraoni

    2015-01-01

    Although red blood cells(RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions,anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in highrisk patients. For these reasons,the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia,prevent excessive blood loss,and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions,several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications,dosage,and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects,some high-risk patients(e.g.,symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade,a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  17. Pulmonary hypertenstion ad leading factor in patients undergoing dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency and leading factors of pulmonary hypertension among chronic hemodialysis patients. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Hemodialysis Unit, Department of Nephrology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from September 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Patients of either gender aged between 16 to 60 years of age undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months not having pre-existing valvular heart disease, chronic lung disease or connective tissue disorder were included. Pulmonary hypertension was prospectively estimated by Doppler echocardiogram on patients undergoing dialysis. Pulmonary artery pressure was calculated on the post-dialysis day and leading factors were compared between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Results: A total of 178 patients were included in study with male to female ratio120/58 (2.06:1). The mean age was 33.84 +- 11.9 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 23.85 +- 22.48 months. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 76 (42.7%) patients. Out of the studied factors, low serum albumin ( 3.4 mg/dl, p = 0.01) was found to be statistically significant in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Pulmonary hypertension was frequently present in dialysis population (42.7%). This subset of patients had significantly lower albumin levels in serum. More research is needed in its pathogenesis to arrest its course. (author)

  18. Investigation of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lavdaniti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are the most important problems in patients undergoing chemotherapy, despite the recent improvements in the administration of antiemetic drugs. Through a review of the literature, we found that there are several nursing researches focusing on the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the symptom of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study also investigated the impact of nausea and vomiting on patients’ ability to respond to daily activities. The study is descriptive; the sample included patients with different types of cancer and receiving chemotherapy. The inclusion criteria were: the histological diagnosis of cancer, the administration of chemotherapy and the knowledge of the Greek language. The questionnaires used were: the MASCC (vomiting questionnaire, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and the scale of functional assessment of cancer therapy. Data collection took place in oncological hospitals of Thessaloniki and Athens in Greece. For statistical analysis we used the statistical package SPSS 15.0.

  19. Universal hearing screening vs targetted hearing screening: Make a choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Vishwakarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is mandatory in all developed country and is setting the trend in developing country too. Due to a large population, lack of education, less professionals, and limited access to such facilities in India few places targeted hearing screening (THS is coming up. However, the comparison between UNHS and THS is less investigated till date. Aim of the Study: This study aimed to investigate the comparison between two hearing screening program that is UNHS and THS in the Indian context. Methods: In UNHS all the infants were screened at Tertiary Centre and for THS only infant with high-risk factors were screened at Advanced Audiological Centre. Further, all referral, screening, and diagnostic data were included in data analysis of both hearing screening program. Result: UNHS was difficult due to some system failure and a lot of time was wasted doing the different procedure. However, THS was much easier and false-positive and negative were lesser. Conclusion: In a vast population country with lack of manpower for the fi eld, it is important to have an alternative approach to the system for better outcome of the program.

  20. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...

  1. Data Quality Screening Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  2. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  3. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  4. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  5. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  6. Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Sumiko; Maezawa, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist. PMID:23991995

  7. Screening tool development for health impact assessment of large administrative structural changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Nicolaisen, Henriette; Linnrose, Karina;

    2008-01-01

    available on the Internet and in the scientific literature, in many cases lack of access to those tools creates a barrier to the use of HIA. RESULTS: Denmark is undergoing a major structural change in state administration, moving many responsibilities from the state to the local level. Newly constructed....... CONCLUSIONS: This article describes a newly constructed screening tool for use at the local level, and describes how we approached the construction of the tool....

  8. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  9. Viral screening at the time of each donation in ART patients: is it justified?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, C

    2011-11-01

    The frequency for virology testing for couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in Europe is currently under debate, with little scientific data available to support the time-frame imposed by EU legislation. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of blood-borne viruses (BBV) in this population and to assess the likelihood of seroconversion after an initial negative screen and the possible cost saving to couples.

  10. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Nasogastric intubation causes gastroesophageal reflux in patients undergoing elective laparotomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The routine use of nasogastric tubes in patients undergoing elective abdominal operation is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative fever, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that nasogastric tubes have no significant effect on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux or on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that nasogastric intubation in patients undergoing laparotomy reduces lower esophageal sphincter pressure and promotes gastroesophageal reflux in the perioperative period. METHODS: A prospective randomized case-control study was undertaken in which 15 consenting patients, admitted electively for bowel surgery, were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 underwent nasogastric intubation after induction of anesthesia, and Group 2 did not. All patients had manometry and pH probes placed with the aid of endoscopic vision at the lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophagus, respectively. Nasogastric tubes, where present, were left on free drainage, and sphincter pressures and pH were recorded continuously during a 24-hour period. Data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean number of reflux episodes (defined as pH < 4) in the nasogastric tube group was 137 compared with a median of 8 episodes in the group managed without nasogastric tubes (P =.006). The median duration of the longest episode of reflux was 132 minutes in Group 1 and 1 minute in Group 2 (P =.001). A mean of 13.3 episodes of reflux lasted longer than 5 minutes in Group 1, with pH less than 4 for 37.4% of the 24 hours. This was in contrast to Group 2 where a mean of 0.13 episodes lasted longer than 5 minutes (P =.001) and pH less than 4 for 0.2% of total time (P =.001). The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures were lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that patients undergoing elective laparotomy with routine nasogastric tube placement have significant gastroesophageal

  12. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  13. Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Home For Patients Search ... Screening and Diagnosis FAQ171, February 2016 PDF Format Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Pregnancy What is cystic ...

  14. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  15. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to a ... be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he has ...

  16. What Should I Know about Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Should I Know About Screening? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... any treatment that may be needed. Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines The Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines chart [PDF- ...

  17. Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Screening A- A A+ Early Detection and Screening Brain aneurysms can be similar to heart attacks. ... aneurysm is about to rupture. Fortunately, through imaging screening techniques, individuals at high risk of harboring a ...

  18. Intensifying screens in transaxial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent claim by Agfa-Gevaert relates to a method for the production of transaxial tomographs, a combination of materials therefor and X-ray intensifying screens incorporating at least one reflecting element for use in transaxial tomography, wherein the exposure of a photographic silver halide emulsion material proceeds at an angle within the range of 20 to 100 in conjunction with an X-ray fluorescent intensifying screen including an ultra-violet and/or visible radiation reflective coating or sheet to increase the radiation output of the screen and to reduce the exposure time and radiation dose e.g. in medical X-ray applications. (author)

  19. Shadow banking in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjun; Hsu, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This is an English summary of a 300-page report produced by Jianjun Li, Sara Hsu and Guangning Tian, “The Annual Report of China Shadow Banking System,” Project Sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project Number 71173246,

  20. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  1. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  2. CHARTING CHINA'S NEW COURSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China aims to achieve "major breakthroughs" in economic restructuring and will take reform as "a powerful driving force"to accelerate the transformation of its economic development pattern. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) made its intentions clear after approving a blueprint for the next five years on its fifth plenary session, which ended on October 18.

  3. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong ana

  4. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate the...... absence of a direct link between financial development and economic growth....

  5. Rural Informatization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Wei Qiang, Christine; Bhavnani, Asheeta; Nagy K. Hanna; Kimura, Kaoru; Sudan, Randeep

    2009-01-01

    China's recent economic growth has expanded industrialization and urbanization, upgraded consumption, increased social mobility, and initiated a shift from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry and services. Still more than half of China's people still live in rural areas where average income per capita is less than a third of the urban average, a gap that is among the l...

  6. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  7. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US...

  8. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  9. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  10. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it ...

  11. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  12. University of Petroleum, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The University of Petroleum, China, sponsored and supervised by China National Petroleum Corporation,isone of the State key universities,The university provides mainly engineering programs,but also includes programs in science and management.Both soft and hard sciences are taught here.

  13. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  14. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  15. Prevalence of Non-Left Anterior Descending Septal Perforator Culprit in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Alcohol Septal Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouli, Mohamad; Sajjad, Waseem; Lee, Junsoo; Fernandez, Genaro; Waits, Bryan; Schwarz, Karl Q; Cove, Christopher J

    2016-05-15

    Identifying the coronary branch that supplies the basal septum is the cornerstone for successful alcohol septal ablation (ASA). The basal septum is often supplied by septal perforator artery/arteries (SPA/SPAs) not originating from the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. We aim to investigate the prevalence and significance of non-LAD septal "culprit" in patients undergoing ASA. A retrospective review of patients who underwent ASA from 2006 to 2014 was conducted. Procedural and midterm outcomes of patients who had ASA of LAD and non-LAD culprit SPA were reported. A total 89 patients were included in the analysis; 13 patients (15%) had ASA of non-LAD SPA. These patients were more likely to have a history of failed ASA, more than one SPA treated, more ethanol dose injected, longer procedures, and higher contrast use compared with those who had ASA of LAD-SPA. In-hospital outcomes, residual gradient, symptom improvement, and midterm mortality were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, in a cohort of patients undergoing ASA, 15% had ablation of SPA culprit that did not originate from the LAD. Half of these patients had previous unsuccessful ASA. Systematic screening for the ideal culprit SPA with nonselective coronary injection of echo contrast should be used to avoid incomplete or failed ASA. PMID:27006152

  16. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  17. Liquid discharges from patients undergoing {sup 131}I treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R. [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: rbarquero@hurh.sacyl.es; Basurto, F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain); Nunez, C. [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, FJD, E-82001 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, R. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Clinico Universitario, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This work discusses the production and management of liquid radioactive wastes as excretas from patients undergoing therapy procedures with {sup 131}I radiopharmaceuticals in Spain. The activity in the sewage has been estimated with and without waste radioactive decay tanks. Two common therapy procedures have been considered, the thyroid cancer (4.14 GBq administered per treatment), and the hyperthyroidism (414 MBq administered per treatment). The calculations were based on measurements of external exposure around the 244 hyperthyroidism patients and 23 thyroid cancer patients. The estimated direct activity discharged to the sewage for two thyroid carcinomas and three hyperthyroidisms was 14.57 GBq and 1.27 GBq, respectively, per week; the annual doses received by the most exposed individual (sewage worker) were 164 {mu}Sv and 13 {mu}Sv, respectively. General equations to calculate the activity as a function of the number of patient treated each week were also obtained.

  18. Preoperative preparation of vascular patients undergoing nonvascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Kostić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with vascular diseases mainly caused by atherosclerosis, that are undergoing nonvascular surgery, often have co-existing conditions which affect their cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular complications are among the most common perioperative complications including respiratory complications and infections. These include coronary disease, hypertension, heart insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension, and renovascular hypertension, among others. Preoperative preparation must include the use of ßblocker therapy, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antilipogenic therapy. Electrocardiogram (ECG and trans-thoracic echocardiography are the minimum preoperative diagnostic evaluations that should be performed, because complications may arise even in patients without prior cardiovascular symptomatology. Venous diseases are the most common contemporary diseases affecting people of all age groups and races. Invasive-diagnostic-therapeutic procedures may cause lesions of venous endothelium, hence perioperative prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT with the use of heparin or low-molecular -weight heparin (LMWH should be undertaken.

  19. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  20. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)