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Sample records for china sea shelf

  1. Dynamics of the cross-shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Hsueh, Ya

    2010-10-01

    A general ocean circulation model is used to study the dynamics of the cross-shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas in winter. The model results show that the shelf circulation in winter is induced primarily by the northerly monsoonal winds. Compared with the wind-driven circulation, the Kuroshio-forced circulation over the shelf is very weak. The westward shift of the Yellow Sea Warm Current is produced by the northerly winds through the generation of a sea-level trough off the Subei coasts and a sea-level ridge along the center of the Yellow Sea topographic trough. The sea-level trough off the Subei coasts is produced because the sea level at the coast is tied to the depression in the northern Yellow Sea and is moderated by the surface Ekman transport of the northerly monsoon. The sea-level ridge along the center of the Yellow Sea topographic trough is produced because the sea level along both the east China and the west Korea coasts decreases. The structure of the sea level gives rise to a geostrophic intrusion against the wind along the western side of the Yellow Sea trough and southward movement of the Korean coastal currents along the eastern side of the trough. Under the northerly wind forcing, the currents over the East China Sea shelf flow southward in an opposite direction to the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The resulting divergence, therefore, forces the Yellow Sea Coastal Current to move offshore to form the East China Sea Current. At the head of the submarine canyon off the Changjiang mouth, a northward intrusion is produced by downwind pile-up of sea level and by the wind-curl forcing. The Yellow Sea Warm Current and the canyon intrusion then extend southward through the propagation of topographic Rossby waves to reverse the wind-driven currents over the East China Sea shelf, generating the offshore and inshore branches of the Taiwan Warm Current, both of which serve to raise the sea level over the East China Sea shelf. The final adjustment

  2. Tertiary Sea Level Changes and Sequence Stratigraphic Framework in East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The East China Sea shelf basin is a key area for setting up the sea level changes of Cenozoic in the West Pacific. Based upon the characteristics of seismic reflection, the analysis of sequence stratigraphy and depositional system, the high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework has been set up by using the data of micropaleontologic biozone fossils. The relative sea level change curve has been set up by combining analysis of paleoecology, genetic facies, specific sedimentary structures and on-lap recognized from the seismic profiles with study of geochemical characteristics. There are 4 2nd-order basin cycles showing the long-term sea level changes, and 22 3rd-order cycles showing short-term ones with relative changing ranges of 0-150 m. Transgression and regression showing long-term sea level changes bear asymmetric feature, which indicates that the speed of transgression is faster than that of regression. There are a lot of differences when compared with Haq's curve. The sequence stratigraphic framework has also been set up and 3 tectonic sequences, 7 supersequences and 19 sequences have been subdivided for Tertiary in the East China Sea shelf basin. On the basis of detailed analysis of genetic facies and log facies, 9 sedimentary systems, 20 depositional assemblages and many genetic facies have also been recognized and investigated. Based on the studies mentioned above, the favorable source and reservoir facies of gas and petroleum are indicated.

  3. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  4. Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS and the South China Sea (SCS are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s−1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP, accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.

  5. Ancient Changjiang channel system in the East China Sea continental shelf during the last glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangxue; LIU Yong; YANG Zigeng; YUE Shuhong; YANG Wenda; HAN Xibin

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data of high-resolution seismic profiles, an ancient river channel system of the last glaciation occurred along the Zhedong and Xihu depression in the southeast of Hupijiao rise. The distribution of the channel fill system shows that the ancient Changjiang River went through the Changjiang depression into the low land plain of the outside continental shelf during the low sea level cycle of the last glaciation. The big channel fill into Okinawa Trough is not found due to the depletion of the river kinetic energy in the low land plain. The river discharge dispersal was of an important role to the dilution of the northern Okinawa Trough sea at that time. Six ancient river channel systems (A―F), which are main distributaries of ancient Changjiang in the East China Sea continental shelf during the last glaciation, may be buried off the modern Changjiang estuary. The distribution of these channels coincides with the zonal elevations in the sea floor.

  6. Preservation of black carbon in the shelf sediments of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and carbon isotopic (14C, 13C) compositions of black carbon (BC) were measured for three sediment cores collected from the Changjiang River estuary and the shelf of the East China Sea. BC concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/g (dry weight), and accounted for 5% to 26% of the sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) pool. Among the three sediment cores collected at each site, sediment from the Changjiang River estuary had relatively high BC contents compared with the sediments from the East China Sea shelf, suggesting that the Changjiang River discharge played an important role in the delivery of BC to the coastal region. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the ages of BC are in the range of 6910 to 12250 years old B.P. (before present), that is in general, 3700 to 9000 years older than the 14C ages of TOC in the sediments. These variable radiocarbon ages suggest that the BC preserved in the sediments was derived from the products of both biomass fire and fossil fuel combustion, as well as from ancient rock weathering. Based on an isotopic mass balance model, we calculated that fossil fuel combustion contributed most (60%―80%) of the BC preserved in these sediments and varied with depth and locations. The deposition and burial of this "slow-cycling" BC in the sediments of the East China Sea shelf represent a significant pool of carbon sink and could greatly in-fluence carbon cycling in the region.

  7. Microgastropod records in paleoceanographical environment of southern shelf of South China Sea since 14 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Weimin; (冯伟民)

    2002-01-01

    Very diversified and abundant benthic microgastropods and planktonic microgastropods (pteropods) from core NS93-12-25 could provide a glance of change of the sea level in the south continental shelf of the South China Sea since last 14 ka. Research shows that general sea level changes of this sea area were rising and later rising after a short period of falling in this period. In the range from the bottom of the core to the core depth of 200 cm, individuals in big size are common in microgastropods and Turritella filiola is very rich, signifying the environment of the inner continental shelf in the last deglaciation stage. In the core depth range of 200—150 cm the continuously getting light of the ??18O, the regularly decreasing of the percentage content of T. filiola and the high diversification of microgastropods indicate the rising of the sea level. Especially at the core depth range of 175—150 cm the pteropods became dominant, making sure the fact that the high sea level possibly occurred in the early Holocene. Channels of surrounding straits connecting the adjacent sea thus were opened. But at the core depth of about 100 cm T. filiola became very rich again. This possibly implies that there was a short term of the sea level falling, resulting in the temporal closure of the channels. In the core depth range of 55—50 cm the Scaliola' s representatives relatively develop and this may be inferred to the cooling of climate.

  8. Distribution of the East China Sea continental shelf basins and depths of magnetic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Hsu, S.-K.

    2005-11-01

    The acoustic basement map of the East China Sea, established by the Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau with all available industry seismic data, shows the existence of a 30-km-wide, 10-km-deep basin, that we named the Ho Basin. The Ho Basin belongs to a series of elongated deep basins extending over 600 km east of the Taiwan-Sinzi Ridge and flanked to the East by a ridge named the Longwan Ridge in its northern part. This new system of basin and ridge was probably formed during middle Miocene, sometimes in between rifting episodes occurring in the Taipei Basin and Okinawa Trough. It complements the already defined system of five belts of backarc basins and associated arc volcanic ridges in the East China Sea, which are progressively younger from the Mainland China shoreline (late Cretaceous/early Tertiary) to the Okinawa Trough (Present). In order to determine the crustal thickness beneath the East China Sea continental shelf, we used a power spectrum method to calculate the depth of the top (Zt) and the centroid (Zo) of the magnetic basement by fitting a straight line through the high- and low-wave number portions of the power spectrum, respectively. Then, the depth of the base (Zb)is estimated from Zt and Zo. After optimizing the size of the data squares, we demonstrate that, except for basins more than 10 km deep, Zt corresponds to the basement depths and Zb, the depth of the Curie point, to the Moho depth. As wide-angle reflection and refraction data are scarce in the East China Sea, this method provides a way to characterize the crustal thickness of the East China Sea and to compute the theoretical heat flow values.

  9. 210Po/210Pb disequilibria in the shelf edge of the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium-238 series radionuclides 210Pb (t1/2 = 22.3 yr) and its daughter 210Po (t1/2 = 138 days), are important tracers in the marine environment. They are especially useful for studies on material transport scavenging processes within relatively short times and on the mechanism of material transport from coastal zones to the open sea, because they are highly reactive to the particulate matter and is rapidly removal from the water column. In this study, we present measurements of 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in seawater and the calculated rates of removal of these radionuclides from the water column in the shelf edge of the East China Sea

  10. Linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ziyin; JIN Xianglong; LI Jiabiao; ZHENG Yulong; WANG Xiaobo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the latest full-coverage high-resolu- tion multi-beam sounding data, the distribution of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) is studied with quantitative statistical analysis. The study area can be divided into the northeastern part and the southwestern part. Sand ridges in the northeastern area, trending 116°N, show obvious linear character and shrink to the inner shelf. Sand ridges in the southwestern area, trending 120°N-146°N, tend to have net form. Sand ridges gradually become sand sheets in the center part of study area. Sand ridges are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, distributed seaward to the water depth of 120 m in the northeast and 150 m in the southwest. Immature sand ridges are observed at water depth of 130-180 m in the southwestern depressions. The acoustic reflection properties of the internal high-angle inclined beddings of the sand ridges are analyzed based on the typical seismic profiles close to the research area. Lithological analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores indicate that the widely distributed transgressive sand layer with high content of shell debris which was formed in the early-middle Holocene is the main composition of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the ECS. The dominating factor in formation, developing and burying of the sand ridges is the variation of water depth caused by sea- level change and the rate of sediment supply. In 12400 aBP the cotidal lines of the M2 tidal component were closely perpendicular to the strike-directions of the sand ridges in the study area, and the tidal wave system during 12000-8000 aBP might play a key role in the formation of the linear sand ridges which are widely distributed on the outer shelf of the ECS.

  11. Sedimentation and lateral transport of 210Pb over the East China Sea Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210Pb is an effective tracer of constraining particle transport and sedimentation in shelf regions. To reveal the spatial pattern of 210Pb over the East China Sea (i.e. ECS) Shelf, 210Pb in the surface sediments were examined at 11 stations, as well as 234Th and 210Pb in the water column at four stations. Overall, the plume zone of the Yangtze River along the coastline is a source area of 210Pb for the outer shelf, exporting 0.46 dpm cm-2 year-1 at least, which accounts for about 25 % of 210Pb input into this region. In the southern ECS Shelf to the north of the Taiwan Strait, the focusing factor (f) values are higher than unity, indicating a sink area of 210Pb. Boundary scavenging of 210Pb contributes 0.36 dpm cm-2 year-1 to this sink area on the basis of a mass balance model evaluation. Lateral transport of 210Pb to this region, quantified by 234Th and 210Pb in the water column, varied from 3.34 to 6.39 dpm cm-2 year-1 with an average of 4.83 dpm cm-2 year-1, also supporting its sink characteristic. To the southwest of the Cheju Island, the f values were less than unity, revealing a source region of 210Pb. The average export flux of 210Pb from this region was 1.64 dpm cm-2 year-1. Therefore, 210Pb sedimentation/settling showed significantly heterogeneous sedimentation of particulate matter over the ECS Shelf. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Petroleum System in Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the theory of petroleum system and the characteristics of petroleum geology, the Xihu depression in the East China Sea shelf basin is divided into four petroleum systems: the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock, the Huagang Formation as source rock and reservoir rock, the Paleocene as source rock and the burial-hill as reservoir rock, and the Miocene as source rock and reservoir rock. The system with the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock is the most important one in the depression, which has high hydrocarbon generation and accumulation efficiency and is the most important object to hydrocarbon exploration at present.

  13. Study on interaction between the coastal water,shelf water and Kuroshio water in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binghuo Guo; Xiaomin Hu; Xuejun Xiong; Renfeng Ge

    2003-01-01

    The main processes of interaction between the coastal water, shelf water and Kuroshiowater in the Huanghai Sea (HS) and East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed based on the observation andstudy results in recent years. These processes include the intrusion of the Kuroshio water into the shelfarea of the ECS, the entrainment of the shelf water into the Kuroshio, the seasonal process in the south-em shelf area of the ECS controlled alternatively by the Taiwan Strait water and the Kuroshio water in-truding into the shelf area, the interaction between the Kuroshio branch water, shelf mixed water andmodified coastal water in the northeastern ECS, the water-exchange between the HS and ECS and thespread of the Changjiang diluted water.

  14. Fish community diversity in the middle continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xiujuan; JIN Xianshi; ZHOU Zhipeng; DAI Fangqun

    2011-01-01

    The status of fishery stocks in the coastal waters of China is far from ideal,mainly due to climate change and the impacts of human activities (e.g.,pollution and overfishing).Thus,the restoration and protection of fishery resources have become critical and complex.The stability and balanced structure of the fish community is a basic foundation for the protection of fishery resources.Based on data collected from bottom trawls by the R/V Beidou in continental shelf of the East China Sea in November 2006 and February 2007,changes in the composition and diversity of fish species and functional groups were analyzed.The research area was divided into offshore waters and inshore waters by the two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA).The results showed that the dominant species were different between offshore waters and inshore waters and also varied with the survey time.The most abundant family was Sciaenidae and Teraponidae in November 2006,Sciaenidae,Engraulidae and Triglidae were most abundant in February 2007.The species belonged mainly to mobile piscivores (G6),benthivores/piscivores (G4),benthivores (G3) and planktivores (G1),and the dominant species in November 2006 were commercial species (e.g.Larimichthys polyactis and Trichiurus japonicus),but small-sized species were dominant in February 2007 (e.g.,Harpadon nehereus,Benthosema pterotum,Champsodon capensis,and Acropoma japonicum).The species diversity showed a similar trend as the functional group diversity.Stations with higher diversity were mainly distributed in inshore waters in February 2007,whereas higher diversity was found in offshore waters in November 2006.The highest biomass and species number were found in G6 group,followed by the G4,G5 and G1 groups.The distribution of the number of individuals of each functional group showed the opposite trend as that of the biomass distribution.In addition,the size spectra were mainly concentrated around 3-29 cm,and the individual number of fish species gradually

  15. Earthquake-related soft-sediment deformation structures in Palaeogene on the continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake,as disastrous events in geological history,can be recorded as soft-sediment deformation.In the Palaeogene of the East China Sea shelf,the soft-sediment deformation related to earthquake event is recognized as seismic micro-fractures,micro-corrugated laminations,liquefied veins,'vibrated liquefied layers',deformed cross laminations and convolute laminations,load structures,flame structures,brecciation,slump structures and seismodisconformity.There exists a lateral continuum,the wide spatial distribution and the local vertical continuous sequences of seismites including slump,liquefaction and brecciation.In the Palaeogene of East China Sea shelf,where typical soft-sediment deformation structures were developed,clastic deposits of tidal-flat,delta and river facies are the main background deposits of Middle-Upper Eocene Pinghu Formation and Oligocene Huagang Formation.This succession also records diagnostic marks of event deposits and basinal tectonic activities in the form of seismites.

  16. Tracing the recently increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs into the East China Sea shelf sediments using Pb isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lithogenic Pb dominated in the ECS shelf sediments. • Small but increasing anthropogenic Pb occurred in the ECS shelf sediments. • HCl-leachated Pb suggested a source from “polluted” coastal sediments. • Residual Pb was mainly contributed from the “pristine” upper Yangtze watershed. - Abstract: This study examined the Pb content and Pb isotopic composition in a sediment core taken from the East China Sea (ECS) shelf, and it was observed that since 2003 the increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs have impacted as far as the ECS shelf sediments. The ECS shelf sediments were generally characterized with low bulk Pb contents (12.5–15.0 μg/g) and relatively lithogenic Pb isotopic signatures (both HCl-leached and residual fractions). However, elevated Pb records along with lighter Pb isotopic signals have occurred in the post-2003 sediments, as a result of a small but increasing anthropogenic Pb contribution from the heavily human perturbed coastal sediments due to the sharply increasing coal consumption in mainland China since 2003

  17. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional coupled biophysical model was used to examine the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf of the East China Sea (ECS and its role in primary production over the shelf. The model consisted of two modules: the hydrodynamic module was based on a nested model with a horizontal resolution of 1/18 degree, whereas the biological module was a low trophic level ecosystem model including two types of phytoplankton, three elements of nutrients, and biogenic organic material. Model results suggested that seasonal variation in chlorophyll-a had a strong regional dependence over the shelf of the ECS. The area with high chlorophyll-a appears firstly at the outer shelf in winter, and gradually migrates toward the inner shelf (offshore region of Changjiang estuary from spring to summer. Vertically, chlorophyll-a was generally homogenous from the coastal zone to the inner shelf. In the middle and outer shelves, high chlorophyll-a appeared in the surface in spring but moved to the subsurface from summer to early autumn. The annual averaged onshore flux across the shelf break was estimated to be 1.53 Sv for volume, 9.4 kmol s−1 for DIN, 0.7 kmol s−1 for DIP, and 18.2 kmol s−1 for silicate, which are supplied mainly from the northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu. From calculations that artificially increased the concentration of nutrients in the Kuroshio water, the additional oceanic nutrients were distributed in the bottom layer from the shelf break to the region offshore of Changjiang estuary from spring to summer, and appeared in the surface layer from autumn to winter. The contribution of oceanic nutrients to primary production over the shelf was found not only in the surface layer (mainly at the outer shelf and shelf break in winter and in the region offshore of Changjiang estuary in summer but also in the subsurface layer over the shelf from spring to autumn.

  18. Observed sub-inertial current variability and volume transport over the continental shelf in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wendong; Guo, Pu; Liu, Changjian; Fang, Guohong; Li, Shujiang

    2015-05-01

    Sub-inertial currents (SICs) over the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea (NSCS) are investigated using the in-situ current observations of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mooring arrays off the Pearl River Estuary in 2006 and 2007. The survey was carried out in four separate time periods: summer, winter, spring (before the onset of the southwesterly monsoon), and fall (after the establishment of the northeasterly monsoon). The observations showed that the current directions were generally along the shelf, consistent with the directions of monsoonal winds. The currents were also affected by a few of mesoscale eddy events. In summer 2006, the volume transport was northeastward with a mean magnitude of 1.4 Sv through a cross-shelf section from the site of the depth of 135 m to the coast; in winter 2006/2007, spring 2007 and fall 2007, the volume transports were all southwestward with magnitudes of 2.0, 2.1, and 0.9 Sv, respectively, through a cross-shelf section from the site of the depth of 290 m to the coast. The standard deviations of the SICs were generally smaller than the velocities of the mean currents, and the variability of SICs showed significant correlation with the local sea surface winds. No persistent counter-wind currents were observed in the study area during the fall and winter observational periods.

  19. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional coupled biophysical model was used to examine the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf of the East China Sea (ECS and its role in primary production over the shelf. The model consisted of two parts: the hydrodynamic module was based on a nested model with a horizontal resolution of 1/18 degree, whereas the biological module was a lower trophic level ecosystem model including two types of phytoplankton, three elements of nutrients, and biogenic organic material. The model results suggested that seasonal variations occurred in the distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a over the shelf of the ECS. After comparison with available observed nutrients and chlorophyll a data, the model results were used to calculate volume and nutrients fluxes across the shelf break. The annual mean total fluxes were 1.53 Sv for volume, 9.4 kmol s−1 for DIN, 0.7 kmol s−1 for DIP, and 18.2 kmol s−1 for silicate. Two areas, northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu, were found to be major source regions of oceanic nutrients to the shelf. Although the onshore fluxes of nutrients and volume both had apparent seasonal variations, the seasonal variation of the onshore nutrient flux did not exactly follow that of the onshore volume flux. Additional calculations in which the concentration of nutrients in Kuroshio water was artificially increased suggested that the oceanic nutrients were distributed in the bottom layer from the shelf break to the region offshore of the Changjiang estuary from spring to summer and appeared in the surface layer from autumn to winter. The calculations also implied that the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf can change the consumption of pre-existing nutrients from rivers. The response of primary production over the shelf to the oceanic nutrients was confirmed not only in the surface layer (mainly at the outer shelf and shelf break in winter and in the region

  20. Geochemical forms and seasonal variations of phosphorus in surface sediments of the East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengxia; Gao, Xuelu; Yuan, Huamao; Song, Jinming; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lui, Hon-Kit; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical characteristics of phosphorus (P) in the surface sediments of the East China Sea shelf (ECSS) were studied in spring and autumn, 2014. Distributions, seasonal variations, transformations and their influencing factors were discussed. Besides, burial fluxes of P in different seasons were also calculated. Five operationally defined forms of P, namely exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ads-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic P (Au-P), detrital apatite plus other inorganic P (De-P) and organic P (OP), were obtained using a sequential extraction procedure. Generally, the concentrations of Ads-P, Fe-P, Au-P and OP decreased seaward and the concentrations of De-P increased seaward in both seasons. In spring, the average concentrations of Ads-P, Fe-P, Au-P, De-P and OP were 13.8 ± 5.0, 21.9 ± 7.6, 148.5 ± 44.5, 153.1 ± 55.8 and 91.7 ± 21.5 μg g- 1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in autumn were 11.4 ± 4.3, 20.0 ± 10.9, 170.4 ± 53.6, 225.6 ± 101.7 and 77.1 ± 33.9 μg g- 1, respectively. The average percentages of P fractions in total P (TP) in spring and autumn were both in the order: De-P > Au-P > OP > Fe-P > Ads-P. The average concentrations of Bio-available P (Bio-P) were 127.4 ± 31.4 μg g- 1 in spring and 108.5 ± 47.2 μg g- 1 in autumn, accounting for 29.8% ± 7.3% and 21.5% ± 8.2% of corresponding TP, respectively. Seasonal variations of the primary production, hydrodynamic conditions, hypoxia and other environmental conditions were responsible for the seasonal variations of different phosphorus forms. The calculation of burial fluxes reflected that, in most parts of the studied area, TP had relative high burial fluxes in autumn, while Bio-P had relatively high burial fluxes in spring. The burial fluxes of other phosphorus forms also showed different seasonal variations in different parts of the studied area.

  1. Distribution of the East China Sea continental shelf basins and depths of magnetic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jing-yi; Sibuet, Jean-claude; Hsu, S.

    2005-01-01

    The acoustic basement map of the East China Sea, established by the Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau with all available industry seismic data, shows the existence of a 30-km-wide, 10-km-deep basin, that we named the Ho Basin. The Ho Basin belongs to a series of elongated deep basins extending over 600 km east of the Taiwan-Sinzi Ridge and flanked to the East by a ridge named the Longwan Ridge in its northern part. This new system of basin and ridge was probably formed during middle Miocene,...

  2. Mean residence time of the shelf water in the East China and the Yellow Seas determined by 228Ra/226Ra measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention of oceanographers has recently been paid on East Asian marginal seas regarding their role on the global environment, yet geochemical investigations have been few to date. The authors here report new data on the distribution of 228Ra and 226Ra in the surface water of the East China and the Yellow seas in an effort to constrain the time necessary for the coastal and shelf waters to exchange with offshore waters. Such information is needed in evaluating the exchange of heat and water across the air-sea interface that affects the local climate and the fate of pollutants, nutrients and weathering products supplied from the continent. Based on the Ra isotope signals, the authors have estimated that the shelf water component contributes ∼ 20% of the Tsushima Current water passing through the Tsushima Strait and the mean residence time for the shelf water to mix with the Kuroshio surface water is ∼2.3 years. As many of materials derived from the continent such as heavy metals and the nutrients have their mean residence times less than a few months in the nearshore and shelf waters, they must largely deposit on the shelf sediments prior to the transport from the shelf to the open sea by mixing

  3. Three Gorges Dam controls sediment coarsening of the mud patch on the inner East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Anyang; Chu, Zhongxin; Li, Yingkun

    2016-06-01

    The well-known Three Gorges Dam (TGD) within the Yangtze catchment launched its operation in 2003. The effect of the TGD operation on the sediment size on the East China Sea shelf is rarely known. High resolution (0.5 cm sampling) grain size analysis and 137Cs and 210Pb dating of the DH8-1 core were conducted with core collected from the distal part of a main sink for the modern Yangtze sediment entering the sea, the Min-Zhe Coastal Mud Deposits (MZCMD) on the inner East China Sea shelf. The 137Cs dating results show that the core DH8-1 formed during 1946-2012 with a mean deposition rate of 0.65 cm yr-1, indicating that the 0.5 cm sampling for grain size analysis in this local area could reflect environmental changes generally on a one-year time scale. The mean grain size of DH8-1 core sediment that deposited after 2003 is significantly larger than that deposited during 1988-2002. After ruling out other possible factors, we infer that the sediment coarsening of DH8-1 core after 2003 is attributed to the TGD operation which causes the erosion of the Yangtze subaqueous delta. Specifically, the TGD operation significantly intensifies the declining trend of the Yangtze sediment loads to the sea despite no decreased water discharge, which results in extensive erosion of the Yangtze subaqueous delta. The relatively coarse sediment of the subaqueous delta is eroded and resuspended by ocean dynamics and then transported by coastal current, finally depositing on the MZCMD area. In addition, the general sediment fining of core DH8-1 that deposited during 1988-2002, comparing with 1946-1987, is mainly caused by dam construction and soil and water conservation within the Yangtze catchment. Our findings are helpful for better understanding the effects of such a huge dam as the TGD on a sediment sink like the MZCMD of such a large river as the Yangtze River.

  4. Cross-shelf transport of terrestrial Al enhanced by the transition of northeasterly to southwesterly monsoon wind over the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Xuan, Ji-Liang; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) is one of the key parameters of GEOTRACES. In spring 2011, we examined the distribution of dissolved Al in the East China Sea (ECS) to assess the potential passage of coastal water across the shelf to the western Pacific. Measurement of dissolved Al in coastal, shelf, and shelf break waters indicated decreasing concentrations with distance from the coast. However, the northward increase of dissolved Al in the upper 100 m along the shelf break transect, corresponding to the northward flow of Kuroshio Water along the Okinawa Trough from the north of Taiwan to the Tokara strait, indicates contributions of terrestrial material. The presence of an Al plume indicated cross-shelf transport at the subsurface at a potential density of 23.3-24.0 kg/m3. This plume originates from the near-bottom layer along the coast off Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces, and first moves southeastward (to the north of Taiwan) and then northeastward (to shelf break with export at 29°N, 127°E). We calculated the cross-shelf fluxes of water and dissolved Al based on simulation results of the 3-D Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). The calculated cross-shelf fluxes of Al at the subsurface layer indicate that the ECS is highly efficient in pumping Al-rich coastal waters northward to the Japan Sea/East Sea and/or eastward into the western Pacific. We also identified an important role of the monsoon, with a change from northeasterly wind to southwesterly wind in spring, on the cross-shelf transport of Al by use of numerical tracer experiments.

  5. Cenozoic Tectono-stratigraphic sequences of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentrout, J.M.; Prebish, M.; Cunningham, A.C.; Echols, R.J.; Braithwaite, P.; Sarg, J.F. (Mobil Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)); Norris, J.W.; Letsch, D.K.; Bracken, B.B.; Denison, C.N. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The Tertiary section of the Jiaojiang, Qiantang, and Fushi depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regional onlap and truncation surfaces. Delineation of these sequences is based on interpretation of multifold seismic reflection profile data calibrated with several wells, including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 well. Upper Cretaceous( ) to Eocene synrift graben-restricted strata consist of two tectonically enhanced unconformity bounded sequences as evidenced by large angular discontinuities between each sequence. Discontinuous inclined-reflection seismic facies adjacent to the hanging wall correlate with nonmarine conglomeratic sandstone and are interpreted as possible alluvial fan facies. High-amplitude parallel reflections within the graben axes correlate with coaly siltstone strata and are interpreted as coastal plain and possibly lacustrine facies with source rock potential. Clinoform seismic facies prograding from the northwest footwall correlate with nonmarine to marginal marine conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone, and are interpreted as possible delta or fan-delta facies with reservoir potential.

  6. Recent 2000-year geological records of mud in the inner shelf of the East China Sea and their climatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shangbin; LI Anchun; JIANG Fuqing; LI Tiegang; HUANG Peng; XU Zhaokai

    2005-01-01

    AMS14C dating and grain-size analysis for Core DD2, located at the north of the Yangtze River-derived mud off the Zhejiang-Fujian coasts in the inner shelf of the East China Sea, provide us a high-resolution grain-size distribution curve varying with depth and time. Data in the upper mud layer of Core DD2 indicate that there are at least 9 abrupt grain-size increasing in recent 2000 years, with each corresponding very well with the low-temperature events in Chinese history, which might result from the periodical strengthening of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), including the first-revealed maximum temperature lowering event at around 990 a BP. At the same time, the finer grain size section in Core DD2 agrees well with the Sui-Tang Warming Period (600-1000 a AD) defined previously by Zhu Kezhen, during which the climate had a warm, cold and warm fluctuation, with a dominated cooling period of 750-850 a AD. The Little Ice Age (LIA) can also be identified in the core. It starts around 1450 a AD and was followed by a subsequent cooling events at 1510, 1670 and 1840 a AD. Timing of these cold events revealed here still needs to be further verified owing to some current uncertainty of dating we used in this study.

  7. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Paleo Labo AMS Dating Group; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  8. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II)carb) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II)AVS), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Feox1), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Feox2), (4) magnetite (Femag), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (FePRS), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fepy), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (FeU). Total Fe (FeT) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the FeT with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of FePRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by FeU, Feox2, Femag, Fe(II)AVS+carb, Feox1 and Fepy. The large FePRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II)AVS+carb and Fepy pools is believed to be the result of low SO4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Feox1, Feox2 and FePRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(FeHR) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of FeHR/FeT, FePR/FeT and FeU/FeT in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to those in the Yangtze River particulates than in the

  9. Burial of organic carbon and carbonate on inner shelf of the northern South China Sea during the postglacial period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouye YANG; Wyss W.-S. YIM; Min TANG; Guangqing HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Two vibrocores from the inner shelf off Hong Kong are investigated to compare the contents of organic and inorganic carbon in postglacial sediments. The com-positions of organic elements and carbonate are highly variable in the core sediments, but overall drop within the compositional ranges of modern seabed sediments in the Zhujiang estuarine and its shelf area. The Holocene sediments in the inner shelf have never been subject to subaerial exposure and the organic matter and carbonate can be preserved well. The burial of carbon in river-domi-nated shelf environments is highly dependent on the river flux with time. Nevertheless, it is difficult to establish a simple relationship between carbon burial in sediments in relation to climatic changes of basin-wide scale due to complex controls of production, transport and deposition of organic matter and carbonate. Our study suggests that the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio can not reliably identify the sources of depositional organic matters because of selective decomposition of organic matter com-ponents during humification and sedimentation. Caution is therefore needed in using organic elemental composi-tions as indicators of organic matter sources and paleoen-vironmental changes in the East Asian continental shelves where intense river-sea interaction and variable carbon flux in geologic record occur.

  10. Depositional architecture and evolution of the Late Miocene slope channel-fan-system in the northeastern shelf-margin of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; Tian, Hongxun; Tao, Ze; Liu, Hanyao

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Miocene in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of northwestern shelf-margin of South China Sea Basin contains a series of slope channel - fan systems. Their depositional architecture and evolution are documented in this investigation based on an integrated analysis of cores, logs, and seismic data. Four depositional-palaeogeomorphological elements have been identified in the slope channel-fan systems as follows: broad, shallow and unconfined or partly confined outer-shelf to shelf-break channels; deeply incised and confined unidirectionally migrating slope channels; broad or U-shaped, unconfined erosional-depositional channels; frontal splays-lobes and nonchannelized sheets. The slope channels are mostly oriented NW-SE, which migrated unidirectionally northeastwards and intensively eroded almost the whole shelf-slope zone. The channel infillings are mainly mudstones, interbedded with siltstones. They might be formed by gravity flow erosion as bypassing channels. They were filled with limited gravity flow sediments at the base and mostly filled with lateral accretionary packages of bottom current deposits. At the end of the channels, a series of small-scale slope fans developed and coalesced into fan aprons along the base of the slope. The unconfined erosional-depositional channels at the upper parts of the fan-apron-systems display compound infill patterns, and commonly have concave erosional bases and convex tops. The frontal splays-lobes representing middle to distal deposits of fan-apron-systems have flat-mounded or gull-wing geometries, and the internal architectures include bidirectional downlap, progradation, and chaotic infillings. The distal nonchannelized turbidite sheets are characterized by thin-bedded, parallel to sub-parallel sheet-like geometries. Three major unconformities or obvious erosional surfaces in the channel-fan systems of the Upper Miocene are recognized, and indicate the falling of sea-level. The depositional architecture of sequences

  11. An 800-year record of terrestrial organic matter from the East China Sea shelf break: Links to climate change and human activity in the Changjiang Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong Qiao; Wu, Ying; Liu, Su Mei; Du, Jin Zhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is a large river dominated marginal sea and receives massive volumes of terrestrial material from the Changjiang (Yangtze River). As the ECS preserves a record of terrestrial material derived from the Changjiang Basin, cores collected from this region can be used to reconstruct paleoclimate change and human disturbance in the watershed. A core (P4) was collected from the ECS shelf break and analyzed for bulk parameters (organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C)), lignin phenols, and 3,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA). The depth profiles of these parameters indicate stable and consistent marine production. The lignin source indices, cinnamyl phenols vs. vanillyl phenols (C/V) and syringyl phenols vs. vanillyl phenols (S/V), were in agreement with previously reported results from ECS surface sediments, but differed markedly from Bohai Sea surface sediments. The ratio of acid to aldehyde in vanillyl phenols ((Ad/Al)v) indicated the terrestrial OC in this core was refractory. At the same time, the variation in lignin phenols is positively correlated with the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) over the last 800 years (phuman activity in the upper Changjiang Basin over this period.

  12. An estimation of nutrient fluxes to the East China Sea continental shelf from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongmei; SHI Xiaoyong; WANG Hao; HAN Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    According to historical mean ocean current data through the field observations of the Taiwan Ocean Re-search Institute during 1991-2005 and survey data of nutrients on the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) in the summer of 2006, nutrient fluxes from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters are estimated using a grid interpolation method, which both are the sources of the Taiwan Warm Current. The nutrient fluxes of the two water masses are also compared. The results show that phosphate (PO4-P), silicate (SiO3-Si) and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes to the ECS continental shelf from the Kuroshio upwelling water are slightly higher than those from the Taiwan Strait water in the summer of 2006. In contrast, owing to its lower velocity, the nutrient flux density (i.e., nutrient fluxes divided by the area of the specific section) of the Ku-roshio subsurface water is lower than that of the Taiwan Strait water. In addition, the Taiwan Warm Current deep water, which is mainly constituted by the Kuroshio subsurface water, might directly reach the areas of high-frequency harmful alga blooms in the ECS.

  13. Contrasting fluvial styles across the mid-Pleistocene climate transition in the northern shelf of the South China Sea: Evidence from 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Haiteng; Wang, Yingmin; Shi, Hesheng; He, Min; Chen, Weitao; Li, Hua; Wang, Ying; Yan, Weiyao

    2015-12-01

    Multiple successions of buried fluvial channel systems were identified in the Quaternary section of the mid-shelf region of the northern South China Sea, providing a new case study for understanding the interplay between sea level variations and climate change. Using three commercial 3D seismic surveys, accompanied by several 2D lines and a few shallow boreholes, the sequence stratigraphy, seismic geomorphology and stratal architecture of these fluvial channels were carefully investigated. Based on their origin, dimensions, planform geometries and infill architectures, six classes of channel systems, from Class 1 to Class 6, were recognized within five sequences of Quaternary section (SQ1 to SQ5). Three types of fluvial systems among them are incised in their nature, including the trunk incised valleys (Class 1), medium incised valleys (Class 2) and incised tributaries (Class 3). The other three types are unincised, which comprise the trunk channels (Class 4), lateral migrating channels (Class 5) and the stable channels (Class 6). The trunk channels and/or the major valleys that contain braided channels at their base are hypothesized to be a product of deposition from the "big rivers" that have puzzled the sedimentologists for the last decade, providing evidence for the existence of such rivers in the ancient record. Absolute age dates from a few shallow boreholes indicate that the landscapes that were associated with these fluvial systems changed significantly near the completion of the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT), which approximately corresponds to horizon SB2 with an age of ˜0.6 Ma BP. Below SB2, the Early Pleistocene sequence (SQ1) is dominated by a range of different types of unincised fluvial systems. Evidence of incised valleys is absent in SQ1. In contrast, extensive fluvial incision occurred in the successions above horizon SB2 (within SQ2-SQ5). Although recent studies call for increased incision being a product of climate-controlled increase

  14. An 800-year record of terrestrial organic matter from the East China Sea shelf break: Links to climate change and human activity in the Changjiang Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong Qiao; Wu, Ying; Liu, Su Mei; Du, Jin Zhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is a large river dominated marginal sea and receives massive volumes of terrestrial material from the Changjiang (Yangtze River). As the ECS preserves a record of terrestrial material derived from the Changjiang Basin, cores collected from this region can be used to reconstruct paleoclimate change and human disturbance in the watershed. A core (P4) was collected from the ECS shelf break and analyzed for bulk parameters (organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C)), lignin phenols, and 3,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA). The depth profiles of these parameters indicate stable and consistent marine production. The lignin source indices, cinnamyl phenols vs. vanillyl phenols (C/V) and syringyl phenols vs. vanillyl phenols (S/V), were in agreement with previously reported results from ECS surface sediments, but differed markedly from Bohai Sea surface sediments. The ratio of acid to aldehyde in vanillyl phenols ((Ad/Al)v) indicated the terrestrial OC in this core was refractory. At the same time, the variation in lignin phenols is positively correlated with the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) over the last 800 years (pdrought events, around 1580 A.D. and 1770 A.D. were also identified in the core based on the extremely low C/V, S/V, lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI), and DHBA values. Furthermore, the significant shift in C/V and S/V since 1880 A.D. is probably a reflection of increased human activity in the upper Changjiang Basin over this period.

  15. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  16. Responses of lower trophic-level organisms to typhoon passage on the outer shelf of the East China Sea: an incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yasuki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons can induce vertical mixing, upwelling, or both in the water column due to strong wind stress. These events can induce phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic ocean after typhoon passage. However, little is known about the responses of lower trophic-level organisms or changes in the community structure following the passage of typhoons, particularly in offshore regions. Therefore, we evaluated community succession on the outer shelf of the East China Sea through on-deck bottle incubation experiments simulating hydrographic conditions after the passage of a typhoon. Under all of the experimental conditions we tested, chlorophyll a concentrations increased more than 9-fold within 6 days, and these algal cells were mainly composed of large diatoms (>10 μm. Ciliates also increased along with the diatom bloom. These results suggest that increases in diatom and ciliate populations may enhance biogenic carbon export in the water column. Typhoons can affect not only phytoplankton productivity, but also the composition of lower trophic-level organisms and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic offshore regions.

  17. Changes in the shelf macrobenthic community over large temporal and spatial scales in the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Zhang, Z. N.; Liu, X. S.; Tu, L. H.; Yu, Z. S.

    2007-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Bohai Sea has been subjected to a considerable human impact through over-fishing and pollution. Together with the influence of the Yellow River cut-off, the ecosystem experienced a dramatic change. In order to integrate available information to detect any change in macrobenthic community structure and diversity over space and time, data collected during the 1980s and the 1990s from 3 regions of the Bohai Sea (Laizhou Bay, 16 stations, 37-38°N, 119-120.5°E; central Bohai Sea, 25 stations, 38-39°N, 119-121°E; eastern Bohai Bay, 12 stations, 38-39°N, 118.5-119°E) were reanalyzed in a comparative way by means of a variety of statistical techniques. A considerable change in community structure between the 1980s and the 1990s and over the geographical regions at both the species and family level were revealed. After 10 years, there was a considerable increase in abundance of small polychaetes, bivalves and crustaceans but decreased number of echinoderms. Once abundant in Laizhou Bay in the 1980s, a large echinoderm Echinocardium cordatum and a small mussel Musculista senhousia almost disappeared from the surveying area in the 1990s. Coupled with the increased abundance was the increased species richness in general whereas evenness was getting lower in central Bohai Sea and Bohai Bay but increased in Laizhou Bay. K-dominance plot showed the same trend as evenness J'. After 10 years, the macrobenthic diversity in the Bohai Sea as a whole was slightly reduced and a diversity ranking of central Bohai Sea > Laizhou Bay > eastern Bohai Bay over space was also suggested. Sediment granulometry and organic content were the two major agents behind the observed changes.

  18. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  19. Response of Internal Waves to 2005 Typhoon Damrey over the Northwestern Shelf of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Fangli; HOU Yijun; DAI Dejun; LIN Min; ZHANG Qilong; WANG Gang; YIN Baoshu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous observation of sea water temperature and current was made at Wenchang Station (19°35′N, 112°E) in 2005. The data collected indicate vigorous internal waves of both short periods and tidal and near-inertial periods. The temperature and current time series during 18-30 September were examined to describe the upper ocean internal wave field response to Typhoon Damrey (0518). The strong wind associated with the typhoon, which passed over the sea area about 45 km south of Wenchang Sta- tion on 25 September, deepened the mixed layer depth remarkably. It decreased the mixed layer temperature while increasing the deep layer temperature, and intensified the near-inertial and high-frequency fluctuations of temperature and current. Power spectra of temperature and current time series indicate significant deviations from those obtained by using the deep ocean internal wave models characterized by a power law. The frequency spectra were dominated by three energetic bands: around the inertial frequency (7.75× 10-6 Hz), tidal frequencies (1.010-25 to 2.4×10-5 Hz), and between 1.4×10-4 and 8.3 × 10-4 Hz. Dividing the field data into three phases (before, during and after the typhoon), we found that the typhoon enhanced the kinetic energy in nearly all the frequency bands, es- pecially in the surface water. The passage of Damrey made a major contribution to the horizontal kinetic energy of the total surface current variances. The vertical energy density distribution, with its peak value at the surface, was an indication that the energy in- jected by the strong wind into the surface current could penetrate downward to the thermocline.

  20. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  1. Magnetic evaluation of sediment provenance in the southern shelf of Korea (East China Sea) using Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.; Shin, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Southern shelf of the Korean Peninsula has three potential sediment sources: China, Japan and Korea. However, dominance of clay and/or silt grained sediments causes ambiguity in the allocation of sediment sources and sedimentation features by conventional sedimentological approach. As an alternative analytic method, mineral magnetic techniques have been widely used to sediment provenances that are highly sensitive to micron-scale mineral fractions. In this study, various mineral magnetic parameters representing grain-size, magnetic concentration, and magnetic mineralogy were obtained from 480 sediment samples collected from 98 regularly spaced spots in the southern shelf of Korea. For the multivariate fuzzy cluster analysis, six parameters independent of magnetic mineral concentration were used. The interpretive routine suggests that the best statistical solution for the samples is four clusters. In addition, the solution shows a prominent spatial discrimination based on the magnetic data set. Samples characterized by relatively coarse and high-coercivity magnetic minerals are found in west of the study area (close to China, cluster 1). Clusters 2 and 3 include the samples showing a dominance of fine and low-coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals (center of the study area). Samples with close affinity to cluster 4 are found in northeast, which dominated by fine and high-coercivity minerals. Such longitudinal dichotomy in fuzzy clustering implies two possible sediment provenances: west in China and northeast in Korea. It is likely that Kuroshio Current flows are responsible for the spreads of finer grains in center of the study area (clusters 2 and 3).

  2. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  3. Application of PMF receptor model merging with PAHs signatures for source apportionment of black carbon in the continental shelf surface sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts generated from the incomplete combustion of organic materials, including fossil fuels and biomass. The similar production processes shared by BC and PAHs provide the possibility to infer the BC sources using the PAHs signatures. This study successfully utilized data sets of BC and PAHs analyzed from the continental shelf surface sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas to a standard receptor model of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to apportion the sources of BC in the sediment matrix. Results showed that combustion of fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil/petroleum) accounted for an average level of 83 ± 5% of the total BC preserved, which was significantly higher than that from the biomass burning (17 ± 5%). The spatial distributions of the fossil BC concentrations and percentages differed significantly from those of the biomass BC, implying their different geochemical behaviors in the continental shelf regimes and further emphasizing the importance to effectively differentiate between fossil BC and biomass BC. In addition to the relative proportions of the BC subtypes (char-BC/soot-BC), the regional-specific hydrodynamic conditions, including the cold cyclonic eddy, resuspension and coastal current, also exerted a significant influence on these spatial variations.

  4. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jeffries

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been few previous studies of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 variability and air-sea CO2 gas exchange rates for the Bering Sea shelf which is the largest US coastal shelf sea. In 2008, spring and summertime observations were collected in the Bering Sea shelf as part of the Bering Sea Ecological Study (BEST. Our results indicate that the Bering Sea shelf was close to neutral in terms of CO2 sink-source status in springtime due to relatively small air-sea CO2 gradients (i.e., Δ pCO2 and sea-ice cover. However, by summertime, very low seawater pCO2 values were observed and much of the Bering Sea shelf became strongly undersaturated with respect to atmosphere CO2 concentrations. Thus the Bering Sea shelf transitions seasonally from mostly neutral conditions to a strong oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 particularly in the "green belt" region of the Bering Sea. Ocean biological processes dominate the seasonal drawdown of seawater pCO2 for large areas of the Bering Sea shelf, with the effect partly countered by seasonal warming. In small areas of the Bering Sea shelf south of the Pribilof Islands and in the SE Bering Sea, seasonal warming is the dominant influence on seawater pCO2, shifting localized areas of the shelf from minor/neutral CO2 sink status to neutral/minor CO2 source status, in contrast to much of the Bering Sea shelf. We compute that the Bering Sea shelf CO2 sink in 2008 was 157 Tg C yr−1 (Tg = 1012 g C and a stronger sink for CO2 than previously demonstrated by other studies.

  5. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    offshore flow over a large section of the shelf break. Due to the short duration of strong wind effects (4-7 days) the horizontal extent of cross-shelf-break exchanges is limited to the outer shelf. The effect of Ekman drift is confined to the upper layers. In contrast, eddies and meanders penetrate deep down to the bottom, but they are restricted laterally. During the strong wind events of April 15 - 22 and July 1 - 4, some 0.66×1012 and 0.44×1012 m3of water were removed from the northwestern shelf respectively. In comparison, the single long-lived Sevastopol Eddy generated a much larger offshore transfer of 2.84×1012 m3 over the period April 23 to June 30, which is equivalent to 102% of the volume of northwestern shelf waters. This result is consistent with the data obtained from satellite derived information (Shapiro et al, 2010). The open Black Sea is generally warmer and more saline than the northwest shelf. Hence the exchanges contribute to the increase in both salinity and temperature of shelf waters. Over the study period, salt exchanges increased the average density of the shelf waters by 0.67 kg m-3 and reduced the density contrast between the shelf and deep sea, while lateral heat exchanges reduced the density of the shelf waters by 0.16 kg m-3 and thus enhanced density contrast across the shelf break. This study was supported by the EU (via PERSEUS grant FP7-OCEAN-2011-287600 and MyOcean SPA.2011.1.5-01 grant 283367), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant 2011CB409803), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41276031), Zhejiang Association for International Exchange of Personnel, and the University of Plymouth Marine Institute Innovation Fund. References Huthnance, J. M., 1995. Circulation, exchange and water masses at the ocean margin: the role of physical processes at the shelf edge, Prog Oceanogr, 35(4), 353-431, Ivanov L.I., Besiktepe S., Ozsoy E., 1997. In: E.Ozsoy and A.Mikaelyan (eds). Sensitivity to change: Black Sea , Baltic Sea

  6. Remote Sensing of Shelf Sea Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Otis B.

    This volume, edited by Nihoul, is a collection of papers by participants in the 15th Liege Colloquium, held in 1983. Although the title is somewhat daunting, the premise is a good one, i.e., “What can one learn about the basic theory of shelf-sea hydrodynamics by using remote sensing?” As with any such collection, some papers hit the mark (e.g., T. Nishimura et al., S. Onishi, and J. Witling), others give focus to the work (e.g., J. Nihoul, R. Pingree), while other work seems but distantly related to the subject at hand (e.g., the contributions of J. Gower and of S. Lin et al.). In the following review, I will try to give the reader a flavor for the volume's 18 sections. The book can be split into four themes: introduction to remote sensing, use of remote sensing and models, use of remote sensing to study oceanic variability, and optical oceanography.

  7. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jeffries

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few previous studies of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 variability and air-sea CO2 gas exchange rates for the Bering Sea shelf. In 2008, spring and summertime observations were collected in the Bering Sea shelf as part of the Bering Sea Ecological Study (BEST. Our results indicate that the Bering Sea shelf was close to neutral in terms of CO2 sink-source status in springtime due to relatively small air-sea CO2 gradients (i.e., ΔpCO2 and sea-ice cover. However, by summertime, very low seawater pCO2 values were observed and much of the Bering Sea shelf became strongly undersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Thus the Bering Sea shelf transitions seasonally from mostly neutral conditions to a strong oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 particularly in the "green belt" region of the Bering Sea where there are high rates of phytoplankton primary production (PPand net community production (NCP. Ocean biological processes dominate the seasonal drawdown of seawater pCO2 for large areas of the Bering Sea shelf, with the effect partly countered by seasonal warming. In small areas of the Bering Sea shelf south of the Pribilof Islands and in the SE Bering Sea, seasonal warming is the dominant influence on seawater pCO2, shifting localized areas of the shelf from minor/neutral CO2 sink status to neutral/minor CO2 source status, in contrast to much of the Bering Sea shelf. Overall, we compute that the Bering Sea shelf CO2 sink in 2008 was 157 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 (Tg = 1012 g C and thus a strong sink for CO2.

  8. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    offshore flow over a large section of the shelf break. Due to the short duration of strong wind effects (4-7 days) the horizontal extent of cross-shelf-break exchanges is limited to the outer shelf. The effect of Ekman drift is confined to the upper layers. In contrast, eddies and meanders penetrate deep down to the bottom, but they are restricted laterally. During the strong wind events of April 15 - 22 and July 1 - 4, some 0.66×1012 and 0.44×1012 m3of water were removed from the northwestern shelf respectively. In comparison, the single long-lived Sevastopol Eddy generated a much larger offshore transfer of 2.84×1012 m3 over the period April 23 to June 30, which is equivalent to 102% of the volume of northwestern shelf waters. This result is consistent with the data obtained from satellite derived information (Shapiro et al, 2010). The open Black Sea is generally warmer and more saline than the northwest shelf. Hence the exchanges contribute to the increase in both salinity and temperature of shelf waters. Over the study period, salt exchanges increased the average density of the shelf waters by 0.67 kg m-3 and reduced the density contrast between the shelf and deep sea, while lateral heat exchanges reduced the density of the shelf waters by 0.16 kg m-3 and thus enhanced density contrast across the shelf break. This study was supported by the EU (via PERSEUS grant FP7-OCEAN-2011-287600 and MyOcean SPA.2011.1.5-01 grant 283367), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant 2011CB409803), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41276031), Zhejiang Association for International Exchange of Personnel, and the University of Plymouth Marine Institute Innovation Fund. References Huthnance, J. M., 1995. Circulation, exchange and water masses at the ocean margin: the role of physical processes at the shelf edge, Prog Oceanogr, 35(4), 353-431, Ivanov L.I., Besiktepe S., Ozsoy E., 1997. In: E.Ozsoy and A.Mikaelyan (eds). Sensitivity to change: Black Sea , Baltic Sea

  9. Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huthnance

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf; prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s; poleward flow along most of the upper slope with associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s; meanders and eddies in this poleward flow; eddies shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay; local exchanges at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s. Tidal transports are larger; their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s. These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2–3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf; a numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse; there is scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

  10. Sea ice and the ocean mixed layer over the Antarctic shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A. A.; Holland, P. R.; Feltham, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    An ocean mixed-layer model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE to investigate regional variations in the surface-driven formation of Antarctic shelf waters. This model captures well the expected sea ice thickness distribution, and produces deep (> 500 m) mixed layers in the Weddell and Ross shelf seas each winter. This results in the complete destratification of the water column in deep southern coastal regions leading to high-salinity shelf water (HSSW) formation, and also in some shallower regions (no HSSW formation) of these seas. Shallower mixed layers are produced in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas. By deconstructing the surface processes driving the mixed-layer depth evolution, we show that the net salt flux from sea ice growth/melt dominates the evolution of the mixed layer in all regions, with a smaller contribution from the surface heat flux and a negligible input from wind stress. The Weddell and Ross shelf seas receive an annual surplus of mixing energy at the surface; the Amundsen shelf sea energy input in autumn/winter is balanced by energy extraction in spring/summer; and the Bellingshausen shelf sea experiences an annual surface energy deficit, through both a low energy input in autumn/winter and the highest energy loss in spring/summer. An analysis of the sea ice mass balance demonstrates the contrasting mean ice growth, melt and export in each region. The Weddell and Ross shelf seas have the highest annual ice growth, with a large fraction exported northwards each year, whereas the Bellingshausen shelf sea experiences the highest annual ice melt, driven by the advection of ice from the northeast. A linear regression analysis is performed to determine the link between the autumn/winter mixed-layer deepening and several atmospheric variables. The Weddell and Ross shelf seas show stronger spatial correlations (temporal mean - intra-regional variability) between the autumn/winter mixed-layer deepening and several

  11. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of three austral winters (1989, 1997 and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 years, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column. We interpret this freshening as a reduction in salt input to the water masses being advected northward on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. Possible causes for the reduced winter salinification are a southward retreat of the summer sea ice edge together with more precipitation in this sector. However, the latter might have happened in conjunction with an increase in ice shelf mass loss, counteracting an enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves.

  12. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data from the shallow shelf off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 yr, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column, which has a residence time of <1 yr. We interpret this freshening as being caused by a combination of reduced salt input due to a southward sea ice retreat and higher precipitation during the late 20th century on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. However, less salinification might also result from a delicate interplay between enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves and increased Larsen C ice loss.

  13. The Crustal Structure Character of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents actuality of investigation and study of the crustal structure characters of East China Sea at home and abroad. Based on lots of investigation and study achievements and the difference of the crustal velocity structure from west to east, the East China Sea is divided into three parts - East China Sea shelf zone, Okinawa Trough zone and Ryukyu arc-trench zone. The East China Sea sheff zone mostly has three velocity layers, i.e.,the sediment blanket layer (the velocity is 5.8-5.9 km/s), the basement layer (the velocity is 6.0-6.3 km/s), and the lower crustal layer (the velocity is 6.8-7.6 km/s). So the East China Sea shelf zone belongs to the typical continental crust. The Okinawa Trough zone is located at the transitional belt between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. It still has the structural characters of the continental crust, and no formation of the oceanic crust, but the crust of the central trough has become to thinning down. The Ryukyu arc-trench zone belongs to the transitional type crust as a whole, but the ocean side of the trench already belongs to the oceanic crust. And the northwest Philippine Basin to the east of the Ryukyu Trench absolutely belongs to the typical oceanic crust.

  14. Data Assimilation in Hydrodynamic Models of Continental Shelf Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jacob Viborg Tornfeldt

    2004-01-01

    This thesis consists of seven research papers published or submitted for publication in the period 2002-2004 together with a summary report. The thesis mainly deals with data assimilation of tide gauge data in two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the continental shelf seas. Assimilat......This thesis consists of seven research papers published or submitted for publication in the period 2002-2004 together with a summary report. The thesis mainly deals with data assimilation of tide gauge data in two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the continental shelf seas....... Assimilation of sea surface temperature and parameter estimation in hydrodynamic models are also considered. The main focus has been on the development of robust and efficient techniques applicable in real operational settings. The applied assimilation techniques all use a Kalman filter approach. They consist...... robust state estimate. The assimilation schemes used in this work are primarily based on two ensemble based schemes, the Ensemble Kalman Filter and the Reduced Rank Square Root Kalman Filter. In order to investigate the applicability of these and derived schemes, the sensitivity to filter parameters...

  15. UPWELLING AND SEDIMENTATION DYNAMICS Ⅲ: COINCIDENCE OF UPWELLING AREAS WITH MUD PATCHES IN NORTH HEMISPHERE SHELF SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 胡敦欣

    2002-01-01

    The determinant role of upwelling in fine sediment patches is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process respectively. It is pointed out that physical and biological processes are usually coexistent and interact with each other during the sedimentation of suspended matters. This study used available figures showing the circulation pattern and surface sediment distribution in the whole China Seas, the Gulf of Maine, the Irish Sea and the North Sea, and additional data to verify that wherever upwelling exists on the continental shelf, mud must occur; and that wherever downwelling occurs, coarse sediment substitutes for mud.

  16. Sea-level rise impact on European shelf tide dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Idier, Deborah; Paris, François; le Cozannet, Goneri

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) affects not only the total water level, but can also modify the tidal dynamics. Several studies investigated the SLR effect on the tide of the Western European continental shelf, analysing the tidal dynamics (mainly the M2 component) for various SLR scenarios or coastal defence schemes. The present study aims at completing existing knowledge, using a modelling based approach, investigating 11 uniform SLR scenarios from-0.25 to +10m, and analysing the effect on high/low ti...

  17. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  18. Chemical hydrography of coastal upwelling in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the field data obtained during cruises on the shelf of the East China Sea from 1997 to 1999, seasonal variations of coastal upwelling on the inner shelf are discussed by using cross-shelf transect profiles and horizontal distributions of chemical and hydrographic variables. Results show that the coastal upwelling was year-round, but the areas and intensities of the upwelling were quite different in season. The coastal upwelling occurred in all of the coastal areas of the region in spring and summer, but in autumn only in the area off Zhejiang Province, and in winter in the area off Fujian Province. It was the strongest in summer and the weakest in winter. Geographically, it was the strongest in the area off Zhejiang Province and the weakest in the southmost or northmost parts of the East China Sea.The estimated nutrient fluxes upward into euphotic zone through coastal upwelling were quite large, especially for phosphate, which contributed significantly to primary production and improved the nutrient structure of the coastal ecosystem in the East China Sea.

  19. Zooplankton community structure in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study on zooplankton spatial distribution is essential for understanding food web dynamics in marine ecosystems and fishery management. Here we elucidated the composition and distribution of large mesozooplankton on the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and explored the zooplankton community structure in these water masses. Sixty vertical hauls (bottom or 200 m in deep water to surface using a ring net (diameter 0.8 m, 505-μm mesh were exploited in November 2007. The biogeographic patterns of zooplankton communities were investigated using multivariate analysis methods; copepod biodiversity was analyzed using univariate indices. Copepods and protozoans were dominate in the communities. Based on the species composition, we divided the study areas into six station groups. Significant differences in zooplankton assemblages were detected between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Species richness was higher in East China Sea groups than those in Yellow Sea, whereas taxonomic distinctness was higher in Yellow Sea than in East China Sea. There was a clear relationship between the species composition and water mass group.

  20. 台湾东北部黑潮表层水入侵东海陆架的季节变化规律%The seasonal variability of the Kuroshio surface water intru-sion onto the East China Sea continental shelf derived from Argos drifter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞祥; 刘志亮

    2015-01-01

    基于1998~2011年进入台湾东北部的WOCE-SVP(World Ocean Circulation Experiment -Surface Velocity Programme)计划的Argos浮标运行轨道数据,分析了台湾东北部的环流特征、黑潮表层水入侵东海陆架的季节变化规律。结果表明:在春夏季,黑潮表层水入侵仅限于陆架外缘,而在秋冬季,黑潮表层水可深入东海陆架或进入台湾海峡。自黑潮区入侵至100 m和150 m等深线的浮标数量在秋冬季较多,春夏季较少。台湾海峡的浮标轨迹在春夏季几乎皆为北向,在秋冬季皆为南向。在秋季,东海中部和南部陆架会在黑潮西侧出现逆流和涡旋。可见,台湾东北部环流具有显著的季节特征;黑潮表层水入侵东海陆架在秋冬季较强,春夏季较弱。本研究采用最新的Argos浮标数据,揭示了台湾东北部黑潮入侵东海陆架的季节变化规律。%In this paper, based on the trajectory data of the Argos drifters from WOCE-SVP (World Ocean Circulation Experiment – Surface Velocity Programme) which once entered the northeast of Taiwan, we analyzed the circulation pattern of northeast of Taiwan and the variability of the Kuroshio surface water intrusion onto the East China Sea con-tinental shelf. The result showed that: in spring and summer, the Kuroshio surface water intrusion is restricted to the outer continental shelf, but in fall and winter, the Kuroshio surface water intrudes further onto the East China Sea con-tinental shelf or enters the Taiwan Strait. The number of the drifters which intrude to the 100 m and 150 m isobath from the Kuroshio region is large in fall and winter, and is little in spring and summer. The trajectories of the drifters in Taiwan Strait move northward in spring and summer, but southward in fall and winter. In fall, inverse flow and eddy can be found in the central and southern continental shelf. As mentioned above, the circulation of northeast of Taiwan exhibits prominent

  1. Quaternary transgressive and regressive depositional sequences in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the interpretation more than 4000 km sparker single channel seismic profiles and the comparison with Borehole DZQ4 on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), the seismic sequences, sedimentary facies and paleo-sedimentary environment are studied to establish the chronology framework and discuss the Quaternary transgressive and regressive sequences of the ECS shelf as well as their response to glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sea level of the ECS fluctuated with global climate changes in the Quaternary. During the sea level rise, the Pacific tidal wave impacted actively on the ECS continental shelf and the reciprocating tidal currents in NW-SE direction formed tidal sand ridges, which represent large transgressive deposits visible on the seismic profiles. In response to sea level fall, the Yangtze River deltas prograded seaward and built massive subaqueous deltas to form regressive sequences on the seismic profiles. Alternative transgression and regression sequences were vertically distributed on the ECS shelf with the frequent eustacy in the Quaternary. The gentle slope of the ECS shelf makes it possible for the coastline to migrate hundreds of kilometers forth and back on the shelf because of tens of meters sea level changes, in the meanwhile, the Yangtze River discharged large amounts of sediments into the ECS resulting in large-scale subaqueous deltas and tidal sand ridges. There have developed 3 stages of tidal sand ridges and 4 stages of deltas on the ECS shelf since oxygen isotope stage 8.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Seismic Tsunami Dissemination at the Continental Shelf of the East China Sea%地震海啸在东海大陆架上传播过程的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董非非; 温燕林; 邓辉; 朱元清; 李正

    2013-01-01

    在东海潜在震源区冲绳海槽假定了五个震源点,根据Steven地震海啸地震参数经验值作为初始条件,分别考虑6.5、7.0、7.5、8.0、8.5、9.0级地震条件下的30个震例,采用数值模拟的方法,对海啸在东海传播过程进行情境分析,特别是对上海沿岸地区可能会遭受的海啸灾害做了较为精细的研究.结果发现:小于8.0级的震例对上海地区几乎不会造成影响;8.0级震例只有最北端震源点震例会对上海地区有明显影响;8.5级以及9.0级震级基本上均会对上海沿岸地区造成较大的影响.特别是冲绳海槽北段9.0级震例可能会对上海沿岸局部地区造成危害,最大波高可达3.9m.%The seismogenic tsunami is a type of sea wave directly caused by uplifting and subsiding of the ocean floor. It generally has substantial destructive power and can create severe damages to lives. Tsunami studies are important in the field of disaster prevention, particularly in tsunami discrimination and sea - quake disaster evaluation. Chinese scholars conducted studies in this field mainly after the 2004 Indonesia tsunami. In the South China Sea, the huge possibility of seismic tsunami occurrence has become a significant issue. The coastal area of East China Sea is the most economically developed and densely populated region of the country; a tsunami occurrence in this area would be catastrophic. No numerical simulation for tsunamis has been conducted for the East China Sea; therefore, research on the characteristics of potential tsunamis in this area is crucial for tsunami identification and disaster assessment. Such tsunami research for the East China Sea region is the focus of this paper. The geological background of seismic activity history, spatial-temporal tsunami distribution characteristics, potential source area of Okinawa Trough, and occurrence possibility of earthquakes and tsunamis in the East China Sea formed the basis for discussion, in addition

  3. Small-scale variability of the cross-shelf flow over the outer shelf of the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Josh; Hunter, Elias; Huber, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The importance of cross-shelf transport across the Ross Sea on local and remote processes has been well documented. In the Ross Sea, mid-water intrusions of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) are modified by shelf water near the shelf break to form Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW). In 2010-2011, we deployed multi-platform technologies focused on this MCDW intrusion in the vicinity of Mawson and Pennell Banks to better understand its role in ecosystem processes across the shelf. The high-resolution time and space sampling provided by an underwater glider, a short-term mooring, and a ship-based survey highlight the scales over which these critical cross-shelf transport processes occur. MCDW cores were observed as small-scale well-defined features over the western slopes of Pennell and Mawson Banks. The mean transport along Pennell Bank was estimated to be about 0.24 Sv but was highly variable in time (hours to days). The observations suggest that the core of MCDW is transported by a predominately barotropic flow that follows topography around the banks toward the south until the slope of the bank flattens and the warmer water moves up and over the bank. This pathway is shown to link the source MCDW with an area of high productivity over the shallows of Pennell Bank.

  4. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxyg

  5. South China Sea: Controversies And Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Disputes have recently broken out between China and some Southeast Asian countries and the United States in the South China Sea. The Beijing-based Economic Information Daily spoke to Liu Nanlai, a research fellow at the Institute of International Law under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, on the origin of the South China Sea issue and China’s position on it. Excerpts follow:

  6. Rare earth element compositions of core sediments from the shelf of the South Sea, Korea: Their controls and origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Choi, Jin-Yong; Yoo, Hae-Soo; Rho, Kyung-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Bok

    2012-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) of bulk sediments and heavy mineral samples of core sediments from the South Sea shelf, Korea, were analyzed to determine the constraints on REE concentrations and distribution patterns as well as to investigate their potential applicability for discriminating sediment provenance. Bulk sediment REEs showed large variation in concentrations and distribution patterns primarily due to grain size and carbonate dilution effects, as well as due to an abundance of heavy minerals. In the fine sandy sediments (cores EZ02-15 and 19), in particular, heavy minerals (primarily monazite and titanite/sphene) largely influenced REE compositions. Upper continental crust-normalized REE patterns of these sand-dominated sediments are characterized by enriched light REEs (LREEs), because of inclusion of heavy minerals with very high concentrations in LREEs. Notably, such a strong LREE enrichment is also observed in Korean river sediments. So, a great care must be taken when using the REE concentrations and distribution patterns of sandy and coarse silty shelf sediments as a proxy for discriminating sediment provenance. In the fine-grained muddy sediments with low heavy mineral abundance, in contrast, REE fractionation ratios and their UCC-normalized patterns seem to be reliable proxies for assessing sediment provenance. The resultant sediment origin suggested a long lateral transportation of some fine-grained Chinese river sediments (probably the Changjiang River) to the South Sea of Korea across the shelf of the northern East China Sea.

  7. A new species of the genus Linuparus White, from the South China Sea (Crustacea Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, A.J.

    1965-01-01

    The palinurid genus Linuparus White, 1847, has been represented by a single recent species, Linuparus trigonus (Von Siebold). The trawl survey of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea at present being carried out by the R.V. "Cape St. Mary" of the Fisheries Research Station, Hong Kong, ha

  8. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter derived wave period with ocean buoy data in the East China Sea and South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Altimeter wave period data obtained from continental shelf seas are analyzed in this paper.Empirical models are introduced for zero up-crossing and peak wave period calculation with TOPEX/POSEIDON data. Their performances are assessed using independent validation dataset in four sites in the open ocean of China. To provide more accurate wave period estimation, new coefficients are applied to reliable in situ data. Comparison of our estimated the wave periods with new linear calibrations based on independent data of Seapac 2100 deployed in the East China Sea and South China Sea showed that the accuracy was improved over estimates determined from earlier empirical models. Regional analysis indicated that the wave period model works better under wind sea condition.

  9. Internal Wave Study in the South China Sea Using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-Kuang; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the internal wave distribution maps in the China Seas have been compiled from hundreds of ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and Space Shuttle SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images from 1993 to 1999. Based on internal wave distribution map, most of internal waves in the northeast part of South China Sea were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the South China Sea. Based on the observations from drilling rigs near DongSha Island by Amoco Production Co., the solitons may be generated in a 4 km wide channel between Batan and Sabtang islands in Luzon Strait. The proposed generation mechanism is similar to the lee wave formation from a shallow topography. Both depression and elevation internal waves have been observed in the same RADARSAT ScanSAR image on May 4, 1998 near DongSha Island. Furthermore, depression and elevation internal waves have also been observed by SAR at the same location on the shelf in April and June, 1993 (in different seasons) respectively. Numerical models have been used to interpret their generation mechanism and evolution processes. Based on the SAR images, near DongSha Island, the westward propagating huge internal solitons are often encountered and diffracted/broken by the coral reefs on the shelf. After passing the island, the diffracted waves will re-merge or interact with each other. It has been observed that after the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, the phase of wave packet is shifted and wavelength is also changed. Examples of mesoscale features observed in SAR images, such as fronts, raincells, bathymetry, ship wakes, and oil spills will be presented. Recent mooring measurements in April 1999 near Dongsha Island, future field test ASIAEX (Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment) planned for April 2001, and some pretest survey data will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  11. Profiler-sonobuoy measurements in the South China Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.J.; Kumar, N.; Houtz, R.E.

    1979-07-10

    Analyses of single-channel seismic reflection profiles, and wide-angle reflection and refraction data from sonobuoys, indicate that the deep part of the South China Sea basin is typically oceanic in structure, except that layer 2 is about 1 km thicker than usual and layer 3 is only about half the usual thickness. The top of layer 2 has a rough upper surface and becomes deeper in the northern part of the basin, where it is overlain by sediments of velocity 1.7--3.8 km/s up to 3 km thick. A 6-km-thick sequence of sediments fills a basement depression just north of the outer subsurface (peripheral) ridge of the Sunda shelf. Thick sediments were measured at the outer parts of the Sunda shelf, Palawan shelf, Northeast Borneo shelf, and in the Taiwan straits south of the Penghu-Peikang basement high. The Manila trench is divided into two sections, a sediment-filled trench between southernmost Taiwan and Stewart bank off central northern Luzon and a topographic trench between Stewart bank southward into the Mindoro straits. Burial of part of the trench by sediments that thicken to the north and the thick sediment cover of the northern South China Sea basin indicate provenance from the north. The northern margin of the South China Sea basin is predominantly a zone of tension the southern margin is predominantly a zone of compression, the western margin may be a zone of shear, and the eastern margin is a subduction zone. It seems probable that the southern margin of the basin, called the Reed bank crustal block, was formerly attached to mainland Asia. Sometime during the Paleogene the Reed bank crustal block broke away from the continent, and new sea floor was created between the southeastward migrating block and the Asian mainland. Old ocean crust in front of the advancing block was subducted along the northwestern sides of Borneo and Palawan. Subduction ceased in the early Miocene with the collision of the crustal block and the Borneo-Palawan isthmian ridge.

  12. Plutonium-241 in seawater of the Northwest European shelf seas 1989-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster contributes to the knowledge about the levels and distribution of 241Pu in seawater in the North Sea and adjacent European shelf seas during the period 1989-1993. The controlled release of low-level radioactive waste from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the UK (Sellafield, Dounreay) and France (La Hague) has led to a widespread contamination of the northeast North Atlantic and its adjoining shelf seas, Sellafield being the main contributor. Within the numerous nuclides released into the marine environment, results of 241Pu have been published rather sparsely

  13. Late Oligocene sedimentary environments and provenance abrupt change event in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A significant change in composition was recorded in late Oligocene sediments from the northern South China Sea.This abrupt event coincided with the seafloor spreading axis jump across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary,leading to sedimentation breaks and slumps as well as obvious changes in sediment geochemical composition,and representing the greatest tectonic activity in the South China Sea region since the Oligocene.Through this tectonic event,the sedimentary environment in the Baiyun sag area transformed from a continental shelf in the late Oligocene to a continental slope since the early Miocene,the provenance of the sediments changed from neighboring areas to the hinterland of the South China block,and the sea level rose since the early Miocene in the area.Therefore,this abrupt change event has a profound influence on the evolution of petroleum offshore in the northern South China Sea.

  14. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May–November due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May–November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980–2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was

  15. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  16. The Suspended Sediment Concentration Distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Changwei; JIANG Wensheng; Richard J.Greatbatch; DING Hui

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the suspended sediment eoncentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results.The observed turbidity results show that (i)the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe,(ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC.The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS.A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS.The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results.The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution.The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress,which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves.The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS.The strong winter time vertical mixing,which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling,leads to high surface layer SSC in winter.High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

  17. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; P. M. J. Herman; Middelburg, J. J.; K. Soetaert

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water and high carbon deposition rates have resulted in a dominance of anoxic mineralization processes including manganese, iron and sulphate reduction. The model in...

  18. Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea Surface Fluxes and Thermohaline Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter CHU; CHEN Yuchun; Akira KUNINAKA

    2005-01-01

    We use the U.S. Navy's Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate the climatological water mass features and the seasonal and non-seasonal variabilities of the thermohaline structure, and use the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) from 1945 to 1989 to investigate the linkage between the fluxes (momentum, heat, and moisture) across the air-ocean interface and the formation of the water mass features. After examining the major current systems and considering the local bathymetry and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS) Basin, Cheju bifurcation (CB) zone, Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) region, Kuroshio Current (KG) region. The long term mean surface heat balance corresponds to a heat loss of 30 W m-2 in the ESC and CB regions, a heat loss of 65 W m-2 in the KG and TWC regions, and a heat gain of 15 W m-2 in the YS region. The surface freshwater balance is defined by precipitation minus evaporation. The annual water loss from the surface for the five subareas ranges from 1.8 to 4 cm month-1. The fresh water loss from the surface should be compensated for from the river run-off. The entire water column of the shelf region (ECS, YS, and CB) undergoes an evident seasonal thermal cycle with maximum values of temperature during summer and maximum mixed layer depths during winter. However, only the surface waters of the TWC and KG regions exhibit a seasonal thermal cycle.We also found two different relations between surface salinity and the Yangtze River run-off, namely, out-of-phase in the East China Sea shelf and in-phase in the Yellow Sea. This may confirm an earlier study that the summer fresh water discharge from the Yangtze River forms a relatively shallow, low salinity plume-like structure extending offshore on average towards the northeast.

  19. Diagnostic analysis on the northern South China Sea winter counter-wind current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Bo; WANG Dongxiao

    2006-01-01

    The winter counter-wind current (also named the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC)) in the northern South China Sea (SCS)has been known well for decades, but its mass and momentum origination have not be quantitatively evaluated before. In this paper, the high resolution three-dimensional ocean circulation model is adopted to reproduce the circulation in the northern SCS. The diagnostic analyses are performed to investigate the momentum budget in the northern SCS continental shelf/slope and the momentum propulsion of the SCSWC. It is indicated that the across-shelf pressure gradient and the across-shelf transport are responsible for the formation of the SCSWC, while the along-shelf pressure gradient is balanced by the surface stress, bottom stress, and Coriolis force. The magnitude of the terms in the along-shelf momentum equation is smaller than that in the across-shelf one.The analysis on the momentum budget in the northern SCS will benefit the marine environmental prediction in the future.

  20. The Distribution of Dissolved Aluminum in the Yellow and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water samples containing dissolved aluminum were collected from the Yellow and East China Seas in October-November 2000. The average concentrations of dissolved Al in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) were 0.042 and 0.056 μ molL-1, respectively. The concentration of dissolved aluminum decreased gradually across the continental shelf. The lower concentrations appeared in the YS cold water center and in the bottom layer at the shelf edge of the ECS, where they were 0.016 and 0.011 μmolL-1, respectively. The distribution of dissolved A1 was controlled by physical mixing processes rather than biological uptake processes. The impact of different water masses along the PN transect was calculated based on the mass balance model. The results show that the impact of the Changjiang River was mainly concentrated on the coastal area and the top thermocline water on the ECS shelf, where the impact percentage decreased from 12.6% to 1.1% in the surface water, while the contribution of the Kuroshio water was dominant on the ECS shelf in this survey, increasing from 77.6% to 97.8% along the PN transect from the Changjiang River Estuary to the Ryukyu Islands. It is concluded that aluminum can serve as a proper tracer for studying the impact of Changjiang terrestrial matter on the ECS shelf water.

  1. Quaternary transgressive and regressive depositional sequences in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhenxia; YINPing; XIONGYingqian; S.Beme; A.Trentesaux; LIChaoxin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the interpretation more than 4000 km sparker single channel seismic profiles and the comparison with Borehole DZQ4 on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS),the seismic sequences,sedimentary facies and paleo-sedimentary environment are studied to establish the chronology framework and discuss the Quaternary transgressive and regressive sequences of the ECS shelf as well as their response to glacio-eustatic sea-level changes.The sea level of the ECS fluctuated with global climate changes in the Quaternary.During the sea level rise,the pacific tidal wave impacted actively on the ECS continental shelf and the reciprocating tidal currents in NW-SE direction formed tidal sand ridges,which represent large transgressive deposits visible on the seismic profiles.In response to sea level fall,the Yangtze River deltas prograded seaward and built massive subaqueous deltas to form regressive sequences on the seismic profiles.Alternative transgression and regression sequences were vertically distributed on the ECS shelf with the frequent eustacy in the Quaternary.The gentle slope of the ECS shelf makes it possible for the coastline to migrate hundreds of kilometers forth and back on the shelf because of tens of meters sea level changes,in the meanwhile,the Yangtze River discharged large amounts of sediments into the ECS resulting in large-scale subaqueous deltas and tidal sand ridges.There have developed 3 stages of tidal sand ridges and 4 stages of deltas on the ECS shelf since oxygen isotope stage 8.

  2. Deep-sea pollen research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiangjun; LUO Yunli; CHEN Huaicheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the progress of deep-sea pollen research in China since the beginning ofninetieths of the last Century. All the deep-sea pollen contri-butions mainly come from the South China Sea (SCS) andthe East China Sea (ECS). The German-Chinese joint cruise(Sonne 95) and ODP 184 cruise initiated by Chinese scientistsin the SCS provided excellent material for the deep-sea pol-len research. So far a number of pollen results of 20-30 kaand million years from the SCS have been published. A couple of deep-sea pollen records from Okinawa Through of the ECS also came out. The high resolution pollen records obtained from the continuous deposits with high sedimentation rates and reliable age control of the deep-sea sediments provided a high time resolution history (hundred to millennial scales) of vegetation, environment and monsoon evolution of the pollen source areas (southern China and Japan). Spectral analysis of deep-sea pollen records from the SCS discovered orbital (100, 41, 23, 10 ka) and suborbital cyclicities (Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oscheger-O/D events) in the vege-tation changes. Moreover, cross spectral analysis showed that the trend of vegetation changes in northern SCS was regulated mainly by changes of the ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere. The pollen record of the last 20 ka from the Okinawa Through of the ECS indicates that the marine environmental change lagged that on the terrestrail by about 1000 year. The asynchronous environmental changes between land and sea were probably caused by the time difference in thermohaline circulation. This study underscored the role of the deep-sea plant fossils as a bridge across the land and sea.

  3. Validation of an ensemble modelling system for climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Lowe, Jason; Holt, Jason; Pardaens, Anne; Wiltshire, Andy

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a modelling system used to represent the northwest European shelf seas. Variants of the coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model, HadCM3, were run under conditions of historically varying concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively active constituents. The atmospheric simulation for the shelf sea region and its surrounds was downscaled to finer spatial scales using a regional climate model (HadRM3); these simulations were then used to drive a river routing scheme (TRIP). Together, these provide the atmospheric, oceanic and riverine boundary conditions to drive the shelf seas model POLCOMS. Additionally, a shelf seas simulation was driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis in place of HadCM3. We compared the modelling systems output against a sea surface temperature satellite analysis product, a quality controlled ocean profile dataset and values of volume transport through particular ocean sections from the literature. In addition to assessing model drift with a pre-industrial control simulation the modelling system was evaluated against observations and the reanalysis driven simulation. We concluded that the modelling system provided an excellent (good) representation of the spatial patterns of temperature (salinity). It provided a good representation of the mean temperature climate, and a sufficient representation of the mean salinity and water column structure climate. The representation of the interannual variability was sufficient, while the overall shelf-wide circulation was qualitatively good. From this wide range of metrics we judged the modelling system fit for the purpose of providing centennial climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas.

  4. A Survey of Coral Reefs in South China Sea Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ An investigation of coral reefs in South China Sea has recently completed by CAS scientists at South China Sea Institute of Oceanography (SCSIO) in Guangzhou. The compilation and analysis of the obtained data is now under way.

  5. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea is one of the ocean's most productive ecosystems and sustains more than half of the total US fish landings annually. However, the character of the Bering Sea shelf ecosystem has undergone a dramatic shift over the last several decades, causing notable increases in the dominance of temperate features coupled to the decline of arctic species and decreases in the abundance of commercially important organisms. In order to assess the current state of primary production in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmol kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmol kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmol kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmol kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of net community production (NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28±10 mmol C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmol C m−2 d−1 were observed in the ''Green Belt'' where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total productivity across the shelf was on the order of ~105 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming

  6. 75 FR 18404 - Safety Zone; FRONTIER DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Sea, Alaska'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 803). The NPRM... discussion of the background and purpose for this rule can be found in the preamble to the NPRM (75 FR 803... vessel located at the coordinates listed in Table 1. These coordinates are based upon [NAD 83] UTM Zone...

  7. Seismic stratigraphy of the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel system, northwest South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shengqiang; L(U) Fuliang; WU Shiguo; YAO Genshun; MA Yubo; FU Yanhui

    2009-01-01

    Based on more than 4000 km 2D seismic data and seismic stratigraphic analysis, we discussed the extent and formation mechanism of the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel. The Qiongdongnan deep sea channel is a large incised channel which extends from the east boundary of the Yinggehai Basin, through the whole Qiongdongnan and the Xisha trough, and terminates in the western part of the northwest subbasin of South China Sea. It is more than 570 km long and 4-8 km wide. The chaotic (or continuous) middle (or high) amplitude, middle (or high) continuity seismic facies of the channel reflect the different lithological distribution of the channel. The channel formed as a complex result of global sea level drop during early Piiocene, large scale of sediment supply to the Yinggehai Basin, inversion event of the Red River strike-slip fault, and tilted direction of the Qiongdongnan Basin. The large scale of sediment supply from Red River caused the shelf break of the Yinggehai Basin to move torwards the S and SE direction and developed large scale of prograding wedge from the Miocene, and the inversion of the Red River strike-slip fault induced the sediment slump which formed the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel.

  8. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Among the few vibrant ecotopes is the coastal zone, where multifaceted interactions among air, sea and land are dynamically balanced. An area of intense clash of interest of user community, the coastal zone harbouring vast potential of renewable...

  9. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J

    2015-01-01

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues. PMID:26505325

  10. Minimum distribution of subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the US Beaufort Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in Late Pleistocene time (~19 ka), sea level rise inundated coastal zones worldwide. On some parts of the present-day circum-Arctic continental shelf, this led to flooding and thawing of formerly subaerial permafrost and probable dissociation of associated gas hydrates. Relict permafrost has never been systematically mapped along the 700-km-long U.S. Beaufort Sea continental shelf and is often assumed to extend to ~120 m water depth, the approximate amount of sea level rise since the Late Pleistocene. Here, 5,000 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired between 1977 and 1992 were examined for high-velocity (>2.3 km s−1) refractions consistent with ice-bearing, coarse-grained sediments. Permafrost refractions were identified along permafrost, which does not extend seaward of 30 km offshore or beyond the 20 m isobath.

  11. Carbon budget in East China Sea in spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Tsunghung; Wanninkhof, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.; Hung, Jiajang [NSYSU, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Millero, F.J. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry]|[Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Results of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements made in the East China Sea (ECS) during a geochemical expedition of KEEP (Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes) program in May of 1996 show that ECS is a CO{sub 2} sink during the spring season. The mean difference of fCO{sub 2} (fugacity of CO{sub 2}) between the atmosphere and surface water is calculated to be 28 {mu}atm, and the resulting net CO{sub 2} invasion flux is 2.1 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, which gives about 0.03 GtC/yr of CO{sub 2} uptake in this continental shelf in spring. This study supports the notion that the shelf regions can be a significant CO{sub 2} sink. The riverine alkalinity, which discharges into ECS, is estimated to be 1,743 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} on the basis of a linear relationship between TA and salinity. The observed salinity-normalized alkalinity in ECS is higher than that in the open sea, and this excess alkalinity is estimated to be 42 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}. With the known rate of the Changjiang discharge, this excess TA gives a mean residence time of 1.2 years for the continental shelf water in the ECS. The DIC in the ECS is also found to be higher than that in the open sea. This excess DIC is estimated to be about 76 {+-} 70 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}, which is equal to a net carbon input to ECS of 3.9 {+-} 3.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Based on the riverine alkalinity input, the equivalent riverine carbon flux from Changjiang discharge is estimated to be about 1.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. With net CO{sub 2} invasion flux of 2.1 {+-} 2.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, the remaining 0 {+-} 4.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} could come from remineralization of organic matter derived from biological pump in the shelf or terrestrial sources. Although this preliminary carbon budget implies that gas exchange and riverine input are the main sources of excess carbon in ECS, the contribution of biological carbon flux can not be ruled out because of the large uncertainty

  12. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Daryabor

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  13. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  14. Assessing the phenomenology of the Cretan Sea shelf area using coupling modelling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Triantafyllou

    Full Text Available In this work the ability of nesting two hydrodynamical models, the high-resolution Cretan Sea shelf model and the lower resolution regional ALERMO model, was investigated. A new database was developed by objectively analysing raw climatological data from the MODB database enriched with in situ measurements collected by the Institute of Marine Biology of Crete. Prior to nesting with the ALERMO model, the Cretan Sea model was integrated using this new hydrological database, in order to investigate the capability of the model setup to describe the phenomenology of the Cretan Sea. Results show that the model can successfully reproduce the complex general circulation characteristics of the area, such as the dipole of a cyclone and an anticyclone, and the flow reversal between winter and summer. As a next step, the shelf-model was one-way nested with the ALERMO model and was integrated on a climatological basis. The evolution of the circulation characteristics of the Cretan Sea was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, against the results of the regional model, and proved that the nesting between the two models can provide reliable information while overcoming at the same time the computational constraints imposed by high-resolution models.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; numerical modelling – Oceanography: physical (general circulation

  15. Estimating peak response frequencies in a tidal band in the seas adjacent to China with a numerical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xinmei; FANG Guohong; TENG Fei; WU Di

    2015-01-01

    A numerical method is designed to examine the response properties of real sea areas to open ocean forcing. The application of this method to modeling the China's adjacent seas shows that the Bohai Sea has a highest peak response frequency (PRF) of 1.52 d−1; the northern Yellow Sea has a PRF of 1.69 d−1; the Gyeonggi Bay has a high amplitude gain plateau in the frequency band roughly from 1.7 to 2.7 d−1; the Yellow Sea (includ-ing the Gyeonggi Bay), the East China Sea shelf and the Taiwan Strait have a common high amplitude gain band with frequencies around 1.76 to 1.78 d−1 and are shown to be a system that responds to the open ocean forcing in favor of amplifying the waves with frequencies in this band; the Beibu Gulf, the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea deep basin have PRFs of 0.91, 1.01 and 0.98 d−1 respectively. In addition, the East China Sea has a Poincare mode PRF of 3.91 d−1. The PRFs of the Bohai Sea, the northern Yellow Sea, the Bei-bu Gulf and the South China Sea can be explained by a classical quarter (half for the Bohai Sea) wavelength resonance theory. The results show that further investigations are needed for the response dynamics of the Yellow Sea-East China Sea-Taiwan Strait system, the East China Sea Poincare mode, the Taiwan Strait, and the Gulf of Thailand.

  16. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041). BOEMRE... Final EIS, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea Planning Area (OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-026). BOEMRE...

  17. Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by climatic and sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental changes influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid climate in the hinterland and sea-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid climate and sea-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by climatic changes and relative sea-level fluctuations at the end of the early

  18. Fluxes of particulate organic carbon in the East China Sea in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand carbon cycling in marginal seas better, particulate organic carbon (POC concentrations, POC fluxes and primary production (PP were measured in the East China Sea (ECS in summer 2007. Higher concentrations of POC were observed in the inner shelf, and lower POC values were found in the outer shelf. Similar to POC concentrations, elevated uncorrected POC fluxes (720–7300 mg C m−2 d−1 were found in the inner shelf, and lower POC fluxes (80–150 mg C m−2 d−1 were in the outer shelf, respectively. PP values (~ 340–3380 mg C m−2 d−1 had analogous distribution patterns to POC fluxes, while some of PP values were significantly lower than POC fluxes, suggesting that contributions of resuspended particles to POC fluxes need to be appropriately corrected. A vertical mixing model was used to correct effects of bottom sediment resuspension, and the lowest and highest corrected POC fluxes were in the outer shelf (58 ± 33 mg C m−2 d−1 and the inner shelf (785 ± 438 mg C m−2 d−1, respectively. The corrected POC fluxes (486 to 785 mg C m−2 d−1 in the inner shelf could be the minimum value because we could not exactly distinguish the effect of POC flux from Changjiang influence with turbid waters. The results suggest that 27–93% of the POC flux in the ECS might be from the contribution of resuspension of bottom sediments rather than from the actual biogenic carbon sinking flux. While the vertical mixing model is not a perfect model to solve sediment resuspension because it ignores biological degradation of sinking particles, Changjiang plume (or terrestrial inputs and lateral transport, it makes significant progress in both correcting the resuspension problem and in assessing a reasonable quantitative estimate of POC flux in a marginal sea.

  19. Analysis of Cu, Cd, Co and Ni in surface water of the Kuroshio area in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Gong, Min; Lu, Yong; Ruan, Zheng; Qiu, Huaying; Wang, Hong; Takeshi, Sagi

    1992-09-01

    Study of 1986 and 1987 heavy metal distribution in surface water of the Kuroshio area in the East China Sea showed regional and slight seasonal variations in distribution and concentration. Heavy metal levels in Taiwan Strait, the sea area north of Taiwan and the continental shelf are higher than those in the main axis of the Kuroshio. Dissolved Cu in summer and winter decreases with the increase of salinity, but dissolved Cd has no obvious change with salinity.

  20. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  1. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  2. Unstructured grid modelling of offshore wind farm impacts on seasonally stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Pierre William; Torres, Ricardo; Allen, J. Icarus

    2016-06-01

    Shelf seas comprise approximately 7% of the world's oceans and host enormous economic activity. Development of energy installations (e.g. Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs), tidal turbines) in response to increased demand for renewable energy requires a careful analysis of potential impacts. Recent remote sensing observations have identified kilometre-scale impacts from OWFs. Existing modelling evaluating monopile impacts has fallen into two camps: small-scale models with individually resolved turbines looking at local effects; and large-scale analyses but with sub-grid scale turbine parameterisations. This work straddles both scales through a 3D unstructured grid model (FVCOM): wind turbine monopiles in the eastern Irish Sea are explicitly described in the grid whilst the overall grid domain covers the south-western UK shelf. Localised regions of decreased velocity extend up to 250 times the monopile diameter away from the monopile. Shelf-wide, the amplitude of the M2 tidal constituent increases by up to 7%. The turbines enhance localised vertical mixing which decreases seasonal stratification. The spatial extent of this extends well beyond the turbines into the surrounding seas. With significant expansion of OWFs on continental shelves, this work highlights the importance of how OWFs may impact coastal (e.g. increased flooding risk) and offshore (e.g. stratification and nutrient cycling) areas.

  3. Delimitation of the continental shelf and exclusive economic Zone the Sea Border between Romania and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mereuţă

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision I.C.J. from The Hague, since 3rd February 2009, in the case of “Romania vs. Ukraine - the maritime delimitation in the Black Sea”, has an important role in bilateral relations and regional plans of the riparian states and thus also eliminating a potential factor of instability at the sea border between the two countries and in the Black Sea. Drawing a line of demarcation equitable maritime economic zone and continental shelf between the two countries was an example of dispute settlement in the wider Black Sea area. Snake Island was not considered relevant in substantiating the court decision, because the I.C.J. has not declared it a rock, giving it a length of 12 nautical miles territorial sea and has not ruled on the nature of this formation, in accordance with the provisions of art. 121 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982.

  4. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the current state of net community production (NCP in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmoles kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt, terrestrial inputs, and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmoles kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production and calcium carbonate formation between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28 ± 9 mmoles C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmoles C m−2 d−1 were observed in the "Green Belt" where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total NCP across the shelf was on the order of ~96 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming more or less productive. However, as changing climate continues to modify the character of the Bering Sea, we have shown that NCP can be an important indicator of how the ecosystem is functioning.

  5. Active seafloor gas vents on the Shelf and upper Slope in Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Blasco, S.; Taylor, A. E.; Melling, H.; Vagle, S.; Conway, K.; Riedel, M.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In the Canadian Arctic shelf and upper slope, a thermal disturbance caused by sea level rise at the end of the last glacial period, is still propagating into the subsurface and heating shelf sediments, where submerged terrestrial permafrost and gas hydrate, and marine gas hydrate are believed to occur in close proximity. On-going studies show evidence of gas venting in association with three distinct environments: Pingo-Like-Features (PLF) on the mid-shelf; along the shelf edge near the 100m contour; and ~1 km wide circular topographic features on the upper continental slope. Observations with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) show that methane is venting vigorously over point sources on the PLF's on the mid-shelf, and diffusely along the shelf edge. The stable isotopic composition of methane emanating from these environments indicates a microbial origin for the venting gas. Their negligible radiocarbon content indicates a geological source, as opposed to methangenisis associated with modern sediments. This is consistent with the change in the thermal regime produced by the last transgression. During glacial periods lower sea level exposed the current shelf to frigid sub-aerial temperatures. As a result, some areas of the shelf are underlain by >600m of ice-bonded permafrost with the base of methane hydrate stability at >1000m depths. The marine transgression imposed a change in mean annual surface temperature from -15°C or lower, to mean annual sea bottom temperatures near 0°C. The thermal disturbance is still propagating into the subsurface, stimulating the decomposition of both terrestrial permafrost and gas hydrate at depth and liberating methane. The PLF vents are believed to be sourced from the top of the gas hydrate stability field, while the gas emanating along the shelf edge can be from the decomposition of gas trapped in the permafrost or gas-hydrate underneath the continental shelf. The occurrence of water column flares over the distinctive circular

  6. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  7. Prospects for improving the representation of coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; New, Adrian; Liu, Hedong; Coward, Andrew; Ashworth, Mike; Pickles, Stephen; Harle, James; Siddorn, John

    2013-04-01

    The ability to accurately represent coastal and shelf seas in global scale ocean models represents one of the on-going challenges of ocean modelling, particularly when the global model is to be used in biogeochemical, climate and Earth System simulations. The motivation for this is, however, wide ranging and includes both upscaling and downscaling issues. The dynamic motivation includes dense water formation on high latitude shelves and cascading into the deeper ocean, lateral frictional/mixing effects, pinch points and exchange regions, whereas the biogeochemical motivation include carbon and nutrient cycling, shelf-ocean exchanges and land-sea coupling. Moreover, society interacts with the ocean at a local/regional scale for example through the exploitation of Living Marine Resources and the drive to achieve and maintain Good Environmental Status. Hence, global assessments of vulnerability to climate change and other large scale drivers require information at the scale of this interaction. Here, we review the physical processes prevalent in shelf seas globally and their scales, and provide a baseline assessment of three global model configurations (NEMO at resolutions of 1, 1/4 and 1/12 deg.) and a regional model (NEMO AMM7;~7km resolution) focusing on the NW European continental shelf. Then we discuss the options for improving on this position based on current and prospective modelling approaches. We contrast structured and unstructured (finite element and finite volume) approaches, highlighting some novel ways forward for both, including generalised grid methods and global nesting approaches. We conclude that a single solution is not available currently or on intermediate timescales that can accommodate both upscaling and downscaling for both the dynamics and biogeochemistry, particularly in an Earth Systems context; as is often the case the choice of approach remains context dependent. Instead, we match the various options with the original motivations and

  8. Hydrodynamic and Thermohaline Seasonal Structures of Peninsular Malaysia's eastern continental shelf sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew

    2010-05-01

    The seasonal ocean circulation and the seasonal thermal structure in Peninsular Malaysia's eastern continental shelf sea were studied numerically using the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with 18-km horizontal resolution and 50 sigma levels conforming to a realistic bottom topography. A 10-year control run was performed using climatological monthly mean wind stresses, restoring-type surface salt, temp and heat, and observational oceanic inflow/outflow at the open boundaries. The seasonally averaged effects of isolated forcing terms are presented and analyzed from the following experiments: 1) heat fluxes effects removed and 2) wind effects removed. This procedure allowed analysis of the contribution of individual parameters to the general hydrology and specific features of the Peninsular Malaysia's eastern continental shelf sea: for example, coastal jets, mesoscale topographic gyres, and countercurrents. The results show that the ROMS model has the capability of simulating seasonal variations of the Peninsular Malaysia's eastern continental shelf sea circulation and thermohaline structure. The simulated Peninsular Malaysia's eastern continental shelf sea surface circulation is generally anticyclonic (cyclonic) during the summer (winter) monsoon period with a strong western boundary current, a mean maximum speed of 0.8 m s-1 (0.5 m s-1), and extending to a depth of around 30 m (40 m). During summer, the western boundary current splits and partially leaves the coast; the bifurcation point is at 40°N in Jun and shifts north to 70°N in July. A mesoscale eddy on the Sunda shelf, the southwest of Natuna Island at (2.50°N, 1060°E) and extending to two mesoscale eddy at (20°N, 1070°E) and (2.50°N, 1090°E) also on the Gulf of Thailand (7.50°N, 1040°E), was also simulated. These eddies are cyclonic (anticyclonic) with maximum swirl velocity of 0.3 m s-1 at the peak of the summer (winter) monsoon. The simulated thermohaline structure for summer and winter are

  9. Diversity of the benthic macrofauna off northern Namibia from the shelf to the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Simone; Zettler, Michael L.

    2016-03-01

    In late summer 2011, shortly after an upwelling event, 17 stations ranging from 30 to 2513 m water depth have been sampled at 20° south in the northern part of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) for the investigation of the benthic macrofauna. Sediments of this area are dominated by silt. At the time of sampling, oxygen conditions on the shelf were poor (between 0.42 and 0.68 ml l- 1) but not hypoxic. Below 400 m, however, concentrations rose steadily up to 5.28 ml l- 1. Macrozoobenthic communities along this depth gradient are described, revealing among others the community structure for the continental margin area and the deep sea off northern Namibia for the first time. Cluster analysis revealed 5 different communities along the depth gradient with three shelf communities, one continental margin community and one deep-sea community. All in all, 314 different taxa were found with polychaetes being the most abundant group. Diversity index (Shannon) was lowest for the shallow water community with 2.21 and highest for the deep-sea community with 4.79, showing a clear trend with increasing water depth. Species richness, however, reached its maximum with 187 taxa along the continental margin between 400 and 1300 m water depth. Dominant species for each community are named with the two Cumacea, Iphinoeafricana and Upselaspis caparti, being characteristic for the shallow water community. On the shelf, we found surprisingly high biomass values (23-123 g m- 2), mainly caused by polychaetes, the bivalve Sinupharus galatheae and the gastropod Nassarius vinctus. In terms of composition, the remaining communities were dominated by polychaetes with members of the Paraonidae dominating along the continental margin where we also found surprisingly high abundances of the bivalves Pecten sp. and Dosinia sp. Spionid polychaetes and some representatives of the genus Paraonis were the most common organisms for the deep-sea community.

  10. Advantages of vertically adaptive coordinates in numerical models of stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter; Klingbeil, Knut; Burchard, Hans

    2015-08-01

    Shelf seas such as the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are characterised by spatially and temporally varying stratification that is highly relevant for their physical dynamics and the evolution of their ecosystems. Stratification may vary from unstably stratified (e.g., due to convective surface cooling) to strongly stratified with density jumps of up to 10 kg/m3 per m (e.g., in overflows into the Baltic Sea). Stratification has a direct impact on vertical turbulent transports (e.g., of nutrients) and influences the entrainment rate of ambient water into dense bottom currents which in turn determine the stratification of and oxygen supply to, e.g., the central Baltic Sea. Moreover, the suppression of the vertical diffusivity at the summer thermocline is one of the limiting factors for the vertical exchange of nutrients in the North Sea. Due to limitations of computational resources and since the locations of such density jumps (either by salinity or temperature) are predicted by the model simulation itself, predefined vertical coordinates cannot always reliably resolve these features. Thus, all shelf sea models with a predefined vertical coordinate distribution are inherently subject to under-resolution of the density structure. To solve this problem, Burchard and Beckers (2004) and Hofmeister et al. (2010) developed the concept of vertically adaptive coordinates for ocean models, where zooming of vertical coordinates at locations of strong stratification (and shear) is imposed. This is achieved by solving a diffusion equation for the position of the coordinates (with the diffusivity being proportional to the stratification or shear frequencies). We will show for a coupled model system of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea (resolution ˜ 1.8 km) how numerical mixing is substantially reduced and model results become significantly more realistic when vertically adaptive coordinates are applied. We additionally demonstrate that vertically adaptive coordinates perform well

  11. Slope Edge Deformation and Permafrost Dynamics Along the Arctic Shelf Edge, Beaufort Sea, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.

    2015-12-01

    The shelf of the Canadian Beaufort Sea is underlain by relict offshore permafrost that formed in the long intervals of terrestrial exposure during glacial periods. At the shelf edge the permafrost thins rapidly and also warms. This area has a very distinct morphology that we attribute to both the formation and degradation of ice bearing permafrost. Positive relief features include circular to oval shaped topographic mounds, up to 10 m high and ~50 m in diameter which occur at a density of ~6 per km2. Intermixed are circular topographic depressions up to 20 m deep. This topography was investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle that provides 1 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and chirp profiles, a remotely operated vehicle to document seafloor textures, and sediment cores to sample pore waters. A consistent down-core freshening at rates of 14 to 96 mM Cl- per meter was found in these pore waters near the shelf edge. Downward extrapolation of these trends indicates water with ≤335 mM Cl- should occur at 2.3 to 22.4 m sub-seafloor depths within this shelf edge deformation band. Pore water with 335 mM Cl- or less freezes at -1.4°C. As bottom water temperatures in this area are persistently (<-1.4°C) cold and ground ice was observed in some core samples, we interpret the volume changes associated with mound formation are in part due to pore water freezing. Thermal models (Taylor et al., 2014) predict brackish water along the shelf edge may be sourced in relict permafrost melting under the adjacent continental shelf. Buoyant brackish water is hypothesized to migrate along the base of the relict permafrost, to emerge at the shelf edge and then refreeze when it encounters the colder seafloor. Expansion generated by the formation of ice-bearing permafrost generates the positive relief mounds and ridges. The associated negative relief features may be related to permafrost dynamics also. Permafrost dynamics may have geohazard implications that are unique to the

  12. Characteristics of bivalve diversity in typical habitats of China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Xu; Junlong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    With vast sea areas, long coastline and complex environmental conditions, the China seas contain various habitats for bivalves. The diversity characteristics of some typical habitats can reflect the molluscan fauna of China seas. Based on our years of work and records from malacologists home and abroad, the bi-valve diversity, habitats and ecological habits in different environments are described, and the distribution characters in different sea areas are analysed. Due to the effects of coast...

  13. A towed sea-bed gamma-ray spectrometer for continental shelf surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sea-bed gamma-ray spectrometer has been developed and towed on the continental shelf of the United Kingdom for more than 10000km at speeds of up to 7 knots. The gamma-ray detecting probe is enclosed in a long flexible tube or 'eel' which minimizes the risk of snagging on sea-bed obstacles. The 'eel' is towed from a purpose-built winch mounted on board the survey vessel, and the associated control, analysis and recording facilities are housed within the ship's laboratory. The radiometric data are recorded in both analogue and digital form, and later processed to produce contour maps of the total gamma-ray activity, and the potassium, uranium and thorium activities of the sea-bed. Comparisons between radiometric and acoustic data are presented together with the results of a spectrometer survey in the Bristol Channel. (author)

  14. A Note on the South China Sea Shallow Interocean Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The existing estimates of the volume transport from the Pacific Ocean to the South China Sea are summarized, showing an annual mean westward transport, with the Taiwan Strait outflow subtracted, of 3.5±2.0 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1). Results of a global ocean circulation model show an annual mean transport of 3.9 Sv from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean through the South China Sea. The boreal winter transport is larger and exhibits a South China Sea branch of the Pacific-to-Indian Ocean throughflow, which originates from the western Philippine Sea toward the Indonesian Seas through the South China Sea, as well as through the Karimata and Mindoro Straits. The southwestward current near the continental slope of the northern South China Sea is shown to be a combination of this branch and the interior circulation gyre.This winter branch can be confirmed by trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters, which clearly show a flow from the Luz6n Strait to the Karimata Strait in winter. In summer, the flow in the Karimata Strait is reversed. Numerical model results indicate that the Pacific water can enter the South China Sea and exit toward the Sulu Sea, but no observational evidence is available. The roles of the throughflow branch in the circulation, water properties and air-sea exchange of the South China Sea, and in enhancing and regulating the volume transport and reducing the heat transport of the Indonesian Throughflow, are discussed.

  15. Diatom assemblages in surface sediments from the South China Sea as environmental indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; GAO Yahui; FANG Qi; CHEN Changping; LAN Binbin; SUN Lin; LAN Dongzhao

    2013-01-01

    We studied diatom distribution from 62 samples from the uppermost 1 cm of sediment in the South China Sea (SCS),using grabs or box corers in three cruises between 2001-2007.Fifty six genera,256 species and their varieties were identified.Dominating species included Coscinodiscus africanus,Coscinodiscus nodulifer,Cyclotella stylorum,Hemidiscus cuneiformis,Melosira sulcata,Nitzschia marina,Roperia tesselata,Thalassionema nitzschioides,Thalassiosira excentrica,and Thalassiothrix longissima.Most surface sediments in the SCS were rich in diatoms,except for a few coarse samples.Average diatom abundance in the study area was 104 607 valve/g.In terms of the abundance,ecology,and spatial distribution,seven diatom zones (Zones 1-7) were recognized.Zone 1 (northern continental shelf)is affected by warm currents,SCS northern branch of the Kuroshio,and northern coastal currents; Zone 2 (northwestern continental shelf) is affected by intense coastal currents; Zone 3 (Xisha Islands sea area) is a bathyal environment with transitional water masses; Zone 4 (sea basin) is a bathyal-to-deep sea with stable and uniform central water masses in a semi-enclosed marginal sea; Zone 5 (Nansha Islands marine area) is a pelagic environment with relatively high surface temperature; Zone 6 (northern Sunda Shelf) is a tropical shelf environment; and Zone 7 (northern Kalimantan Island shelf area) is affected by warm waters from the Indian Ocean and coastal waters.The data indicate that these diatom zones are closely related to topography,hydrodynamics,temperature,nutrients and especially the salinity.Better understanding of the relationship between diatom distribution and the oceanographic factors would help in the reconstruction of the SCS in the past.

  16. Deep-water Fan Systems and Petroleum Resources on the Northern Slope of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiong; YANG Shaokun; ZHU Ming; LI Jinsong

    2004-01-01

    The shallow shelf delta/strand arenaceous-pelitic deposit region in the north of the Pearl River mouth basin,sitting on the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea, has already become an important oil production base in China. Recent researched has revealed that a great deal of deep-water fans of great petroleum potentiality exist on the Baiyun deep-water slope below the big palco Pearl River and its large delta. Based on a mass of exploration wells and 2-D seismic data of the shallow shelf region, a interpretation of sequence stratigraphy confirmed the existence of deep-water fans. The cyclic falling of sea level, abundant detrital matter from the paleo Pearl River and the persistent geothermal subsidence in the Baiyun sag are the three prerequisites for the formation and development of deep-water fans. There are many in common between the deep-water shelf depositional system of the northern South China Sea and the exploration hotspots region on the two banks of the Atlantic. For example, both are located on passive continent margins, and persistent secular thermal subsidence and large palco rivers have supplied abundant material sources and organic matter.More recently, the discovery of the big gas pool on the northern slope of the Baiyun sag confirms that the Lower Tertiary lacustrine facies in the Baiyun sag has a great potentiality of source rocks. The fans overlying the Lower Tertiary source rocks should become the main exploration areas for oil and gas resources.

  17. Tectonics of Chukchi Sea Shelf sedimentary basins and its influence on petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Antonina, Stoupakova; Anna, Suslova; Yury, Karpov

    2016-04-01

    The Chukchi Sea Shelf placed in the East Arctic offshore of Russia between East Siberian Sea Shelf and North Slope Alaska. The Chukchi margin is considered as high petroleum potential play. The major problem is absence of core material from drilling wells in Russian part of Chukchi Shelf, hence strong complex geological and geophysical analyses such as seismic stratigraphy interpretation should be provided. In addition, similarity to North Slope and Beaufort Basins (North Chukchi) and Hope Basin (South Chukchi) allow to infer the resembling sedimentary succession and petroleum systems. The Chukchi Sea Shelf include North and South Chukchi Basins, which are separated by Wrangel-Herald Arch and characterized by different opening time. The North Chukchi basin is formed as a general part of Canada Basin opened in Early Cretaceous. The South Chukchi Basin is characterized by a transtensional origin of the basin, this deformation related to motion on the Kobuk Fault [1]. Because seismic reflections follow chronostratigraphic correlations, it is possible to achieve stratigraphic interpretation. The main seismic horizons were indicated as: PU, JU, LCU, BU, mBU marking each regional unconformities. Reconstruction of main tectonic events of basin is important for building correct geological model. Since there are no drilling wells in the North and South Chukchi basins, source rocks could not be proven. Referring to the North Chukchi basin, source rocks equivalents of Lower Cretaceous Pebble Shale Formation, Lower Jurassic Kingdak shales and Upper Triassic Shublik Formation (North Slope) is possible exhibited [2]. In the South Chukchi, it is possible that Cretaceous source rocks could be mature for hydrocarbon generation. Erosions and uplifts that could effect on hydrocarbon preservation was substantially in Lower Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods. Most of the structures may be connected with fault and stratigraphy traps. The structure formed at Wrangel-Herald Arch to

  18. Effects of seasonal and interannual variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf transport on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestfals, Cathleen D.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Ladd, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea responds rapidly to atmospheric perturbations and over the past several decades has experienced extreme variability in both its physical and biological characteristics. These changes can impact organisms that inhabit the region, particularly marine fishes, as normal current patterns to which reproductive habits are tuned can be disrupted, which, in turn, may influence recruitment and population dynamics. To understand the influence of ocean circulation on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea, we examined transport along and across the Bering Slope derived from 23 years (1982-2004) of simulations from a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) ocean circulation model. We expected that changes in the strength and position of the Bering Slope Current (BSC) would affect recruitment in selected species (Pacific cod, walleye pollock, Greenland halibut, Pacific halibut, and arrowtooth flounder), and that circulation features along and across the shelf edge would be strongly influenced by atmospheric forcing. Variability in along-shelf transport at three transects along the path of the BSC, cross-shelf transport across the 100 and 200 m isobaths, and transport through Unimak Pass were examined. Strong seasonal and interannual variations in flow were observed, with transport typically highest during fall and winter months, coinciding with timing of spawning activity in the five species. Significant correlations were found between transport, BSC position, and groundfish recruitment. Pacific cod, in particular, benefitted from decreased along-shelf and on-shelf flow, while Pacific halibut recruitment increased in relation to increased on-shelf transport through southern canyons. The results of this study improve our understanding of variability in circulation and associated effects on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea.

  19. Shelf erosion and submarine river canyons: implications for deep-sea oxygenation and ocean productivity during glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsandev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The areal exposure of continental shelves during glacial sea level lowering enhanced the transfer of erodible reactive organic matter to the open ocean. Sea level fall also activated submarine canyons thereby allowing large rivers to deposit their particulate load, via gravity flows, directly in the deep-sea. Here, we analyze the effects of shelf erosion and particulate matter re-routing to the open ocean during interglacial to glacial transitions, using a coupled model of the marine phosphorus, organic carbon and oxygen cycles. The results indicate that shelf erosion and submarine canyon formation may significantly lower deep-sea oxygen levels, by up to 25%, during sea level low stands, mainly due to the supply of new material from the shelves, and to a lesser extent due to particulate organic matter bypassing the coastal zone. Our simulations imply that deep-sea oxygen levels can drop significantly if eroded shelf material is deposited to the seafloor. Thus the glacial ocean's oxygen content could have been significantly lower than during interglacial stages. Primary production, organic carbon burial and dissolved phosphorus inventories are all affected by the erosion and rerouting mechanisms. However, re-routing of the continental and eroded shelf material to the deep-sea has the effect of decoupling deep-sea oxygen demand from primary productivity in the open ocean. P burial is also not affected showing a disconnection between the biogeochemical cycles in the water column and the P burial record.

  20. Air–sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea based on multiple-year underway observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-H. Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports thus far a most comprehensive dataset of surface seawater pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2 and the associated air–sea CO2 fluxes in a major ocean margin, the East China Sea (ECS based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006 to 2011. We showed highly dynamic spatial variability of sea surface pCO2 in the ECS except in winter when it ranged in a narrow band of 330 to 360 μatm. In this context, we categorized the ECS into five different domains featured with different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The five domains are (I the outer Changjiang estuary and Changjiang plume, (II the Zhejiang–Fujian coast, (III the northern ECS shelf, (IV the middle ECS shelf, and (V the southern ECS shelf. In spring and summer, pCO2 off the Changjiang estuary was as low as 400 μatm in fall. pCO2 along the Zhejiang–Fujian coast was low in spring, summer and winter (300 to 350 μatm but was relatively high in fall (> 350 μatm. In the northern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer and fall was > 340 μatm in most areas, higher than in winter and spring. In the middle and southern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer ranged from 380 to 400 μatm, which was higher than in other seasons (2 flux in the entire ECS shelf was −10.0 ± 2.0 mmol m−2 d−1 in winter, −11.7 ± 3.6 mmol m−2 d−1 in spring, −3.5 ± 4.6 mmol m−2 d−1 in summer and −2.3 ± 3.1 mmol m−2 d−1 in fall. It is important to note that the standard deviations in these flux ranges mostly reflect the spatial variation of pCO2, which differ from the spatial variance nor the bulk uncertainty. Nevertheless, on an annual basis, the average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was −6.9 ± 4.0 mmol m−2 d−1, about twice the global average in ocean margins.

  1. Sinking particle flux in the sea ice zone of the Amundsen Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyoung; Hwang, Jeomshik; Kim, Hyung J.; Kim, Dongseon; Yang, Eun J.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Hyoung, S. La; Lee, Sang H.; Park, Jisoo; Lee, SangHoon

    2015-07-01

    We have examined the flux, biogenic composition, and isotopic values of sinking particles collected by a time-series sediment trap deployed in the sea ice zone (SIZ) of the Amundsen Sea from January 2011 for 1 year. The major portion of the particle flux occurred during the austral summer in January and February when sea ice concentration was reduced to 30%) and a low bio-Si/POC ratio (relatively high (30-50%) content of the non-biogenic components. When compared with POC flux inside the Amundsen Sea polynya obtained by the US Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE), the POC flux integrated over the austral summer in the SIZ was virtually identical, although the maximum POC flux was approximately half that inside the Amundsen Sea polynya. This comparatively high POC flux integrated over the austral summer in the SIZ may be caused by phytoplankton blooms persisting over a longer periods and more efficient export of organic matter potentially owing to the diatom-dominant plankton community. If this observation is a general phenomenon on the Amundsen Shelf, the role of the SIZ, compared with the polynyas, need to be examined more carefully when trying to characterize the POC export in this region.

  2. 东海内陆架春季跃层和内波影响下的环境要素分布%INFLUENCE OF STRATIFICATION AND INTERNAL WAVES ON DISTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF SEAWATER ON THE EAST CHINA SEA INNER CONTINENTAL SHELF IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪嘉宁; 魏皓; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    基于东海内陆架P2连续站春季流速和环境要素的观测数据,发现该站存在由浙闽沿岸水系和陆架混合水系界面形成的较强跃层,跃层的浮频率在1×10^-3S-2左右。跃层上下水体的温盐值变化和流场的变化有相关关系。环境要素在跃层的影响下呈现显著的分层结构,说明跃层对环境要素的垂直交换起到了限制作用。同时跃层的存在也为内波的产生提供了条件,斜压结构主要由具有半日潮频率的内潮:和近惯性频率的内波组成。在观测开始和结束时刻,跃层深度显著抬升,跃层中存在Rf-1大于4的情况,这与叶绿素溶解氧跨跃层现象存在的时刻对应,说明这两个时刻水体由于内波活动改变了跃层深度并存在剪切不稳定的情况,进而引起了水体的垂向交换,为环境要素的跨跃层混合提供了条件。跃层和内波分别对环境要素的垂直混合起到了阻碍和加强的作用。%Based on the measurements of the velocity and the environmental factors of seawater at the P2 anchor station on the East China Sea inner continental shelf in spring, it was found that strong stratification (with a value of buoyancy frequency of 1 × 10-3 s-2) is caused by the interface between coastal water and shelf mixing water. The variations of temperature and salinity in the water column are related to the flow field. Under the influence of stratification, distribution of environmental factors presents a two-layered structure, above and below the pycnocline. Internal waves consisted of semidiurnal internal tides and near inertial waves are simultaneously generated by the stratification. The time when stratification layer jumps up and Ri-1 〉4 exists in the pycnocline corresponds to that when cross-stratification of chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen takes place. This indicates internal waves provide environmental factors that energize the cross-stratification mixing

  3. Primary productivity and export fluxes on the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Diane; Macdonald, Robie W.; Denman, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    We present a coupled sea ice-ocean-biological (including ice algae) model in the Arctic Ocean. The 1D model was developed and implemented on the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf to examine the importance of different physical processes in controlling the timing and magnitude of primary production and biogenic particle export over an annual cycle (1987). Our results show that the snow and sea ice cover melt and/or break-up controls the timing of the phytoplankton bloom but primary producers (ice algae and phytoplankton) on the outer shelf are essentially nutrient limited. The total annual primary production (22.7 to 27.7 g-C m - 2 ) is thus controlled by nutrient "pre-conditioning" in the previous fall and winter and by the depth of wind mixing that is controlled in part by the supply of fresh water at the end of spring (ice melt or runoff). The spring bloom represents about 40% of the total annual primary production and occurs in a period of the year when sampling is often lacking. Time interpolation of observed values to obtain total annual primary production, as done in many studies, was shown to lead to an underestimation of the actual production. Our simulated ratios of export to primary production vary between 0.42 and 0.44.

  4. An investigation of internal mixing in a seasonally stratified shelf sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew R.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Simpson, John H.

    2008-12-01

    The shelf sea seasonal thermocline is a critical interface within the marine environment, separating the euphotic zone from nutrient-rich deep water. Fluxes across the thermocline therefore represent a key biogeochemical pathway. In this paper we quantify the rate of mixing across the seasonal thermocline for a location in the Celtic Sea and investigate the processes responsible for driving thermocline fluxes. Profiles of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) show enhanced dissipation within the thermocline region (˜6 × 10-5 W m-3). The diffusivity implied by these measurements is ˜0.5 cm2 s-1, similar to previous shelf sea studies, and is sufficient to explain the observed warming of the deep water, suggesting that vertical mixing is the dominant control on water column structure. Two potential sources of mixing energy are identified, the internal tide and near-inertial waves. The mechanism of energy transfer from the candidate mixing mechanisms to turbulence is not clear. Thermocline dissipation rates were found to have no Richardson number dependence, but scaled positively with N2 and S2, in agreement with a previous turbulence parameterization. Application of this model to our data does a good job of capturing the mean characteristics of the observed heating flux across the thermocline, although none of the short-term fluctuations in mixing were reproduced.

  5. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  6. Sedimentation rate control on diagenesis, East China Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Diagenesis of ferrimagnetic minerals can alter the magnetic properties, erasing partially or entirely the original paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic signals, especially on continental margins where sedimentation rates are usually high. Understanding the mechanisms by which magnetic particles are affected by diagenesis is therefore critical for retrieving paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic information from sediments. High-resolution magnetic analysis was carried out on rapidly deposited (0.4-20 mm/year) Holocene sediments from the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf. The primary magnetic mineral assemblage in the sediment core contains ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite, with minor contributions from hematite. The magnetic properties vary down-core in two steps, due to post-depositional reductive diagenesis. The first occurs at depths of 0.15-1.1 m and is characterized by reduction of both magnetite and hematite in suboxic sediments. The suboxic-sulfate boundary (SSB) is therefore located at 1.1 m. We demonstrate that the depth of the SSB has negative relation to the average sedimentation rate in Chinese marginal seas. The second step change in magnetic properties occurs at 3.2-5.8 m, and contains two intervals with extremely low magnetic mineral content, each corresponding to dissolution fronts associated with the former and present position of the sulfate-methanic transition (SMT). These two intervals correlate well with abrupt changes in sedimentation rate and separate the anoxic zone into two parts: the sulfidic zone and the methanic zone. Our study suggests that sedimentation rate provides a dominant control on magnetic mineral diagenesis, at least in the Chinese marginal seas, which controls not only the type of redox zonation, but also the thicknesses of diagenetic zones.

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and distribution in the Ayeyarwady continental shelf, Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari Z.A.; Furtado, R.; Badesab, S.; Mehta, P.; Thwin, S.

    shelf, Andaman Sea (Figure 1). For the collection of macrofauna a Petersen grab of 0.1 m2 area was operated. All samples were subjected to sieving through a 0.5 mm sieve and animals retained on the sieve were preserved in 5% formalin Rose Bengal... solution on board the ship. Replicate samples were collected as far as possible. In the laboratory the animals were sorted out, enumerated group wise and wet weight biomass taken. Thus total density and total biomass of the different faunal group...

  8. GPS-drifters for study of water dynamics in the Black Sea shelf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Myslenkov, S. A.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Krayushkin, E. V.; Baranov, V. I.; Samsonov, T. E.; Kuklev, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the description of a monitoring system based on drifters equipped with GPSreceiver and cellular GSM. The system provides data about currents with a temporal and spatial resolution of 5-10 minutes and 100-200 m. The movement of the drifter can be observed in real time. Several experiments were conducted on the Black Sea shelf for identification of the advantages of the monitoring system. The results of experiments include a comparison of the drifter trajectories with bottom-tracked ADCP and towed ADCP data.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Laptev Sea Shelf Province was assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources (collectively referred to as petroleum) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 9,300 million barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 3,069 million barrels of crude oil, 32,252 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 861 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  10. The macro- and megabenthic fauna on the continental shelf of the eastern Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, Dave KA; Brandt, Angelika; Davey, Niki; David, Bruno; Grave, Sammy De; d'Udekem d'Acoz, Cédric; Eléaume, Marc; Glover, Adrian G.; Lenaïg G. Hemery; Mah, Christopher; Martín-Ledo, Rafael; Munilla, Tomás; O'Loughlin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the BIOPEARL II expedition on board of RRS James Clark Ross sailed to the eastern Amundsen Sea Embayment and Pine Island Bay, one of the least studied Antarctic continental shelf regions due to its remoteness and ice cover. A total of 37 Agassiz trawls were deployed at depth transects along the continental and trough slopes. A total of 5469 specimens, belonging to 32 higher taxonomic groups and more than 270 species, were collected. Species richness per station varied from 1 to 55. Th...

  11. DDTs and HCHs in sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian; Nizzetto, Luca; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected along the Yangtze-derived sediment transport pathway in the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) for OCP analysis. The sediment records of HCHs and DDTs in estuarine environment reflected remobilization of chemicals from enhanced soil erosion associated to extreme flood events or large scale land use transformation. The sediment records in the open sea, instead, reflected long-term historical trends of OCP application in the source region. Unlike the so-called mud wedge distribution of sediment, inventories of HCHs and DDTs slightly increased from the mouth of Yangtze River alongshore toward south, suggesting the sediment deposition rate was one of factors on the exposure of chemicals within the inner shelf of the ECS. Re-suspension and transport of the Yangtze-derived sediment and consequent fractionation in grain size and TOC were also responsible for the spatial variation of inventories of catchment derived OCPs in a major repository area of the Yangtze suspended sediment. The total burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the inner shelf of the ECS were 35tons and 110tons, respectively. After 1983 (year of the official ban in China), those values were 13tons and 50tons, respectively. It appears that the Yangtze still delivers relatively high inputs of DDTs more than 30years after the official ban. High proportions of DDD+DDE and β-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly originated from historical usage in the catchment recent years. PMID:26372941

  12. The modulation of the seasonal cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jin; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Liu, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the influence of the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) to cross-shelf sea surface slope by fitting an annual harmonic to temperature and salinity profiles from 1993 to 2012 and compares to the 20 year averaged altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA). The consistency within the bottom temperature, thermal steric height, total steric height, and altimetry observation validates that the cold pool induces a depressed sea level in the middle shelf overlapping with the dominant surface seasonal cycles. Temporally, the cold pool pattern is most apparent in July and August as a result of magnitude competition between the thermal and haline steric height. In addition, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is employed to reconstruct the altimetry SLA and reveals the middle-shelf depression pattern from single year's SLA data. The locations of the SLA depression from 1993 to 2012 agree with the cold pool locations identified from in situ measurements, suggesting a promising application of altimetry SLA in the cold pool study. Conclusively, this study reveals the modulation of the cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool, and contributes to the understanding of the sea level response to water masses on the continental shelf.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of the Synechococcus population in the East China Sea and its contribution to phytoplankton biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Kuo, Min-Chieh; Chang, Jeng; Wang, Ru-Huey; Gong, Gwo-Ching

    2002-01-01

    Variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of the Synechococcus population in the East China Sea were investigated in five cruises of the R/V Ocean Research I between May 1996 and October 1998. On the continental shelf, a two-phased (warm >20°C; and cold <20°C) seasonal cycle with 10-fold variation was found in the Synechococcus population. In the cold season (winter to late spring), when temperature is probably a limiting factor, a low density Synechococcus population was homogeneously distributed over the entire continental shelf. A dome-type spatial distribution pattern appeared in summer, that is, population densities were high toward the middle of the sea. This area of higher density moved toward the outer shelf in fall. No seasonal variation was found in the Coastal Water, probably because in summer the low transmission means that light is limited below the surface. The average carbon biomass of Synechococcus in the East China Sea ranged from 0.09 (early spring) to 0.90 gC m -2 (fall). Based on carbon biomass, Synechococcus accounted for less than 25% of the total photosynthetic plankton in cold season and about 50% in the warm season. Our results suggest that the cyanobacterium Synechococcus is a major contributor to the seasonal variation of phytoplankton in the East China Sea.

  14. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-07-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25–40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China.

  15. Dissolved Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the South China Sea surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Wenmian; Ji Weidong; Xu Kuncan

    2001-01-01

    A total of 106 surface water samples were collected in the South China Sea during two transects in June and December 1998. The samples were collected with strictly contamination free procedure and trace metals were measured by clean laboratory methods and GFAAS. The mean concentrations for the dissolved fractions are: Cu 0.100 μg/dm3, Pb 0.060 μg/dm3, Zn 0.086 μg/dm3, Cd 0.007 μg/dm3, which is close to the world open ocean's level. The spatial distribution of the trace heavy metals shows higher concentrations in offshore area and lower concentrations in the central in the South China Sea, and the concentrations decrease with the distance from the offshore, which suggests the existence of significant continental shelf input of the trace heavy metals. The correlationship among the elements is better in summer than that in winter. Cu is positively correlated with Cd in both seasons and it is also found for the first time that they are positively correlated with nutrients in the South China Sea surface waters which further indicate the biogeochemical cycle of these elements in the marine environment. The baseline value of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd in the South China Sea surface waters is obtained through statistical analysis.

  16. Distribution of nanoflagellates in five water masses of the East China Sea in autumn and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiquan; Huang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Zhisheng; Xiong, Yuan; Lu, Jiachang

    2016-02-01

    The variations of abundance, biomass and trophic structure of nanoflagellates (NF) among five typical water masses in the East China Sea were investigated in autumn (November 19-December 23, 2006) and winter (February 22-March 11, 2007). It was found that water mass had a significant impact on the distribution of NF. Either in autumn or in winter, the highest abundance and biomass of NF were recorded in the East China Sea Shelf Mixing Water (ECSSMW), and the lowest in the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW). While in the East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW), the abundance and biomass of both heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and pigmented phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNF) were only slightly higher than that in Taiwan Strait Water (TSW) and Kuroshio Surface Water (KSW). In respect to the seasonal variation, the abundance and biomass of NF in TSW declined in winter, while in other 4 water masses, they showed an increasing trend from autumn to winter, mainly due to the decrease (in TSW) or increase (in ECSCW, ECSSMW, KSW and KSSW) of HNF. The distribution pattern of abundance- or biomass-based PNF/HNF ratio was found to be correlated to the nutrient level of the water mass. Results of Pearson correlation analysis and principle component analysis indicated that PNF was mainly constrained by nutrient supply, and HNF was controlled by food availability in the East China Sea.

  17. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  18. Clay minerals and geochemistry of the bottom sediments in the northwestern East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals of 34 sediments collected from the northwestern continental shelf of the East China Sea have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineral distribution is mainly controlled by the sediment source and the dominant circulation pattern. The predominant clay mineral in our study area is illite comprising more than 67% of the whole clay fraction. The highest concentration of illite (>68%) is found in the southeastern offshore parts beyond the reach of terrigenous input from the Jeju Island. It means that these illites are largely transported by the Kuroshio Current from the South China Sea (SCS). Smectite is highly concentrated in the northwest middle part and in the outer-shelf mud patch. It seems to be due to the high supply of smectite transported from China where fine-grained sediments are discharged from modern and ancient Huanghe (Yellow) River. The relatively high abundant kaolinite is likely derived from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River via the Taiwan Warm Current. In contrast,large amounts of chlorite and high chlorite/kaolinite ratios occur in the northwestern area, reflecting the transportation by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current from the southern Yellow Sea. The discrimination diagrams clearly show that the sediments in the northwestern East China Sea are ultimately sourced from Chinese rivers, especially from the Huanghe River, whereas the sediment in the northeast part might come from the Jeju Island. The muddy sediments of the Changjiang River's submerged delta have much lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7162-0.7180) than those of the Shandong Peninsular mud wedge (0.7216-0.7249),which are supposed to be originated from the Huanghe River, suggesting the distribution pattern of 87Sr/86Sr ratios as a new tracer to discriminate the provenance of shelf sediments in the study area. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the outer-shelf muddy sediments ranged from 0.7169 to 0.7216 in a wide range and was between those of the Huanghe River and Changjiang

  19. Comparison among four kinds of data of sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 王卫强; 毛庆文

    2002-01-01

    By using remote sensing (ERS) data, FSU data, GOADS data and Hellerman & Rcsenstein objective analysis data to analyze the sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea, it is found that the remote sensing data have higher resolution and more reasonable values. Therefore we suggest that remote sensing data be chosen in the study of climatological features of sea surface wind stress and its seasonal variability in the South China Sea, especially in the study of small and middle scale eddies.

  20. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  1. Evolution to decay of upwelling and associated biogeochemistry over the southeastern Arabian Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. V. M.; Sudheesh, V.; Sudharma, K. V.; Saravanane, N.; Dhanya, V.; Dhanya, K. R.; Lakshmi, G.; Sudhakar, M.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Observations along 10 shelf transects in 2012 near 10°N in the southeastern Arabian Sea revealed the usual warm oligotrophic conditions during the winter monsoon and upwelling of oxygen-deficient, nutrient-rich cool water during the summer monsoon (SM). By changing an oligotrophic to a nutrient-replete condition, the upwelling is the major process that regulates the biogeochemistry of this shelf. Its onset is perceptible at 100 m depth between January and March. The upwelling reaches the surface layer in May and intensifies during June-July but withdraws completely and abruptly by October. Despite the nutrient injection, the primary production during SM, integrated for euphotic zone, is comparable to that during the preceding spring intermonsoon (SIM). Again, as usual, the high oxygen demand coupled with low concentration in the upwelled subsurface waters causes severe oxygen depletion below the shallow pycnocline. The oxygen concentrations/saturations of 2012 on the midshelf are similar from those of mid-1958 to early 1960, except for marginally higher values during the peak upwelling period due to relatively weak upwelling in 2012. This implies little anthropogenic influence on coastal hypoxia unlike many other coastal regions. In 2012, the inner shelf system shifted from net autotrophy in SIM to net heterotrophy in SM but on an annual basis it was net autotrophic (gross primary production to community respiration ratio, GPP/R:1.11 ± 0.84) as organic production exceeded consumption.

  2. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  3. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition in the northern South China Sea during winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hongchang; NING Xiuren; TANG Xuexi; HAO Qiang; LE Fengfeng; QIAO Jing

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition were investigated in the northern South China Sea using high-performance liquid chromatography and the CHEMTAX software from February 11 to 23, 2009. We recognized four different vertical distribution patterns of pigments: chlorophyll a (Chl a)-like type, divinyl chlorophyll a (DV Chl a) type, even distribution type, and surface type. The average value of ratios of accessory photo-protective pigments (APP) to accessory photo-synthetic pigments was 0.89±0.63 in the upper 50 m and 0.16±0.06 below 50 m depth. With increasing depth, APP decreased and photo-synthetically active radiation was attenuated. There was an obvious succession in the phytoplankton community from inshore to the open sea. Diatoms were dominant in the inshore region, while pelagophytes, Prochlorococcus,cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes were dominant in the open sea. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton also differed greatly from inshore to the open sea. In the coastal and shelf region,diatoms were important components in the whole water column. Cyanobacteria also had a high abundance at the Subsurface Chlorophyll a Maxima (SCM) in the shelf region. In the slope and open sea, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria were important groups above the SCM, while pelagophytes dominated below the SCM.

  4. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  5. Distribution characteristics of marine bacteria in the China seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong MA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the main species of marine bacteria and their distribution characteristics in China seas. Methods Seawater samples were obtained from sea water about one meter below the sea level along the navigation course, and then the bacteria therein were enriched, cultured, identified and tested for drug sensitivity. Results A total of 528 seawater samples were collected from four seas of China, and 759 marine bacteria in 145 species were isolated. The isolates were mainly Vibro, Enterobacteriaceae, Nonfermenter, Fungi, Pasteurella, Gram positive cocci, Eikenella corrodens and Anaerobic bacteria. Vibrio accounted for 52.9% of the 759 strains of marine bacteria, among which Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus accounted for 75%. There was no significant difference in the quantity of Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus between the 4 sea areas (P=0.071. Chi-square test showed that significant differences existed in the distribution of seven species of marine bacteria among the 4 China seas (P=0.0004. The Gram-positive cocci were isolated more often in Bohai than from other seas; Eikenella corrodens were detected mostly in Yellow Sea; Vibrio were the predominant bacteria in East China sea, up to 70.8%; more Fungi were found in South China sea. The main features of specific bacteria isolated from the four sea areas was higher number of species with less quantity. From North to South, Enterococcus faecalis, Flavobacterium, Vibrio carchariae and C. famata were found to constitute the highest number. Conclusions In China seas, Vibrios are the dominant bacteria, and the numbers of Anaerobic bacteria and Gram-positive cocci are extremely low. There is a significant difference in the distribution of marine bacteria among 4 China seas.

  6. Barrier and compensation layers in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianyao; QIAO Fangli; WANG Qin; WANG Xiuhong; YUAN Yeli

    2008-01-01

    Climatology of the isothermal layer depth (ILD) and the mixed layer depth (MLD) has been produced from in-situ temperature-salinity observations in the East China Sea (ECS) since 1925. The methods applied on the global are used to compute the ILD and the MLD in the ECS with a temperature criterion △T=0.8℃ for the ILD, and a density criterion with a threshold △σθ corre-sponding to fixed △T=0.8℃ for the MLD, respectively. With the derived climatology ILD and MLD, the monthly variations of the barrier layer (BL) and the compensation layer (CL) in the ECS are analyzed. The BL mainly exists in the shallow water re-gion of the ECS during April-June with thickness larger than 15 m. From December to next March, the area along the shelf break from northeast of Taiwan Island to the northeast ECS is characterized by the CL. Two kinds of main temperature - salinity struc-tures of the CL in this area are given.

  7. Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

    2010-12-01

    The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the

  8. Internal architecture and mobility of tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenxia; Berne, Serge; Saito, Yoshiki; Yu, Hua; Trentesaux, Alain; Uehara, Katsuto; Yin, Ping; Liu, J. Paul; Li, Chaoxing; Hu, Guanghai; Wang, Xiangqin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of bathymetric and seismic data and data from piston cores collected by the Chinese-French marine geology and geophysics investigation of 1996, we discuss the internal architecture and mobility of tidal sand ridges in the East China Sea (ECS). We characterized the sand ridges on the middle to outer shelf of the ECS as tide-dominated sand ridges with southwest dipping beds, indicating that the regional net sediment transport is toward the southwest. As the sand ridges gradually mi...

  9. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  10. Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O'Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs, γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas exchange (deposition and volatilization, wet deposition and dry deposition. Atmospheric concentrations are interpolated into the model domain from results of the EMEP MSC-East multi-compartmental model (Gusev et al, 2009. The North Sea is net depositional for γ-HCH, and is dominated by gas deposition with notable seasonal variability and a downward trend over the 10 year period. Volatilization rates of γ-HCH are generally a factor of 2–3 less than gas deposition in winter, spring and summer but greater in autumn when the North Sea is net volatilizational. A downward trend in fugacity ratios is found, since gas deposition is decreasing faster than volatilization. The North Sea is net volatilizational for PCB 153, with highest rates of volatilization to deposition found in the areas surrounding polluted British and continental river sources. Large quantities of PCB 153 entering through rivers lead to very high local rates of volatilization.

  11. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, You-Xu; Liu, Su-Mei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony in the East China Sea (ECS), one of the most important marginal seas for western Pacific, were examined in May 2011. Dissolved inorganic arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and antimony (Sb(V) and Sb(III)) species were determined by selective hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Results show that total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs; [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) were moderately depleted in the surface water and enriched in the deep water. Arsenite (As(III)) showed different vertical profiles with that of TDIAs, with significant surface enrichment in the middle shelf region where the concentrations of phosphate were extremely low. Speciation of dissolved arsenic was subtly controlled by the stoichiometric molar ratio of arsenate (As(V)) to phosphate. The average As(V)/P ratio for the ECS in spring 2011 was 10.8×10-3, which is higher than previous results and indicates the arsenate stress. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic antimony (TDISb; [TDISb]=[Sb(V)]+[Sb(III)]) were high near the Changjiang Estuary and the coastal area of Hangzhou Bay and decreased moderately off the coast. TDISb displayed moderate conservative behavior in the ECS that confirms by the correlations with salinity and dissolved aluminum. Different with that of As(III), antimonite (Sb(III)) concentrations were extremely lower in the ECS, with relative higher concentration appeared at the bottom layer which indicates the contribution from sediment-water interface. A preliminary box model was established to estimate the water-mass balance and antimony budgets for the ECS. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic and antimony in the ECS remain at natural levels.

  12. Winter Cold tongue in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.; Rizzoli, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) surface circulation is mainly forced by seasonally varying monsoon winds and flow through the Luzon Strait. In winter, positive wind curl (due to the northeasterly winds) in the southern half of SCS drives a cyclonic gyre. The strong western boundary current south off Vietnam on the continental slope separates the Sunda Shelf to the west and deep SCS basin to the east. The advection of cold water due to the slope current results in a unique cold tongue in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from November to February. The inter-annual variability of this cold-tongue is investigated by analyzing the NCEP OISST version-2 dataset. Dynamics of the evolution, growth and decay of the cold tongue during the period 1982-2012 are addressed using the OISST and ERA-interim surface wind datasets. The role of water mass advection in the inter-annual variability of SCS cold-tongue is also investigated through the analysis of lateral heat fluxes estimated from NCEP-Climate Forecast System Re-analysis dataset. The vertically integrated Ekman transport (i.e., the Sverdrup transport) plays a vital role in the formation this cold tongue. The southward Sverdrup transport brings cold water from the northern parts of the SCS. Inter-annual variations in the cold tongue SST during the northeast monsoon (November to February) are strongly linked to the north-south Sverdrup and zonal Ekman transport anomalies. The positive SST anomalies over the cold-tongue region are associated with positive transport anomalies, reflecting the weakening of the southward and westward advection. The formation and termination of this cold tongue has significant correlation with the El Nino phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Scenarios of Local Tsunamis in the China Seas by Boussinesq Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曦; 刘桦; 王本龙

    2014-01-01

    The Okinawa Trench in the East China Sea and the Manila Trench in the South China Sea are considered to be the regions with high risk of potential tsunamis induced by submarine earthquakes. Tsunami waves will impact the southeast coast of China if tsunamis occur in these areas. In this paper, the horizontal two-dimensional Boussinesq model is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation, and runup in a domain with complex geometrical boundaries. The temporary varying bottom boundary condition is adopted to describe the initial tsunami waves motivated by the submarine faults. The Indian Ocean tsunami is simulated by the numerical model as a validation case. The time series of water elevation and runup on the beach are compared with the measured data from field survey. The agreements indicate that the Boussinesq model can be used to simulate tsunamis and predict the waveform and runup. Then, the hypothetical tsunamis in the Okinawa Trench and the Manila Trench are simulated by the numerical model. The arrival time and maximum wave height near coastal cities are predicted by the model. It turns out that the leading depression N-wave occurs when the tsunami propagates in the continental shelf from the Okinawa Trench. The scenarios of the tsunami in the Manila Trench demonstrate significant effects on the coastal area around the South China Sea.

  14. Cenozoic Volcanism in South China Sea and Its Vicinity and South China Sea Spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The rock series, rock types and Sr-Nd isotopic dating of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the South China Sea are similar to those in its vicinity. On the basis of the spreading age of the South China Sea, the Cenozoic volcanic rocks are divided into three stages: the pre-spreading stage, the spreading stage and the post-spreading stage. The deep process characteristics of the asthenosphere and lithosphere may be inferred from the study on primary basaltic magma. The top layers of the asthenosphere both in the spreading stage and in the pre-spreading stage are closer to the earth surface than that in the post-spreading stage. From the pre-spreading stage to the spreading stage, the top layer of the asthenosphere decreased in depth, while the amount of interstitial partial melts increased. The evolution of the primary basaltic magma shows a progressive evolution sequence of the rifting volcanism and a faster lithospheric spreading velocity. From the spreading stage to the post-spreading stage, the top layer of the asthenosphere gradually increased in depth, but the amount of interstitial partial melts decreased. The evolution of primary basaltic magma shows a retrogressive evolution sequence of the rifting volcanism and a gradual decrease in the lithospheric spreading velocity. The depth recognized by the study on the Cenozoic volcanism demonstrates the deep environment for the formation and evolution of the South China Sea.

  15. New production in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Pinghe

    2002-01-01

    estuary, Acta Oceanologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1993, 15(4): 50-55.[12]Okubo, T., Furuyama, K., Sakanoue, M., Distribution of 228Ra in surface sea water of the east Indian Ocean, Geochimica Journal, 1979, 13: 201-206.[13]Moore, W. S., Oceanic concentrations of 228Ra, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1969, 17: 437-446.[14]Sakanoue, M., Okubo, T., Furuyama, K., 228Ra in sea water, in Isotope Marine Chemistry (eds. Goldberg, E. D., Horibe, Y., Saruhashi, K.), Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co. Ltd, 1980.[15]Dunne, J. P., Murray, J. M., Rodier, M. et al., Export flux in the western and central equatorial Pacific: Zonal and temporal variability, Deep-Sea ResearchⅠ, 2000, 47: 901-936.[16]Diego-McGlone, M. L. S., Jacinto, G. S., Dupra, V. C. et al., A comparison of nutrient characteristic and primary produc-tivity in the Sulu Sea and South China Sea, Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica, 1999, 37(3): 219-229.[17]Emerson, S., Quay, P., Karl, D. et al., Experimental determination of organic carbon flux from open-ocean waters, Nature, 1997, 389: 951-954.

  16. Variation of phytoplankton absorption coefficients in the northern South China Sea during spring and autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the temporal and spatial variabilities of phytoplankton absorption coefficients (αphλ and their relationships with physical processes in the northern South China Sea from two cruise surveys during spring (May 2001 and late autumn (November 2002. A large river plume induced by heavy precipitation in May stimulated a phytoplankton bloom on the inner shelf, causing significant changes in the surface water in αph values and B/R ratios (αph(440/αph(675. This was consistent with the observed one order of magnitude elevation of chlorophyll α and a shift from a pico/nano dominated phytoplankton community to one dominated by micro-algae. At the seasonal level, enhanced vertical mixing due to strengthened northeast monsoon in November has been observed to result in higher surface αph(675 (0.002–0.006 m−1 higher and less pronounced subsurface maximum on the outer shelf/slope in November as compared that in May. Measurements of αph and B/R ratios from three transects in November revealed a highest surface αph(675 immediately outside the mouth of the Pearl River Estuary, whereas lower αph(675 and higher B/R ratios were featured in the outer shelf/slope waters, demonstrating the respective influence of the Pearl River plume and the oligotrophic nature of South China Sea water. The difference in spectral shapes of phytoplankton absorption (measured by B/R ratios and bathochromic shifts on these three transects infers that picoprocaryotes are the major component of the phytoplankton community on the outer shelf/slope rather than on the inner shelf. In addition, a regional tuning of the phytoplankton absorption spectral model (Carder et al., 1999 demonstrated a greater spatial variation than seasonal variation in the lead parameter a0(λ. These results suggest that phytoplankton

  17. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Freidoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Freidoonkenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year that performs motive force in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, are dominating the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  18. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Feridoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year. This system performs the forcing in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, dominates the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  19. Terrigenous supplies variability over the past 22,000 yr in the southern South China Sea slope: Relation to sea level and monsoon rainfall changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Jiang, Fuqing; Wan, Shiming; Zhang, Jin; Li, Anchun; Li, Tiegang

    2016-03-01

    Changing weathering intensity, sediment transport, and provenance variations over the past 22.0 ka BP have been investigated by high-resolution clay mineralogy, grain-size and stable oxygen isotopes of planktonic foraminifera records along core CG2 recovered from the continental slope of the Sunda Shelf (southern South China Sea). Our results indicated that the reworking of older sediments outcropping on the Sunda Shelf exerted a great influence on the sediment supply during the last glacial and most of the last deglacial, modulated by sea level and monsoon rainfall changes. During the last 9.0 ka BP, relative increased kaolinite and heavier δ18Oseawater values might reflect the higher influence of the tropical Indonesian Islands sources due to the reopen of southern straits, implying the formation of modern oceanic circulation and depositional patterns. High sediment fluxes in core CG2 during Heinrich stadial 1 might be a synthetic result of the intensified monsoon rainfall originated from the southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the proximal location of the study core before the flooding of the Sunda Shelf. Fluctuations in smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratios correlated well with monsoon intensity, and periods of strong monsoon rainfall (lighter δ18Oseawater values) were associated with an intensification of erosion of pre-existing, more weathered materials on the Sunda Shelf. Finally, we concluded that sediment composition and mineralogy in the southern South China Sea slope were controlled by varying degrees of reworking on the Sunda Shelf, as well as climatically modulated sediment supply from the Mekong River and southern tropical islands over the last 22.0 ka BP.

  20. Hydrography, bacteria and protist communities across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Bjørnsen, P.K.; Boonruang, P.;

    2004-01-01

    along 3 transects perpendicular to the shelf break, from the coast across the shelf into deep water. The water column at the nearshore stations was vertically mixed, while the water column at off shore stations was strongly stratified, hence a frontal zone was established at the mid shelf. A prominent...... mixed up in the surface layer. We did not find any relationships between hydrography and the other key components of the microbial food web. No difference in productivity or food web structure was observed between the 2 seasons despite a significant difference in climatic forcing. Pico- and nanoplankton...... dominated the biomass in both seasons and Synechococcus contributed 72 to 74 % of the biomass. Analysis of the microbial food web and establishment of carbon-flow budgets illustrates the importance of the microbial food web for making the primary producers available to the higher trophic levels....

  1. A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Xiaobao; ZHOU Guangqing; ZHU Jiang; LI Rongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas is developed based on a nested regional ocean circulation model and variational optimal interpolation assimilation method. A 12-year assimilation experiment is performed by using the observational temperature profiles from World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and ECMWF reanalysis surface wind stress. Experimental results indicate that the variational scheme shows good skill in assimilating the observed sea temperature into a regional ocean circulation model. Compared with simulation alone, the sea temperature data assimilation significantly improves the performance of a regional ocean model and obtains comprehensive description of the circulations in the China Seas and adjacent areas. Assimilation results, such as the strength and flowing axis of the Kuroshio, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and its corresponding horizontal circulation in summer and dipole eddies in the South China Sea in the late summer/early autumn and the eastward jet between them, are well consistent with the observed evidences.

  2. Sea level anomaly on the Patagonian continental shelf: Trends, annual patterns and geostrophic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Etcheverry, L. A.; Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Strub, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    We study the annual patterns and linear trend of satellite sea level anomaly (SLA) over the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf (SWACS) between 54ºS and 36ºS. Results show that south of 42°S the thermal steric effect explains nearly 100% of the annual amplitude of the SLA, while north of 42°S it explains less than 60%. This difference is due to the halosteric contribution. The annual wind variability plays a minor role over the whole continental shelf. The temporal linear trend in SLA ranges between 1 and 5 mm/yr (95% confidence level). The largest linear trends are found north of 39°S, at 42°S and at 50°S. We propose that in the northern region the large positive linear trends are associated with local changes in the density field caused by advective effects in response to a southward displacement of the South Atlantic High. The causes of the relative large SLA trends in two southern coastal regions are discussed as a function meridional wind stress and river discharge. Finally, we combined the annual cycle of SLA with the mean dynamic topography to estimate the absolute geostrophic velocities. This approach provides the first comprehensive description of the seasonal component of SWACS circulation based on satellite observations. The general circulation of the SWACS is northeastward with stronger/weaker geostrophic currents in austral summer/winter. At all latitudes, geostrophic velocities are larger (up to 20 cm/s) close to the shelf-break and decrease toward the coast. This spatio-temporal pattern is more intense north of 45°S.

  3. The sensitivity of Arctic sea ice production to shelf flooding during the early Holocene: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, M.; Renssen, H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, the global sea-level started rising, changing the coastlines from an early Holocene stand (40 m lower than today at approximately 10 kyr BP, Siddall et al., 2003) to modern day coastlines. Proxy evidence shows that this transgression occurred non-uniformly over the globe. For instance, Bauch et al. (2001) report for the Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean), that the modern coastline was only established at 5 kyr BP after a fast transgression from the early Holocene, leading to a flooding of the extensive shelf area. This shelf area is presently regarded to be an important production zone of Arctic sea ice, playing an important role in the dynamics of sea ice in the Arctic, as well as its export to the Nordic Seas along the East Greenland Current (EGC). Through this sea ice export, changes in the Laptev Sea shelf area during the Holocene could potentially have had a substantial impact on the sea surface conditions of the EGC, and the Denmark Strait, which is known to be sensitive to sea ice. This is consistent with a rapid increase in sea ice export through the EGC around 5 kyr BP as reported by Jennings et al. (2002). In this study we investigate the impact of this Arctic shelf flooding on sea ice production in the Holocene, and on the climate of the Nordic Seas in the LOVECLIM1.2 global ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model. We present results of several experiments in which we study the sensitivity of Arctic sea ice production to various Arctic shelf areas under early Holocene conditions (9 kyr BP). We approach this by changing the land-sea mask to represent different lower-than-present sea-level coastlines. For example, we perform experiments with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) land-sea mask, representing a lowering of the sea-level by 120 m, while keeping other forcings at 9 kyr BP. A further step is to modify selected areas in the Arctic, such as the Laptev Sea area, to examine the importance of different areas. Our results help to explain long

  4. NOGAP B. 2; Zooplankton data from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopky, G.E.; Lawrence, M.J.; Chiperzak, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    To provide background data for assessing the implications of hydrocarbon development on the Canadian Arctic coastal shelf, zooplankton were collected from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf in May (ice on), and July to September (open water) of 1986 under the Northern Oil and Gas Program (NOGAP). In May, 4 Wisconsin net samples were collected from two stations. In July to September, 89, 88 and 181 net samples were collected with neuston, 85 [mu]m bongo and 500[mu]m bongo gear, respectively, from 49 stations. Neuston gear sampled at the water surface, while other gear sampled the water column. There were 247 taxonomic identifications, from 30 taxonomic groups. Copepods predominated a total catch of 33.66 million specimens. Wet and dry biomass data by taxonomic group are given for neuston and 500 [mu]m bongo net samples. Respective maximum wet and dry sample biomass for neuston samples was 44.15 and 5.52 g/100 m[sup 3] water filtered, and for bongo samples, 123.72 and 36.00 g/100 m[sup 3]. Length-frequency and sample caloric density data are given respectively, for copepod species captured in 23 samples, and 9 samples, from 500[mu]m bongo nets. 16 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. NOGAP B. 2; Zooplankton data from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf, 1984 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopky, G.E.; Lawrence, M.J.; Chiperzak, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    To provide background data for assessing the implications of hydrocarbon development on the Canadian Arctic coastal shelf, zooplankton were collected from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf in July and September, 1984 and in July and September, 1985 under the Northern Oil and Gas Program (NOGAP). In 1984, 18 and 16 net samples were collected with 763[mu]m Wisconsin and 500 [mu]m neuston gear, respectively, from 18 stations. In 1985, 123, 54 and 229 net samples were collected with 500 [mu]m neuston, 85 [mu]m bongo and 500[mu]m bongo gear, respectively, from 60 stations. Neuston gear sampled at the water surface, while other gear sampled the water column. In 1984, 309,068 specimens were caught, with 64 taxonomic identifications from 15 taxonomic groups. In 1985 there were 210 taxonomic identifications, representative of 32 taxonomic groups, and a total catch of 22.38 million specimens. Copepods predominated in all catches. Wet and dry biomass data of individual specimens for most taxonomic groups are given for the 1985 samples. The maximum sample dry biomass for 1985 neuston and 500 [mu]m bongo samples were 10.89 and 69.31 g/100 m[sup 3] of water filtered, respectively. Length-frequency data are given for 20 species, mostly copepods, captured in twenty-three 1985 500 [mu]m bongo net samples. 17 refs., 5 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Geochemical consequences of microbiological processes on the northwestern Black sea shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of H2S and CH4 production and microbial CH4 oxidation on the surface of the bottom sediments on the low-depth northwestern Black sea shelf, were estimated from 35S and 14C isotope measurements. It was shown that microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methane production are accompanied with changes in O2 concentration in the near-bottom waters, salt composition of mud waters, and isotope composition of sulfate and bicarbonate carbon. An expressed exponential dependence of the isotope composition reduced sulfur compounds on sulfate reduction rate was observed. In sediments that exhibit high rates of sulfate reduction, the 13C concentration of antigenic carbonates and Corg decline. values of δ13C (from -58 to -78 per mil) prove its autochtonous microbial origin

  7. On Study of Sea Fog over the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Gao, S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.; Xue, D.; Shen, J.

    2010-07-01

    A ubiquitous feature of the Yellow and Bohai Sea (YBS) in the eastern Asian region is the frequent occurrence of the sea fog in spring and summer season. The pioneer work on sea fog over YBS can be traced back to Prof. Binhua Wang as early as 1940's. He investigated sea fog systematically and published his book Sea Fog in 1985 (by China Ocean Press and Springer-Verlag). Recently, a research group in the Department of Marine Meteorology at Ocean University of China (OUC) continued sea fog research collaborated with Shandong Meteorological Bureau and Qingdao Meteorological Bureau under the financial supports of National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Meteorological Administration. Their researches involved in both observation analyses and high-resolution modeling of sea fog over YBS. In this talk, the brief history of sea fog research in China will be reviewed firstly. Then, a typical heavy sea fog event over YBS occurred in the morning of 11 April 2004 will be documented by using all available observational data and high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) modeling results. Finally, the applications of a quasi-operational sea fog forecasting system which was mainly based on RAMS model will be introduced.

  8. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.;

    2004-01-01

    of net tows were carried out, targeting different size ranges of organisms. Plankton were identified to order (invertebrates) or family (fish larvae), and their abundances and biomass estimated. The abundance of both mesozooplankton and fish larvae peaked mid-shelf (50 to 65 m bottom depth...

  9. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and h...

  10. Methane distribution in porewaters of the Eastern Siberian Shelf Sea - chemical, acoustic, and video observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchert, V.; Sawicka, J. E.; Samarkin, V.; Noormets, R.; Stockmann, G. J.; Bröder, L.; Rattray, J.; Steinbach, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present porewater methane and sulfate concentrations, and the isotope composition of carbon dioxide from 18 sites in areas of reported high methane water column concentrations on the Siberian shelf. Echosounder imaging and video imagery of the benthic environment were used to detect potential bubble emission from the sea bottom and to locate high methane emission areas. In areas where bubble flares were identified by acoustic echsounder imaging, recovered sediment cores provided evidence for slightly elevated porewater methane concentrations 10 cm below the sediment surface relative to sites without flares. Throughout the recovered sediment depth intervals porewater concentrations of methane were more than a factor 300 below the gas saturation limit at sea surface pressure. In addition, surface sediment video recordings provided no evidence for bubble emissions in the investigated methane hotspot areas although at nearby sites bubbles were detected higher in the water column. The conflicting observations of acoustic indications of rising bubbles and the absence of bubbles and methane oversaturation in any of the sediment cores during the whole SWERUS cruise suggest that advective methane seepage is a spatially limited phenomenon that is difficult to capture with routine ship-based core sampling methods in this field area. Recovery of a sediment core from one high-activity site indicated steep gradients in dissolved sulfate and methane in the first 8 cm of sediment pointing to the presence of anaerobic methane oxidation at a site with a high upward flux of methane. Based on the decrease of methane towards the sediment surface and the rates of sulfate reduction-coupled methane oxidation, most of the upward-transported methane was oxidized within the sediment. This conclusion is further supported by the stable isotope composition of dissolved carbon dioxide in porewaters and the precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals only found in sediment at this site

  11. REEXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF VERTICAL CIRCULATION IN SEDIMENTATION IN THE YELLOW AND EAST CHINA SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on figures available, role of upwelling in some fine sediment patches on China Sea shelves is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process, respectively. It is further vertified with more data wherever upwelling exists on continental shelf mud must occur-coincidence of upwelling areas with mud patches. Marine rain is named for physical process and marine snow is used as usual. It is pointed out that marine rain and marine snow are usually coexistent and interact each other. It is concluded that the mud patch southeast of Cheju Is. is formed by marine rain rather than marine snow since terrigenous elements are high and biogenic elements are not and that judging from sediment trap data the mud in the Okinawa Trough is accumulated by horizontal transport via wind-driven transverse circulation from inner shelf in winter and by vertical flux through biological activities (marine snow) and aeolian deposit in spring.   A number of controversies on fine sediment issues on China Sea shelves need to be further deliberated. Interaction between marine rain and snow also needs to be experimentally and theoretically studied.

  12. Japan's Energy Policy on China:In the Perspective of Oil Dispute in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over recent years, the oil dispute in the East China Sea has become a new contradictory focus in Sino-Japanese relations after the issues of the Yasukuni Shrine and history text book. This article tries to take the oil dispute in the East China Sea as a penetrating point to analyze the basic line of thinking in Japan's China energy policy adjustment so as to better recognize the current situation and future of Sino-Japanese energy relations.

  13. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  14. Dynamics of picoplankton in the Nansha Islands area of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYanhui; JIAONianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of major picoplankton groups, Synechococcus (Syn), Prochlorococcus (Pro), picoeukaryotes (Euk) and heterotrophic bacteria (Bact) was investigated by flow cytometry for the first time in the Nansha Islands area in the South China Sea. Averaged over the whole investigation area, depth-weighted integrated cell abundance (DWA) of Syn, Pro, Euk and Bact was 1.6 (0.4-5.7)×103, 5.4(0.1-7.3)×104, 0.7(0.2-2.2)×103, and 2.3 (1.4-3.2)×105 cells/mL respectively. Picoautotrophic cell abundance was low in the northwest part of the Nansha Islands where surface water temperature was low and the upper mixed layer was shallow. Concurrently, a surface maximum vertical distribution pattern was observed in this area. While in the southeast and east zones where temperatures were relatively higher and nitraclines were deeper, picoplankton is abundant and a subsurface maximum around 50-75 m is observed. Coupling of horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of picoplankton abundance and hydrological status was found, suggesting a strong influence of currents and water column structure on picoplankton distribution in the investigation area. Contrary to that in the shelf water in the East China Sea, the relationship between Pro and Bact in the Nansha Islands area in the South China Sea was not significantly negative but weakly positive. Moreover, a similar distribution pattern of Syn and Pro was observed. Possible reasons for these differences in the two marine regimes were discussed.

  15. Population genetics of Thamnaconus hypargyreus (Tetraodontiformes: Monacanthidae) in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Chen, Guobao; Yu, Jie; Wu, Shuiqing; Xiong, Dan; Li, Xia; Cui, Ke; Li, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of population structure is particularly important for long-term fisheries management and conservation. Lesser-spotted leatherjacket Thamnaconus hypargyreus is an economically important fish species in the South China Sea. Fish specimens (totally 158 individuals) used in this study were collected from five geographical locations in the north of the South China Sea and the southwestern Nansha Islands. The results were as follows: a total of 636 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of T. hypargyreus were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Both 103 mutations of nucleotide acids without inserting or deleting one and 91 haplotypes were found among the examined CR fragment. High haplotype diversity (0.9419 ± 0.0151) and nucleotide diversity (0.0095 ± 0.00506) relatively together with a recent and sudden population expansion which characterizes the genetic population structure of this species. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the fixation indices (Fst) of five groups showed that the genetic variance mainly came from individuals within groups, and there was no genetic differentiation between groups. The phylogenetic trees including maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) proved no phylogeographic differentiation structure in five groups. The mtDNA marker suggested the five groups should be genetic homogeneity, which implied T. hypargyreus in the north and southwest continental shelf of the South China Sea belongs to one population. PMID:24865897

  16. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  17. MEAD (part I)--a mathematical model of the long-term dispersion of radioactivity in shelf sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshawk, J A; Clarke, S; Smith, C N; McDonald, P

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model (MEAD) that simulates the transport of radioactivity in shelf-sea environments is presented. In the model it is assumed that the radioactivity can be present in three phases and transport both within and between the phases is captured. The set-up of the model for the Irish Sea is described and results from a simple discharge scenario are presented for (137)Cs and (239)Pu. From these results it appears that MEAD provides a good representation of the transport of radionuclides in the Irish Sea. PMID:12763324

  18. MEAD (part I) - a mathematical model of the long-term dispersion of radioactivity in shelf sea environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model (MEAD) that simulates the transport of radioactivity in shelf-sea environments is presented. In the model it is assumed that the radioactivity can be present in three phases and transport both within and between the phases is captured. The set-up of the model for the Irish Sea is described and results from a simple discharge scenario are presented for 137Cs and 239Pu. From these results it appears that MEAD provides a good representation of the transport of radionuclides in the Irish Sea

  19. MEAD (part I) - a mathematical model of the long-term dispersion of radioactivity in shelf sea environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshawk, J.A.; Clarke, S.; Smith, C.N.; McDonald, P. E-mail: paul.mcdonald@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A mathematical model (MEAD) that simulates the transport of radioactivity in shelf-sea environments is presented. In the model it is assumed that the radioactivity can be present in three phases and transport both within and between the phases is captured. The set-up of the model for the Irish Sea is described and results from a simple discharge scenario are presented for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239}Pu. From these results it appears that MEAD provides a good representation of the transport of radionuclides in the Irish Sea.

  20. Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hui; Eiríksson, Jón; Schultz, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    sea-surface temperatures (SST) on the North Icelandic Shelf with variations in the atmospheric circulation above Greenland, North American Atlantic coastal sea-surface temperatures, and mean temperature anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere suggests synchronous North Atlantic–wide fluctuations, which...... variability in the northern North Atlantic region.......Diatom proxies from the modern position of the oceanographic Polar Front north of Iceland record variability in sea-surface temperatures during the past two millennia. The sedimentary record is dated with tephrochronology, alleviating marine 14C reservoir age uncertainties. Comparison of changes in...

  1. Shoaling of internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Lamb

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates westward propagating internal bores and solitary waves trains which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the South China Sea. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of this shoaling process at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process to the stratification and the underlying bathymetry, and to explore the influence of rotation. A range of wave amplitudes are considered. Comparisons with adiabatic shoaling waves are also made and the potential impact of a non-slip boundary condition are briefly explored. On the slope secondary solitary waves and mode-two wave packets are generated which propagate towards the shelf. Comparisons with observations made during the ASIAEX experiment are made.

  2. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  3. On the glacial erosion of the south-western Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Andreassen, Karin; Vorren, Tore O.

    2010-05-01

    The Barents Sea has experienced profound glacial erosion during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene which resulted in the development of a characteristic glacial morphology of the continental shelf and deposition of a several km thick sediment wedge/fan along the western margin prograding into the deep sea. During the middle and late Pleistocene, glacial erosion was most severe beneath the paleo-ice streams of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet and affected mainly the trough areas (~200.000 km2). The total erosion is estimated to 435 - 530 m, the average erosion 0.6 - 0.8 mm/yr and the average sedimentation rates on the continental slope were 18 - 22 cm/kyr. The first-order control on the amount of erosion was probably the glaciations duration and velocity of the ice streams. Erosion by paleo-ice streams affected a larger area (~575.000 km2) during the early and middle Pleistocene because they were less topographically stable due to a less pronounced paleo-relief. Also, glaciotectonism was more extensive during this period. The total erosion was estimated to 330 - 420 m and the average erosion 0.4 - 0.5 mm/yr. The average sedimentation rates were 50 - 64 cm/kyr, 2 - 3 times higher than during the succeeding period. In the late Pliocene - early Pleistocene period, proglacial processes including glacifluvial erosion dominated. The total erosion was found to be 170 - 230 m, the average erosion 0.15 - 0.2 mm/yr and the average sedimentation rates were 16 - 22 cm/kyr. In total, the glacial erosion of the troughs has been relatively high throughout the late Pliocene - Pleistocene period, about 1000 - 1100 m. For the banks the erosion is inferred to have increased from late Pliocene to peak in early - middle Pleistocene, later there has been little erosion in these areas which implies a total of 500 - 650 m of erosion. The average glacial erosion during the whole late Pliocene and Pleistocene period is 38 cm/kyr, one order of magnitude higher than the average glacial erosion of the

  4. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    contamination was dominated in near-shore sediments. Their spatial distributions over the shelf area make an estimation of possible pollution sources and their transportation routes possible. Sea port activities, industrial inputs and partly maritime petroleum transport are the main sources of pollutants. They are under the control of the longshore currents supplied with river alluvium and coastal abrasion material.

  5. NOGAP B. 2; Zooplankton data from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf, 1987 and 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopky, G.E.; Lawrence, M.J.; Chiperzak, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    To provide background data for assessing the implications of hydrocarbon development on the Canadian Arctic coastal shelf, zooplankton were collected from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf in May (ice on), and July and August (open water) of 1987, and March, 1988 under the Northern Oil and Gas Program (NOGAP). In May 1987, ten 63[mu]m Wisconsin net samples were collected from five stations. In July and August, 66, 61 and 138 net samples were collected with 500 [mu]m neuston, 85 [mu]m bongo and 500[mu]m bongo gear, respectively, from 35 stations. In March 1988, 10 Wisconsin net samples were collected from five stations. Neuston gear sampled at the water surface, while other gear sampled the water column. In 1987 there were 276 taxonomic identifications, from 29 taxonomic groups. Copepods predominated a total catch of 19.38 million specimens. Wet and dry biomass data by taxonomic group are given for neuston and 500 [mu]m bongo net samples. Respective maximum wet and dry sample biomass for neuston samples was 7.31 and 1.93 g/100 m[sup 3] water filtered, and for bongo samples, 44.0 and 12.5 g/100 m[sup 3]. Length-frequency and sample caloric density data are given respectively, for species captured in 17 samples, and 11 samples, from 500[mu]m bongo nets. In 1988, 18,278 specimens, mostly copepods were caught, with 30 taxonomic identifications from 10 taxonomic groups. 18 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Marine ichthyoplankton data from the Canadian Beaufort Sea Shelf, July and September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiperzak, D.B.; Hopky, G.E.; Lawrence, M.J.; Lacho, G.

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Beaufort Shelf Fish Habitat Research Subproject of the Northern Oil and Gas Action Program, ichthyoplankton were collected from 760 {mu}m Wiscosin net and 500 {mu}m neuston net plankton tows in July and September of 1984 along the Canadian Beaufort Sea Shelf. A total of 1408 larval fish representing six families and nine species groups were caught in the 34 plankton tows. Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) was the most abundant larval fish species caught both in the Wisconsin and neuston tows. Standard length, total length, and wet-weight measurements were made on 1123 larval fish of which 1097 were Arctic cod. The July mean standard length for Arctic cod was 13.4 mm with a standard deviation of 2.7 mm, and a mean weight of 0.015 g with a standard deviation of 0.010 g. In September, Arctic cod mean standard length was 26.3 mm, standard deviation of 3.8 mm, and the mean weight was 0.130 g with a standard deviation of 0.058 g. A total of 126 fish were analyzed for stomach contents of which four were found to be empty. Copepods were the most frequently occurring food item in all four species groups analysed with Calanoida being the most frequently occurring and the most abundant food item for both B. saida and the fourhorn sculpin, Myoxcephalus quadricornis. Nine stomachs, all from B. saida, contained the parasite (Trematoda: Hemiuridae). 10 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Summer carbonate chemistry dynamics in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea: Regional variations and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoxiao; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Chen, Xin; Lu, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pertinent parameters (i.e., pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) were investigated in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) basing on two surveys conducted in June and August of 2013. The results suggested carbonate chemistry dynamics and related controlling factors were provided with significant temporal and spatial variations in different subregions of these two continental shelf seas. The western of SYS (SYSW) was CO2-undersaturated both in June and August, with the average FCO2 -1.88 mmol m-2 d-1 and -3.72 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The phytoplankton initiated CO2-absorption and the suspended sediment induced CO2-emission jointly controlled the air-sea CO2 exchange there. The center of SYS (SYSC) also behaved as an obvious CO2 sink (-1.57 mmol m-2 d-1and -3.99 mmol m-2 d-1 in June and August, respectively), probably due to elevated TA/DIC ratio and the subsequent effects of spring bloom. As for the Yangtze River estuary (YRE), it changed from an obvious CO2 sink (-1.28 mmol m-2 d-1) in June into a very weak CO2 source (0.04 mmol m-2 d-1) in August. This change was probably associated with the rising of seawater temperature and monthly variation of Yangtze River discharge. The inner shelf of ECS (ECSS) experienced obvious air-sea CO2 flux changes during from June (-8.88 mmol m-2 d-1) to August (-0.36 mmol m-2 d-1) as well. Biological DIC consumption in the upper layer and DIC regenerated from respiration in the subsurface jointly controlled this pCO2 variation. As a whole, the SYS and ECS acted as an obvious CO2 sink during summer and could absorb atmospheric CO2 with the average air-sea flux (FCO2) -2.68 mmol m-2 d-1. The summary of air-sea CO2 flux in the ECS and SYS during recent two decades indicated the ECS served as quite a stable CO2 sink, whereas the SYS experienced obvious change. Discharge of Yangtze River and anthropogenic nutrients loading could profoundly affect the

  8. EMSEAC. Electromagnetic seafloor profiler for environmental magnetic research in coastal and shelf seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A marine electromagnetic profiler was developed to survey the magnetic and electric signatures of marine near-surface sediments (0-50 cm). The system is devised for coastal and shelf operations of 5 to 500 m water depth, to resolve subtle and gradual variations in silt and clay content, porosity and diagenesis state at sub-meter resolution. A commercial electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor was modified for submarine operations and mounted into a bottom-towed sledge enabling synchronous in-situ mapping of magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity. Magnetic susceptibility is used as a proxy for fine-grained terrigenous clay/silt content, diagenetically forced magnetite depletion, anthropogenic metallic contaminants as well as proneness to trace metal accumulation. Electric conductivity is primarily considered as a measure of porosity and grain-size distribution. The sensor is used to investigate patterns of sediment transport and deposition and to detect fluid seepage and pollution effects. The 3.2 m long non-magnetic and non-conductive sledge, named GEM-SHARK, is towed by small to large size research vessels at a typical speed of 2 to 4 knots. Onboard control and co-registration of seafloor measurements is provided via an up to 10 km long armored coax cable, supported by an autonomous registration, navigation and control system in the bottom-towed sledge. A complementary CTD tracks bathymetry and identifies bottom water characteristics. During deployments at the Baltic Sea Eckernfoerde Bight, NW Iberian Shelf and estuaries, and recently at the Argentine Shelf and the Rio de la Plata mouth, the system has successfully covered more than 800 km with sub-meter resolution susceptibility and conductivity profiles. We will present data examples depicting cold seeps, sediment waves, mud belts and glauconite deposits and discuss the scopes and controls of combined electromagnetic in-situ profiling and sampling strategies

  9. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases. -- Highlights: ► Distributions of the VHCs were studied in the YS and the ECS. ► Elevated levels of VHCs were related to terrestrial input from the Yangtze River. ► Biogenic production from diatoms was an important source of the VHCs. ► Shelf seas could significantly contribute to the global oceanic VHCs emission. -- The elevated levels of the volatile halocarbons in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms)

  10. An improved algorithm of simulation on air-sea turbulent heat fluxes in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With a global GSSTF2 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database and observation data at the Yong Xing station of Xisha Island in the South China Sea, we simulated the turbulent sensible and latent heat flux at sea surface in Chinese and neighboring seas (hereafter termed as China seas) using a common bulk method with some improved parameters. Comparing the simulated results with the observed and reanalyzed data, the improvement yielded higher accuracy, a smaller mean square deviation within 10 W/m2, and a smaller average relative error at about 25%. In addition, spatial resolution was improved to 0.1°×0.1°. The simulation is able to replay the main features of regional and seasonal variation in turbulent heat fluxes, and also the general pattern of heat flux changes during the summer monsoon outbreak in the South China Sea.

  11. Sea surface temperature record from the north of the East China Sea since late Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI GuangXue; SUN XiaoYan; LIU Yong; BICKERT Torsten; MA YanYan

    2009-01-01

    Using the alkenone paleotemperature index U_(37)~(k'), a high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) record since 3600 a BP was reconstructed from the mud area in the north of the East China Sea. Com-bining with the grain size distribution curve of sensitive grain size group, which may reflect the East Asia Winter Monsoon activity, the palaeoenvironmental evolution cycle throughout the late Holocene in the area was obtained. The marine environment evolution during the last 3600 years displays a five-stage trend. (1) Temperature descending period from 0.85 cal. ka BP to present. The maximum temperature decrease amplitude is 213. The winter monsoon intensified and 'Little Ice Age' were recorded in this period. (2) Warming period from 1.90 to 0.85 cal. ka BP. The mean temperature increase amplitude is 0.8℃. The Sui-Tang warming period was recorded at about 0.85-1.35 cal. ka BP and a prominent cooling event was recorded at 1.4 cal. ka BP in this period. (3) Temperature descending period from 2.55 to 1.90 cal. ka BP. Temperature cooling amplitude is 0.9℃. This period is coincident with an integrated temperature circle recorded in the Antarctic ice core, with the temperature changes from a slow cooling stage to a rapid warming stage. (4) Temperature comparatively stable with a little as-cending period from 3.2 to 2.55 cal. ka BP. Temperature warming amplitude is 0.3℃. This period is coincident with the temperature fluctuant ascending period recorded in Antarctic ice core. (5) Temper-ature comparatively stable with little descending period from 3.6 to 3.2 cal. ka BP. This period corres-ponds with the temperature fluctuant cooling period recorded in Antarctic ice core. Basically, those five periods were coincident with the Antarctic ice core record. During the global cooling stage, the SST change in the continental shelf sea can be adjusted simultaneously.

  12. Extension of an Ice Shelf Water plume model beneath sea ice with application in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K. G.; Langhorne, P. J.; Leonard, G. H.; Stevens, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional, frazil-laden plume model predicts the properties of Ice Shelf Water (ISW) as it evolves beneath sea ice beyond the ice shelf edge. An idealized background ocean circulation, which moves parallel to the plume, imitates forcings other than the plume's own buoyancy. The size distribution and concentration of the plume's suspended frazil ice crystals are affected by the background circulation velocity, the root-mean square tidal velocity, the drag coefficient, and the efficiency of secondary nucleation. Consequently, these variables are the key physical controls on the survival of supercooled water with distance from the ice shelf, which is predicted using several realistic parameter choices. Starting at 65 m thick, the in situ supercooled layer thins to 11 ± 5 and 4 ± 3 m at distances of 50 and 100 km, respectively. We apply the extended model in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, along the expected path of the coldest water. Three late-winter oceanographic stations along this path, in conjunction with historical data, provide initial conditions and evaluation of the simulations. Near the ice shelf in the western Sound, the water column consisted entirely of ISW, and the subice platelet layer thickness exceeded 5 m with platelet crystals dominating the sea ice structure suggesting that ISW persisted throughout winter. Presuming a constant ISW flux, the model predicts that the plume increases thermodynamic growth of sea ice by approximately 0.1 m yr-1 (˜5% of the average growth rate) even as far as 100 km beyond the ice shelf edge.

  13. 2009-2011年东海陆架海域网采浮游植物群落的季节变化%Seasonal variations of netz-phytoplankton community in East China Sea continental shelf from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海娇; 傅文诚; 孙军

    2015-01-01

    根据2009年7、8月(夏季)、12月到翌年1月(冬季)、2010年11月(秋季)和2011年4、5月(春季)共4个航次在东海陆架区进行的现场多学科综合调查,报道了4个季节在整个东海海域的浮游植物的空间分布及群落结构特征,并探讨了影响其分布格局的环境因子效应。结果表明,东海浮游植物群落主要由硅藻、甲藻组成。共检出浮游植物5门88属299种(含未定种)。调查区夏季细胞丰度达最高,平均为(8659.572±28937.27)cell/L,其次是秋、冬季,春季最低,分别为(4413.726±12534.573)cell/L、(421.773±647.532)cell/L 和(218.479±265.897)cell/L。硅藻细胞丰度在夏、秋、冬3个季节占总平均丰度的95%以上,甲藻细胞丰度在春季最高,占总浮游植物细胞丰度的69%。调查海区浮游植物丰度高值区主要集中在长江口海域,并向外海呈递减趋势。不同群落间存在季节更替和演替现象。物种丰富度自春夏秋冬逐渐升高。香农指数(Shannon-Wiener index)和均匀度指数(Pielou index)分布较为一致,物种丰富度指数(Margalef index)呈现时空分布差异。Pearson 相关分析结果表明:不同季节的物种间更迭与海区特定的物理化学参数显著相关。%Multidisciplinary investigations of phytoplankton community in the continental shelf regions of East China Sea (ECS)were performed during four cruises between year 2009-2011 (summer 2009,winter 2009,autumn 2010 and spring 2011).The present study reported the phytoplankton species composition,community structure,its dis-tribution in the ECS in four seasons,and its responses to environmental factors.Phytoplankton in the ECS were mainly composed of diatoms and dinflagellates.A totally,299 taxa (including under defined species)belonging to 88 genera and 5 phyla were identified.The phytoplankton cell abundance was highest in summer

  14. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare

  15. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Liu

    Full Text Available China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1 a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2 the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3 coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4 mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5 a threatened seagrass field, and (6 an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007, the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction, particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are

  16. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  17. THE CLIMATE FEATURES OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There exists a warm pool in the South China Sea (SCS). The temporal and spatial distribution and evolution of SCS warm pool is investigated using water temperatures at a depth of 20 m in the sea. The formation of the warm pool is discussed by combining water temperatures with geostrophic currents and simulated oceanic circulation. It is found that there are significant seasonal and interannual changes in the warm pool and in association with the general circulation of the atmosphere. The development of SCS warm pool is also closely related to the gyre activities in the sea and imported warm water from Indian Ocean (Java Sea) besides radiative warming.

  18. Dynamics of a River Plume on the Northeastern Shelf of the Black Sea: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that buoyant plumes play an important role in the regime of the coastal waters, particularly in enclosed and inland seas. In this paper, we report preliminary results of a field investigation of a river plume in the Black Sea. Mzymta River is the largest tributary of the Sea within its Russian coast. Although its mean runoff is moderate (49 m3/s), it can grow by an order of magnitude during high discharge periods. A field experiment focused on the plume and the adjacent shelf area was conducted during the flood on May 20-27, 2009. The study area was repeatedly sampled once a day from R/V Ashamba. The observations included top-to-bottom CTD profiling at 12 stations, as well as continuous CTD and fluorescence measurements at the surface along the ship track using a pump-through system. In addition, 3 mooring stations were deployed in the plume area, each one equipped with 2 current meters in the surface and the bottom layers. Meteorological data were continuously recorded at 2 portable stations, one located near the river mouth and the other one near the southern extremity of the plume, about 8 km south of the estuary. The collected data showed that the plume was strongly non-stationary, and its daily pattern, spatial extent, and the salinity drop in it depended critically on the wind forcing and ambient coastal circulation. It was observed that the downwelling-favoring conditions resulted in more extensive spreading of the plume, and, hence, more efficient flushing of the estuarine area. This conclusion was later supported by numerical modeling (see the poster by [Zhurbas et al] at this session). The variability of the river runoff rates governed the plume to a lesser extent. In addition, the data obtained by the current meters pointed towards significant internal wave activity around and beneath the plume. We note that, as an enclosed basin, the Black Sea is non-tidal, so there should be some mechanisms generating the internal waves other than the

  19. Seawater methane flux, methane oxidation rates, and methane sources on the Central US Beaufort Sea Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, J.; Pack-Woo, M.; Xu, X.; Ruppel, C. D.; Casso, M.; Worley, C.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that some shallow-water circum-Arctic Ocean continental shelves (e.g., the Laptev Sea) are releasing substantial methane to the atmosphere. A number of processes -- including microbial degradation of organic matter in shallow sediments or in deeper sediments that were only recently thawed from permafrost, the dissociation of gas hydrates that formed in association with permafrost, and leakage from deeper thermogenic reservoirs -- may contribute to these methane fluxes. In August 2012, the USGS Gas Hydrates Project, with sponsorship from the DOE Methane Hydrates R&D Program, conducted a cross-shelf survey of greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon isotopic signatures of methane and CO2, and methane oxidation rates on the Central US Beaufort Sea continental shelf. IODP drilling has been proposed for a shelf-to-upper continental slope transect on this part of the Alaskan Beaufort passive margin to unravel the history of late Pleistocene to contemporary climate warming and sea level rise. The work presented here complements a 2012 USGS multichannel seismic program intended as IODP site survey. The flux, isotopic, and oxidation rate surveys sampled nearshore areas still underlain by subsea permafrost, a location where relict gas hydrate previously associated with permafrost may still exist and extend across the shelf to where present-day methane release is likely dominated by microbial methane generated in situ. The new geochemical data were acquired using dedicated cavity ringdown spectrometers (CRDS) for the atmospheric and sea surface measurements. The seawater CRDS also characterized the carbon isotopic signature of the CO2 and CH4 in real-time. Oxidation rate measurements were carried out using the low level 14C-CH4 (LL 14C) tracer method. Continuous measurements of surface air and surface seawater methane and carbon dioxide concentration, in conjunction with relevant meteorological and water chemistry data, permit us to calculate sea

  20. Influence of Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciations on the depositional evolution of the northern Pangean shelf, North Greenland, Svalbard and the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemmerik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Outcrop and subsurface data from the central northern margin of the Pangean shelf in North Greenland, Svalbard, and the Norwegian Barents Sea record the depositional response of a Northern Hemisphere subtropical shelf to Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (Bashkirian-Sakmarian) Gondwana glaciations...

  1. [Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Communities of the Sediments of the Kara Sea Shelf and the Yenisei Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, E V; Galach'yants, Yu P; Khabudaev, K V; Petrova, D P; Pogodaeva, T V; Khodzher, T B; Zemskaya, T I

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in the sediments of the Kara Sea shelf and the southern Yenisei Bay, differing in pore water mineralization, was studied using massive parallel pyrosequencing according to the 454 (Roche) technology. Members of the same phyla (Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) predominated in bacterial communities of the sediments, while their ratio and taxonomic composition varied within the phyla and depended on pore water mineralization. Increasing salinity gradient was found to coincide with increased share of the γ-Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of α- and β-Proteo- bacteria, as well as of the phyla Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, and Acidobacteria. Archaeal diversity was lower, with Thaumarchaeota predominant in the sediments with high and low mineralization, while Crenarchaeota predominated in moderately mineralized sediments. Microbial communities of the Kara Sea shelf and Yenisei Gulf sediments were found to contain the organisms capable of utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources, including gaseous and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:27476207

  2. Distribution and sources of organic carbon, nitrogen and their isotopic signatures in sediments from the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) continental shelf, northern Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Gaye, B.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.S.; Chivas, A.R.; Wheeler, D.; Thwin, S.

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and their delta sup(13) C and delta sup (15) N values were determined from 110 sediment samples from the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) continental shelf, northern Andaman Sea to decipher the concentration...

  3. Air-sea and oceanic heat flux contributions to the heat budget of the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janout, Markus A.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2013-04-01

    We constructed annual cycles of National Centers for Environmental Prediction air-sea fluxes and temporal oceanic heat content change from Seward Line hydrographic surveys to quantify the different contributions to the oceanic heat budget within the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf. The deficit between air-sea fluxes and the temporal change in oceanic heat content throughout the cooling season (October-April) varies from ~40 to 110 W m-2 and is balanced by ocean heat flux convergence. Cross-shelf heat flux convergence is insignificant on annual average, and the nearshore heat budget is likely entirely balanced by the ACC, which resupplies ~15%-50% of the heat removed by air-sea fluxes during the cooling season. Furthermore, we estimated spatial heat flux gradients and conclude that air-sea fluxes increase from east to west and from offshore to onshore. The cross-shore gradients are governed by wind speed gradients, likely due to ageostrophic nearshore wind events during the cooling season, while the along-shelf heat flux gradients are governed by the occurrence of low-pressure systems in the northern GOA that result in cold northerly winds over the northwestern GOA. These results underline the ACC's role as the dominant oceanic heat source to the northern GOA shelf and further imply an increased cooling rate of the ACC west of the Seward Line. Furthermore, our analysis showed that nearshore regions, particularly waters in the ACC, are subjected to stronger winter cooling than the middle and outer shelves.

  4. Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribas-Ribas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments and pHT, in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well (Pearson's correlation coefficient always ≥ 0.94; mean residuals similar to the respective uncertainties of the calculations with direct observations of the same variables. We therefore conclude that the four independent datasets of carbonate chemistry variables were all of high quality, and as a result that this dataset is suitable to be used for the evaluation of ocean acidification impacts and for carbon cycle studies. A diurnal cycle with maximum amplitude of 41 μatm was observed in the difference between the pCO2; values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2; systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on research cruises.

  5. Effects of fluctuating hypoxia on benthic oxygen consumption in the Black Sea (Crimean Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lichtschlag

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The outer Western Crimean Shelf of the Black Sea is a natural laboratory to investigate effects of stable oxic vs. varying hypoxic conditions on seafloor biogeochemical processes and benthic community structure. Bottom water oxygen concentrations varied between normoxic (175 μmol O2 L−1 and hypoxic (2 L−1 or even anoxic/sulfidic conditions within a few kilometres distance. Variations in oxygen concentrations between 160 and 10 μmol L−1 even occurred within hours close to the chemocline at 134 m water depth. Total oxygen uptake, including diffusive as well as fauna-mediated oxygen consumption, decreased from > 15 mmol m−2 d−1 in the oxic zone to −2 d−1 in the hypoxic zone, correlating with changes in macrobenthos composition. Benthic diffusive oxygen uptake rates, comprising microbial respiration plus reoxidation of inorganic products, were around 4.5 mmol m−2 d−1, but declined to 1.3 mmol m−2 d−1 at oxygen concentrations below 20 μmol L−1. Measurements and modelling of pore water profiles indicated that reoxidation of reduced compounds played only a minor role in the diffusive oxygen uptake, leaving the major fraction to aerobic degradation of organic carbon. Remineralization efficiency decreased from 100% in the oxic zone, to 50% in the oxic-hypoxic, to 10% in the hypoxic-anoxic zone. Overall the faunal remineralization rate was more important, but also more influenced by fluctuating oxygen concentrations than microbial and geochemical oxidation processes.

  6. Sulfate reduction in Black Sea sediments: in situ and laboratory radiotracer measurements from the shelf to 2000m depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Riess, W.; Wenzhoefer, F.;

    2001-01-01

    Sulfate reduction rate measurements by the (SO42-)-S-35 core injection method were carried out in situ with a benthic lander, LUISE, and in parallel by shipboard incubations in sediments of the Black Sea. Eight stations were studied along a transect from the Romanian shelf to the deep western...... Black Sea sediments showed that the present results tend to be higher in shelf sediments and lower in the deep-sea than most other data. Based on the present water column H2S inventory and the H2S flux out of the sediment, the calculated turnover time of H2S below the chemocline is 2100 years. (C) 2001...... anoxic basin. The highest rates measured on an areal basis for the upper 0-15 cm were 1.97 mmol m(-2) d(-1) on the shelf and 1.54 mmol m(-2) d(-1) at 181 m water depth just below the chemocline. At all stations sulfate reduction rates decreased to values 50% just above the chemocline to 100% just below...

  7. Seasonal Variation of Semidiurnal Internal Tides and Their Impact on Shelf-Slope Water Exchanges in the Southwestern East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Jeon, C.; Seo, S.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Min, H. S.; Park, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sudden environmental changes along the southeast coast of Korea due to the appearance of cold water in summer, sometimes less than 10oC, has seriously damaged on fisheries, aquaculture, and even ship traffics due to the sea fog caused by the extreme air-sea temperature difference. This cold water, originating from the bottom cold water in the Korea Strait connecting the East/Japan Sea and the East China Sea, has often been observed mainly during the summer months. Although previous studies have suggested possible causes why the bottom cold water intrusion is stronger during summer, its mechanism is not clear yet. Here we investigate the influence of tides on the bottom cold water intrusion using numerical simulations. A real-time ocean forecasting system with 1/12-degree grids, which assimilates in-situ data and includes both atmospheric and tidal forcings, reveals a significant seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides around the continental shelf slope between the Korea Strait and the southwestern East/Japan Sea. The internal tide energy during summer shows larger energy than during winter by a factor of about three in this region. Shipboard and Argo profiler measurements near the internal tide generation region and in the open basin support the simulated results. The seasonal stratification change induced by the Asian monsoon causes the seasonal internal tide energy change. This result leads us to investigate the influence of semidiurnal internal tides on the bottom cold water intrusion into the shallow Korea Strait. A series of numerical simulations using a 1/108-degree fine-resolution regional ocean model with different configurations demonstrates that the semidiurnal internal tides play a crucial role in enhancing the intrusion of the Korea Strait bottom cold water by an internal tidal pumping effect. Our results provide not only an explanation why the intrusion of the Korea Strait bottom cold water is strengthened during summer, but also an

  8. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in the East China Sea sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic nitrogen transformation pathways were investigated in the sediment of the East China Sea in June of 2010 using the 15N isotope pairing technique. Slurry incubations indicated that denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA as well as nitrate release by nitrate storing organisms occurred in the East China Sea sediments. These four processes did not exist independently, the nitrate release therefore diluted the 15N labeling fraction of NO3−, a part of the 15NH4+ derived from DNRA also formed 30N2 via anammox. Therefore current methods of rate calculations led to over and underestimations of anammox and denitrification respectively. Following the procedure outlined in Thampdrup and Dalsgaard (2002, denitrification rates were slightly underestimated by on average 6% without regard to the effect of nitrate release, while this underestimation could be counteracted by the presence of DNRA. On the contrary, anammox rates calculated from 15NO3− experiment were significantly overestimated by 42% without considering nitrate release. In our study this overestimation could only be compensated 14% by taking DNRA into consideration. In a parallel experiment amended with 15NH4+ + 14NO3−, anammox rates were not significantly influenced by DNRA due to the high background of 15NH4+ addition. Excluding measurements in which bioirrigation was present, integrated denitrification rates decreased from 10 to 4 mmol N m−2 d−1 with water depth, while integrated anammox rates increased from 1.5 to 4.0 mmol N m−2 d−1. Consequently, the relative contribution of anammox to the total N-loss increased from 13% at the shallowest site near the Changjiang estuary to 50% at the deepest site on the outer shelf. This study represents the first time in which anammox has been demonstrated to play a significant role in benthic nitrogen cycling in the East China Sea sediment, especially on the outer shelf. N

  9. Shoaling of internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Lamb, K.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates westward propagating internal bores and solitary waves trains which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the South China Sea. Numerical simulations of this shoaling process at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process on a variety of environmental factors. The model parameters of the Luzon Strait region are tuned to yield solitary wave trains similar to those observed in the ASIAEX experiments. The sensitivity to details of the stratification, bathymetry, deep water depth and initial wave amplitude as well as the effects of dissipation in a bottom boundary layer are considered. On the slope secondary solitary waves are generated which propagate towards the shelf. In the vicinity of the shelf break a leading square-shaped wave of depression forms which is followed by a series of square-shaped waves of elevation in inviscid simulation. The presence of a bottom boundary significantly modifies the waves trailing the leading depression resulting in the emergence of many more smaller waves. Comparison against the measurements of Orr and Mignerey (2003) are conducted.

  10. Microbial biomarkers from the East China Sea and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Hu, W. J.; Duan, S. S.; Cao, L. Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhao, S. Z.; Xing, L.

    2015-12-01

    We report the vertical and spatial distributions of isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), ladderanes and phytoplankton biomarkers in suspended particulates from the East China Sea (ECS) to evaluate the living habitat and environments of the planktonic archaea Thaumarchaeota and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, respectively. Maximum GDGT concentration mostly occurred in bottom waters while maximum phytoplankton biomarker concentration occurred in the surface layers; and these results from the ECS provides further evidence for the use of the TEX86 index as a proxy for bottom water temperature in shallow shelf sea environments. Ladderanes were detected in both surface and subsurface particulates, suggesting that anammox activity was widespread in both the hypoxia zone near the Changjiang Estuary and in the mid-shelf of the ECS. Thus, anaerobic condition is not a requirement for anammox bacteria; however, ladderane-derived anammox activity was higher in lower oxygen environments, confirming ladderanes as useful proxies for reconstructing hypoxia changes. Statistical analysis will be presented to assess the link between archaea (Thaumarchaeota) performing aerobic ammonia oxidation and bacteria (anammox) performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the ECS, the implications for both carbon and nitrogen cycles.

  11. Navigating the Security Dilemma: China, Vietnam, and the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Blazevic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and conflict in the South China Sea involves many nations due to its resources and vital sea lanes. However, it is China which increasingly serves as a common denominator of intensifying anxiety for its South China Sea maritime neighbours due to the aggressive scope of its claims to the sea and its islands. Among those states, Vietnam is most affected as it is first in the path of Chinese ambitions – ambitions which authorities fear would give China significant tactical military and economic advantage. For China, there are similar fears over threats to the sea lanes and sea bed resources. Leaders of both states also perceive their diplomatic and martial actions in the sea in historical terms as well. However, enforcement actions taken by either state may lead to a worsening security dilemma in which reactive security strategies could dangerously destabilise relations. This article discusses the motivations and strategies of both states as well as the consequences of such and applies realism, its tenets of defensive and offensive realism, and neoliberalism to examine their security concerns and perceptions. The article further proposes that the most valuable insights can be provided by defensive realism and neoliberalism, which together can encourage security, cooperation and conciliation in order to best promote the improvement of relations.

  12. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf: 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Waite, Janice M.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Moore, Sue E.

    2012-06-01

    Visual line transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf in association with pollock stock assessment surveys aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman in June and July of 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Transect survey effort ranged from 1188 km in 1999 to 3761 km in 2002. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale in all years except 2004 when humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were more abundant. Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) were the most common small cetacean in all years. Abundance estimates were calculated by year for each oceanographic domain: coastal, middle, and outer/slope. The middle and outer/slope domains were divided into two strata ("north" and "south") because of variable survey effort. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales changed between the earlier (colder) and later (warmer) survey years. Fin whales consistently occupied the outer shelf and secondarily the middle shelf, and their abundance was an order of magnitude greater in cold compared to warm years. Humpback whales "lived on the margin" of the northern Alaska Peninsula, eastern Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay; their preferred habitat is possibly associated with areas of high prey availability due to nutrient upwelling and aggregation mechanisms. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) occur shoreward of fin whales in the outer and middle shelf and in coastal habitats along the Alaska Peninsula. The highest abundance for this species was observed in a cold (1999) year. No clear relationship emerged for odontocetes with regard to warm and cold years. Dall's porpoise occupied both outer and middle domains and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were more common in middle and coastal domains. This study provided a unique, broad-scale assessment of cetacean distribution and abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and a baseline for future comparisons.

  13. Conquered from the deep sea? A new deep-sea isopod species from the Antarctic shelf shows pattern of recent colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Riehl

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed.

  14. Scientific questions about South China Sea ocean dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui Xin; DU Yan

    2015-01-01

    South China Sea, its circulation and connection with other parts of the world oceans, poses important scientific questions. From the prospective view, we postulate ten key research directions to be pursued in the coming future, including ventilation of a monsoon dominated sea, water mass formation/transformation, heat/salt and water mass balance, energetics and mixing, mesoscale eddies, the role of typhoon, deep circulation and paleoclimate records, interaction with adjacent oceans, upwelling and ecology system, and response to climate changes.

  15. China’s Legal Enforcement on Anti-Piracy in South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Deng

    2010-01-01

    The South China Sea is considered the most dangerous area for piracy in the world.China has a strong economic interest in South China Sea and Strait of Malacaa maritime security. In recent year, China has taken effective measures in combating piracy in the South China Sea. In order to build the legislation and law-enforcement on anti-piracy, the author put forward some suggestion.

  16. China’s Legal Enforcement on Anti-Piracy in South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Deng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is considered the most dangerous area for piracy in the world.China has a strong economic interest in South China Sea and Strait of Malacaa maritime security. In recent year, China has taken effective measures in combating piracy in the South China Sea. In order to build the legislation and law-enforcement on anti-piracy, the author put forward some suggestion.

  17. The 'interior' shelves of the Arctic Ocean: Physical oceanographic setting, climatology and effects of sea-ice retreat on cross-shelf exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

    2015-12-01

    The interior shelves of the Arctic Mediterranean are the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea and Beaufort Sea. They comprise approximately 40% of the total arctic shelf area (∼2.5 × 106 km2) and are distinguished from inflow and outflow shelves by their principal forcing dynamics. Along their southern (continental) boundary the interior shelves are dominated by the major arctic rivers, receiving over 80% of the total freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean. In the mid-shelf region wind and ice motion surface stresses dominate mixing and circulation, resulting in high variability. Along, their northern (seaward) boundary they are forced by upwelling- and downwelling-favourable surface stresses which drive shelf-basin exchanges with Atlantic- and Pacific-origin cyclonic boundary currents over the upper slope. Shelf-basin exchange is further modified by shelf-break morphometry (e.g. canyons, valleys, headlands and bottom slope). Here we review the physical oceanographic settings and forcing of the interior shelves and then focus on shelfbreak exchange and supply of nutrients for new primary production due to upwelling across the shelfbreak. As a proxy for this nutrient supply, we show seasonal and annual time series of along-shelfbreak surface-stress due to wind and ice motion from 1979 to 2011. We apply this analysis to the shallow shelves from the Kara Sea to the Beaufort Sea and comment on recent increases due to atmospheric changes and sea-ice retreat.

  18. The impact of climatic and atmospheric teleconnections on the brine inventory over the Laptev Sea shelf between 2007 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Benoit; Bauch, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Export of brine-enriched water from Siberian shelves is thought to be a key parameter in maintaining the Arctic Halocline, which isolates the fresh and cold surface water from the warm Atlantic water and thus prevent dramatic change in the Arctic sea-ice thermodynamic. In this study, we used 5 years of oxygen isotope and hydrological summer surveys to better understand the factors controlling the brine inventory and distribution over the Laptev Sea shelf. The inventory was maximal in 2011 and 2007 and minimal in 2010. The brine inventory interannual variations are coherent with the winter Arctic Oscillation index that was maximal in 2011 and 2007 and minimal in 2010, which is known to modulate Arctic winds and sea-ice export pattern. While we should remain cautious since our record is limited to 5 years, our results suggest that the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and of the Arctic Dipole is the main factor controlling the annual variations in the inventory of brine-enriched waters from the Laptev Sea shelf between 2007 and 2011, especially during extreme negative Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole conditions as in 2010.

  19. Long Term Sea Level Change and Water Mass Balance in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Zengrui; LIU Yuguang; ZONG Haibo; XIU Peng

    2009-01-01

    Sea level anomalies observed by altimeter during the 1993-2006 period, thermosterie sea level anomalies estimated by using subsurface temperature data produced by Ishii and SODA reanalysis data, tide gauge records and HOAPS freshwater flux data were analyzed to investigate the long term sea level change and the water mass balance in the South China Sea. The altimeter-observed sea level showed a rising rate of (3.5±0.9)mm yr-1 during the period 1993-2006, but this figure was considered to have been highly distorted by the relatively short time interval and the large inter-decadal variability, which apparently exists in both the thermosteric sea level and the observed sea level. Long term thermosteric sea level from 1945 to 2004 gave a rising rate of 0.15±0.06 mmyr-1. Tide gauge data revealed this discrepancy and the regional distributions of the sea-level trends. Both the 'real' and the thermosteric sea level showed a good correspondence to ENSO: decreasing during E1 Nifio years and increasing during La Nina years. Amplitude and phase differences between the 'real' sea level and the thermosteic sea level were substantially revealed on both seasonal and interannual time scales. As one of the possible factors, the freshwater flux might play an important role in balancing the water mass.

  20. Future sea-level rise due to projected ocean warming beneath the Filchner Ronne Ice Shelf: A coupled model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Malte; Determann, Jürgen; Grosfeld, Klaus; Goeller, Sebastian; Hellmer, Hartmut H.

    2015-12-01

    A general ocean circulation model is coupled with a 3D-thermodynamical ice-sheet/shelf model to simulate the response of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS, Antarctica) and coastal parts of its catchment basin to a postulated inflow of Warm Deep Water into the ice-shelf cavity on a 1000-yr timescale. Prescribed ocean warming (based on climate projections) enters the ice-shelf cavity in the up to 1500 m deep Filchner Trough and penetrates deep into the sub-ice cavity. Increasing basal melt rates induce geometry changes of the cavity, which in turn have an impact on the ocean circulation and therefore the modelled melt rates. Highest melt rates of about 20 m yr-1 follow the (up to 180 km) retreating grounding line. Basal mass loss reaches about 250 km3 yr-1, doubling the present-day value. The most vulnerable areas below the FRIS are the Bailey Ice Stream and the area between the Institute and Moeller Ice Streams, where the increased melting accounts for about 80 km of the modelled grounding line retreat on the backward sloping bedrock. The potential additional contribution to the eustatic sea level rise due to the grounded-ice loss, simulated in an ensemble approach against a transient control experiment, is about 0.05 mm yr-1 during the first 500 yr and about 0.17 mm yr-1 thereafter.

  1. Localized accumulation and a shelf-basin gradient of particles in the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin, western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Fukuda, Hideki; Uchimiya, Mario; Motegi, Chiaki; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nagata, Toshi

    2015-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), particulate organic carbon (POC), and particles (size range: 5.2-119 μm) as determined by laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) were measured in the water column from the Chukchi Sea to the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean, during the late summer of 2012. In general, the percentages of TEP-carbon to POC were high (the mean values for the shelf and slope-basin regions were 135.4 ± 58.0% (± standard deviation, n = 36) and 187.6 ± 73.3% (n = 58), respectively), relative to the corresponding values reported for other oceanic regions, suggesting that TEP play an important role in regulating particle dynamics. A hotspot (extremely high concentration) of particles, accompanied by high prokaryote abundance and production, was observed near the seafloor (depth 50 m) of the shelf region. Localized accumulation of particles was also found in the thin layer near the pycnocline (depth 10-30 m) and on the slope. Over a broader spatial scale, particle concentration gradients were identified from the shelf to the basin in the upper water column (TEP are produced in the shelf region and are potentially delivered to the slope-basin region along the pycnocline, which might support productivity and material cycles in the nutrient-depleted basin region of the western Arctic Ocean.

  2. Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rérolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Tyrrell, T.

    2014-08-01

    Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise aimed at investigating ocean acidification impacts traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High-resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pH using the total pH scale (pHT), in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom), which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables on a cruise whose main aim was not intercomparison, and thus where conditions were more representative of normal working conditions. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well with direct observations of the same variables (Pearson's correlation coefficient always greater than or equal to 0.94; mean residuals were similar to the respective accuracies of the measurements). We therefore conclude that four of the independent data sets of carbonate chemistry variables were of high quality. A diurnal cycle with a maximum amplitude of 41 μatm was observed in the difference between the pCO2 values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2 systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on future research cruises.

  3. Effects of fluctuating hypoxia on benthic oxygen consumption in the Black Sea (Crimean shelf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtschlag, A.; Donis, D.; Janssen, F.; Jessen, G. L.; Holtappels, M.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Mazlumyan, S.; Sergeeva, N.; Waldmann, C.; Boetius, A.

    2015-08-01

    The outer western Crimean shelf of the Black Sea is a natural laboratory to investigate effects of stable oxic versus varying hypoxic conditions on seafloor biogeochemical processes and benthic community structure. Bottom-water oxygen concentrations ranged from normoxic (175 μmol O2 L-1) and hypoxic (< 63 μmol O2 L-1) or even anoxic/sulfidic conditions within a few kilometers' distance. Variations in oxygen concentrations between 160 and 10 μmol L-1 even occurred within hours close to the chemocline at 134 m water depth. Total oxygen uptake, including diffusive as well as fauna-mediated oxygen consumption, decreased from 15 mmol m-2 d-1 on average in the oxic zone, to 7 mmol m-2 d-1 on average in the hypoxic zone, correlating with changes in macrobenthos composition. Benthic diffusive oxygen uptake rates, comprising respiration of microorganisms and small meiofauna, were similar in oxic and hypoxic zones (on average 4.5 mmol m-2 d-1), but declined to 1.3 mmol m-2 d-1 in bottom waters with oxygen concentrations below 20 μmol L-1. Measurements and modeling of porewater profiles indicated that reoxidation of reduced compounds played only a minor role in diffusive oxygen uptake under the different oxygen conditions, leaving the major fraction to aerobic degradation of organic carbon. Remineralization efficiency decreased from nearly 100 % in the oxic zone, to 50 % in the oxic-hypoxic zone, to 10 % in the hypoxic-anoxic zone. Overall, the faunal remineralization rate was more important, but also more influenced by fluctuating oxygen concentrations, than microbial and geochemical oxidation processes.

  4. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    2015-10-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific Basin. Sea level anomalies (SLAs) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS) are assumed to be governed by various phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. We have used monthly sea level anomalies obtained from 12 tide gauge stations of PSMSL and UHSLC and merged and gridded AVISO products of SLAs (sea level anomalies) derived from satellite altimeter. We find that IOD-influenced inter-annual variations are found only in the southwestern and southeastern coastal regions of SSCS. Our analysis reveals that inter-annual regional sea level drops are associated with positive phase of the IOD, and the rises with negative phase of the IOD. SLA variations at decadal scale in the southeastern and northern Gulf of Thailand correlate with Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Multiple linear regression analysis of inter-annual SLAs and climate indices shows that IOD induced inter-annual variations dominate in the southwestern SCS and it contributes to about ~ 40% of inter-annual sea level variation. Meanwhile, ENSO contributes to around ~ 30% variation in sea level in the southwestern and ~ 40% variation in the southeastern SSCS. The present study also suggests that inter-annual SLA variations in the SSCS can occur by ENSO and IOD induced changes in wind stress curl and volume transport variations.

  5. Messinian Salinity Crisis and Course of Messinian Valleys in the Southern Shelf of the Sea of Marmara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çifçi, Günay; Barın, Burcu; Okay, Seda; Dondurur, Derman; Sorlien, Christopher; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Lericolais, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis widely accepted as one of the most interesting events concerning the Mediterranean marine environment in the earth's geological history. Late Miocene tectonic changes in Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity caused this huge event. The Sea of Marmara region has been improperly considered as a gateway between the Paratethys and Mediterranean since the Middle Miocene. However, it is a very important location for paleoclimatic research including the sea level change associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Although considerable work has been carried out on the Messinian Salinity Crisis, very little has been reported on the status of the Marmara Sea during the Messinian. The case study includes the southern shelf and North İmrali Basin of the Marmara Sea, which is in the region located from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to İmralı Island. The structural and stratigraphic interpretation were carried out using high resolution multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data which were collected with the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology and R/V K. Piri Reis belonging to Dokuz Eylül University under the frame of several projects including TUBİTAK-NSF. Seismic profiles acquired in southern shelf of the Marmara Sea suggest that Messinian fluvial erosion has occurred at the base of all the main sub-basins. The southern shoreline has provided well-preserved evidence of Messinian fluvial erosion followed by the post-crisis marine reflooding. Interpretation is focused on the nature of erosion related to this acoustic basement and to a major angular unconformity that may merge with it. The basement and erosionalsurface are interpreted in the Çanakkale outletandon the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. A buried East-West to NW-SE channel cut into acoustic basement that may belong to the Messinian period was interpreted on the MCS data. For instance, based on interpretation of

  6. Wintertime suspended sediment simulation in the Huanghai and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Byung Ho; MUN Jong Yoon; KO Jin Seok

    2005-01-01

    A simulation of suspended sediment movement relating to tidal and wave forcing during a winter monsoon in November 1983 in the Huanghai and East China Seas continental shelf is attempted by using the model describing the cohesive/non-cohesive sediment resuspension generated by interactions between currents and waves.model simulation showed that sediment concentrafon was increased by resuspension at shallow depths during the strong storm conditions due to high bottom stress interacted between currents and waves.This result is in general agreement with observations in horizontal distribution of suspended sediment distribution.At three current meter mooring positions off the southern Shandong Peninsula resusponsion occurred only at a depth of 22 m,nearest coastal position and at deeper parts at depths of 51 and 80 m wave-current interaction effects were not significant. It has shown that the present model simulation demonstrated the capability of reproduction of suspended sediment movement under wintertime extreme event reasonably well.

  7. Distribution of dissolved inorganic nitrogen over the continental slope of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuan; SHI Xiaoyong; WEN Tingting; ZHANG Chuansong; HAN Xiurong

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data from April to May 2009,distribution and its influential factors of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) over the continental slopes of the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) are discussed.Influenced by the Changjiang (Yangtze) River water,alongshore currents,and the Kuroshio current off the coast,DIN concentrations were higher in the Changjiang River estuary,but lower (<1 μrnol/L) in the northern and eastern YS and outer continental shelf area of the ECS.In the YS,the thermocline formed in spring,and a cold-water mass with higher DIN concentration (about 11 μmol/L)formed in benthonic water around 123.2°E.In Changjiang estuary (around 123°E,32°N),DIN concentration was higher in the 10 m layer; however,the bottom DIN concentration was lower,possibly influenced by mixing of the Taiwan Warm Current and offshore currents.

  8. Accumulation and exploration of gas hydrate in deep-sea sediments of northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guangxue; CHEN Fang; YANG Shengxiong; SU Xin; SHA Zhibin; WANG Hongbin; LIANG Jinqiang; ZHOU Yang

    2012-01-01

    The large deep-sea area from the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin to the eastern Dongsha Islands,within the continental margin of northern South China Sea,is a frontier of natural gas hydrate exploration in China.Multiform of deep-sea sedimentations have been occurred since late Miocene,and sediment waves as a potential quality reservoir of natural gas hydrate is an most important style of them.Based on abundant available data of seismic,gravity sampling and drilling core,we analyzed the characteristics of seismic reflection and sedimentation of sediment waves and the occurrence of naturat gas hydrate hosted in it,and discussed the control factors on natural gas hydrate accumulation.The former findings revealed the deep sea of the northern South China Sea have superior geological conditions on natural gas hydrate accumulation.Therefore,it will be of great significance in deep-sea natural gas hydrate exploration with the study on the relationship between deep-sea sedimentation and natural gas hydrate accumulation.

  9. The complexity of South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Gao, Jinyao; Zhao, Minghui; Wu, Jonny; Ding, Weiwei; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma, Briais et al., JGR 1993 and 20.5 Ma, Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014). Close to the rift axis of the East sub-basin, Ar-Ar age dating of oceanic crustal rocks collected during IODP Leg 349 gives ages of 15 and 15.2 +/- 0.2 Ma (Koppers, Fall AGU meeting, 2014), which seems to favor the 15.5 Ma age given by Briais et al. modeling. However, basaltic samples might belong to a sill and not to the typical oceanic crust. As post-spreading magmatic activity (~8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin, the published locations of the axial magnetic anomaly and spreading rates are incorrect. The compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS (Sibuet et al., Tectonophysics 2016) suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW

  10. The sea ice dynamics of Terra Nova Bay and Ross Ice Shelf Polynyas during a spring and winter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, P.; Bindoff, N. L.; Bergamasco, A.

    2008-09-01

    The Terra Nova Bay (TNB) and Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) polynyas are simulated using a coupled atmosphere-sea ice model in winter 2002 and summer 2000. The atmospheric component of the model is compared with Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) data and shows a significantly increased skill over the ECMWF atmospheric variables. During winter, the sea ice production in TNB is largely determined by katabatic winds. We estimate the monthly production rate to be 8.7 km3/month of sea ice during winter. In early summer (November), the katabatics are weaker and the sea ice production is more influenced by the synoptic wind. The net sea ice production is weaker during November at 1.2 km3/month. The summer production is characterized by a diurnal cycle of melt and sea ice formation. For small coastal polynyas, like TNB, it is important to resolve all the glacier valleys accurately. Increasing the model resolution by a factor of five leads to a doubling of the sea ice formation during winter simulations due to the point intensity of the katabatics winds. For open coastal polynyas, like RIS polynya, sea ice production is largely controlled by synoptic winds and resolution is less important. The RIS polynya production is 61.3 km3 during winter and 19.1 km3 during November. These results are comparable to RIS polynya observations. Although the TNB polynya has a smaller winter sea ice production, the sea ice rate of growth per unit area is 1.6 times that of the RIS polynya.

  11. Helicopter survey of methane and carbon dioxide sources on the Laptev Sea shelf near the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyuk, A.; Semiletov, I.; Nesterov, V.; Shakhova, N.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane have recently been recognized not only as key sources but also as great tracers of global climate change. The release of CH4 and CO2 from geological and biological sources on the Laptev Sea shelf was investigated during a flight on the helicopter Mi-8 20 September 2006 organized by POI FEB RAS. Gas concentrations were measured on the height of about 100 m over sea surface on the route more than 1200 km long and area over 40 000 km2 using Fast CH4 analyzer LosGatos DLT-100 and CO2 and H2O analyzer Li-8100 (LiCor). Vertical structure of atmosphere were investigated in 5 points with different air-sea interaction environment with maximal height up to 2 000 m in northernmost point. Our data reveal that Arctic air-sea exchange processes have a substantial impact on overlying atmospheric CH4 and CO2 composition. Enhanced concentrations of CH4 were measured along the entire helicopter route (>1.85 ppm Latitudinal mean average), reaching up to 1.97 ppm (6.5% increase) in particular areas. Some anomalies in air CH4 were spatially correlated with anomalies in distribution of dissolved CH4 in water which could be associated with fault zones and Lena River discharge. Vertical profiles of methane and carbon dioxide exhibit a significant increase near the sea surface, what prove later as a source of CH4 and CO2 into the atmosphere. Possibly massive escape both of these gases may be related additionally with already intensified autumn ocean convection. Offshore helicopter survey near the Lena River Delta show that the Laptev Sea surface is a strong source of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. Aircraft survey may be used for mapping of the methane anomalies on the shelf.

  12. Importance of planktonic community respiration on the carbon balance of the East China Sea in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Chi; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Liu, Kon-Kee

    2006-12-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is one of the largest continental shelves in the world; however, the role that biota plays in the carbon fluxes of this shelf ecosystem is still obscure. To evaluate the organic carbon balance and the roles played by planktonic communities in organic carbon consumption, two cruises with stations covering almost the entire shelf were conducted during the high productivity and high river flow season of the ECS in June (the early summer) and August (the middle summer) 2003. Results showed that biological activity was significantly higher in the early summer. To flourish in the early summer, plankton need a significant fluvial input of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from the Chinese coast, especially from the Changjiang (aka Yangtze River), might be one of the main driving forces. Further analysis showed that most planktonic community respiration (PCR) could be attributed to phytoplankton and bacterioplankton, which accounted for over 96% of the total planktonic biomass (in carbon units) in summer. This might partially explain why mean PCR was higher in June (˜114 mg C m-3 d-1), with higher phytoplankton biomass, than in August (˜40 mg m-3 d-1). The ratio of integrated primary production to PCR (i.e., the P/R ratio) was, however, less than 1, with a mean ± SD value of 0.35 ± 0.41 for all the pooled data. This indicates a significant amount of organic carbon has been regenerated through planktonic activity in the water column. The sea-air difference in fCO2, however, changed from a mean value of -64.5 ± 61.3 ppm in June to 10.0 ± 37.5 ppm in August. To explain the contradictory results between PCR and fCO2, we suggest that the dissolved inorganic carbon regenerated through planktonic respiration could be stored in the subsurface layer and may affect the fCO2 in the surface water, which is what controls the shelf sea either as an atmospheric CO2 sink or as a source, depending on the prevailing physical forces. These

  13. Policy and Profit Allocation for the Cooperative Development of Natural Gas Resource on Chinese Offshore Continental Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingsong; Zhang Mingzhi

    1994-01-01

    @@ Rich natural gas resources on Chinese offshore continental shelf China has a wide sea waters with their offshore continental shelf covering over 1 million km2. Rich oil-gas resources are lying under the sea waters. In accordance with the conventional international assessment method for oil and gas resources, it is expected that the gas reserve volume in China is approximately 14 000 billion cu.m.

  14. Response of internal solitary waves to tropical storm Washi in the northwestern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on in-situ time series data from an array of temperature sensors and an acoustic Doppler current profiler on the continental shelf of the northwestern South China Sea, a sequence of internal solitary waves (ISWs were observed during the passage of tropical storm Washi in the summer of 2005, which provided a unique opportunity to investigate the ISW response to the tropical cyclone. The passing tropical storm is found to play an important role in affecting the stratification structure of the water column, and consequently leading to significant variability in the propagating features of the ISWs, such as the polarity reversal and amplitude variations of the waves. The response of the ISWs to Washi can be divided into two stages, direct forcing by the strong wind (during the arrival of Washi and remote forcing via the near-inertial internal waves induced by the tropical storm (after the passage of Washi. The field observations as well as a theoretical analysis suggest that the variations of the ISWs closely coincide with the changing stratification structure and shear currents in accompanied by the typhoon wind and near-inertial waves. This study presents the first observations and analysis of the ISW response to the tropical cyclone in the South China Sea.

  15. From orogenic collapse to rifting ; structures of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, M.; Chan, L. S.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Shen, W.; Ringenbach, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The opening of the South China Sea has been a matter of debate for many years because of its internal structure, the differences between the conjugate margins and the variations of rifting and spreading directions. Although it is considered as being a back-arc basin, it is not sitting directly above a subduction zone, and the rifting process lasted for an unusually long duration. Among the specific characteristics is the early phase of rifting which took place early in place of the former Yanshanian andean-type mountain range. This stage is marked by narrow basins filled with deformed conglomerate, and initiated around 70My ago within a framework where the oblique subduction marked by igneous activity and ductile wrench faults, was replaced by orogenic collapse. The rifting stage is marked by Eocene syntectonic normal faults and occasional volcanics centres and has proceeded from NW-SE to NS extension. The NW stretching created at least two aborted basins which remained at rift stage. Extension was followed by spreading from 33 to ~20 Ma in the South China Sea. The ocean floor spreading also changed direction to NW-SE with a propagator inside the Sunda shelf from 20 to 17My ago. However the propagator opening implies that deformation is also taken by rifting around a southern wedge which in turn created strain inside the thinned crust. Another extension parallel to the margin is also observed althought the spreading was in process. The southward motion of the southern conjugate margin was later accommodated by its subduction beneath the NW Borneo wedge until completion of the Proto South China Sea subduction. Variations of rifting spreading through time and variations of structural styles are discussed in terms of boundary forces acting to the SE.

  16. Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  17. Modal recovery of sea-level variability in the South China Sea using merged altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haoyu; Chen, Ge

    2015-09-01

    Using 20 years (1993-2012) of merged data recorded by contemporary multi-altimeter missions, a variety of sea-level variability modes are recovered in the South China Sea employing three-dimensional harmonic extraction. In terms of the long-term variation, the South China Sea is estimated to have a rising sea-level linear trend of 5.39 mm/a over these 20 years. Among the modes extracted, the seven most statistically significant periodic or quasi-periodic modes are identified as principal modes. The geographical distributions of the magnitudes and phases of the modes are displayed. In terms of intraannual and annual regimes, two principal modes with strict semiannual and annual periods are found, with the annual variability having the largest amplitudes among the seven modes. For interannual and decadal regimes, five principal modes at approximately 18, 21, 23, 28, and 112 months are found with the most mode-active region being to the east of Vietnam. For the phase distributions, a series of amphidromes are observed as twins, termed "amphidrome twins", comprising rotating dipole systems. The stability of periodic modes is investigated employing joint spatiotemporal analysis of latitude/longitude sections. Results show that all periodic modes are robust, revealing the richness and complexity of sea-level modes in the South China Sea.

  18. Interdecadal changes in summer TC activity in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-04-01

    The study analyzed the time series of the tropical cyclone (TC) frequencies which passed through the East China Sea between July and September from 1963 to 2012. The result of applying the statistical change-point analysis to this time series shows that a climate regime shift occurred in 1983 when the TC frequencies which pass the East China Sea area started increasing. The study then analyzed the average difference after 1983 (1984-2012) and before 1983 (1963-1983). The TC genesis frequency shows a tendency in mainly appearing in the tropical and subtropical Northwestern Pacific between 1963 and 1983 and the southern part between 1984 and 2012. The TC passage frequency shows a pattern that the TCs move from the far northeast sea of Philippines and change direction to Korea and Japan, passing through the East China Sea between 1984 and 2012. Meanwhile, the TC passage frequency shows a pattern which moves from the far southeast sea of the Philippines to southern China in the west direction in the previous period (1963-1983). These TC movement patterns coincide with the development status of the subtropical western North Pacific high (SWNPH) which averages for each period. It shows that the SWNPH in the second period stays away from the SWNPH in the second period from the northeast direction, but that the SWNPH in the first period expands to western Taiwan. This study analyzes the difference between the two periods in the 500-hPa streamline to understand the changes in such TC activities in the two groups. The anomalous anticyclonic circulations centered in the southern part of Japan are fortified in most of the subtropical Northwestern Pacific. The anomalous southerlies from the anomalous circulations are outstanding in the East China Sea area, Korea, and Japan. Therefore, the TCs generated in the tropical and subtropical Northwestern Pacific move along with the anomalous steering flow (anomalous southwesterlies) and up toward the East China Sea area, Korea, and

  19. EBSSED database-Surficial sediments of the eastern Bering Sea continental shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to facilitate descriptions of groundfish habitat over a large portion of the EBS shelf, the NMFS/AFSC has assembled a single comprehensive database of the...

  20. Long-range correlations in remotely sensed chlorophyll in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Haigang; SHI Ping; MAO Qinwen; ZHANG Tonghui

    2006-01-01

    A 8-year time series of 8-day Seaviewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data,which spans from Oct 1997 to Oct 2005, was used to study the temporal correlations and scaling behaviour of ocean chlorophyll fluctuations in the South China Sea (SCS) by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Long-range correlations in chlorophyll fluctuations were detected in almost all the SCS. The scaling exponents vary over a wide range from 0.5 to 1.14, with an average value of 0.79. High values are found in the upwelling regions, such as the northwest of Luzon and the north of Sunda Shelf. Low values occur in the southwest of Luzon, the east of Hainan Island and a majority of the southern SCS. This spatial pattern is considerably different from that of the scaling exponents of the sea surface temperature (SST) time series. It is also demonstrated that SST exhibits more persistence than chlorophyll in almost all the SCS.

  1. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea. PMID:27243109

  2. Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Tae Jin; Kwak, Young Hun; Oh, Jae Ho; Bong, Pil Youn; Son, Jin Dam; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byoung Kook; Hwang, In Geul; Kwon, Young In; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Hak Ju; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. Tectonics of the rifting phase in both regions have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. In the northwestern region, the large rifting activity appears to be occurred during Oligocene and pre-Oligocene, while in the southeastern region it occurred from late Miocene to early Pliocene. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated

  3. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Cheng; William W.L. Cheung; Tony J. Pitcher

    2009-01-01

    Using the Ecopath mass-balance trophodynamic model, this paper analyzed the trophic levels, flows, food web structure and ecosys-tem maturity of the East China Sea, and identified ecologically important functional groups in the ecosystem. The model is based on fishery resource surveys of the East China Sea in 2000, studies on diet composition and global databases such as FishBase and the Sea Around Us Project Database. The results showed that trophic levels of the functional groups are between 2.86 and 4.37, with an average of 3.32. Anchocy (Engraulis japonicus), small fishes and benthic crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs are important groups in terms of the trophic structure and flow dynamics in the East China Sea. Energy flows of most groups are between specific trophic levels, except file fish (Thamnaconus spp.), pomfret (Pampus spp.) and cephalopods. Trophic transfer efficiency of levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and more than Ⅴ are 11.8%, 21.1%, 17.4% and 22.1-22.5%, respectively. Effects of fishery-the largest 'consumer' of the ecosystem -are much stronger than those exerted by biological groups in the system. The model suggests that the current fishery can further reduce the complexity of the ecosystem. Evaluations of the system indices suggest that maturity of the ecosystem is low. The conclusion of this model indicates that it was the overfishing that caused the ecosystem of the East China Sea declined, which should be taken into account as a critical reference for fisheries management in the future.

  4. A study of long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; LIN Mingsen; ZHENG Quanan; YE Xiaomin; LI Junyi; ZHU Benlu

    2015-01-01

    From the analyses of the satellite altimeter Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) data, tidal gauge sea level data and historical sea level data, this paper investigates the long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea (ECS). Based on the correlation analysis, we calculate the correlation coefficient between tidal gauge and the closest MSLA grid point, then generate the map of correlation coefficient of the entire ECS. The results show that the satellite altimeter MSLA data is effective to observe coastal sea level variability. An important finding is that from map of correlation coefficient we can identify the Kuroshio. The existence of Kuroshio decreases the correlation between coastal and the Pacific sea level. Kurishio likes a barrier or a wall, which blocks the effect of the Pacific and the global change. Moreover, coastal sea level in the ECS is mainly associated with local systems rather than global change. In order to calculate the long-term sea level variability trend, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is applied to derive the trend on each MSLA grid point in the entire ECS. According to the 2-D distribution of the trend and rising rate, the sea level on the right side of the axis of Kuroshio rise faster than in its left side. This result supports the barrier effect of Kuroshio in the ECS. For the entire ECS, the average sea level rose 45.0 mm between 1993 and 2010, with a rising rate of (2.5±0.4) mm/a which is slower than global average. The relatively slower sea level rising rate further proves that sea level rise in the ECS has less response to global change due to its own local system effect.

  5. Input of Terrestrial Palynomorphs since the Last Deglaciation from Sediments of the Chukchi Sea Shelf, Western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delusina, I.; Kim, S. Y.; Nam, S. I.; Woo, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    We report the palynology of marine sediment core ARA02B/01A-GC from the Western margin of the shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic, a site which was synchronously influenced by climatic changes during the last deglaciation with those in the Bering Strait. The core contains a rich concentration of continental palynomorphs, even though the coring location is quite a distance from land. The catchment area for the observed palynomorphs includes the territories of both North America (Alaska and North Canada) and Northern Siberia (Chukotka peninsula and Northern East-Siberian coast). Based on this fact, we can reconstruct a common paleoenvironmental history for this location and the Bering Strait during the postglacial interval. We hypothesize that palynomorphs were carried to the sea during low sea-ice coverage intervals by large rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie and Siberian rivers) and were then transferred by oceanic currents. During intervals of extensive sea-ice coverage the source of the palynomorphs was predominantly eroded shelf sediments. The percentage ratio of tree-herb pollen and spores in the palynomorph assemblages shows that favorable conditions for an increase in forest vegetation took place between ~8 and 4 kyr BP, which coincides with maximum freshwater input to the sea. During a climatic optimum at ~5 kyr BP, as inferred from the total dominance of tree and herb pollen, the Chukchi Sea was apparently warmer than today. This represents the maximum ice-free period for the sea. The low sea-ice interval ended ~3 kyr BP, as suggested by a sharp drop in tree pollen, a reduction in fresh water input, and a drop in the concentration of the algae Pediastrum. Our data correlate well with data from marine core HLY0501-5 from the Bering Strait (Polyak et al., 2009) for the interval of 10-8 kyr BP, but shows a divergence since ~4 kyr BP, which may correspond to the beginning of the differentiation of North American and East-Siberian ecosystem zones.

  6. Deep divers in shallow seas: Southern elephant seals on the Patagonian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Marin, Maria Rosa; Lewis, Mirtha; Zajaczkovski, Uriel; Fernández, Teresita

    2007-10-01

    Elephant seals are wide-ranging, pelagic, deep-diving (average of 400-600 m) predators that typically travel to open waters and continental shelf edges thousands of kilometers from their land breeding colonies. We report a less common pattern of foraging in the shallow waters of a continental shelf. Southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, that breed at Península Valdés (Argentina), face an extended (˜1,000,000 km 2; 400-700 km-wide, depending on track), shallow (Preferred locations of juvenile females were in the proximity of the shelf break, where stratified waters had relatively high phytoplankton concentrations, but young and subadult males used the relatively cold (7-8 °C), low-salinity (˜33.3) mid-shelf waters, with depths of 105-120 m and a poorly stratified water column. Three of the latter seals, instrumented with time-depth recorders, showed dives compatible with benthic feeding and no diel pattern of depths distribution. Regions of the mid-shelf were used in different seasons and were associated with low chlorophyll- a concentration at the time of the visit, suggesting that surface productivity does not overlap with putative quality habitat for benthic foragers. Benthic diving on the shallow mid-shelf would be a resource partitioning strategy advantageous for young males prior to greater energetic demands of a high growth rate and a large body size. Later in life, the more predictable, bathymetry-forced, shelf-break front may offer the food resources that explain the uninterrupted increase of this population over several decades.

  7. Future acidification of marginal seas: A comparative study of the Japan/East Sea and the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Boudreau, Bernard P.

    2016-06-01

    The response of marginal (peripheral) seas to ocean acidification on short and long time scales is not well established. Through modeling, we examine the future acidification of two adjacent marginal seas, the South China Sea (SCS) and the Japan/East Sea (J/ES). Our results illustrate the importance of unique features in determining their acidification. The J/ES basin will become completely undersaturated with regard to calcite rapidly in the next few decades, while the SCS basin will experience relatively slower acidification. During its acidification, the J/ES will continually act as a sink for atmospheric CO2, whereas the SCS will temporarily switch from a source to a sink during the peak pCO2 interval, only to return slowly to being a source again. Marginal sea acidification will be determined by multiple factors, including their connections with the open ocean and their unique physical and biogeochemical dynamics, in addition to the level of atmospheric CO2.

  8. Reduced inorganic sulfur in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xuming; LIU Sumei; ZHANG Guoling

    2014-01-01

    Cold diffusion methods are used to separate and quantify the three reduced inorganic sulfur species into acid volatile sulfide (AVS), pyrite-S and element sulfur (ES) in the sediments of the Yellow and East China Seas. The results show that up to 25.02μmol/g of AVS, 113.1μmol/g of pyrite-S and 44.4μmol/g of ES are observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Pyrite-S is the predominant sulfide mineral in the sediments, while the concentration of AVS is quite low at most stations in the study area. The amounts and reactivity of organic matter are the primary limited factor for the sulfide formation, while an iron limi-tation and a sulfate limitation are not observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The irregular profiles of the three reduced inorganic sulfur species also reflected the comprehensive influence of sediment composition and sedimentation rates.

  9. 234Th/238U disequilibrium and particulate organic carbon export in the northern South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We utilized 234Th, a naturally occurring radionuclide, to quantify the particulate organic carbon (POC) export rates in the northern South China Sea (SCS) based on data collected in July 2000 (summer), May 2001 (spring) and November 2002 (autumn). Th-234 deficit was enhanced with depth in the euphotic zone, reaching a sub-surface maximum at the Chl-a maximum in most cases, as commonly observed in many oceanic regimes. Th-234 was in general in equilibrium with 238U at a depth of ∼100 m, the bottom of the euphotic zone. In this study the 234Th deficit appeared to be less significant in November than in July and May. A surface excess of 234Th relative to 238U was found in the summer over the shelf of the northern SCS, most likely due to the accumulation of suspended particles entrapped by a salinity front. Comparison of the 234Th fluxes from the upper 10 m water column between 2-D and traditional 1-D models revealed agreement within the errors of estimation, suggesting the applicability of the 1-D model to this particular shelf region. 1-D model-based 234Th fluxes were converted to POC export rates using the ratios of bottle POC to 234Th. The values ranged from 5.3 to 26.6 mmol C m-2d-1 and were slightly higher than those in the southern SCS and other oligotrophic areas. POC export overall showed larger values in spring and summer than in autumn, the seasonality of which was, however, not significant. The highest POC export rate (26.6 mmol C m-2d-1) appeared at the shelf break in spring (May), when Chl-a increased and the community structure changed from pico-phytoplankton (<2 μm) dominated to nano-phytoplankton (2-20 μm) and micro-phytoplankton (20-200 μm) dominated. (author)

  10. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  11. Foraging Responses of Black-Legged Kittiwakes to Prolonged Food-Shortages around Colonies on the Bering Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Rosana; Orben, Rachael A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Irons, David B.; Roby, Daniel D.; Harding, Ann M. A.; Young, Rebecca C.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Ladd, Carol; Renner, Heather; Heppell, Scott; Phillips, Richard A.; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008–2010) at two sites in the Pribilof Islands, where the population has either declined (St. Paul) or remained stable (St. George). Foraging conditions were assessed from changes in (1) bird diets, (2) the biomass and distribution of juvenile pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in 2008 and 2009, and (3) eddy kinetic energy (EKE; considered to be a proxy for oceanic prey availability). In years when biomass of juvenile pollock was low and patchily distributed in shelf regions, kittiwake diets included little or no neritic prey and a much higher occurrence of oceanic prey (e.g. myctophids). Birds from both islands foraged on the nearby shelves, or made substantially longer-distance trips overnight to the basin. Here, feeding was more nocturnal and crepuscular than on the shelf, and often occurred near anticyclonic, or inside cyclonic eddies. As expected from colony location, birds from St. Paul used neritic waters more frequently, whereas birds from St. George typically foraged in oceanic waters. Despite these distinctive foraging patterns, there were no significant differences between colonies in chick feeding rates or fledging success. High EKE in 2010 coincided with a 63% increase in use of the basin by birds from St. Paul compared with 2008 when EKE was low. Nonetheless, adult nutritional stress, which was relatively high across years at both colonies, peaked in birds from St. Paul in 2010. Diminishing food resources in nearby shelf habitats may have contributed to kittiwake population declines at St Paul, possibly driven by increased adult mortality or breeding desertion due to high foraging effort and nutritional stress. PMID:24671108

  12. Climate analysis of evaporation ducts in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaporation ducts have important implications for U.S. Naval activities involving electromagnetic propagation. The presence of an evaporation duct can affect naval operations involving communications, surveillance, electronic warfare, and detection of low-flying missiles, surface ships, or submarine periscopes. We conducted a climate scale analysis of evaporation duct heights (EDH) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), including how ...

  13. Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyu Liu

    2011-01-01

    Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna Sinica ― Invertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna Sinica ― Vertebrata are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinicarum. Results of stud...

  14. A reanalysis dataset of the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu; Li, Zhijin; Qi, Yiquan; Chen, Rongyu

    2014-01-01

    Ocean reanalysis provides a temporally continuous and spatially gridded four-dimensional estimate of the ocean state for a better understanding of the ocean dynamics and its spatial/temporal variability. Here we present a 19-year (1992–2010) high-resolution ocean reanalysis dataset of the upper ocean in the South China Sea (SCS) produced from an ocean data assimilation system. A wide variety of observations, including in-situ temperature/salinity profiles, ship-measured and satellite-derived ...

  15. Diatom Surface Sediment Assemblages from the Bering Sea Shelf: a Tossed Salad or Faithful Recorder of 50 Years of Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, B.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent environmental change in the Bering Sea includes a shift from the negative to positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/77, a secondary shift in sea level pressure and sea surface temperatures in 1998, increasing sea surface temperatures, an earlier spring, an increase in the number of days that sea ice is present along the shelf-slope break, and a decrease in the number of days that sea ice is present in the Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean. These physical changes have manifest biological changes such as a northward migration of invertebrates and fish from the southern Bering Sea and shifts in the timing and duration of sea-ice related primary productivity and the spring bloom. We aim to see if diatom sediment assemblages are faithful recorders of these ecological changes in the Bering Sea or if bioturbation has essentially mixed today’s rapid change down core such that the signal is either muted or no longer apparent. Six continental shelf areas were examined in the Bering Sea ranging from northeast of St. Lawrence Island to the shelf-slope break in the south-central Bering Sea. Diatom assemblages from core tops collected as part of the PROBES program in the 1960s were compared to core tops taken nearby (7 m) multi-year ice so their decline may be related to the decrease in multi-year ice over the past 30 years. Additionally, in most cases, species diversity has declined over the past 50 years with Fragilariopsis oceanica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus accounting for a greater percentage of the sediment assemblages today. These two species are collectively considered indicators of seasonal sea ice; their relative abundance peaks when ice is present for 5 months per year. Ongoing down core analyses in these six areas will further reveal the nature of these assemblage changes.

  16. Causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIU Kexiu; QI Dongmei; GAO Zhigang; FAN Wenjing; ZHANG Zengjian; WANG Guosong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of sea level, air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), air pressure and wind data during 1980-2013, the causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea (ECS) are investigated. The research results show: (1) sea level along the coastal region of the ECS takes on strong seasonal variation. The annual range is 30-45 cm, larger in the north than in the south. From north to south, the phase of sea level changes from 140° to 231°, with a difference of nearly 3 months. (2) Monthly mean sea level (MSL) anomalies often occur from August to next February along the coast region of the ECS. The number of sea level anomalies is at most from January to February and from August to October, showing a growing trend in recent years. (3) Anomalous wind field is an important factor to affect the sea level variation in the coastal region of the ECS. Monthly MSL anomaly is closely related to wind field anomaly and air pressure field anomaly. Wind-driven current is essentially consistent with sea surface height. In August 2012, the sea surface heights at the coastal stations driven by wind field have contributed 50%-80% of MSL anomalies. (4) The annual variations for sea level, SST and air temperature along the coastal region of the ECS are mainly caused by solar radiation with a period of 12 months. But the correlation coefficients of sea level anomalies with SST anomalies and air temperature anomalies are all less than 0.1. (5) Seasonal sea level variations contain the long-term trends and all kinds of periodic changes. Sea level oscillations vary in different seasons in the coastal region of the ECS. In winter and spring, the oscillation of 4-7 a related to El Ni?o is stronger and its amplitude exceeds 2 cm. In summer and autumn, the oscillations of 2-3 a and quasi 9 a are most significant, and their amplitudes also exceed 2 cm. The height of sea level is lifted up when the different oscillations superposed. On the

  17. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  18. Residence times of surface water and particle-reactive 210Pb and 210Po in the East China and Yellow seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    228,226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po were measured in the surface waters of the East China and Yellow seas. Using mass balance equations for the Ra isotopes. The authors estimated the total flux of diffusion from sediments and desorption from suspended particles to be 0.1 dpm 226Ra cm-2 a-1 and 1 dpm 228Ra cm-2 a-1, and residence times to be 2-3 years for the waters on the East China Sea Shelf and 5-6 years for Yellow Sea waters. Box-model calculations yielded generally congruent scavenging residence times for 210Pb and 210Po in the waters of ∼2 months on the shelf and ∼7 months in the Kuroshio Current. These suggest that reactive heavy metals and pollutants discharged through rivers from the continent to the East Asian continental shelf are largely deposited on the bottom sediments prior to transport to the pelagic ocean by lateral mixing

  19. Mapping surface tidal currents and Changjiang plume in the East China Sea from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zifeng; Wang, Dong-Ping; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the semidiurnal M2 tidal currents in the East China Sea (ECS) is mapped from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), taking advantage of the satellite's unique 8 hourly local daytime sequential images. The GOCI-derived surface M2 tidal currents are validated with a comprehensive set of twenty-eight surface drifters and four mooring observations. The agreement is outstanding with the error variance less than 10% of the total variance. The gridded GOCI-derived tidal currents are also in good agreement with the Oregon State University (OSU) high-resolution regional tidal model of the China Seas. The detided mean flow shows a strong Changjiang plume extending hundreds of kilometers offshore, in agreement with the concurrent satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) distributions. The observed surface currents are compared with the daily mean flows derived from the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment (JCOPE2). The model results are consistent with the observations, showing the sensitivity of Changjiang plume to wind forcing. The study clearly demonstrates the utility of geostationary satellite in mapping the surface currents over a wide (˜400 km), tidally dominated continental shelf.

  20. Mineralogy of Holocene Sediments from the Southwestern Black Sea Shelf (Turkey) in Relation to Provenance, Sea-level and Current Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emel BAYHAN; Mustafa ERG(I)N; Abidin TEMEL; Seref KESK(I)N

    2005-01-01

    Grain size and mineral composition of core sediments were used to investigate influences of various terrestrial and marine conditions,which have prevailed on the southwestern Black Sea shelf during the Holocene.Siliciclastic mud with small amounts of sand and gravel from nearby coastal hinterland is the principal sediment type,whereas sediments deposited near the shelf edge and the (I)stanbul Strait and off the Duru Lake (a paleo-river mouth)constitued large quantities of sand and gravel of both biogenic and terrigenic origin.Variable amounts of aragonite,1 nm-micas,quartz,feldspars,calcite and dolomite constitute the dominant non-clay minerals in bulk sediments.The clay mineral assemblage in the < 2 μm fraction is made up of smectite,illite,kaolinite and chlorite.Aragonite and calcite are mainly derived from benthic accumulations,whereas feldspars (mainly plagioclase) and smectite reflect magmaticvolcanic provenance and the distribution of 1 nm-micas and chlorite correlate with nearby metamorphic sources onland.Nevertheless,grain size and mineral distribution generally indicate a combination of effects of wind and wave climate,longshore and offshore cyclonic currents,changing sea-level stands and nearby source rock and morphological conditions.It is also suggested that at least part of clay minerals could be derived from the northwesterly Danube River input.

  1. Long-term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the East China Sea: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hak Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea was reviewed based mainly on published literatures. Though the quantitative results are not the same, it is generally shown that sea surface temperature is increasing especially in recent years with the rate of increase about 0.03oC/year. Other meaningful results presented in the literatures is that the difference of water properties between layers upper and lower than the thermocline in summer shows an increasing trend both in temperature and salinity, suggesting that the stratification has been intensified. As a mechanism by which to evaluate the wintertime warming trend in the region, the weakening of wind strength, which is related to the variation of sea level pressure and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific and northern Asian continent, is suggested in the most of related studies.

  2. Heat exchange at air-sea interface in the South China Sea during monsoon periods in 1986

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Disheng; LU Boming; FENG Weizhong; XU Jianping; YAN Jinghua; ZHAO Xue; ZHOU Shuihua; ZHANG Jiwei; QIAO Guanyu; LIN Fu

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the interaction between the sea and monsoon in the South China Sea, the heat exchanges at air-sea interface during monsoon periods in 1986 were calculated using observational data. It shows that when the summer monsoon bursts and prevails over the South China Sea, the air-sea interface heat exchange is strong and the latent heat rises rapidly in the intertropical convergence zone and the tropic cyclone system near 20.49°N, 114.14°E. On May 24, 1986, the sensible heat became positive in the typhoon system. The heating exchange indicates that heat is transported from ocean to atmosphere, with major contribution of latent heat. When the summer monsoon prevails over the South China Sea and the weather is fine, even SST (sea surface temperature) is high, but sensible heat appears to be negative. The heat exchange indicates that heat is transported from atmosphere to ocean, with major contribution of short-wave radiation absorbed by sea surface and sensible heat. When summer monsoon is over and the northeast monsoon prevails over the South China Sea, the heat exchange at air-sea interface is very strong. The heating exchange shows that the ocean heats the atmosphere, with major contribution of latent heat when cold air arrives at the sea surface and the sensible heat rises to positive rapidly. Therefore it can be concluded that the heat exchange at air-sea interface is different from the SST in South China Sea. When the summer monsoon prevails over the South China Sea, the main trend is the ocean responding to the atmosphere.

  3. The records of coastline changes reflected by mangroves on the Sunda Shelf since the last 40 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoMei; SUN XiangJun; WANG PinXian; Karl Stattegger

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a 40000-year-long high-resolution mangrove record from sediments of Core 18300,18302 and 18323 on the continental shelf of the southern South China Sea and reconstructs the coast-line changes on Sunda Shelf since the last 40000 years.In the period Marine Isotope 3,the old Sunda Shelf had low sea level,and it was partly exposed.Flourishing vegetations grew on the exposed old land.Mangroves developed along the coastline.On the Last Glacial Maximum,the sea level dropped greatly,coastline moved from inner shelf to outer shelf,the Old Sunda Land exposed further,and the lowering sea level induced the gradual disappearing of mangroves from the inner Sunda Shelf to the outer Sunda Shelf.And pioneer vegetation ferns covered the broadly exposed old land immediately.At the time of the last Deglaciation,sea level rose greatly,the coastline moved to the sea and the Sunda Shelf was drown again.Mangroves were emergent again from outer shelf to inner shelf and developed quickly.

  4. Modern sedimentation and extreme event in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Huang; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea is the largest marginal sea of the northwest Pacific. It is situated at the plate boundary of the Eurasian, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates and also on the North Western Pacific corridor of typhoons. The unique tectonic and climatic environment makes it has to face the potential of seafloor destructions, like submarine landslides and slumps, and high sediment discharges which induced by typhoon from Philippine. In this study, we analysis the sediment properties of modern extreme event records in cores and attempt to evaluate the history of extreme events in the South China Sea. Twelve gravity cores were collected in the central South China Sea basin and around Taiping island by using R/V Ocean Research 1 from 2014 to 2015 and a series of analysis including multi-sensor core logger, XRF core scanner (Itrax), core surface images, X-radiographs, bulk density, grain size, Pb-210 chronology and X-ray diffractometer were conducted in this study. On core surface images, an obvious brownish oxidized layer exist in core top with higher Pb-210 activity beneath this oxidized layer, and we speculate this layer is caused by nature hazard. According to the sampling time, we conjecture the oxidized layer might formed by typhoon Haiyan in 2013. In addition, the Itrax data shows high manganese content only exist in this layer which might related to the modern industrial pollution delivered by typhoon induced flooding from Philippine. The sedimentation rate of the non-event years in these cores which derived from Pb-210 chronology method is about 0.02 ~0.03 cm/yr. On contrary, the event layer caused by Haiyan with a recorded maximum 87cm deposits in the South China Sea. This study aims to characterize the typhoon induced deposits in the turbidite layer and use it to identify whether the other event layers recorded in these cores were related to typhoon activities and to reconstruct the strong tropical cyclone history in the western Pacific.

  5. Simulation of Suspended Sediment in the Yellow and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Byung-Ho; MUN Jong-Yoon; KO Jin-Seok; YUK Jin-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Described is an initial attempt to simulate the suspended sediment dynamics relating to tidal and wave forcing during summertime in June 1980 and August 1981 for the Yellow and East China Seas continental shelf. The cohesive/non-cohesive sediment resuspension and movement generated by the interaction between current and wave are modeled by use of ECOMSED and WAM Cycle 4. Model results are compared with observations in US-China Marine Sedimentation Dynamics Program performed for 1980-81 at off the Changjiang estuary. The main features of simulations show that suspended sediment concentrations during the summer decreased markedly offshore as observed during the simulation periods. As for some discrepancies for the mouth of the estuary with high river discharges, i.e., the Changjiang River, the model did not properly reproduce the over-mixing situation in the summer; thus distinct vertical concentration variation in this local region is not agreeable with observation. However, general dispersal patterns of suspended sediment movement seem to be agreeably reproduced for the nearshore shallow region. Some of the procedures of simulation and results are presented and discussed.

  6. Distributions and sources of volatile chlorocarbons and bromocarbons in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Concentrations of the six VHOC were determined in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. • VHOC distributions were affected by anthropogenic, biologic and hydrographic factors. • Diurnal variations of the six VHOC were observed. • Relationships between VHOC and related parameters were discussed. • Sources of the six VHOC were identified by principal component analysis. - Abstract: Six volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOC), namely, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, were studied in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea from April to May, 2009. The spatial variability of these VHOC was influenced by various factors, including anthropogenic inputs, biogenic production and complicated hydrographic features such as Changjiang Diluted Water, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass, and Kuroshio Current. Diurnal study results showed that factors such as solar irradiation, biological activity, and tide affected the abundance of these VHOC. Correlation analyses revealed that bromodichloromethane was positively correlated with chlorophyll a in surface seawater. Principal component analysis suggested that chlorinated compounds like carbon tetrachloride originated from anthropogenic sources whereas brominated compounds such as bromodichloromethane originated from biogenic sources. Sources of other chlorinated and brominated compounds may not be governed by biological processes in the marine environment

  7. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  8. Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian responses

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Carlyle A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Chinese assertive behaviour towards the Philippines and Vietnam over South China Sea issues in 2011. The article compares and contrasts Chinese diplomatic behaviour in the period before and after the adoption by ASEAN member states and China of Guidelines for the Implementation the Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea in July. In the first period China aggressively asserted its claims to sovereignty by interfering with commercial fishing and oil explor...

  9. Seasonal Hypoxia on the Shelf and Shoaling of the Permanent Oxycline in the Open Sea: Two Faces of the Black Sea Deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is highly sensitive to external forcings and constitutes a natural laboratory to study the interplays of atmospheric warming and eutrophication on deoxygenation dynamics. Two decades of eutrophication were followed by a sudden reduction of nutrient loads in the late 1980s. Warm and cold air temperature cycles (5-10 years) follow atmospheric oscillation patterns, with a clear warming affecting the recent decades. On the Black Sea north western shelf (hypoxia occurs when summer stratification prevents atmospheric fluxes to compensate for the respiration of organic matter accumulated in the lower water column and the sediments. A former multidecadal 3D model study (1) indicated that current monitoring do not provide a satisfactorily assessment of hypoxia, (2) revealed the inertia due to the benthic accumulation of organic matter during eutrophication period and (3) estimated the nutrient reduction effort required in adaptation to atmospheric warming. In the open basin (120-2000m), the permanent interface between anoxic and oxic waters is subject to vertical migration as the ventilation ensured by dense water formation balances the respiration of sinking organic matter. The analysis of R/V casts and ARGO profiles revealed that the oxycline has shoaled from 140 to 90m between 1955 and present years, while the basin lost 36 % of its oxygen inventory. While the interactions between seasonal hypoxia on the shelf and the shoaling oxic interface in the open basin are not clear, both dynamics will face atmospheric warming and new industrial development of the lower danube watershed. We discuss the specific monitoring and modelling efforts required to assess the environmental and economical threat cast by further deoxygenation in the Black Sea.

  10. Mean sea surface heights of the South and East China Seas from ocean circulation model and geodetic leveling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mean sea surface heights (sea surface topography) of the South China, East China, Yellow and Bohai Seas are derived from an ocean general circulation model and surface air pressure. The circulation model covers the global oceans, with fine grid (1/6°) covering the East Asian marginal seas and coarse grid (3°) covering the rest part of the global oceans. The result shows that the China 1985 National Altitude Datum is 24.7 cm above the mean sea surface height of the world oceans. The mean sea surface in the coastal ocean adjacent to China is higher in the south than in the north. Intercomparison of the model results with the geodetic leveling measurements at 28 coastal tidal stations shows a standard deviation of 4.8 cm and a fitting coefficient of 95.3%. After correction through linear regression, the standard deviation is reduced to 4.5 cm. This indicates that the accuracy of rmodel results is sufficient for practical application. Based on the model results, the mean sea surface heights for the study area with a resolution of 1/6 degree are given. This result also links the mean sea levels at islands with those on the mainland coast and gives the mean sea surface heights at tidal stations in the Taiwan Island, the Dongsha Islands, the Xisha Islands and the Nansha Islands relative to the China 1985 National Altitude Datum.

  11. Decadal reanalysis of biogeochemical indicators and fluxes in the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, S.; Kay, S.; Saux-Picart, S.; Butenschön, M.; Allen, J. I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the first decadal reanalysis simulation of the biogeochemistry of the North West European shelf, along with a full evaluation of its skill, confidence, and value. An error-characterized satellite product for chlorophyll was assimilated into a physical-biogeochemical model of the North East Atlantic, applying a localized Ensemble Kalman filter. The results showed that the reanalysis improved the model simulation of assimilated chlorophyll in 60% of the study region. Model validation metrics showed that the reanalysis had skill in matching a large data set of in situ observations for 10 ecosystem variables. Spearman rank correlations were significant and higher than 0.7 for physical-chemical variables (temperature, salinity, and oxygen), ˜0.6 for chlorophyll and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate), and significant, though lower in value, for partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide (˜0.4). The reanalysis captured the magnitude of pH and ammonia observations, but not their variability. The value of the reanalysis for assessing environmental status and variability has been exemplified in two case studies. The first shows that between 325,000 and 365,000 km2 of shelf bottom waters were vulnerable to oxygen deficiency potentially threatening bottom fishes and benthos. The second application confirmed that the shelf is a net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the total amount of uptake varies between 36 and 46 Tg C yr-1 at a 90% confidence level. These results indicate that the reanalysis output data set can inform the management of the North West European shelf ecosystem, in relation to eutrophication, fishery, and variability of the carbon cycle.

  12. Numerical study of summertime dynamical and physical changes in the southern South China Sea due to the monsoons and its impacts on primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Abu Samah, Azizan; Hai Ooi, See

    2016-04-01

    The ecosystem off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is controlled by multiple physical processes during the monsoons (winter and summer) , including the air-sea interaction (such as net heat and surface freshwater fluxes), the small-scale eddies off the southern South China Sea (SSCS), and the monsoon wind induced coastal upwelling. Using high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), in-situ observations and remote sensing data, this paper attempts to study the hydrodynamics of the shelf and coastal processes as well as thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological seasonal cycle especially in the summer monsoon. In addition, we investigate its impacts on the spatial patterns of chlorophyll biomass which acts as a proxy for primary productivity in the SSCS. This study looks into not only the detailed small-scale-circulation such as localized eddies but also the link between the southern South China Sea and the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Malacca and the Java Sea. The flow through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea is not only important for navigational purpose but also has an influence on the seasonal spatial and temporal variations of primary productivity in the region. Keywords: southern South China Sea; summer monsoon; coastal upwelling; primary productivity

  13. The effect of tides on dense water formation in Arctic shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Postlethwaite

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean tides are not explicitly included in many ocean general circulation models, which will therefore omit any interactions between tides and the cryosphere. We present model simulations of the wind and buoyancy driven circulation and tides of the Barents and Kara Seas, using a 25 km × 25 km 3-D ocean circulation model coupled to a dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice model. The modeled tidal amplitudes are compared with tide gauge data and sea ice extent is compared with satellite data. Including tides in the model is found to have little impact on overall sea ice extent but is found to delay freeze up and hasten the onset of melting in tidally active coastal regions. The impact that including tides in the model has on the salt budget is investigated and found to be regionally dependent. The vertically integrated salt budget is dominated by lateral advection. This increases significantly when tides are included in the model in the Pechora Sea and around Svalbard where tides are strong. Tides increase the salt flux from sea ice by 50% in the Pechora and White Seas but have little impact elsewhere. This study suggests that the interaction between ocean tides and sea ice should not be neglected when modeling the Arctic.

  14. The effect of tides on dense water formation in Arctic shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Postlethwaite

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean tides are not explicitly included in many ocean general circulation models, which will therefore omit any interactions between tides and the cryosphere. We present model simulations of the wind and buoyancy driven circulation and tides of the Barents and Kara Seas, using a 25 km × 25 km 3-D ocean circulation model coupled to a dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice model. The modeled tidal amplitudes are compared with tide gauge data and sea ice extent is compared with satellite data. Including tides in the model is found to have little impact on overall sea ice extent but is found to delay freeze up and hasten the onset of melting in tidally active coastal regions. The impact that including tides in the model has on the salt budget is investigated and found to be regionally dependent. The vertically integrated salt budget is dominated by lateral advection. This increases significantly when tides are included in the model in the Pechora Sea and around Svalbard where tides are strong. Tides increase the salt flux from sea ice by 50% in the Pechora and White Seas but have little impact elsewhere. This study suggests that the interaction between ocean tides and sea ice should not be neglected when modeling the Arctic.

  15. High-resolution seismic characterization of shallow gas accumulations in the southern shelf of Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Alpar, Bedri

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution seismic survey was conducted to investigate acoustic characteristics of gassy sediments along the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. The acoustic turbidity zones outlined within the study area are generally below 2-9 m (2-10 ms TWT) the seafloor whilst this vertical distance varies between 9 and 21 m (10-25 ms TWT) for acoustic blanket type reflections. The gassy sediments cover an area of sea floor of about 45, 110, and 75 km2 in front of Gönen River, Kocasu River, and Gemlik Bay, respectively. The gassy sediments in the center of Gemlik Bay exhibited an elliptical geometry similar to its basin while the others have deltaic forms in front of the rivers. The sea bottom and near surface sedimentary units are made-up of organic-rich sediments, mostly transported by the southern rivers. The gas observed in sediments is thought to be of biogenic origin, which may be caused by degradation of organic matter in the sediment.

  16. The South China sea margins: Implications for rifting contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D.E.; Nissen, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Implications regarding spatially complex continental rifting, crustal extension, and the subsequent evolution to seafloor spreading are re-examined for the northern and southern-rifted margins of the South China Sea. Previous seismic studies have shown dramatic differences in the present-day crustal thicknesses as the manifestations of the strain experienced during the rifting of the margin of south China. Although the total crustal extension is presumed to be the same along the margin and adjacent ocean basin, the amount of continental crustal extension that occurred is much less along the east and central segments of the margin than along the western segment. This difference was accommodated by the early formation of oceanic crust (creating the present-day South China Sea basin) adjacent to the eastern margin segment while continued extension of continental crust was sustained to the west. Using the observed cross-sectional areas of extended continental crust derived from deep penetration seismics, two end-member models of varying rift zone widths and varying initial crustal thicknesses are qualitatively examined for three transects. Each model implies a time difference in the initiation of seafloor spreading inferred for different segments along the margin. The two models examined predict that the oceanic crust of the South China Sea basin toward the west did not begin forming until sometime between 6-12 my after its initial formation (???32 Ma) toward the east. These results are compatible with crustal age interpretations of marine magnetic anomalies. Assuming rifting symmetry with conjugate margin segments now residing along the southern portions of the South China Sea basin implies that the total width of the zone of rifting in the west was greater than in the east by about a factor of two. We suggest the most likely causes of the rifting differences were east-west variations in the rheology of the pre-rift crust and associated east-west variations in the

  17. Distribution and Sea-to-air Flux of Nitrous Oxide in the East China Sea during the Summer of 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Guiling; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Li, Jia; Liu, Sumei; Ye, Wangwang; Han, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) at different depths of 73 stations in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and the East China Sea (ECS) were determined from August 4 to 31 of 2013, and the sea-to-air fluxes of N2O were also estimated in this study. N2O concentrations in the surface waters ranged from 6.33 to 44.40 nmol L-1 with an average of (9.27±4.30) nmol L-1 and the values in the bottom waters ranged from 5.19 to 26.98 nmol L-1 with an average of (11.87±3.71) nmol L-1. The concentrations of N2O decreased with distance from the Changjiang Estuary to the open sea. The vertical distributions of N2O indicated great spatial variations. A region of significant bottom-water hypoxia, with oxygen concentration less than 1.5 mg L-1, occurred at the north of the ECS, and increased bottom N2O concentrations was observed. Frequent vertical mixing may enhance the emission of N2O from this hypoxic area. N2O in the surface waters of all stations were over-saturated, and the N2O saturations ranged from 106% to 658%, with an average of (149±62)%. We estimated the sea-to-air fluxes of N2O as (30.6±59.1) μmol m-2 d-1 from the Changjiang Estuary, (9.8±8.8) μmol m-2 d-1 from the coastal and shelf, and (21.0±12.7) μmol m-2 d-1 from the continental slope using the Wanninkhof 1992 equation, (24.9±47.2) μmol m-2 d-1, (8.0±6.7) μmol m-2 d-1 and (16.5±9.6) μmol m-2 d-1 using the Nightingale 2000 equation, respectively. N2O emission from the ECS was estimated to be about (8.2-16.0)×10-2 Tg-N2O yr-1, suggesting that the ECS was a significant net source of atmospheric N2O.

  18. Application of data assimilation for improved operational water level forecasting on the northwest European shelf and North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijl, Firmijn; Sumihar, Julius; Verlaan, Martin

    2015-12-01

    For the Netherlands, accurate water level forecasting in the coastal region is crucial, since large areas of the land lie below sea level. During storm surges, detailed and timely water level forecasts provided by an operational storm surge forecasting system are necessary to support, for example, the decision to close the movable storm surge barriers in the Eastern Scheldt and the Rotterdam Waterway. In the past years, a new generation operational tide-surge model (Dutch Continental Shelf Model version 6) has been developed covering the northwest European continental shelf. In a previous study, a large effort has been put in representing relevant physical phenomena in this process model as well as reducing parameter uncertainty over a wide area. While this has resulted in very accurate water level representation (root-mean-square error (RMSE) ˜7-8 cm), during severe storm surges, the errors in the meteorological model forcing are generally non-negligible and can cause forecast errors of several decimetres. By integrating operationally available observational data in the forecast model by means of real-time data assimilation, the errors in the meteorological forcing are prevented from propagating to the hydrodynamic tide-surge model forecasts. This paper discusses the development of a computationally efficient steady-state Kalman filter to enhance the predictive quality for the shorter lead times by improving the system state at the start of the forecast. Besides evaluating the model quality against shelf-wide tide gauge observations for a year-long hindcast simulation, the predictive value of the Kalman filter is determined by comparing the forecast quality for various lead time intervals against the model without a steady-state Kalman filter. This shows that, even though the process model has a water level representation that is substantially better than that of other comparable operational models of this scale, substantial improvements in predictive quality in

  19. Pigment signatures of some diatoms isolated from China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The photosynthetic pigments of 12 species (14 strains) of cultured diatoms from six genera under specific conditions were examined by the HPLC. The diatom genera were Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, Nitzschia, Phaeodactylum and Meuniera. All strains were isolated from China seas and most of them were from the Jiaozhou Bay, China. Fifteen pigments were identified and eight of them were various chlorophyll a derivatives. Chlorophyll a, c2 and c1 and the carotenoids fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β,β-carotene existed in all species. The ratios of each pigment to chlorophyll a were compared with the results in literatures. The pigment ratios of this study generally fall within the ranges reported by the literatures although the maximum ratio of fucoxanthin to chlorophyll a was higher and the ratios of chlorophyll c and diatoxanthin to chlorophyll a were low. The pigment ratios are useful to understanding the pigment signatures of diatoms in the Jiaozhou Bay, China, and to setting up the chemotaxonomic method ofphytoplankton in these sea areas.

  20. Preliminary report on the study of benthic foraminiferal content in the marine sediment of Queen Maud Land Shelf, Lazarev Sea, Antarctic

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, R.; Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Ingole, B.S.; Ghosh, D.N.

    During the 4th and 6th Indian Expedition to Antarctica, surface sediment samples were collected from eight stations in the Queen Maud Land Shelf, Lazarev Sea from the depth ranging from 157 to 785 m. The mean biomass of these samples is 3057...

  1. Summer sea-surface temperatures and climate events on the North Icelandic shelf through the last 3000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; REN Jian; Karen Luise KNUDSEN; Jón EIRíKSSON3; RAN LiHua

    2007-01-01

    Diatom data from core MD992271 on the North Icelandic shelf record a cooling trend through the last 3000 years. This is indicated by a general decrease in warm water species and an increase in cold water taxa. The relative abundance of these two diatom groups changed periodically, suggesting that the climate also fluctuated within this time period. The results of diatom-based transfer function calculation show that the summer sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) before 1400 cai. a BP were generally higher than the mean value for the last 3000 years and the summer SSTs fluctuated around the mean between 1400 and 700 cal. a BP, and dropped to the values below the mean after 700 cal. a BP. Four cooling events were distinguished, centered at around 2600, 1900, 1300 and 600 cal. a BP respectively. The results are not only consistent with the data from neighbouring cores HM107-03 and MD992275, but also comparable with those from the GISP2 ice core and from other marine sediment records in the North Atlantic. This suggests that changes in the summer SSTs reflect regional climate variations in the North Atlantic. On the North Icelandic shelf, the summer SST variation is a result of changes in the interaction between the cold and the warm currents in the area.

  2. New 3-D view of a middle-shelf grounding-zone wedge in Eastern Basin Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, P. J.; Tomkin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A new large-area multibeam survey of a previously identified grounding zone wedge on the central Ross Sea middle continental shelf was acquired during NBP0802 and NBP0803 in February 2008. Within a regional framework, this wedge corresponds to the third grounding event since the WAIS began the post-LGM retreat. The survey reveals the 3-D detailed view of a lineated topset with iceberg gouges, a smooth multi-lobed foreset and distinct downdip pinchout of the grounding zone wedge. Beyond the down-dip pinchout, older subglacial lineations, oblique to the younger lineations, are evident. The multibeam survey along with sub- bottom profiler records permitted us to precisely position piston cores for each of these morphologic sectors. The combined data may serve as a proxy for evaluating some aspects of the WAIS's modern grounding- zone system. For example, sediment cores at the wedge's thin landward and basinward limits obtained homogenous gray mud below a thin olive-green pelagic drape. The absence of a similar pelagic drape embedded in the homogenous gray muds suggests that grounded ice did not retreat past this location before the WAIS occupied the middle-shelf grounding position. In other words, the pause in WAIS retreat was not associated with any significant re-advance.

  3. Studies of the inner shelf and coastal sedimentation environment of the Beaufort Sea from ERTS-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.; Toimil, L. J.; Harden, D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Shearing periodically occurs between the westward moving pack ice (3 to 10 km/d) within the Pacific Gyre and the fast ice along the coast, forming major grounded shear and pressure ridges between the 10 to 40 m isobaths. Ridges occur in patterns conforming to known shoals. The zone of grounded ridges, called stamukhi zone, protects the inner shelf and coast from marine energy and pack ice forces. Relatively undeformed fast ice grows inshore of the stamukhi zone. The boundary is explained in terms of pack ice drift and major promontories and shoals. Intense ice gaging, highly disrupted sediments, and landward migration of shoals suggest that much of the available marine energy is expended on the sea floor within the stamukhi zone. Naleds (products of river icings) on the North Slope are more abundant east than west of the Colville River. Their location, growth, and decay were studied from LANDSAT imagery.

  4. Effect of Sea Level Variation on Tidal Characteristic Values for the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宜法; 俞聿修; 左军成; 万振文; 陈宗镛

    2003-01-01

    Tidal waves in the East China Sea are simulated numerically with POM(Princeton Ocean Model) model for normal mean sea level, 30 cm higher, 60 cm higher, and 100 cm higher, respectively, and the simulated result is compared with the harmonic analysis result of hourly sea level data from 19 tide gauges for more than 19 years. It is indicated that the long-term mean sea level variation affects notably tidal waves in this region. Generally, the tidal amplitude increases when the mean sea level rises, but this relationship may be inverse for some sea areas. The maximal variation of tidal amplitude takes place in the zones near the Fujian coast and the Zhejiang coast, rather than the shallowest Bohai Sea. The maximum increase of M2 amplitude can exceed about 15 cm corresponding to the 60 cm rise of the mean sea level along the Fujian coast. The other regions with large variations of tidal amplitude are those along the Jiangsu coast, the south-east coast of Shandong, and the south-east coast of Dalian. The propagation of tidal waves is also related to mean sea level variation, and the tidal phase-lag decreases generally when the mean sea level rises. Almost all the regions where the tidal phase-lag increases with rising mean sea level are close to amphidromic points, meanwhile the spatial area of such regions is very small. Because the influence of mean sea level variation upon tidal waves is spatially marked, such spatial effect should be considered in calculation of the tidal characteristic value and engineering water level. In the region where the amplitudes of the major tidal constituents increase, the probable maximum high water level becomes higher, the probable maximum low water level becomes lower, and both design water level andcheck water level increase obviously. For example, the design water level at Xiamen increases by 13.5 cm due to the variation of tidal waves when the mean sea level rises 60 cm, the total increase of design water level being 73.5 cm.

  5. Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennartz, Ralph; Fan, Jiwen; Rausch, J; Leung, Lai-Yung R; Heidinger, Andrew K

    2011-05-18

    Rapid economic growth over the last 30 years in China has led to a significant increase in aerosol loading, which is mainly due to the increased emissions of its precursors such as SO2 and NOx. Here we show that these changes significantly affect wintertime clouds and precipitation over the East China Sea downwind of major emission sources. Satellite observations show an increase of cloud droplet number concentration from less than 200 cm-3 in the 1980s to more than 300 cm-3 in 2005. In the same time period, precipitation frequency reported by voluntary ship observers was reduced from more than 30% to less than 20% of the time. A back trajectory analysis showed the pollution in the investigation area to originate from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Jinan industrial areas. A model sensitivity study was performed, isolating the effects of changes in emissions of the aerosol precursors SO2 and NOx on clouds and precipitation using a state-of-the-art mesocale model including chemistry and aerosol indirect effects. Similar changes in cloud droplet number concentration over the East China Sea were obtained when the current industrial emissions in China were reduced to the 1980s levels. Simulated changes in precipitation were somewhat smaller than the observed changes but still significant. Citation: Bennartz, R., J. Fan, J. Rausch, L. R. Leung, and A. K. Heidinger (2011), Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L09704, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047235.

  6. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than spring (55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton hiomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters (29°30'N,125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  7. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulisjaponicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than s pring ( 55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton biomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters ( 29°30′N, 125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  8. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay;

    2014-01-01

    modeling to develop procedures and best practices for satellite based wind resource assessment offshore. All existing satellite images from the Envisat Advanced SAR sensor by the European Space Agency (2002-12) have been collected over a domain in the South China Sea. Wind speed is first retrieved from...... description in order to calculate the mean wind climate at different levels up to 100 m. Time series from coarser-resolution satellite wind products i.e. the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data are used to calculate the long-term temporal variability of the wind climate. This can be used...

  9. Numerical Study of Water and Suspended Matter Exchange Between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 白学志; 胡敦欣

    2003-01-01

    POM was used to study the monthly mean circulation in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The calculated results showed almost all major characteristics of the circulation system. The calculated circulation system and observational data were used to determine the sediment concentration, volume transport, heat flux and suspended matter flux between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The conclusions obtained were that the volume and heat are transported northward through the 32°N section during each season; that in winter and autumn, total suspended matter is transported southward, and is larger in winter than in autumn. The reason is that the Yellow Sea Coastal Current is strong and always contains more suspend matter in winter and autumn. The seasonal suspended matter exchange between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are 0.58 x 107 tons in spring, 2.81 x 107 tons in summer, - 2.60 x 107 tons in autumn and - 3.40 x 107 tons in winter. Net flux of suspended matter from the Yellow Sea to the East China Sea is 2.61 x 107 tons every year.

  10. Dynamical and thermodynamical analysis of the South China Sea winter cold tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Fricot, Bastien; Mas, Juliette

    2015-12-01

    Spatial distribution of the South China Sea (SCS) surface temperature shows strong cold anomalies over the Sunda Shelf during the boreal winter season. The band of low sea surface temperature (SST) region located south/southeast of Vietnam is called as the winter cold tongue (CT) in the SCS. Using observational and re-analysis datasets a comprehensive investigation of the dynamical and thermodynamical processes associated with the evolution of SCS CT is performed in this study. The role and relative importance of wind-driven ocean transports, air-sea heat fluxes and oceanic processes are explored. The north-south Sverdrup transport demonstrates strong southward transport during the northeast monsoon period aiding the SST cooling by bringing relatively cold water from the north. The zonal and meridional Ekman transports exhibit relatively weak westward and northward transports to the CT region during this period. The study suggests that wind-driven ocean transports have a significant role in regulating the shape and spatial extent of the CT. The heat budget analysis revealed that net surface heat flux decrease during the northeast monsoon acts as the primary cooling mechanism responsible for the development of the SCS CT, while the horizontal advection of cold water by the western boundary current along the coast of Vietnam plays a secondary role. The wintertime SST anomalies over the CT region are significantly linked to the Nino3 index. Most of the warming/cooling events in the SST anomalies coincide with the El Nino/La Nina phenomena in the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Distribution and preservation of black carbon in the East China Sea sediments: Perspectives on carbon cycling at continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    We determined the concentrations and radiocarbon (14C) compositions of black carbon (BC) in the sediments of the East China Sea (ECS). The BC concentrations, which were in the range of 0.30-1.52 mg/g, accounted for 12-65% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The distribution of BC in ECS sediments was controlled by factors such as grain size, distance from the coast, and deposition rate. Radiocarbon measurements of BC yielded ages of 6350-10,440 years before present (BP), suggesting that the percentage of BC derived from biomass combustion was in the range of 29-48%. The BC burial flux in sediments of the ECS was estimated to be ∼1.39×106 t/yr, which was similar to burial fluxes reported for shelf sediments in other areas. However, the magnitude of the total BC sink was far greater than that of any other shelf regions studied to date, indicating the global importance of BC accumulation in the ECS, and the magnitude of BC input from large rivers (e.g., the Changjiang). The riverine delivery of BC to the ECS (73%) was far greater than that of atmospheric flux (27%). Further study of the BC cycle and the interactions of BC with other organic compounds in marginal seas was required to better understand the role of BC in the global carbon cycle.

  12. Geochemical behavior of dissolved manganese in the East China Sea: Seasonal variation, estuarine removal, and regeneration under suboxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Wei; Ren, Jing-Ling; Jiang, Shuo; Liu, Su-Mei; Xuan, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the geochemical cycle of dissolved manganese (Mn) in the East China Sea (ECS), the distribution of dissolved Mn across the ECS was investigated during three field studies in 2011 (May, August, and November). The concentration of dissolved Mn decreased across the ECS with distance from the coast. Mn-rich ECS shelf waters could export to the Kuroshio Waters, and had the potential to influence the northwest Pacific Ocean as well as the Japan Sea. The Kuroshio Waters were devoid of dissolved Mn, so its incursion could be tracked as it entered the ECS continental shelf region (approximately 50 m isobath). Seasonal variations of dissolved Mn in the ECS were significant, with the highest concentrations occurring in summer. Dissolved Mn in the Changjiang Estuary was nonconservative, and significant quantities were removed by net sorption onto suspended particulate matter. A model describing the sorption processes was applied to data for the Changjiang Estuary. Regeneration of dissolved Mn took place in near-bottom waters of the suboxic zone in August 2011, following extensive consumption of oxygen. The benthic flux of dissolved Mn was estimated based on Mn concentrations in the overlying waters and the near-bottom waters. A preliminary box model was established to develop a dissolved Mn budget for the ECS. Based on the dissolved Mn content in the ECS and the total input flux, a residence time of 76-350 days for dissolved Mn in the ECS was inferred.

  13. Records of Toba eruptions in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlANG; Xirong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rose,W. I., Chesner, C. A., Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka, Geology, 1987, 15: 913-917.[2]Acharyya, S. K., Basu, P. K. ,Toba ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for correlation of late Pleistocene alluvium, Quaternary Research, 1993, 40: 10-19.[3]Shane, P., Westgate, J., Williams, M. et al., New geochemical evidence for the youngest Toba Tuff in India, Quaternary Research, 1995, 44: 200-204.[4]Westgate, J. A., Sha ne, P. A. R., Pearce, N. J. G. et al., All Toba occurrences across Peninsular India belong to the 75000yr B. P. eruption, Quaternary Research, 1998, 50:107-112.[5]Pattan, J. N., Shane, P., Banakar, V. K., New occurrences of youngest Toba Tuff in abyssal sediments of the Central Indian Basin, Marine Geology, 1999, 155: 243-248.[6]Gasparotto, G., Spadafora, E,, Summa, V. et al., Contribution of grain size and compositional data from the Bengal Fan sediment to the understanding of Toba volcanic event, Marine Geology, 2000, 162: 561-572.[7]Dehn, J., Farrell, J. W., Schmincke, H. U., Neogene tephrochronology from Site 758 on northern Ninetyeast Ridge: Indon isian arc volcanism of the Past 5 Ma, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results (eds. Weissel, J. P.,Taylor, E., Alt, J. et al.), College Station, Texas, Ocean Drilling Program, 1991, 121: 273-295.[8]Lee M. Y., Wet, K. Y., Chen, Y. G., High-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy for the last 150000 years in the southern South China Sea, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences TAO, 1999, 10: 239-254.[9]Biihring, C., Sarnthein, Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: Evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca.74 ka, Geology, 2000, 28: 275-278.[10]Chesner, C. A., Petrogenesis of the Toba tuffs, Sumatra, Indonesia, Journal of Petrology, 1998, 39: 397-438.[11]Rampino, M. R., Self. S., Volcanic winter and accelerated glaciation follow ing the Toba super-eruption, Nature, 1992, 359:50-52.

  14. China in the South China Sea genuine multilateralism or a wolf in sheep's clothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, John W

    2005-01-01

    The South China Sea claimants base their claims on ancient documentation and archeological evidence. However, they largely ignored the territories until the 1960s, when natural resources speculations began. The 1982 UNCLOS magnified interest as claimants hoped to extend exclusive economic rights from their claims rather than continental coastlines. Another possible factor behind Chinese claims is the theory that Beijing desires to establish Chinese hegemony in the region. Beijing's shift from...

  15. Lithospheric thermal-rheological structures of the continental margin in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thermal structures of three deep seismic profiles in the continental margin in the northern South China Sea are calculated, their "thermal" lithospheric thicknesses are evaluated based on the basalt dry solidus, and their rheological structures are evaluated with linear frictional failure criterion and power-law creep equation. "Thermal" lithosphere is about 90 km in thickness in shelf area, and thins toward the slope, lowers to 60-65 km in the lower slope, ocean crust and Xisha Trough. In the mid-west of the studied area, the lithospheric rheological structure in shelf area and Xisha Islands is of four layers: brittle, ductile, brittle and ductile. Because of uprising of heat mantle and thinning of crust and lithosphere in Xisha Trough, the bottom of the upper brittle layer is only buried at 16 km. In the eastern area, the bottom of the upper brittle layer in the north is buried at 20 km or so, while in lower slope and ocean crust, the rheological structure is of two layers of brittle and ductile, and crust and uppermost mantle form one whole brittle layer whose bottom is buried at 30-32 km. Analyses show that the characteristics of rheological structure accord with the seismic result observed. The character of rheological stratification implies that before the extension of the continent margin, there likely was a ductile layer in mid-lower crust. The influence of the existence of ductile layer to the evolution of the continent margin and the different extensions of ductile layer and brittle layer should not be overlooked. Its thickness, depth and extent in influencing continent margin's extension and evolution should be well evaluated in building a dynamic model for the area.

  16. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  17. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-07-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  18. Sea level rise projection in the South China Sea from CMIP5 models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chuanjiang; QIAO Fangli

    2015-01-01

    Future potential sea level change in the South China Sea (SCS) is estimated by using 24 CMIP5 models under different representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. By the end of the 21st century (2081–2100 relative to 1986–2005), the multimodel ensemble mean dynamic sea level (DSL) is projected to rise 0.9, 1.6, and 1.1 cm under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, resulting in a total sea level rise (SLR) of 40.9, 48.6, and 64.1 cm in the SCS. It indicates that the SCS will experience a substantial SLR over the 21st century, and the rise is only marginal larger than the global mean SLR. During the same period, the steric sea level (SSL) rise is estimated to be 6.7, 10.0, and 15.3 cm under the three scenarios, respectively, which accounts only for 16%, 21% and 24% of the total SLR in this region. The changes of the SSL in the SCS are almost out of phase with those of the DSL for the three scenarios. The central deep basin has a slightly weak DSL rise, but a strong SSL rise during the 21st century, compared with the north and southwest shelves.

  19. Differential responses of seabirds to environmental variability over 2 years in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kokubun, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Dale M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori; Will, Alexis P.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI) and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU) to different marine environmental conditions over 2 years. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were relatively warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250-300 km in 2013 and bimodally at 150-250 and 300-350 km in 2014 for RLKI and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between the years in RLKI but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres in 2013, the year of relatively cooler sea surface temperatures with later sea-ice retreat. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey) did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeastern Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds relying on those habitats for foraging.

  20. Brief Understanding of the South China Sea Intermittent Line and China’s Relations With Its Neighbors Surrounding the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Yi

    2014-01-01

    <正>I,Formation of the South China Sea"Intermittent Line"According to historical records,as early as the Qin and Han dynasties,Chinese people began sailing activities onto the Oceans.With the ongoing maritime activities,and improved shipbuilding technology and expanded fishing,the Chinese people in the Han Dynasty first discovered the islands in the South China Sea,

  1. Ocean primary productivity estimation of China Sea by remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Delu; GUAN Wenjiang; BAI Yan; HUANG Haiqing

    2005-01-01

    Ocean primary productivity is a key parameter in the research of global carbon cycle, ocean biological resources, and in evaluation of the feature and quality of ocean biological environment. Traditional shipboard measurement which is costly and time-consuming is impossible to obtain the spatial and temporal information on primary productivity on a large scale in a short period of time. Satellite remote sensing is an effective strategy to acquire the ocean information in near real time. Here we propose a model special for China Sea based on the concept of primary productivity using in situ primary productivity and environmental data from 1984 to 1990, and discuss every modeling parameter which can be retrieved by remote sensing in detail. The reliability of this model is tested by in situ data, and the comparison of other primary productivity models is made. We also analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of China Sea primary productivity in 2000. From our analysis the satellite remote sensing data have been proved very useful for ocean primary productivity study.

  2. Velocity models and images using full waveform inversion and reverse time migration for the offshore permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea, Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y. G.; Dallimore, S.; Riedel, M.; Shin, C.

    2015-12-01

    During Expedition ARA05C (from Aug 26 to Sep 19, 2014) on the Korean icebreaker RV ARAON, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the outer shelf and slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea to investigate distribution and internal geological structures of the offshore ice-bonded permafrost and gas hydrates, totaling 998 km L-km with 19,962 shots. The MCS data were recorded using a 1500 m long solid-type streamer with 120 channels. Shot and group spacing were 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively. Most MCS survey lines were designed perpendicular and parallel to the strike of the shelf break. Ice-bonded permafrost or ice-bearing sediments are widely distributed under the Beaufort Sea shelf, which have formed during periods of lower sea level when portions of the shelf less than ~100m water depth were an emergent coastal plain exposed to very cold surface. The seismic P-wave velocity is an important geophysical parameter for identifying the distribution of ice-bonded permafrost with high velocity in this area. Recently, full waveform inversion (FWI) and reverse time migration (RTM) are commonly used to delineate detailed seismic velocity information and seismic image of geological structures. FWI is a data fitting procedure based on wave field modeling and numerical analysis to extract quantitative geophysical parameters such as P-, S-wave velocities and density from seismic data. RTM based on 2-way wave equation is a useful technique to construct accurate seismic image with amplitude preserving of field data. In this study, we suggest two-dimensional P-wave velocity model (Figure.1) using the FWI algorithm to delineate the top and bottom boundaries of ice-bonded permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea. In addition, we construct amplitude preserving migrated seismic image using RTM to interpret the geological history involved with the evolution of permafrost.

  3. Wind-driven mixing causes a reduction in the strength of the continental shelf carbon pump in the Chukchi Sea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, C.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic and complex physical and biological processes drive the carbonate system chemistry of the Chukchi Sea. The inflow of nutrient-rich Pacific water through the Bering Straight and sustained periods of solar radiation in summer turn this polar shelf into one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. High rates of primary production (~ 470 g C m-2 y-1) and low pelagic grazing rates draw down pCO2 at the surface and support large fluxes of organic carbon to a rich benthic ecosystem. Much of this carbon is remineralized, leading to elevated pCO2 in bottom and subsurface waters, which are thought to be isolated from the atmosphere by strong stratification. Subsequent shelf to basin transport of remineralized carbon and organic matter into the interior Arctic Ocean are believed to support a globally important CO2 sink, as well as maintain high pCO2 levels in bottom waters along their circulation-driven northward journey. Here, I document a new mechanism of carbon cycling in the Chukchi Sea that substantially reduces the net strength of this globally significant carbon sink. Surface pCO2 measurements and wind analysis suggest that annually occurring storm-induced mixing events during autumn months disrupt water column stratification and mix remineralized carbon from subsurface waters to the surface, leading to strong outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. This newly observed physical driver weakens the estimated strength of the continental shelf carbon pump in the Chukchi Sea from an uptake of 38 Tg C y-1 to 18-27 Tg C y-1 and revises our knowledge of the dynamics of carbon cycling on this polar shelf. An improved understanding of the distribution and transport of carbon on the shelf is crucial to elucidate how the Chukchi Sea will respond to ongoing ocean acidification and climate change.

  4. Bathymetry of Grounding Zones and Sub-Ice Shelf Cavities of the Amundsen Sea, from Operation IceBridge Gravity Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the observed changes in thinning and grounding line position of outlet glaciers it is essential to have accurate maps of the bathymetry of the sea floor within and around the grounding zone. This bathymetry controls the stability of the grounding line as well as access and circulation of seawater under their stabilizing ice shelves. Since 2009 Operation IceBridge has flown gridded surveys over four of the ice shelves of the Amundsen Sea embayment. We present a 3D inversion of the gravity from the region, supplemented by 2D profile models across the ice shelves to provide a self-consistent bathymetric model of the grounding zone and sub ice cavity of Pine Island, Thwaites, Dotson and Crosson ice shelves. Much attention has been paid to the largest outlet glaciers of the Amundsen Sea, and to the bathymetry beneath the floating ice in front of their grounding zones. Considerable changes have also been observed from the smaller Amundsen ice shelves, Crosson and Dotson, which flow to the east and north respectively, between Thwaites Glacier and Getz ice shelf, but little is known about their sub-ice bathymetry. The Amundsen Sea region is vulnerable to the influence of relatively warm circumpolar deep water encroaching on to the continental shelf. The influence of these waters at the grounding zone of the glaciers in the region is dictated by the depth and orientation of bathymetric features of the sea floor. The dominant geological fabric of the region is a NE-SW trending series of ridges and troughs, formed in association with the rifting of the Amundsen Sea region. The bathymetry models from OIB gravity inversions reveal the continuation of the deep (~1500 m) trough of the Kohler Glacier under Crosson Ice Shelf. At the eastern end of the trough, at the front of Crosson ice shelf, the sea floor rises to an average of ~500 m depth over a broad, 50 km wide region. Further east from here the NE-SW fabric is continued in a previously reported ridge

  5. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of wave height in shelf seas around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    1979–2012, a weak statistically significant increasing trend (maximum ~0.20 cm/year) in wave height is observed in the northern and southern region of eastern Arabian Sea, whereas the middle region shows negligible negative trend. A weak decreasing...

  7. Otoliths in continental shelf and slope surficial sediments off Saurashtra, Arabian Sea, India and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; John, S.; Rana, R.S.

    is in progress and will be reported in due course. This preliminary report which is the first report from the northern Arabian Sea on fossil fish otolith may help as an additional tool in the reconstruction of paleoenvironment and in assessing the latitudinal...

  8. Sea-surface circulation, sediment transport, and marine mammal distribution, Alaska continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.; Burns, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Even though nonsynchronous, the ERTS-1 imagery of November 4, 1972, showed a striking similarity to the ground truth data obtained in late August and September, 1972. The comparison of the images with ground truth data revealed that the general water circulation pattern in Lower Cook Inlet is consistent through the Fall season and that ERTS-1 images in MSS bands 4 and 5 are capable of delineating water masses with a suspended load as low as 1 mg/liter. The ERTS-1 data and the ground truth data demonstrate clearly that the coriolis effect dominates circulation in Lower Cook Inlet. The configuration of plumes in Nushagak and Kuskokwim bays further indicates the influence of the coriolis effect on the movement of sea water at high latitudes. Comparison of MSS bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 suggest MSS-1 penetration of several meters into the water column. Sea ice analysis of available imagery was exceptionally rewarding. The imagery provided a rapid method to delineate and describe the ice types apparent in the photos. The ice types ranged from newly formed grease ice to heavy flows of disintegrating shore-fast ice. Sea ice maps showing the extent of different ice zones in the Chukchi Sea are being compiled.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Mean Sea Level Rise on Typhoon Storm Surge in the East China Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhigang; Han, Shuzong; Liu, Kexiu; Zhrng, Yunxia; Yu, Huaming

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, ECOMSED (Estuarine Coastal Ocean Model with sediment transport) model is employed to simulate storm surge process caused by typhoon passing across East China Sea in nearly years. Capability of ECOMSED to simulate storm surge is validated by comparing model result with observed data. Sensitivity experiments are designed to study the influence of sea level rise on typhoon storm surge. Numerical experiment shows that influence of mean sea level rise on typhoon storm surge is non-u...

  10. Sea-level trend in the South China Sea observed from 20 years of along-track satellite altimetric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The sea-level trend in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated based on 20 years of along-track data from TOPEX and Jason-1/2 satellite altimetry. The average sea-level rise over all the regions in the study area is observed to have a rate of 5.1 ± 0.8 mm year-1 for the period from 1993 to 2012...

  11. Model study of the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea and its relation to the South China Sea circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shuqun; HE Yinghui; LONG Xiaomin; WANG Shengan

    2008-01-01

    According to the satellite remote sensing monthly mean sea surface temperature data from 1998 to 2002, it is shown that, the Sulu Sea is dominated by a cold eddy both in summer and winter. A coupled single-layer/two-layer model is employed here to study the summery and wintry characteristics and dynamic mechanism of the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea. According to the numerical experiments, it is found that, due to the local monsoon stress cud, the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea is dominated by a weak anticyclonic eddy in summer and a strong cyclonic eddy in winter. Once there is a large outflow via the Sibutu Passage flowing out of the Sulu Sea in summer, the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea may be dominated by a cyclonic eddy instead of the normal anti- cyclonic one. Moreover, in summer, the water exchange between the Sulu Sea and South China Sea via the Mindoro and Balabac Straits might have some effect on the separation position and strength of the northward western boundary current next to the Indo - China Peninsula in the southern South China Sea.

  12. The Issue of China' s Land & Sea Frontiers and the Proper Response%The Issue of China' s Land & Sea Frontiers and the Proper Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Canrong

    2012-01-01

    China is located at the eastern end of Eurasia and on the western side of the Pacific. Since ancient times, China has had both land and sea territory. In addition, China has common land or sea borders with many neighboring countries. So China has always regarded her land and maritime frontiers as important. Much of China' s history has been dominated by a feudal farming civilization and so border problems were largely restricted to land boundaries.

  13. Potential impacts of Three Gorges Dam in China on the ecosystem of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; BROCKMANN Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The Changjiang River in China was dammed in 2003.The possible changes in matters fluxes from the river downstream after the completion of Three Gorges Dam and their potential impacts on the ecosystem of the East China Sea are discussed.The estuarine and coastal waters in the East China Sea were heavily fertilized by the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater from the Changjiang River, which has led to severe eutrophication and frequent harmful algal blooms,thus worsening the ecosystem health in this area.Analy- sis showed that the nutrient loadings are very likely to be reduced in the lower Changjiang River due to the construction of Three Gorges Dam.Especially for the total phosphorus,the discharges to the East China Sea will be reduced by one-third,which would relieve the severe eutrophication in this area.However,the expected decrease in the riverine silicate discharge would lead the ra- tio of silicon to nitrogen to be much less than 1 in the estuarine and coastal waters and thus may cause an elevation of flagellate growth.The changes in the annual water discharges and their seasonal distributions below the dam will be minor.Reduction of suspended particulate matter loading,due to the sedimentation behind the dam,will reduce the nutrient loadings of the particulate form especially for phosphorus,and decrease the turbidity of estuarine and coastal waters.On the other hand,this may enhance the erosion of the delta and the coasts as well as modifythe benthic ecosystem.

  14. Preservation of Radiolarian Diversity and Abundance in Surface Sediments of the South China Sea and Its Environmental Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Muhong; Zhang Lanlan; Zhang Lili; Xiang Rong; Lu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of radiolarian preservation in surface sediments from different regional environments of the South China Sea (SCS) is discussed in this article for illustrating their relationship. The results show that species diversity and abundance of radiolarian in the surfacese diment increase with water depth, indicating no obvious dissolution of radiolarian shell in the deep SCS. Upwelling activity and volcanic eruption are both in favor of radiolarian propagation, and cause the settlement enrichment of radiolarian shell. Whereas, an abnormal reduced radiolarian fauna in deeper slope sediment may result from the remain of turbid flow that brings sediments from shallow area, such as shelf and upper slope. Radiolartan species are mainly composed of tropic-subtropic types,and include some cold or polar species, which indicates that a mistake in paleoceanographic analysis should arise from the monospecific index. However, synthesis radiolarian indexes in sediments may well respond to the ecologic and depositional environments in the SCS.

  15. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  16. Interannual to decadal variation of spring sea level anomaly in the western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fuwen; Fang, Wendong; Pan, Aijun; Cha, Jing; Zhang, Shanwu; Huang, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Satellite observations of sea level anomalies (SLA) from January 1993 to December 2012 are used to investigate the interannual to decadal changes of the boreal spring high SLA in the western South China Sea (SCS) using the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method. We find that the SLA variability has two dominant modes. The Sea Level Changing Mode (SLCM) occurs mainly during La Niña years, with high SLA extension from west of Luzon to the eastern coast of Vietnam along the central basin of the SCS, and is likely induced by the increment of the ocean heat content. The Anticyclonic Eddy Mode (AEM) occurs mainly during El Niño years and appears to be triggered by the negative wind curl anomalies within the central SCS. In addition, the spring high SLA in the western SCS experienced a quasi-decadal change during 1993-2012; in other words, the AEM predominated during 1993-1998 and 2002-2005, while the La Niña-related SLCM prevailed during 1999-2001 and 2006-2012. Moreover, we suggest that the accelerated sea level rise in the SCS during 2005-2012 makes the SLCM the leading mode over the past two decades.

  17. Sea level change under IPCC-A2 scenario in Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-lin CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR, it is very important to understand the processes leading to past and present SLRs towards more reliable future SLR projections. A regional ocean general circulation model (ROGCM, with a grid refinement in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas (BYECSs, was set up to project SLR induced by the ocean dynamic change in the 21st century. The model does not consider the contributions from ice sheets and glacier melting. Data of all forcing terms required in the model came from the simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3 under the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-A2 scenario. Simulation results show that at the end of the 21st century, the sea level in the BYECSs will rise about 0.12 to 0.20 m. The SLR in the BYECSs during the 21st century is mainly caused by the ocean mass redistribution due to the ocean dynamic change of the Pacific Ocean, which means that water in the Pacific Ocean tends to move to the continental shelves of the BYECSs, although the local steric sea level change is another factor.

  18. Sea level change under IPCC-A2 scenario in Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-lin CHEN; Jun-cheng ZUO; Mei-xiang CHEN; Zhi-gang GAO; C-K SHUM

    2014-01-01

    Because of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR), it is very important to understand the processes leading to past and present SLRs towards more reliable future SLR projections. A regional ocean general circulation model (ROGCM), with a grid refinement in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas (BYECSs), was set up to project SLR induced by the ocean dynamic change in the 21st century. The model does not consider the contributions from ice sheets and glacier melting. Data of all forcing terms required in the model came from the simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3) under the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-A2 scenario. Simulation results show that at the end of the 21st century, the sea level in the BYECSs will rise about 0.12 to 0.20 m. The SLR in the BYECSs during the 21st century is mainly caused by the ocean mass redistribution due to the ocean dynamic change of the Pacific Ocean, which means that water in the Pacific Ocean tends to move to the continental shelves of the BYECSs, although the local steric sea level change is another factor.

  19. Autumn living coccolithophores in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jie; GU Xiaoyao; FENG Yuanyuan; JIANG Wensheng; JIN Haiyan; CHEN Jianfang; SUN Jun

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on living coccolithophores (LCs) distribution in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from October 17 to November 24, 2011. A total of 223 samples from different depths were col-lected at 48 stations. Totally 18 taxa belonging to coccolithophyceae were identified using a polarized micro-scope at the 1 000× magnification. The maximum species abundance was found at the outside of Transect P. The dominated species wereGephyrocapsa oceanica, Emiliania huxleyi,Helicosphaera carteri,andAlgiros-phaera robusta.The abundance of coccoliths and cells ranged 0-2 965.73 coccoliths/mL, and 0-119.16 cells/mL, with the average values of 471.00 coccoliths/mL and 23.42 cells/mL, respectively. The LCs in surface layer were mainly observed on the coastal belt and middle part of the survey area. The comparison among Transects A, F, P and E indicated lower species diversity and less abundance in the Yellow Sea than those of the East China Sea. The highest abundance of LCs was found in transect F and P. The coccolith abundance increased slightly from surface to bottom in the water column, but the highest value of the cell abundance was observed in the depth of 10-30 m. Temperature, depth and nutrient concentration were suggested as the major environmental factors controlling the distribution and species composition of LCs in the studying area based on canonical correspondence analysis (CCA).

  20. Impacts of typhoon megi (2010) on the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Shan; Chao, Shenn-Yu; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Lin, I.-I.

    2014-07-01

    In October 2010, typhoon Megi induced a profound cold wake of size 800 km by 500 km with sea surface temperature cooling of 8°C in the South China Sea (SCS). More interestingly, the cold wake shifted from the often rightward bias to both sides of the typhoon track and moved to left in a few days. Using satellite data, in situ measurements and numerical modeling based on the East Asian Seas Nowcast/Forecast System (EASNFS), we performed detailed investigations. To obtain realistic typhoon-strength atmospheric forcing, the EASNFS applied typhoon-resolving Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model wind field blended with global weather forecast winds from the U.S. Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). In addition to the already known impacts from the slow typhoon translation speed and shallow pre-exiting ocean thermocline, we found the importance of the unique geographical setting of the SCS and the NE monsoon. As the event happened in late October, NE monsoon already started and contributed to the southwestward ambient surface current. Together with the topographicβ effect, the cold wake shifted westward to the left of Megi's track. It was also found that Megi expelled waters away from the SCS and manifested as a gush of internal Kelvin wave exporting waters through the Luzon Strait. The consequential sea level depression lasted and presented a favorable condition for cold dome development. Fission of the north-south elongated cold dome resulted afterward and produced two cold eddies that dissipated slowly thereafter.

  1. An unusual early Holocene diatom event north of the Getz Ice Shelf (Amundsen Sea): Implications for West Antarctic Ice Sheet development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, O.; Gersonde, R.; Hillenbrand, C.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.

    2011-12-01

    Modern global change affects not only the polar north but also, and to increasing extent, the southern high latitudes, especially the Antarctic regions covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Consequently, knowledge of the mechanisms controlling past WAIS dynamics and WAIS behaviour at the last deglaciation is critical to predict its development in a future warming world. Geological and palaeobiological information from major drainage areas of the WAIS, like the Amundsen Sea Embayment, shed light on the history of the WAIS glaciers. Sediment records obtained from a deep inner shelf basin north of Getz Ice Shelf document a deglacial warming in three phases. Above a glacial diamicton and a sediment package barren of microfossils that document sediment deposition by grounded ice and below an ice shelf or perennial sea ice cover (possibly fast ice), respectively, a sediment section with diatom assemblages dominated by sea ice taxa indicates ice shelf retreat and seasonal ice-free conditions. This conclusion is supported by diatom-based summer temperature reconstructions. The early retreat was followed by a phase, when exceptional diatom ooze was deposited around 12,500 cal. years B.P. [1]. Microscopical inspection of this ooze revealed excellent preservation of diatom frustules of the species Corethron pennatum together with vegetative Chaetoceros, thus an assemblage usually not preserved in the sedimentary record. Sediments succeeding this section contain diatom assemblages indicating rather constant Holocene cold water conditions with seasonal sea ice. The deposition of the diatom ooze can be related to changes in hydrographic conditions including strong advection of nutrients. However, sediment focussing in the partly steep inner shelf basins cannot be excluded as a factor enhancing the thickness of the ooze deposits. It is not only the presence of the diatom ooze but also the exceptional preservation and the species composition of the diatom assemblage

  2. Primary productivity and its variability in the equatorial South China Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, S. H.; Samah, A. A.; Braesicke, P.

    2013-08-01

    Near coastal areas of the equatorial South China Sea (SCS) are one of the world's regions with highest primary productivity (phytoplankton growth). Concentrations of phytoplankton in the SCS depend significantly on atmospheric forcings and the oceanic state, in particular during the northeast (winter) monsoon season from November to March. Aided by new ocean-observing satellite data, we present a climatological overview of recent surface atmospheric and oceanic features in the equatorial SCS during the northeast monsoon to identify the dominant air-sea processes influencing and modulating the primary productivity of the region. Measured chlorophyll a concentrations are used as a proxy for phytoplankton amounts and the spatial and temporal variations are characterized according to meteorological conditions. Converging northeasterly surface winds support high chlorophyll a concentrations along East Malaysia's coastline in conjunction with a continual nutrient supply from the bottom of the continental shelf by vertical mixing. The mixing can be enhanced due to increased turbulence by wind-generated high waves when they approach shallow water from the deep basin during strong cold surges and monsoon disturbances. Intraseasonal variability during the winter monsoon is characterized by a coastal increase of chlorophyll a starting in November and peaking in January. A general decrease is observed in March. Interannual variability of chlorophyll a concentrations is influenced by ENSO (due to the known modulation of cold surge occurrences), with decreases during El Niño and increases during La Niña in early winter along the shore of East Malaysia. As an example, we discuss an enhanced phytoplankton growth event that occurred due to a typical cold surge-induced Borneo vortex event in January 2010.

  3. Primary productivity and its variability in the equatorial South China Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Ooi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Near coastal areas of the equatorial South China Sea (SCS are one of the world's regions with highest primary productivity (phytoplankton growth. Concentrations of phytoplankton in the SCS depend significantly on atmospheric forcings and the oceanic state, in particular during the northeast (winter monsoon season from November to March. Aided by new ocean-observing satellite data, we present a climatological overview of recent surface atmospheric and oceanic features in the equatorial SCS during the northeast monsoon to identify the dominant air-sea processes influencing and modulating the primary productivity of the region. Measured chlorophyll a concentrations are used as a proxy for phytoplankton amounts and the spatial and temporal variations are characterized according to meteorological conditions. Converging northeasterly surface winds support high chlorophyll a concentrations along East Malaysia's coastline in conjunction with a continual nutrient supply from the bottom of the continental shelf by vertical mixing. The mixing can be enhanced due to increased turbulence by wind-generated high waves when they approach shallow water from the deep basin during strong cold surges and monsoon disturbances. Intraseasonal variability during the winter monsoon is characterized by a coastal increase of chlorophyll a starting in November and peaking in January. A general decrease is observed in March. Interannual variability of chlorophyll a concentrations is influenced by ENSO (due to the known modulation of cold surge occurrences, with decreases during El Niño and increases during La Niña in early winter along the shore of East Malaysia. As an example, we discuss an enhanced phytoplankton growth event that occurred due to a typical cold surge-induced Borneo vortex event in January 2010.

  4. Records of Toba eruptions in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlANG; Xirong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rose,W. I., Chesner, C. A., Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka, Geology, 1987, 15: 913-917.[2]Acharyya, S. K., Basu, P. K. ,Toba ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for correlation of late Pleistocene alluvium, Quaternary Research, 1993, 40: 10-19.[3]Shane, P., Westgate, J., Williams, M. et al., New geochemical evidence for the youngest Toba Tuff in India, Quaternary Research, 1995, 44: 200-204.[4]Westgate, J. A., Sha ne, P. A. R., Pearce, N. J. G. et al., All Toba occurrences across Peninsular India belong to the 75000yr B. P. eruption, Quaternary Research, 1998, 50:107-112.[5]Pattan, J. N., Shane, P., Banakar, V. K., New occurrences of youngest Toba Tuff in abyssal sediments of the Central Indian Basin, Marine Geology, 1999, 155: 243-248.[6]Gasparotto, G., Spadafora, E,, Summa, V. et al., Contribution of grain size and compositional data from the Bengal Fan sediment to the understanding of Toba volcanic event, Marine Geology, 2000, 162: 561-572.[7]Dehn, J., Farrell, J. W., Schmincke, H. U., Neogene tephrochronology from Site 758 on northern Ninetyeast Ridge: Indon isian arc volcanism of the Past 5 Ma, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results (eds. Weissel, J. P.,Taylor, E., Alt, J. et al.), College Station, Texas, Ocean Drilling Program, 1991, 121: 273-295.[8]Lee M. Y., Wet, K. Y., Chen, Y. G., High-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy for the last 150000 years in the southern South China Sea, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences TAO, 1999, 10: 239-254.[9]Biihring, C., Sarnthein, Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: Evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca.74 ka, Geology, 2000, 28: 275-278.[10]Chesner, C. A., Petrogenesis of the Toba tuffs, Sumatra, Indonesia, Journal of Petrology, 1998, 39: 397-438.[11]Rampino, M. R., Self. S., Volcanic winter and accelerated glaciation follow ing the Toba super-eruption, Nature, 1992, 359:50-52.

  5. Trends of sea level rise in the South China Sea during the 1990s: An altimetry result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using 7 years of TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry data, we have identified a general trend of sea level rising in the South China Sea between January 1993 and December 1999. The estimated bulk rising rate of the entire basin is ~1 cm/a. The rise of sea level appears to be spatially non-homogeneous, which shows a highest rate of 2.7 cm/a in the deep basin west of Luzon and generally Iow (even negafive) rates over the shallow continental shelves. It is believed that the observed rapid rising of sea level is a regional phenomenon and is mainly caused by warming of the upper layer of the South China Sea, which showed a bulk warming rate of 0.15℃/a in the same period. It is also suggested that the observed rising trend is mainly a decadal signal, which is possibly associated with decadal variation of the Pacific warm pool region.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater in coastal regions between the southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changling; ZHANG Guosen; REN Hongbo; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Rainwater samples were collected in series in Qianliyan Island (southern Yellow Sea) and Shengsi Archipelago (East China Sea) between May 2000 and May 2002, chemical analysis for pH values,concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, SiO32-) were performed.Results indicate that concentrations of most of the heavy metals and nutrients in rainwater show clear seasonal variation, i.e. high level in winter and low level in summer. Regionally, concentrations are higher in the southern Yellow Sea than in the East China Sea, but the annual input of heavy metals into oceans by wet deposition is similar in both stations. However, the input of nutrients by wet deposition in the East China Sea is 2-3 times higher than that in the southern Yellow Sea. In individual, Pb and PO43- are input to the sea mainly by dry deposition; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and N compounds are input dominantly by wet deposition, the N/P ratios in the rainwater from two stations are much higher than those in seawater, showing a significant impact of atmospheric wet deposition on marine production and biogeochemical circulation of nutrients in these sea regions.

  7. On the tidally driven circulation in the South China Sea: modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelko, Varjola; Saha, Abhishek; Chua, Vivien P.

    2014-03-01

    The South China Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by land masses and island chains, and characterized by complex bathymetry and irregular coastlines. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is employed to perform depth-averaged simulations of the circulation in the South China Sea. The model is tidally forced at the open ocean boundaries using the eight main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software. The model simulations are performed for the year 2005 using a time step of 60 s. The model reproduces the spring-neap and diurnal and semidiurnal variability in the observed data. Skill assessment of the model is performed by comparing model-predicted surface elevations with observations. For stations located in the central region of the South China Sea, the root mean squared errors (RMSE) are less than 10 % and the Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) is as high as 0.9. The simulations show that the quality of the model prediction is dependent on the horizontal grid resolution, coastline accuracy, and boundary locations. The maximum RMSE errors and minimum correlation coefficients occur at Kaohsiung (located in northern South China Sea off Taiwan coast) and Tioman (located in southern South China Sea off Malaysia coast). This may be explained with spectral analysis of sea level residuals and winds, which reveal dynamics at Kaohsiung and Tioman are strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon winds. Our model demonstrates the importance of tidally driven circulation in the central region of the South China Sea.

  8. A new evaporation duct climatology over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yang, Kunde; Yang, Yixin; Ma, Yuanliang

    2015-10-01

    The climatology of evaporation ducts is important for shipborne electromagnetic system design and application. The evaporation duct climatology that is currently used for such applications was developed in the mid 1980s; this study presents efforts to improve it over the South China Sea (SCS) by using a state-of-the-art evaporation duct model and an improved meteorology dataset. This new climatology provides better evaporation duct height (EDH) data over the SCS, at a higher resolution of 0.312°×0.313°. A comparison between the new climatology and the old one is performed. The monthly average EDH in the new climatology is between 10 and 12 m over the SCS, higher than that in the old climatology. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the evaporation duct over the SCS in different months are analyzed in detail, based on the new climatology.

  9. Geochemistry of Soil Formation in south China Sea Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGZI-TONG; HUANGBIAO

    1995-01-01

    The soils in South China sea Islands(SCSI)were divided into three types,nmaely,phospho-calc soils,skeletisols and coastic solonchake,which were derived from bio-clastic and strongly calcareous sediments.In comparison with their parent materials,the phospho-Calc soils have higher contents of P,Zn Cu,Ba,and Cd,which tend to increase gradually with time,and lower contents of Mg,Ca,Sr,B,V,Pb,and Mo,which tend to decrease by degrees with time,The above-mentioned constituents in skeletisols and coastic solonchaks are similar to those in their parent materials except for P and Na,The factors affecting element distribution are mainly special bioclimate and parent material,meanwhile,resulting in the remakable influence on element distribution through soil-forming time.

  10. Development and activities of nuclear sea water desalination in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, 104 cities (with 200 million inhabitants), mostly located in the northern and coastal areas of the country, now face the problem of a serious shortage of fresh water resources. Because the water resources of some cities have been polluted, it has become increasingly more urgent to provide the population with potable water that meets the drinking water standards. Furthermore, a number of coastal islands are also experiencing serious shortages of fresh water. Therefore, sea water desalination has become of great interest to the Chinese Government. The eastern coastal areas are densely inhabited and economically more developed, but their energy resources are very limited. A possible solution may therefore be to develop nuclear desalination with a view to solving the problem of providing potable water to these areas

  11. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton production in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tian; Wang, Rong; Yue, Hai-Dong

    2001-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) in the East China Sea was measured using tritiated thymidine incorporation (TTI) method in winter 1997 and in summer 1998. The results showed BP in summer (1998, 3.50-15.70 μgC/(L·h) was higher than that in winter (1997, 0.46-2.62 μgC/(L·h). The high values of BP occurred around the Changjiang River estuary and around Station 410. The results at two anchor stations showed that vertical variation of BP was bottom > middle > surface in winter and middle > bottom > surface in summer. Compared with primary production (BP:PP), the average ratio of BP:PP was 0.17(0.04-0.30) in winter and 0.32(0.21-0.43) in summer. There were high ratios around the Changjiang River estuary in winter and around Station 111 in summer.

  12. Drifting buoy and other data from drifting platforms in the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 January 1981 to 20 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8200120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from drifting platforms in the Bering Sea by the Flow Research Company as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental...

  13. Drifting buoy and other data from the Chukchi Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 27 June 1977 to 07 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Chukchi Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program...

  14. Physical, nutrient, chlorophyll a and plankton abundance data collected from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/Vs OCEANUS and ENDEAVOR in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. Shelf from 2004 to 2005 (NODC Accession 0053611)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical and biologic parameters were measured in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. shelf aboard the R/V Endeavor from 13 May to 31 May, 2004...

  15. Drifting buoy and other data from the Beaufort Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 05 November 1975 to 01 October 1976 (NODC Accession 7700019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy and other data was collected from the Beaufort Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental...

  16. Drifting buoy and other data from the Beaufort Sea and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 03 March 1977 to 05 April 1977 (NODC Accession 7700543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Beaufort Sea and other locations by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental...

  17. Drifting buoy and other data from the Beaufort Sea and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 April 1977 to 03 July 1977 (NODC Accession 7700780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Beaufort Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program...

  18. Drifting buoy and other data from the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 13 September 1975 to 25 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7600632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Bering Sea by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf...

  19. Drifting buoy and other data from the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 27 May 1977 to 07 January 1978 (NODC Accession 7800692)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Bering Sea by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf...

  20. Drifting buoy and other data from the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 November 1975 to 01 October 1976 (NODC Accession 7700114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental...

  1. Cetacean line-transect survey conducted in the eastern Bering Sea shelf by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from Miller Freeman from 1999-07-07 to 2004-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0131862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC’s echo integration trawl surveys...

  2. l576bs.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-5-76-BS in Southern Bering Sea Shelf from 07/28/1976 to 08/25/1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-5-76-BS in Southern Bering Sea Shelf...

  3. Modelling flow in the porous bottom of the Barents Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In their recent paper, Węsławski et al. (2012 showed that theSvalbardbanken area of the Barents Sea is characterized by a high organiccarbon settlement to the permeable sea bed, which consists of gravel andshell fragments of glacial origin.In the present paper, which can be considered as a supplement to the Węsławskiet al. paper, two potential hydrodynamic mechanisms of downwardpore water transport into porous media are discussed in detail.In particular, estimated statistical characteristics of the pore waterflow, induced by storm surface waves, indicate that the dischargeof water flow can be substantial, even at large water depths.During stormy weather (wind velocity V=15 m s-1 and windfetch X =200 km as much as 117.2 and 26.1 m3 hour-1 ofwater filter through the upper 5 m of the shell pit at waterdepths of 30 and 50 m respectively. For a porous layer ofgreater thickness, the mean flow discharge is even bigger.     The second possible mechanism of flow penetration in the porous layeris based on the concept of geostrophic flow and spiral formation withinthe Ekman layer. Assuming that the current velocity in the near-bottomwater layer is ū = 1 m, the resulting mean dischargethrough this layer becomes as large as 0.99 and 0.09 m3 s-1for downstream and transverse flows respectively.

  4. Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of diet composition in macrobenthic peracarid crustaceans from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea, the fatty acid (FA) composition of different species belonging to the orders Isopoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Tanaidacea was analysed. Multivariate analyses of the FA composition confirmed general differences between the orders, but also distinct differences within these orders. To gain information on the origin of the FAs found, the potential food sources sediment, POM and foraminiferans were included in the study. Most of the analysed amphipod species displayed high 18:1( n-9)-18:1( n-7) ratios, widely used as an indicator for a carnivorous component in the diet. Cumaceans were characterised by increased phytoplankton FA markers such as 20:5( n-3) (up to 29% of total FAs), suggesting a diet based on phytodetritus. High values of the FA 20:4( n-6) were found in some munnopsid isopods (up to 21% of total FAs) and some tanaidacean species (up to 19% of total FAs). 20:4( n-6) also occurred in high proportions in some foraminiferan samples (up to 21% of total fatty acids), but not in sediment and POM, possibly indicating the ingestion of foraminiferans by some peracarid crustaceans.

  5. Carbon cycling and phytoplankton responses within highly-replicated shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European Shelf Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Richier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which in part likely reflects inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series of highly replicated (n = 8, short term (2–4 days multi-level (≥ 4 conditions carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically different experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterized by a suppression of net growth for small sized cells (pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasize how biological-chemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

  6. Methane release from pingo-like features across the South Kara Sea shelf, an area of thawing offshore permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Pavel; Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Semenov, Peter; Ilatovskaya, Polina

    2015-08-01

    The Holocene marine transgression starting at ~19 ka flooded the Arctic shelves driving extensive thawing of terrestrial permafrost. It thereby promoted methanogenesis within sediments, the dissociation of gas hydrates, and the release of formerly trapped gas, with the accumulation in pressure of released methane eventually triggering blowouts through weakened zones in the overlying and thinned permafrost. Here we present a range of geophysical and chemical scenarios for the formation of pingo-like formations (PLFs) leading to potential blowouts. Specifically, we report on methane anomalies from the South Kara Sea shelf focusing on two PLFs imaged from high-resolution seismic records. A variety of geochemical methods are applied to study concentrations and types of gas, its character, and genesis. PLF 1 demonstrates ubiquitously low-methane concentrations (14.2-55.3 ppm) that are likely due to partly unfrozen sediments with an ice-saturated internal core reaching close to the seafloor. In contrast, PLF 2 reveals anomalously high-methane concentrations of >120,000 ppm where frozen sediments are completely absent. The methane in all recovered samples is of microbial and not of thermogenic origin from deep hydrocarbon sources. However, the relatively low organic matter content (0.52-1.69%) of seafloor sediments restricts extensive in situ methane production. As a consequence, we hypothesize that the high-methane concentrations at PLF 2 are due to microbial methane production and migration from a deeper source.

  7. A New System of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China Sea of Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific system. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of

  8. First oceanographic observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in Northeast Greenland: Tracing the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergei A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Pedersen, Leif T.; Rysgaard, Soeren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2016-04-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in North Eastern Greenland were collected from the land-fast ice in April-May 2015 as a part of the Arctic Science Partnership collaboration during the first research campaign at the Villum Research Station. They were complemented by (i) the ice-tethered profiler (ITP) and Acoustic Dopler Current Profiler (ADCP) mooring observations in ~300 m of the tidewater glacier outlet from the Flade Isblink Ice Cap and (ii) CTDs taken in June-July 2015 along the Wandel Sea continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-15 sea ice drift. The CTD profiles deeper than 100 m are used to reveal the origin of water masses and determine the extent to which these water masses have interacted with ambient water from the continental slope. The subsurface water layer from ~20-70 m depth is comprised of freshened water (30-32 psu) that is likely associated with the Pacific Water outflow from the Arctic Ocean through the western Fram Strait. The underlying halocline layer centered at ~80 m (~33 psu) separates the Pacific Water layer from a deeper (Fram Strait. The Atlantic Water layer with temperature above 0°C is recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline layer shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient Polar Water mass across the continental slope. Mooring data shows an enhanced shelf-slope interaction responding the storm event in 23-24 April 2015 with northerly winds exceeding 10 m/s. The on-shelf transport of a cold and turbid water from the upper continental slope results in enhanced interleaving within the depth range of the halocline layer (~70-100 m). Our observations of Pacific Water in the Wandel Sea subsurface layer are set in the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea for 2002-2011 and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya (1992-1993), and clearly show the modification of Pacific

  9. S2P3-R (v1.0: a framework for efficient regional modelling of physical and biological structures and processes in shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An established 1-dimensional model of Shelf Sea Physics and Primary Production (S2P3 is adapted for regional use in realistic geographical domains over selected years, for selected regions. The S2P3-R framework (v1.0 can be used to efficiently map 3-D physical and biological structures in shelf seas, in particular the tidal mixing fronts that seasonally develop at boundaries between mixed and stratified water. The model has primarily been developed for undergraduate oceanography modules and research projects, providing a practical tool for linking theory and field observations, but it is also useful as an investigative research tool alongside more complex and computationally expensive models. Four different configurations of S2P3-R are described and evaluated, illustrating a range of diagnostics, evaluated where practical with available observations. The model can be forced with daily meteorological variables for any selected year in the reanalysis era (1948 onwards. Example simulations illustrate the considerable extent of synoptic-to-interannual variability in the physics and biology of shelf seas. In discussion, the present limitations of S2P3-R are emphasized, and future model developments are outlined.

  10. South China Sea Territorial Disputes and Sino-Philippine Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; WANG

    2015-01-01

    As political factors affect trade activities greatly, this paper considers whether a series of political events have had a negative impact on Sino-Philippine trade relations. Of particular concern is the influence on bilateral relations and the Philippines’ domestic economy from political and diplomatic tensions between China and the Philippines caused by territorial disputes in the South China Sea. Political events are divided into two levels, general conflicts and serious conflicts, which are analyzed from the perspectives of both overall level and product level to present their final impact on trade. This research finds that territorial disputes between the two countries deteriorated trade, as the volume of trade usually decreased distinctly after conflicts. The negative impact on trade generated by serious conflicts usually occurred more rapidly and on a larger scale. The effect of trade deterioration caused by political events weakened over time. Furthermore, after serious conflicts, although the volume of trade of certain products decreased temporarily, it rebounded quickly or even increased soon. However, industrial equipment or industrial raw materials trade activities between the two countries were basically independent of the conflicts’ impact.

  11. Statistical Prediction of the South China Sea Surface Height Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the simple ocean data assimilation (SODA data, this study analyzes and forecasts the monthly sea surface height anomaly (SSHA averaged over South China Sea (SCS. The approach to perform the analysis is a time series decomposition method, which decomposes monthly SSHAs in SCS to the following three parts: interannual, seasonal, and residual terms. Analysis results demonstrate that the SODA SSHA time series are significantly correlated to the AVISO SSHA time series in SCS. To investigate the predictability of SCS SSHA, an exponential smoothing approach and an autoregressive integrated moving average approach are first used to fit the interannual and residual terms of SCS SSHA while keeping the seasonal part invariant. Then, an array of forecast experiments with the start time spanning from June 1977 to June 2007 is performed based on the prediction model which integrates the above two models and the time-independent seasonal term. Results indicate that the valid forecast time of SCS SSHA of the statistical model is about 7 months, and the predictability of SCS SSHA in Spring and Autumn is stronger than that in Summer and Winter. In addition, the prediction skill of SCS SSHA has remarkable decadal variability, with better phase forecast in 1997–2007.

  12. Climatic changes in the northern South China Sea since the last glacial maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Deming; 孔德明

    2014-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to reconstruct climatic changes in the open sea and coastal area of northern South China Sea (SCS) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and investigate its relationship with the East Asian monsoons, as well as insolation and sea level changes. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from long-chain alkenones in the open sea sediment core NS02G increased by 5°C and generally followed the sea level rise pattern from the LGM to mid Holocene. The SST kept in...

  13. Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas-A Case Study with Implications for Climatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; ZHANG Suping

    2013-01-01

    A stratus-sea fog event that occurred over the Yellow and East China Seas on 3 June 2011 is investigated using observations and a numerical model,with a focus on the effects of background circulation and Sea Surface Temperature Front (SSTF) on the transition of stratus into sea fog.Southerly winds of a synoptic high-pressure circulation transport water vapor to the Yellow Sea,creating conditions favorable for sea fog/stratus formation.The subsidence from the high-pressure contributes to the temperature inversion at the top of the stratus.The SSTF forces a secondary circulation within the ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer),the sinking branch of which on the cold flank of SSTF helps lower the stratus layer further to reach the sea surface.The cooling effect over the cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic warming induced by subsidence.The secondary circulation becomes weak and the fog patches are shrunk heavily with the smoothed SSTF.A conceptual model is proposed for the transition of stratus into sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas.Finally,the analyses suggest that sea fog frequency will probably decrease due to the weakened SSTF and the reduced subsidence of secondary circulation under global warming.

  14. Benthic biomass size spectra in shelf and deep-sea sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kelly-Gerreyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomass distributions of marine benthic organisms (meio- to macro-fauna, 1 μg–32 mg wet weight across three contrasting sites were investigated to test the hypothesis that allometry can consistently explain observed trends in biomass spectra. Biomass (and abundance size spectra were determined from observations made at the Faroe–Shetland Channel in the north-east Atlantic (water depth 1600 m, the Fladen Ground in the North Sea (150 m, and the hypoxic Oman Margin (500 m in the Arabian Sea. Observed biomass increased with body size as a power law at FG (scaling exponent, b = 0.16 and FSC (b = 0.32, but less convincingly at OM (b = 0.12 but not significantly different from 0. A simple model was constructed to represent the same 16 metazoan size classes used for the observed spectra, all reliant on a common detrital food pool, and allowing the three key processes of ingestion, respiration and mortality to scale with body size. A micro-genetic algorithm was used to fit the model to observations at the sites. The model accurately reproduces the observed scaling without recourse to including the effects of local influences such as hypoxia. Our results suggest that the size-scaling of mortality and ingestion are dominant factors determining the distribution of biomass across the meio- to macrofaunal size range in contrasting marine sediment communities. Both the observations and the model results are broadly in agreement with the "Metabolic Theory of Ecology" in predicting a quarter power scaling of biomass across geometric body size classes.

  15. Particle flux on the continental shelf in the Amundsen Sea Polynya and Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh W. Ducklow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report results from a yearlong, moored sediment trap in the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP, the first such time series in this remote and productive ecosystem. Results are compared to a long-term (1992–2013 time series from the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. The ASP trap was deployed from December 2010 to December 2011 at 350 m depth. We observed two brief, but high flux events, peaking at 8 and 5 mmol C m−2 d−1 in January and December 2011, respectively, with a total annual capture of 315 mmol C m−2. Both peak fluxes and annual capture exceeded the comparable WAP observations. Like the overlying phytoplankton bloom observed during the cruise in the ASP (December 2010 to January 2011, particle flux was dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, which produced phytodetrital aggregates. Particles at the start of the bloom were highly depleted in 13C, indicating their origin in the cold, CO2-rich winter waters exposed by retreating sea ice. As the bloom progressed, microscope visualization and stable isotopic composition provided evidence for an increasing contribution by zooplankton fecal material. Incubation experiments and zooplankton observations suggested that fecal pellet production likely contributed 10–40% of the total flux during the first flux event, and could be very high during episodic krill swarms. Independent estimates of export from the surface (100 m were about 5–10 times that captured in the trap at 350 m. Estimated bacterial respiration was sufficient to account for much of the decline in the flux between 50 and 350 m, whereas zooplankton respiration was much lower. The ASP system appears to export only a small fraction of its production deeper than 350 m within the polynya region. The export efficiency was comparable to other polar regions where phytoplankton blooms were not dominated by diatoms.

  16. Seismic sequence and depositional evolution of slope basins in mid-northern margin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingbi; JIN Xianglong; LI Jiabiao; DING Weiwei; FANG Yinxia; LIU Jianhua; TANG Yong

    2011-01-01

    As one of the biggest marginal seas in the western Pacific margin,the South China Sea (SCS) experienced continental riffing and seafloor spreading during the Cenozoic.The northern continental margin of the SCS is classified as a passive continental margin.However,its depositional and structural evolution remains controversial,especially in the deep slope area.The lack of data hindered the correlation between continental shelf and oceanic basin,and prevented the establishment of sequence stratigraphic frame of the whole margin.The slope basins in the mid-northern margin of SCS developed in the Cenozoic;the sediments and basin infill recorded the geological history of the continental margin and the SCS spreading.Using multi-channel seismic dataset acquired in three survey cruises during 1987 to 2004,combined with the data of ODP Leg 184 core and industrial wells,we carried out the sequence stratigraphic division and correlation of the Cenozoic in the middle-northern margin of SCS with seismic profiles and sedimentary facies.We interpreted the seismic reflection properties including continuity,amplitude,frequency,reflection terminals,and 15 sequence boundaries of the Cenozoic in the study area,and correlated the well data in geological age.The depositional environment changed from river and lake,shallow bay to open-deep sea,in correspondence to tectonic events of syn-rifting,early drifting,and late drifting stages of basin evolution.

  17. Numerical study on the interannual oscillation of sea surface temperature in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Xiao; Zhou, Fa-Xiu; Fu, Gang; Qin, Zeng-Hao

    1996-03-01

    A two and a half layer oceanic model of wind-driven, thermodynamical general circulation is applied to study the interannual oscillation of sea surface temperature (SST) in the South China Sea (SCS). The model consists of two active layers: the upper mixed layer (UML) and the seasonal thermocline, with the motionless abyss beneath them. The governing equations which include momentum, continuity and sea temperature for each active layer, can describe the physics of Boussinseq approximation, reduced gravity and equatorial β-plane. The formulas for the heat flux at the surface and at the interface between two active layers are designed on the Haney scheme. The entrainment and detrainment at the bottom of the UML induces vertical transport of mass, momentum and heat, and couples of dynamic and thermodynamic effects. Using leap-frog integrating scheme and the Arakawa—C grid the model is forced by a time-dependent wind anomaly stress pattern obtained from category analysis of COADS. The numerical results indicate that there is a kind of oscillation with about 30 months period. The paper supports the opinion that the SST interannual oscillation is the oceanic response to the forcing by monsoon wind anomalies in the SCS.

  18. The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Junwu; WANG Xiaomei; SONG Qingjun; LI Tongji; CHEN Jiezhong; HUANG Haijun; REN Jingping

    2004-01-01

    A group of statistical algorithms are proposed for the inversion of the three major components of Case-Ⅱ waters in the coastal area of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea. The algorithms are based on the in situ data collected in the spring of 2003 with strict quality assurance according to NASA ocean bio-optic protocols. These algorithms are the first ones with quantitative confidence that can be applied for the area. The average relative error of the inversed and in situ measured components' concentrations are: Chl-a about 37%, total suspended matter (TSM) about 25%,respectively. This preliminary result is quite satisfactory for Case-Ⅱ waters, although some aspects in the model need further study. The sensitivity of the input error of 5% to remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) is also analyzed and it shows the algorithms are quite stable. The algorithms show a large difference with Tassan's local SeaWiFS algorithms for different waters, except for the Chl-a algorithm.

  19. Introducing Seawater China for Sustainablefrom Bohai Sea to WestDevelopment in the Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenChangli

    2004-01-01

    Sustained and profound aridization process in north-west China in Tertiary and Quaternary period and time of mankind history are discussed. The rain-creased function of 3 set high mountain condensation systems in north-west China is recognized once more. A sandstorm happened on 20th March 2002 in Alasan and Ejinaqi areas was very strong and arrived in Japan and Korea. For saving Alasan area from sandstorm a way of introducing sea water from Bohai to Alasan has been proposed. Four problems are replied in this paper. It is concluded that introducing sea water from Bohai to west China is the best way for sustainable development of west China.

  20. High-Resolution Reconstruction of Late Holocene Sea-ice Distribution and Primary Production on the East Greenland Shelf and the NW Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. H.; Kolling, H. M.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically and much more rapidly than predicted by climate models. Based on this alarming observation, the reconstruction of natural variability of past sea-ice cover and its forcing became a major focus of international scientific research. Here, we present a high-resolution biomarker approach over the last 4 ka from the East Greenland Shelf to investigate the interrelationship between sea-ice cover, meltwater/freshwater discharge and primary productivity. The phytoplankton-derived sea-ice proxy IP25 (Belt et al., 2007) points to a late Holocene cooling trend initiated around 1.5 ka which is interrupted by a period of reduced sea-ice cover centred around 1 ka. The latter might be related to the well known Medieval Warm Period. Our new results from the East Greenland Shelf will be compared with similar records from the Fram Strait area published by Müller et al., (2012). These data give information about differences and/or similarities of sea-ice variability and changes in productivity in the area influenced by the cold East Greenland Current and the warm Westspitsbergen Current, respectively. First data suggest a time lag of the Neoglacial cooling between western (Greenland side) and eastern (Westspitsbergen-side) of Fram Strait, as also proposed by Müller et al. (2012). ReferencesBelt., S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of paleo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27 Müller, J., Werner, K., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Moros, M., Jansen, E., 2012. Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quaternay Science Reviews 47, 1-14

  1. Sea-ice distribution and primary production on the East Greenland Shelf and the NW Fram Strait - a high resolution study of the last 5.2 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Henriette Marie; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically and much more rapidly than predicted by climate models. Based on this alarming observation, the reconstruction of natural variability of past sea-ice cover and its forcing became a major focus of international scientific research. Here, we present a high-resolution biomarker approach over the last 4 ka from the East Greenland Shelf to investigate the interrelationship between sea-ice cover, meltwater/freshwater discharge and primary productivity. The phytoplankton-derived sea-ice proxy IP25 (Belt et al., 2007) points to a late Holocene cooling trend initiated around 1.5 ka which is interrupted by a period of reduced sea-ice cover centred around 1 ka. The latter might be related to the well known Medieval Warm Period. Our new results from the East Greenland Shelf will be compared with similar records from the Fram Strait area published by Müller et al., (2012). These data give information about differences and/or similarities of sea-ice variability and changes in productivity in the area influenced by the cold East Greenland Current and the warm Westspitsbergen Current, respectively. First data suggest a time lag of the Neoglacial cooling between western (Greenland side) and eastern (Westspitsbergen-side) of Fram Strait, as also proposed by Müller et al. (2012). References Belt., S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of paleo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27 Müller, J., Werner, K., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Moros, M., Jansen, E., 2012. Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quaternay Science Reviews 47, 1-14

  2. Thermal and cementation histories of Permian shelf-edge carbonate rocks in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Parrish, Judith T.; Zahn, Xie; Wenhai, Hu; Scholle, Peter A.; Zhongrui, Su; Yirong, Zhang; Yunming, Huang; Guangxuan, Li

    1989-01-01

    As of 1984, the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China has had almost no exploration by drilling although oil seeps exist among its margins and producing wells occur in adjacent basins.  however, cooperative studies by petroleum geologists and geochemists of the United States and the People's Republic of China (1982-1984) show that calcite-cemented reef and fore-reef carbonate rocks near Ziyun contain bitumen in Upper Permian shelf-edge sediment.  the cementation history consists of three episodes: (1)precipitation of syndepositional marine cement (formerly botryoidal aragonnite and fibrous magnesian calcite); (2)precipitation of post-depositional early cement (radiaxial calcite); and (3)precipitation of late burial cement (white calcite spar).  Hydrocarbons were introduced into the rocks between cementation episodes 2 and 3.  Fluid inclusion analysis of secondary inclusions in the burial cement indicates that the rocks were heated to nearly 200 C after hydrocarbon migration and cementation episode 3.  Bitumen remains in the rocks as evidence of the earlier presence of liquid hydrocarbons.

  3. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  4. Late winter larval fish assemblage in the southern East China Sea, with emphasis on spatial relations between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Konishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    We examined larval fish assemblages in the southern East China Sea during late winter where large spawning grounds of several commercial pelagic fishes are formed. Our samples include a total of 187 species or taxa of larval fish belonging to 118 genera, 96 families, and 18 orders. Mesopelagic fish larvae, mainly Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, and Myctophiformes, accounted for 66.5% of the total catch, while commercial species such as Trachurus japonicus, Scomber spp., and Trichiurus japonicus for 16.6%. Based on the species composition, three assemblages were recognized: Kuroshio (KUR), Shelf-Break (BRE), and Shelf (SHE) assemblages. KUR assemblage was mainly characterized by various mesopelagic fishes such as Sigmops gracilis, Diaphus spp., and Myctophum asperum, BRE assemblage by both commercial pelagic and mesopelagic species, SHE assemblage by demersal species such as Lepidotrigla spp. and Gobiidae spp. Both abundance and diversity were highest in KUR assemblage, although food availability for the larvae would be poorest. The combination of variables of sea surface temperature-chlorophyll a concentrations best explained the larval distribution. Except for Benthosema pterotum, the center of distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae was clearly separated from that of the commercial species by the Kuroshio front. However, a northward intrusion of the Kuroshio transported mesopelagic fish larvae onto the shelf, forming the BRE assemblage. Competition for prey between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae would potentially occur if the intrusion is strong.

  5. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  6. Effects of high-order nonlinearity and rotation on the fission of internal solitary waves in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan-wu; FAN Zhi-song

    2013-01-01

    A variable coefficient,rotation-modified extended Kortweg-deVries (vReKdV) model is applied to the study of the South China Sea (SCS),with focus on the effects of the high-order (cubic) nonlinearity and the rotation on the disintegration process of large-amplitude (170 m) Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) and the semi-diurnal internal tide propagating from the deep basin station to the slope and shelf regions in a continuously stratified system.The numerical solutions show that the high-order nonlinearity significantly affects the wave profile by increasing the wave amplitude and the phase speed in the simulated area.It is shown that the initial KdV-type ISW will decay faster when the rotation dispersion is considered,however the wave profile does not change significantly and the rotation effect is not important.The simulations of the semi-diumal intemaI tide indicate that the phase of the wave profile is shifted earlier when the rotation effect is included.A solitary wave packet emerges on the shelf,and the wave speed is also greater when considering the rotation dispersion.In addition,the effects of the background currents are discussed further in this paper.It is found that the background currents generally change the magnitude and occasionally change the sign of the nonlinear coefficients in the northern SCS.

  7. A cross-shelf gradient in δ15N stable isotope values of krill and pollock indicates seabird foraging patterns in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan M.; Hoover, Brian A.; Heppell, Scott A.; Kuletz, Kathy J.

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent measurements of predator and prey δ15N isotope values demonstrated that a cross-shelf isotopic gradient can propagate through a marine food web from forage species to top-tier predators and indicate foraging areas at a scale of tens of kilometers. We measured δ13C and δ15N in muscle tissues of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and in whole body tissues of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and krill (Thysanoessa spp), sampled across the continental shelf break in the Bering Sea in 2008 and in 2009. We found significant basin-shelf differences at fine scales (trophic signal and spatial structure of a basin-shelf δ15Nitrogen gradient in the central and southern Bering Sea, and used it to contrast foraging patterns of thick-billed murres and kittiwakes on the open ocean. Seabird muscle δ15N values were compared to baselines created from measurements in krill and pollock tissues sampled concurrently throughout the study area. Krill, pollock, and murre tissues from northern, shallow, shelf habitat (200 m) to the south and west. Krill δ15N baseline values predicted 35-42% of the variability in murre tissue values. Patterns between kittiwakes and prey were less coherent. The persistence of strong spatial autocorrelation among sample values, and a congruence of geospatial patterns in δ15N among murre and prey tissues, suggest that murres forage repeatedly in specific areas. Murre isotope values showed distinct geospatial stratification, coincident with the spatial distribution of three colonies: St. Paul, St. George, and Bogoslof. This suggests some degree of foraging habitat partitioning among colonies.

  8. How Does the Morphology of Shelf-Margin Deltas Relate to Sea-Level Elevation? Clues From the Modern Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, S.; Bart, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Scientists have attempted to precisely determine eustatic changes using various techniques. One of these is the sequence stratigraphic technique which relies on vertical changes in the position of coastal onlap (Vail et al, 1977). In subsequent years, several authors have recognized many limitations in this approach (Christie-Blick et al., 1990). Our ongoing study focuses on the possibility of using the morphology of modern and ancient shelf-margin deltas as sea-level indicators to determine past sea-level elevations. The Mississippi River Delta provides an excellent opportunity to study the precise relationship between shelf-edge delta morphology and sea-level elevation. A morphological analysis of the modern Mississippi River Delta suggests that there may be a direct relationship between the sea-level and the offlap break features of the delta. The offlap break is defined at the intersection of topset and foreset at the location of a marked increase in slope. At this point, the bathymetric curvature (i.e. second derivative of sea-floor) is highest. This is analogous to O'Grady and Syvitski (2002) definition of shelf break offshore Greenland. More than a hundred bathymetric cross sections were made across the modern Balize lobe of the Mississippi River Delta using Rivertools software. The geomorphic analysis showed that there were two distinct morphologic types of the delta. In one type, there is a sharp transition from the topset to the foreset, whereas in a second type, the topset-foreset transition is gradual. It was observed that sharp offlap breaks characterize the eastern part of the delta at water depths of 1 ± 0.3 m. The southern and southwestern parts of the delta are characterized by gradual offlap breaks at water depths of 4 ± 2 m.

  9. Transition of Quaternary glacial cyclicity in deep-sea records at Nansha, the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Pinxian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Shackleton. N. J., Opdyke, N. D., Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of Pacific core V28-239: Late Plio cene to Latest Pleistocene, Mem. Geol. Soc. Am., 1976, 145: 449-464.[2]Ding, Z., Liu, D., New Development of China Loess Research (1) Loess Stratigraphy, Quaternary Research (in Chinese),1989, 1: 24-35.[3]Raymo, M. E., Oppo, D. W., Curry. W., The mid-Pleistocene climate transition: A deep sea carbon isotopic perspective,Paleoceanography, 1997, 12(4): 546-559.[4]PrellW. L., Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy for the Quaternary of Hole 502B: Evidence for two modes of isotopic variability, in Init. Repts. DSDP (eds. Prell and W. L., Gardner, J. V.), 1982, 68: 455-464.[5]Shackleton. N. J., The 100,000-year ice-age cycle identified and found to lag temperature, carbon dioxide, and orbital eccentricity, Science, 2000, 289: 1897-1902.[6]Rutherford, S., D'Hondt, S., Early onset and tropical forcing of 100,000-year Pleistocene glacial cycles, Nature, 2000, 408:72-75.[7]Berger, W. H., Bickert, T., Jansen, E. et al., The central mystery of the Quaternary Ice Age, Oceanus, 1993, 36(4): 53-56.[8]Raymo, M. E., The timing of major climate terminations, Paleoceanography, 1997, 12(4): 577-585.[9]Berger, W. H., Jansen, E., Mid-Pleistocene climate shift: The Nansen connection, Geophysical Monograph, 1994, 84:295-311.[10]Clark, P. C., Pollanrd, D., Origin of the middle Pleistocene transition by ice sheet erosion of regolith, Paleoceanography,1998, 13: 1-19.[11]Wang, P., Prell, W., Blum, P. et al. Initial Reports 184, Ocean Drilling Program in Proceedings of the ODP [CD-ROM].Texas: Texas A&M University, College Station, 2000, 1-103.[12]Zhao, Q., Jian, Z., Liang, J. et al., Neogene Oxygen Isotopic Stratigraphy, ODP Site 1148, northern South China Sea, Sci ence in China, Ser. D,2001, 44(10): 934-942.[13]Zhao, Q., Jian, Z., Li, B. et al., Microtektites in the Middle Pleistocene deep-sea sediments of the South China

  10. Humic acids contribution to sedimentary organic matter on a shallow continental shelf (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, M.; Rampazzo, F.; Berto, D.

    2010-12-01

    The shallow northern Adriatic Sea receives large river runoff, predominantly from the Po River, which is the main allochthonous source of nutrients and organic matter. The origin and quality of organic matter deposited in the sediments can influence the degradation processes and oxygen consumption in the bottom waters as well as the fate of many pollutants. Therefore the humic acids (HA) were quantified in surface and sub-surface sediments collected in an area of the north-western Adriatic platform south of Po River. HA showed to have a relevant contribution to sedimentary organic matter. HA content in sediments were positively correlated with the organic carbon concentration and negatively with redox potential and pH, particularly in sub-surface reduced sediments, suggesting their important role in the diagenetic processes taking place in anoxic conditions. Elemental composition of HA extracted from surface and sub-surface sediments showed a wide range of variation of the C org/N ratios which could be due to a mixed (terrestrial and marine) origin and/or an elevated bacteria degradation of nitrogen during diagenesis processes in sediments. The spectroscopic ratios A 2/A 4 and A 4/A 6 of HA confirmed a mixed origin with a high degree of condensation of the HA extracted from sediments.

  11. Observation of Catastrophic Degassing from Mantle-Crust in Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Honghan; John Parnell; Gong Zaisheng; Li Sitian

    2004-01-01

    To lower the CO2 risk for hydrocarbon exploration in the west continental shelf of Yinggehai basin, South China Sea, we do attempt not only to know the CO2 origins, but also to make an understanding of the degassing processes from the mantle and crust. Based on the stable carbon isotope ratios of CO2 alone, the organic and inorganic CO2 can be successively distinguished, but the formation conditions and mixing processes for inorganic CO2 are still not clear. The relationships between lg[R(=3He/4He)/Ra(=1.386×10-6)] and CO2 content (%), CO2/3He and δ13CCO2 have been employed, respectively, to obtain that the CO2 gases in the reservoirs can be classified into three categories: (1) organic CO2 with very low contents but contaminated by mantle-derived helium; (2) inorganic CO2 gases with lower to higher contents being mixtures of crustal CO2 with mantle-derived CO2, the mantle-contributed percentage being in the range of 0 %-27 %, and (3) mainly crust-derived inorganic CO2 gases being characterized by high contents (more than 50 %) and indicating the crustal addition by metamorphism of rich-in carbon rocks in basement. Nevertheless, some CO2/3He ratios of organic CO2 fall into the range 108-1010, which made us inquire whether the CO2/3He=(1-10)×109 can be the unique signature of magmatic CO2 or not. All the observation of plutonic activities, fluid inclusion measurements in gas reservoirs, pre-stack depth/time seismic sections and the satellite infrared remote photography taken from Yinggehai basin, South China Sea, during Chichi earthquake in Taiwan on September 21, 1999, supports that the degassing processes are in a discontinuous mode, which may be triggered by igneous intrusion or extrusion, or earthquakes. In the central diapir zone of the basin, at least 3 to 4 orders of discharge of across-formational thermal fluid flows through fractures can be determined in different scales. The mantle degassing process may have a strong effect on overpressured system

  12. Water Masses in the South China Sea and Water Exchange between the Pacific and the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fengqi; LI Lei; WANG Xiuqin; LIU Changle

    2002-01-01

    Water masses in the South China Sea (SCS) were identified and analyzed with the data collected in the summer and winter of 1998. The distributions of temperature and salinity near the Bashi Channel (the Luzon Strait) were analyzed by using the data obtained in July and December of 1997. Based on the results from the data collected in the winter of 1998,waters in the open sea areas of the SCS were divided into six water masses: the Surface Water Mass of the SCS (S), the Subsurface Water Mass of the SCS (U), the Subsurface-Intermediate Water Mass of the SCS (UI), the Intermediate Water Mass of the SCS (I), the Deep Water Mass of the SCS (D) and the Bottom Water Mass of the SCS(B). For the summer of 1998,the Kuroshio Surface Water Mass (KS) and the Kuroshio Subsurface Water Mass (KU) were also identified in the SCS. But no Kuroshio water was found to pass the 119.5°E meridian and enter the SCS in the time of winter observations. The Sulu Sea Water (SSW) intruded into the SCS through the Mindoro Channel between 50-75 m in the summer of 1998. However, the data obtained in the summer and winter of 1997 indicated that water from the Pacific had entered the SCS through the northern part of the Luzon Strait in these seasons, but water from the SCS had entered the Pacific through the southern part of the Strait. These phenomena might correlate with the 1998 El-Nino event.

  13. Palaeoenvironmental changes from pollen record in deep sea core PC-1 from northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea during the past 24 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU HongYan; CHANG FengMing; LUO YunLi; SUN XiangJun

    2009-01-01

    A pollen record of core PC-1 from the northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provides in-formation on vegetation and climate changes since 24 cal. kaBP. A total of 103 samples were palyno-logically analyzed at 8 cm intervals with a time resolution of 230 a. Four pollen zones are recognized: zone I (812-715 cm, 24.2-21.1 cal. kaBP), zone II (715-451 cm, 21.1 -15.2 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅲ (451 -251 cm, 15.2-10.8 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅳ (251-0 cm, 10.8-0.3 cal. kaBP), corresponding to Late MIS 3, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene, respectively. The LGM is characterized by the dominance of herbs, mainly Artemisia, and high pollen influx, implying an open vegetation on the ex-posed continental shelf and e cool and dry climate. The deglaciation is a climate warming stage with Pinus percentage increased and Artemisia percentage decreased and a rapid sea-level rise. The Holo-cene is characterized by predominance of tree pollen with rapid increase in Castanea-Castanopsis in-dicating the development of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest and a warm, humid climate. Low pollen influx during the Holocene probably implies submergence of the continental shelf and retreat of the pollen source area. The vegetation indicated by pollen assemblage found in this up-per zone is consistent with the present vegetation found in Kyushu, Japan. Originating from the humid mountain area of North Luzon of the Philippines, Tasmania and New Zealand, Phyllocladus with spo-radic occurrence throughout PC-1 core probably suggests the influence of Palaeo-Kuroshio Current or intense summer monsoon. The observed changes in Pinus and Herbs percentage indicate fluctuations of the sea level, and high Pinus percentage corresponds to high sea level. Spectrum analysis of the pollen percentage record reveals many millennial-scale periodicities, such as periodicities of 6.8, 3.8, 2.2, 1.6 ka.

  14. DETERMINATION OF SOUTH CHINA SEA MONSOON ONSET AND EAST ASIAN SUMMER MONSOON INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO-Hui; LIANG Jian-yin

    2006-01-01

    Results of the definition of South China Sea summer monsoon onset date and East Asian summer monsoon index in recent years are summarized in this paper. And more questions to be resolved are introduced later.

  15. Improvement of the South China Sea Prediction System Using NSCAT Winds, A Research Project Outline

    OpenAIRE

    Peter C. Chu

    1999-01-01

    Peter C. Chu, Principal Investigator. Improvement of the South China Sea Prediction System Using NSCAT Winds, NASA/JPL (through California State University, Monterey Bay) NASA/JPL (through California State University

  16. Tectonics and Sedimentary Basins of the South China Sea: Challenges and Progresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Di; Yao Bochu

    2009-01-01

    @@ The special issue "Tectonics and Sedimentary Basins of the South China Sea" consists of 19 articles arranged in the order of deep structure,general tectonics,tectonic modeling,and sedimentary basins especially the deepwater sedimentary basins.

  17. Reanalysis of the Atmospheric Flux of Nutrient Elements to the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xiaofang; Wu Zengmao; Chang Zhiqing

    2003-01-01

    Based on the recent research results on dry and wet deposition of nutrient elements and sulphate, we estimate the atmospheric flux of nutrient elements and sulphate to the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in each season. The results suggest that the concentrations of nutrient elements and sulphate in aerosol and precipitation show an apparent seasonal cycle with the maximum values in winter and the minimum values in summer. Depositions of nitrate and sulphate are dominated by wet deposition, while the deposition for phosphate is mainly dry deposition. Moreover, compared with the riverine inputs, the atmospheric deposition may be the main source of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

  18. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of nitrous oxide in the South China Sea and the West Philippines Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Borges, Alberto V.; DelValls, T. Angel; Lai, Chao-Ming; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 600 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 250 water samples from the West Philippines Sea (WPS) were collected during seven cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) distributions between the surface and a maximum depth of 4250 m. In the SCS, the average surface N2O concentration exceeded the atmospheric equilibrium concentration (on average 132±23%); however in the WPS, the surface N2O concentration was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium concentration (on average 90±22%). The N2O concentration reached a maximum (~23 nmol L-1) in the WPS at 800-1000 m, and (~28 nmol L-1) at a shallower depth of around 600-800 m in the SCS, owing to vertical mixing and intensive upwelling in the SCS. In the SCS, the surface N2O concentration was 7.59±1.32 nmol L-1 and the calculated sea-to-air flux was 5.5±3.9 μmol m-2 d-1. The surface N2O concentration in the WPS, 5.19±1.26 nmol L-1, was lower than that in the SCS. The WPS is a sink for N2O and the calculated sea-to-air flux was -1.7±3.9 μmol m-2 d-1. The SCS emitted 19.3×106 mol d-1 N2O to the atmosphere and exported 8.5×106 mol d-1 N2O to the WPS during the wet season.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春爽; 汪集旸

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of sea-bottom temperature and geothermal gradient, and by means of the phaseboundary curve of gas hydrate and the sea-bottom temperature versus water depth curve in the South China Sea, thispaper studies the temperature and pressure conditions for gas hydrate to keep stable. In a marine environment, methanehydrate keeps stable at water depths greater than 550 m in the South China Sea. Further, the thickness of the gas hydratestability zone in the South China Sea was calculated by using the phase boundary curve and temperature-depth equations.The result shows that gas hydrate have a better perspective in the southeast of the Dongsha Islands, the northeast of theXisha Islands and the north of the Nansha Islands for thicker stability zones.

  20. The assimilation experiment in the southwestern South China Sea in summer 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xianjun; WANG Dongxiao; XU Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    We performed an assimilation experiment of the southern South China Sea in summer 2000, and the altimeter data were assimilated into Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The result was evaluated with the in situ data. There were obvious improvements of the currents in the southern South China Sea, and the modeling uncertainty coming from the error of wind stress forcing was reduced.This experiment provides us a new idea about improving the modeling of the ocean currents.

  1. Advances in Studying Oceanic Circulation from Hydrographic Data with Applications in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂华; 李荣凤; 闫长香

    2003-01-01

    Methods for studying oceanic circulation from hydrographic data are reviewed in the context of their applications in the South China Sea. These methods can be classified into three types according to their different dynamics as follows: (1) descriptive methods, (2) diagnostic methods without surface and bottom forcing, and (3) diagnostic methods with the above boundary forcing. The paper discusses the progress made in the above methods together with the advancement of study in the South China Sea circulation.

  2. Understanding sedimentation in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Y.; Carter, A; Palk, C.; S. Brichau; Hu, X

    2011-01-01

    The Cenozoic Song Hong–Yinggehai Basin in the South China Sea contains a large volume of sediment that has been used in previous studies, together with regional geomorphology, to argue for the existence of a large palaeodrainage system that connected eastern Tibet with the South China Sea. To test this and to understand the significance of sediment volumes deposited in the Song Hong–Yinggehai Basin, this study compared erosion histories of source regions with sediment volumes deposited during...

  3. Biodiversity of the deep-sea continental margin bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic: relationships among sub-regions and to shelf systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen E Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1 assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39-43°N, 63-71°W, 150-3000 m depth; (2 compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3 estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  4. Matrix association effects on hydrodynamic sorting and degradation of terrestrial organic matter during cross-shelf transport in the Laptev and East Siberian shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Andersson, August; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2016-03-01

    This study seeks an improved understanding of how matrix association affects the redistribution and degradation of terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) during cross-shelf transport in the Siberian margin. Sediments were collected at increasing distance from two river outlets (Lena and Kolyma Rivers) and one coastal region affected by erosion. Samples were fractionated according to density, size, and settling velocity. The chemical composition in each fraction was characterized using elemental analyses and terrigenous biomarkers. In addition, a dual-carbon-isotope mixing model (δ13C and Δ14C) was used to quantify the relative TerrOC contributions from active layer (Topsoil) and Pleistocene Ice Complex Deposits (ICD). Results indicate that physical properties of particles exert first-order control on the redistribution of different TerrOC pools. Because of its coarse nature, plant debris is hydraulically retained in the coastal region. With increasing distance from the coast, the OC is mainly associated with fine/ultrafine mineral particles. Furthermore, biomarkers indicate that the selective transport of fine-grained sediment results in mobilizing high-molecular weight (HMW) lipid-rich, diagenetically altered TerrOC while lignin-rich, less degraded TerrOC is retained near the coast. The loading (µg/m2) of lignin and HMW wax lipids on the fine/ultrafine fraction drastically decreases with increasing distance from the coast (98% and 90%, respectively), which indicates extensive degradation during cross-shelf transport. Topsoil-C degrades more readily (90 ± 3.5%) compared to the ICD-C (60 ± 11%) during transport. Altogether, our results indicate that TerrOC is highly reactive and its accelerated remobilization from thawing permafrost followed by cross-shelf transport will likely represent a positive feedback to climate warming.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  6. Evidence of prolonged aragonite undersaturations in the bottom waters of the southern Bering Sea shelf from autonomous sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Monacci, Natalie; Feely, Richard A.; Stabeno, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    The southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea is a dynamic area that experiences seasonal variability in primary production and remineralization of organic matter, both of which control the carbon biogeochemistry of the water column. Surface-water partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is greatly reduced in summer by biological production, which increases carbonate mineral saturation states (Ω). In contrast, the export of large quantities of organic matter from surface blooms drives an active remineralization loop that sharply increases pCO2 near the bottom, lowering pH and suppressing Ω. New observations from moored biogeochemical sensors in 2011 showed that seasonal net community production lowers surface-water pCO2, causing large gradients between the ocean and atmosphere that are sustained throughout the summer, confirming that these waters likely remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite throughout the open water season. On the other hand, moored sensors deployed near the bottom showed that pCO2 levels exceed 500 μatm by early June and remain at these high levels well into the autumn months, indicating that the bottom waters are likely continuously undersaturated in aragonite for at least several months during each year. Only a small fraction of the increased pCO2 can currently be attributed to the intrusion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, while the majority is due to natural respiration processes. The biological impacts, along with the timing and duration of these undersaturation events, could play a role in the development of larval and juvenile calcifiers in the region and will change as anthropogenic CO2 concentrations continue to rise.

  7. Carbon cycling and phytoplankton responses within highly-replicated shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European Shelf Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which in part likely reflects inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series of highly replicated (n = 8), short term (2-4 days) multi-level (≥ 4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically different experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterized by a suppression of net growth for small sized cells (< 10 μm), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasize how biological-chemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

  8. Phytoplankton responses and associated carbon cycling during shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which may reflect community/environment-specific responses or inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series (n = 8) of short-term (2-4 days) multi-level (≥4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically separated experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterised by a suppression of net growth for small-sized cells (<10 μm), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of natural or manipulated nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasise how biogeochemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

  9. An oilspill risk analysis for the Beaufort Sea, Alaska (proposed sale 71)outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.; Hopkins, Dorothy; Lanfear, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, (Proposed Sale 71) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The probability of spill occurrences, likely movement of oil slicks, and locations of resources vulnerable to spilled oil were analyzed. The model predicted movement of the center of spill mass and estimated the times between spill occurrence and contact with various resources, to allow a qualitative assessment of oil characteristics at the time of contact; no direct computation was made of weathering and cleanup. The model also assumed that any oil spilled under ice would remain in place, unchanged, until spring breakup. Ice movements, or travel of oil under ice, if occurring, would affect the results in a manner not directly predictable at this time. The combined results of spill occurrence and spill movement predictions yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with development of the proposed lease area. Assuming that oil exists in the lease area (a 99.3-percent chance) it is estimated that the leasing of the tracts proposed for OCS Sale 71 will result in an expected 9.2 oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) over the lease lifetime of 25 years. This estimate is based on historic oilspill accident data for platforms and pipelines on the U.S. OCS (Gulf of Mexico and California). The estimated probability that land will be contacted by one or more oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) that have been at sea less than 30 days (not counting any time trapped under ice) is greater than 99.5 percent. If oilspill accident data for Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, is used in the analysis, it is estimated that 5.6 oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger) will occur over the lease lifetime. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger)will occur and contact land is99 percent. The results of a recent experimental cleanup operation for

  10. Deep Structures of the Palawan and Sulu Sea and Their Implications for Opening of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Li, C. F.; Li, J.; Fairhead, D.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Compared to the northern South China Sea continental margin, the deep structures and tectonic evolution of the Palawan and Sulu Sea and ambient regions are not well understood so far. However, this part of the southern continental margin and adjacent areas embed critical information on the opening of the South China Sea (SCS). We carry out geophysical investigations using regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data. Analytical signal amplitudes (ASA) of magnetic anomalies are calculated to depict the boundaries of different tectonic units. Curie-point depths are estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm. Application of the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm to Bouguer gravity anomalies yields a 3D Moho topography. The Palawan Continental Block (PCB) is defined by quiet magnetic anomalies, low ASA, moderate depths to the top and bottom of the magnetic layer, and its northern boundary is further constrained by reflection seismic data and Moho interpretation. However, the continent-ocean transition zone between the PCB and the SCS is characterized by hyper-extended continental crust intruded with magmatic bodies. The NW Sulu Sea is interpreted as a relict oceanic slice and the geometry and position of extinct trench of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS) is further constrained. With additional age constraints from inverted Moho and Curie-point depths, we confirm that the spreading of the SE Sulu Sea started in the Early Oligocene/Late Eocene due to the subduction of the PSCS, and terminated in the Middle Miocene by the obduction of the NW Sulu Sea onto the PCB. According to the newly constrained age of SE Sulu Sea, we also estimate the approximate extent, spreading rate and subducting rate of original SE Sulu Sea.

  11. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  12. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  13. Methane distribution, flux, and budget in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-S. Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We measured dissolved methane (CH4 concentrations, saturations, and fluxes from sea into air and from sediment into water during cruises in March, May, August, October, and December of 2011 in the East China Sea (ECS and the Yellow Sea (YS. CH4 concentrations had obvious spatial and seasonal variability due to the complex effects of different water masses and other variables. Maximal CH4 concentration, sea–air and sediment–water fluxes all occurred during the summer. CH4 concentration decreased gradually from the coastal area to the open sea, and high levels of CH4 generally appeared near the Changjiang Estuary and outside the Hangzhou Bay. During early spring and winter, CH4 had a uniform distribution from the surface to the bottom, but CH4 concentration increased gradually with depth during other seasons. The subsurface CH4 maximum occurred at a depth of about 200 m during May, October, and December. The CH4 level at the bottom was generally higher than at the surface, and this was enhanced during summer due to hypoxia in the bottom waters. Changjiang-diluted water, the Kuroshio Current, and the Taiwan Warm Current Water affected the geographic distribution of CH4 in the ECS, and these water bodies contributed about 3.45, 2.97, 14.60 mol s−1 of CH4 during summer and 2.11, 8.58, 5.20 mol s−1 CH4 during winter, respectively. Sediment was also a significant source of dissolved CH4 in the ECS, and we estimated the average sediment–water CH4 flux of the ECS and YS as about 1.02 μmol m−2 d−1. We also used a box model to calculate the CH4 budget in the ECS. The results suggested that in situ CH4 production in the water column was the major source of CH4, and accounted for 0.21 μmol m−3 day−1 during summer and 0.11 μmol m−3 day−1 during winter. Air–sea exchange was the major sink of CH4 in the ECS. We estimated total CH4 emission from the ECS and YS as about 4.45 x 109 mol during 2011. Our results indicated that the ECS and

  14. New genus and species of polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fengshan

    1990-12-01

    The present paper dealing with two new species and one new genus of the Polyplacophora, is the first of a series of reports of systematic study on the deep sea mollusca collected by the research vessels JINXING and KEXUE I of the Academia Sinica, Institute of Oceanology, during 1978 and 1981 from the continental margin to the bathyal zone of the East China Sea.

  15. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENT IN THE NORTHERN EAST CHINA SEA AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SEA CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; YANG Zuosheng; GUO Zhigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the grain size distribution of sediment and currents in the northern East China Sea on the basis of the grain size analysis. The results show that grain size distribution of suspended sediment is controlled by the currents. Suspended sediment in the littoral water is finer than those in the open sea currents. Grain size distribution of surface sediment is affected by the sea currents to some extent. And the grain size of suspended sediment and surface sediment do not agree with each other in positions.

  16. Impact of two typhoons on the marine environment in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongyang; Luan, Hong; Pan, Delu; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Li'an; Liu, Dazhao; Ding, Youzhuan; Li, Xue

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of two typhoons (Nari and Wipha) on sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration. Typhoons Nari and Wipha passed through the Yellow Sea on September 13, 2007 and the East China Sea (ECS) on September 16, 2007, respectively. The SST and Chl- a data were obtained from the Aqua/Terra MODIS and NOAA18, respectively, and the temperature and salinity in the southeast of the study area were observed in situ from Argo. The average SST within the study area dropped from 26.33°C on September 10 to a minimum of 22.79°C on September 16. Without the usual phenomenon of `right bias', the most striking response of SST was in the middle of the typhoons' tracks, near to coastal waters. Strong cooling of the upper layers of the water column was probably due to increased vertical mixing, discharge from the Changjiang River estuary, and heavy rainfall. During the typhoons, average Chl- a increased by 11.54% within the study area and by 21.69% in the offshore area near to the southeast ECS. From September 1 to 13, average Chl- a was only 0.10 mg/m3 in the offshore waters but it reached a peak of >0.17 mg/m3 on September 18. This large increase in Chl- a concentration in offshore waters might have been triggered by strong vertical mixing, upwelling induced by strong typhoons, and sedimentation and nutrient influx following heavy rainfall.

  17. Variability of sea surface height in the South China Sea and its relationship to Pacific oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yuhua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; ZHANG Xiangming; JIANG Lianghong; WEI Yanzhou

    2015-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variability modes of the sea surface height in the South China Sea (SCS-SSH) are obtained using the Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) method, and their relationships to the Pacific basin scale oscillations are examined. The first CSEOF mode of the SCS-SSH is a strongly phase-locked annual cycle that is modulated by a slowly varying principal component (PC); the strength of this annual cycle becomes reduced during El Niño events (at largest by 30% off in 1997/98) and enhanced during La Niña events. The second mode is a low frequency oscillation nearly on decadal time scale, with its spatial structure exhibiting an obscure month-dependence; the corresponding PC is highly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Five independent oscillations in the Pacific are isolated by using the independent component (IC) analysis (ICA) method, and their effects on the SCS-SSH are examined. It is revealed that the pure ENSO mode (which resembles the east Pacific ENSO) has little effect on the low frequency variability of the SCS-SSH while the ENSO reddening mode (which resembles the central Pacific ENSO) has clear effect. As the ENSO reddening mode is an important constituent of the PDO, this explains why the PDO is more important than ENSO in modulating the low frequency variability of SCS-SSH. Meridional saddle like oscillation mode, the Kuroshio extension warming mode, and the equatorial cooling mode are also successfully detected by the ICA, but they have little effect on the low frequency variability of the SCS-SSH. Further analyses suggest the Pacific oscillations are probably influencing the variability of the SCS-SSH in ways that are different from that of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the SCS.

  18. In situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlei; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zheng, Shan

    2016-08-01

    In situ studies on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton were important for the analysis of changes in community structure and for the prediction and control of algal blooms, but such studies of phytoplankton in offshore China were few. In this study, the detailed distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the summer of 2013 in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was measured using Phyto-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation). The phytoplankton community structure and the environmental parameters were also investigated to estimate the relationship between the distribution of the photochemical competence of phytoplankton and ecological factors. The total average Fv/Fm (the potential maximum quantum yield) value of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013 was less than 0.5, reflecting that the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton was relatively low. Fv/Fm of phytoplankton in summer was significantly positively associated with nitrate content (NO2-), which reflects relationship between metabolism and photosynthesis of phytoplankton: accompanied by NO2- metabolism, photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacity may be enhanced simultaneously, so the Fv/Fm value would increase with the NO2- released by phytoplankton. Through the in situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, we come to the conclusion that photosynthetic characteristics and activity of phytoplankton are influenced by its biological characteristics and surrounding ecological factors, such as irradiance, nutrients and phytoplankton community. Meanwhile, the thermally stratified structure and the movement of water masses, such as the Yangtze River diluted water, the Yellow Sea cold water mass and other different water system, also have an important impact on phytoplankton photosynthetic activity and characteristics. Greater understanding of the detailed photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton

  19. Investigating Effects of Monsoon Winds on Hydrodynamics in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by land masses and island chains, and characterized by complex bathymetry and irregular coastlines. The circulation in South China Sea is subjected to seasonal and inter-annual variations of tidal and meteorological conditions. The effects of monsoon winds on hydrodynamics is investigated by applying spectral and harmonic analysis on surface elevation and wind data at stations located in the South China Sea. The analysis indicates varying responses to the seasonal monsoon depending on the location of the station. At Kaohsiung (located in northern South China Sea off Taiwan coast), tides from the Pacific Ocean and the southwest monsoon winds are found to be dominant mechanisms. The Kota Kinabalu and Bintulu stations, located to the east of South China Sea off Borneo coast, are influenced by low energy complex winds, and the shallow bottom bathymetry at these locations leads to tidal energy damping compared to other stations. The tidal dynamics at Tioman, located in southern South China Sea off Malaysia coast, are most responsive to the effects of the northeast monsoon. The complexity of our problem together with the limited amount of available data in the region presents a challenging research topic. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of the circulation in South China Sea. Skill assessment of the model is performed by comparing model predictions of the surface elevations and currents with observations. The results suggest that the quality of the model prediction is highly dependent on horizontal grid resolution and coastline accuracy. The model may be used in future applications to investigate seasonal and inter-annual variations in hydrodynamics.

  20. The past and the future of zooplankton diversity studies in China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoli Xu

    2011-01-01

    China has among the largest latitudinal ranges of any country on Earth. Environmental factors such as diverse climate, hydrology and topography jointly determine levels of marine environmental diversityand therefore patterns in zooplankton diversity in China seas. Studies of zooplankton diversity in China progressed through different stages from a main focus on species taxonomy, diversity of distribution pattern, to a focus on environment influences on the ecological group, and finally a focu...

  1. Research on the dynamics of the South China Sea opening: Evidence from analogue modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zhen; ZHOU; Di; ZHONG; Zhihong; XIA; Bin; QIU; Xuelin; ZENG; Zuoxun

    2006-01-01

    Independent of Indochina extrusion, the South China Sea experienced a process from passive continental rifting to marginal sea drifting. According to the fault patterns in the Beibu Gulf basin and the Pearl River Mouth basin, the continental rifting and early spreading stage from 32 to 26 Ma were controlled by extensional stress field, which shifted clockwise from southeastward to south southeastward. From 24 Ma on, the sea spread in NW-SE direction and ceased spreading at around 15.5 Ma. Integrated geological information with the assumption that the South China Sea developed along a pre-Cenozoic weakness zone, we did analogue experiments on the South China Sea evolution. Experiments revealed that the pre-existing weakness zone goes roughly along the uplift zone between the present Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression. The pre-existing weakness zone is composed of three segments trending NNE, roughly EW and NEE, respectively. The early opening of the South China Sea is accompanied with roughly 15° clockwise rotation, while the SE sub-sea basin opened with SE extension. Tinjar fault was the western boundary of the Nansha block (Dangerous Ground),while Lupar fault was the eastern boundary of the Indochina, NW-trending rift belt known as Zengmu basin developed between above two faults due to block divergent of Indochina from Nansha. In the experiment, transtensional flower structures along NW-trending faults are seen, and slight inversion occurs along some NE-dipping faults. The existence of rigid massifs changed the orientations of some faults and rift belt, and also led to deformation concentrate around the massifs. The rifting and drifting of the South China Sea might be caused by slab pull from the proto South China Sea subducting toward Borneo and/or mantle flow caused by India-Asia collision.

  2. Picoplankton distribution in different water masses of the East China Sea in autumn and winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li; ZHAO Yuan; ZHANG Wuchang; ZHOU Feng; ZHANG Cuixia; REN Jingling; NI Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Picoplankton distribution was investigated in different water masses of the East China Sea in November,2006 and February,2007.The autumn and winter cruises crossed three major water masses:the coastal water mass (CWM),the mixed water mass (MWM),which forms on the continental shelf,and the Kuroshio water mass (KWM).Picoplankton composition was resolved into four main groups by flow cytometry,namely Synechococcus,Prochlorococcus,picoeukaryotes,and heterotrophic bacteria.The average abundances of Synechococcus,picoeukaryotes,and heterotrophic bacteria were (0.63± 10.88)× 103,(1.61±1.16)×103,(3.39±1.27)×105 cells/mL in autumn and (6.45±8.60)×103,(3.23±2.63)×103,(3.76±1.37)× 105 cells/mL in winter,respectively.Prochlorococcus was not found in the CWM and seldom observed in surface samples in either season.However,Prochlorococcus was observed in the MWM and KWM (approximately l03 cells/mL) in both autumn and winter.Synechococcus distribution varied considerably among water masses,with the highest levels in KWM and lowest levels in CWM.The depth-averaged integrated abundance of Synechococcus was approximately 5-fold higher in KWM than in CWM,which may be due primarily to water temperature.In the MWM,Synechococcus was resolved as two subgroups; the presence of both subgroups was more common in autumn.Picoeukaryote abundance varied less among water masses than Synechococcus,and heterotrophic bacteria depth-averaged integrated abundance exhibited the smallest seasonal variations with respect to water mass.Correlation analysis showed that relationships between picoplankton abundances and environmental factors (temperature,nutrients,and chlorophyll a) differed among the three water masses,suggesting that the three water masses have different effects on picoplankton distribution (particularly Synechococcus).

  3. The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea: A petrologic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Quanshu; Shi, Xuefa; Castillo, Paterno R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of available petrological, geochonological and geochemical data for late Mesozoic to Recent igneous rocks in the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions and a discussion of their petrogeneses and tectonic implications. The integration of these data with available geophysical and other geologic information led to the following tectono-magmatic model for the evolution of the SCS region. The geochemical characteristics of late Mesozoic granitic rocks in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), micro-blocks in the SCS, the offshore continental shelf and Dalat zone in southern Vietnam, and the Schwaner Mountains in West Kalimantan, Borneo indicate that these are mainly I-type granites plus a small amount of S-type granites in the PRMB. These granitoids were formed in a continental arc tectonic setting, consistent with the ideas proposed by Holloway (1982) and Taylor and Hayes (1980, 1983), that there existed an Andean-type volcanic arc during later Mesozoic era in the SCS region. The geochonological and geochemical characteristics of the volcanics indicate an early period of bimodal volcanism (60-43 Ma or 32 Ma) at the northern margin of the SCS, followed by a period of relatively passive style volcanism during Cenozoic seafloor spreading (37 or 30-16 Ma) within the SCS, and post-spreading volcanism (tholeiitic series at 17-8 Ma, followed by alkali series from 8 Ma to present) in the entire SCS region. The geodynamic setting of the earlier volcanics was an extensional regime, which resulted from the collision between India and Eurasian plates since the earliest Cenozoic, and that of the post-spreading volcanics may be related to mantle plume magmatism in Hainan Island. In addition, the nascent Hainan plume may have played a significant role in the extension along the northern margin and seafloor spreading in the SCS.

  4. Sources, behaviors and degradation of dissolved organic matter in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Liu, Li; Zhang, Peng-Yan; Leng, Wei-Song

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its major compound classes-total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) were measured at 4 cross-shelf transects of the East China Sea in July 2011. Surface concentrations of DOC, DIN, DON and THAA at the nearshore stations were mostly in excess of those found at the offshore sites, indicating either substantial autochthonous production or allochthonous inputs from the Changjiang River. The vertical distributions of DOC, DON and THAA showed similar trends with higher values in the surface layer, whereas the elevated concentrations of DIN were observed in the bottom layer. Major constituents of THAA presented in the study area were glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and valine. The mole percentages of neutral amino acids increased from surface water to bottom water, whereas acidic and hydroxy amino acids decreased with the water depth. Concentrations of DOC and THAA were negatively correlated to the ΔDIN values (the difference between the real concentration and theoretical concentration), respectively, indicating the coupling relation between dissolved organic matter (DOM) remineralization and nutrient regeneration in the water column. The C/N ratios in the water column exhibited different characteristics with elevated values appearing in the surface and bottom layers. Box and whisker plots showed that both degradation index (DI) values and THAA yields displayed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the bottom layer, implying increasing degradation with the water depth. Our data revealed that glycine and alanine increased in relative abundance with decreasing DI, while tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine increased with increasing DI.

  5. 224Ra and its implications in the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of 224Ra in the East China Sea (ECS) were measured by the Mn-fiber adsorption-emanation method. The horizontal and vertical distributions of 224Ra in the ECS in summer and winter were studied. The ranges of 224Ra activities were 3 in summer with an average of 0.85 Bq/m3, and 3 in winter with an average of 0.72 Bq/m3. And the distributions of 224Ra in the surface water were similar in these two seasons, decreasing rapidly with the increasing distance from the coast. The high 224Ra area was located within 30-100 km offshore and the lowest activities appeared in the Kuroshio Current. The vertical distributions of 224Ra showed two different characteristics. The horizontal and vertical eddy diffusion coefficients calculated by the one-dimensional state model of 224Ra were (7.1-88.9) x 106 cm2/s and 2.18-163 cm2/s, respectively. The upwelling rates off Zhejiang Province were calculated from 224Ra vertical distribution, which varied from 8.4 x 10-3cm/s to 13.3 x 10-3cm/s in summer and 16.3 x 10-3cm/s to 16.8 x 10-3cm/s in winter. (author)

  6. South China sea off Viet Nam to see more exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British and Japanese operators are posed for exploration campaigns off southern Viet Nam. This paper reports that a 50-50 partnership of Lasmo International Ltd., London, and C. Itoh Exploration Co. of Japan signed a heads of agreement covering Block 04-2, and AEDC Vietnam Oil Development Co. and Teikoku Oil Co. acquired Block 05-3 under a production sharing contract. AEDC is a unit of AOC Energy Development Co., a subsidiary of Arabian Oil Co. (AOC) of Japan. Both tracts are in the Con Son basin in the South China Sea. Site is 15 km north of 500 million bbl Dai Hung (Big Bear) oil field for which state owned Petrovietnam is evaluating bids to place on production. A unit of the Royal Dutch/shell Group acquired a west offset, Block 10, early this year. The Lasmo-C. Itoh acreage is among five blocks offered in Vietnam's second round of offshore licensing. All are in the area that once was reserved entirely for Vietsovpetro, a partnership of Petrovietnam and the former Soviet Union

  7. South China Sea disputes : how different domestic dynamics impact on contemporary Philippine political and economic relations with China

    OpenAIRE

    Semena, Lyn Noquil

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing disputes in the South China Sea have gained international attention in the recent years as a number of bordering states continue to fight over territory and sovereignty claims of the contested Spratly Islands. China and the Philippines are among the claimant states whose foreign policy is largely driven by dynamics coming from the external environment. This study delves into issues concerning the role of domestic dynamics on the contemporary Philippine political and economic relat...

  8. Geopolitical Implications of the Sino-Japanese East China Sea Dispute for the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Much analysis on Asian strategic challenges facing the U.S. has justifiably emphasized the South China Sea (SCS). This has also been reflected in 2016 presidential campaign debate on the SCS as an emerging area of U.S. foreign and national security policy concern. The East China Sea (ECS) is at least as important for the strategic interests of the U.S. and its allies given the tension between China and Japan over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, potential energy resources in this body of water, in...

  9. Preliminary Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Tension Leg Platform In the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-feng Wang; You-hua Fan

    2013-01-01

    China has the richest offshore wind resource in the world. Much of undeveloped resource should consider floating tension leg platform (TLP) wind turbine because of its advantage and potential in cost and safety for deep sea, but the related research is short in China. In this thesis we assess a preliminary design for a type of TLP structure in the South China Sea (SCS-TLP) closed to Guangdong province basing on NREL 5MW wind turbine. By coupled analysis in the time domain, the pla...

  10. ESTIMATION OF SOUNDING ABILITY OF A BRILLOUIN LIDAR IN THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 宋小全; 刘智深

    2001-01-01

    Vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea can be measured by using laser excited Brillouin scattering. In this paper the dependence of the accuracy of sound speed measurement on the accuracy of the Brillouin shift measurement is analyzed. We calculated the maximum detecting depths of sound speed to an accuracy of 1 m/s by lidar with different laser pulse energy, platform altitude, telescope aperture and lidar effective attenuation coefficient. The estimation of sounding ability in the East China Sea is made in some stations. These data can be used in the design of Brillouin Lidar for the China Sea.

  11. A comparison of the radioactivity levels in the coastal waters between the great wall and Zhongshan stations in Antarctica and the Pohai, Huanghai, east China and south China seas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants between the Great Wall and Zhongshan Stations in Antarctica and the four seas (i.e. the Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea) in China shows that in general the radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants in Antarctica are lower than those in the four seas in China. The contents of the total β in the sediments decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of East China Sea, South China Sea, Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively, but the contents of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and the total β in marine plants decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of Daya Bay in the South China Sea, Hanzhou Bay in the East China Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively. The results show that the contamination levels of radioactivity, especially the artificial radioactive contamination in the Antarctic coastal area are far lower than those in China Coastal area, with the remarkable exception of 137Cs

  12. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: Examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J D'Sa; C Hu; F E Muller-Karger; K L Carder

    2002-09-01

    Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate stimates of these variables using standard ocean color algorithms have been di#cult due to the complex nature of the light field in these environments. In this study, we process SeaWiFS satellite data using two recently developed algorithms; one for atmospheric correction and the other a semi-analytic bio-optical algorithm and compare the results with standard SeaWiFS algorithms. Overall, the two algorithms produced more realistic estimates of Chl and CDOM distributions in Florida Shelf and Bay waters. Estimates of surface salinity were obtained from the CDOM absorption field assuming a conservative mixing behavior of these waters. A comparison of SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption with field measurements in the Florida Bay indicated that although well correlated, CDOM was underestimated, while Chl was overestimated. Bottom reflectance appeared to affect these estimates at the shallow central Bay stations during the winter. These results demonstrate the need for new bio-optical algorithms or tuning of the parameters used in the bio-optical algorithm for local conditions encountered in the Bay.

  13. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By analysing the CTD data in the southernregion of the South China Sea gathered during six cruises between 1989 and 1999, a barrier layer with seasonal variation just like what exists in the equatorial oceans is found in this region. It is the first discovery in such a marginal sea yet.It is strong in autunm and a little weak in summer and winter. The thicker the barrier layer, the higher the average temperature of the upper mixed layer. The region with the thicker barrier layer overlaps the region with the higher average temperature of the upper mixed layer, and accords with the thicker region of the warm pool in the South China Sea got from the Levitus data. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea has significant influence on the heat storage of the upper ocean there.``

  14. What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

  15. Records of natural fire and climate history during the last three glacial-interglacial cycles around the South China Sea Charcoal record from the ODP 1144

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The history of natural fire and its relationship to climate during the last three gla cial-interglacial cycles in the Southern coast areas of China and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea (SCS) are discussed based on the statistic study of charcoal particles and associated pollen data from ODP 1144 Site (20° 3′N, 117° 25′E, 2037 m in water depth). Accord ing to the results of the charcoal and pollen study, the sediments from the upper 225 m are divided into 8 zones (C1-8), which might be correlated with the Marine Isotope Stage 1-8 (MIS1-8)respectively. Our study indicates that during the last glacial period (MIS2, 4), the influx of charcoal particle was much higher than that from the interglacial period, suggesting strong occurrence of natural fire and dry climate. During MIS 6 and MIS 8 (C6, C8), although the influx of fine charcoal particles was quite high, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal particle were much low,which might be due to the smaller source area of fire probably resulting from the limited exposure of the continental shelf before MIS5. During the interglacial period (MIS1, 5, 7), the influxes of charcoal particles were much lower, implying dropping of intensity of the natural fire and then a humid climate. Another reason is that the continental shelf was submerged into the sea during the interglacial periods, and the source areas of fire were reduced then. Although the influx of the fine charcoal particles was much lower during MIS3, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal par ticles were almost equal to those of MIS4 (C4), which suggests that the intensity of the natural fire remained quite high and the climate was considerably dry during that period.

  16. S2P3-R (v1.0): a framework for efficient regional modelling of physical and biological structures and processes in shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R.; Hickman, A. E.; Sharples, J.

    2015-10-01

    An established one-dimensional (1-D) model of Shelf Sea Physics and Primary Production (S2P3) is adapted for flexible use in selected regional settings over selected periods of time. This Regional adaptation of S2P3, the S2P3-R framework (v1.0), can be efficiently used to investigate physical and biological phenomena in shelf seas that are strongly controlled by vertical processes. These include spring blooms that follow the onset of stratification, tidal mixing fronts that seasonally develop at boundaries between mixed and stratified water, and sub-surface chlorophyll maxima that persist throughout summer. While not representing 3-D processes, S2P3-R reveals the horizontal variation of the key 1-D (vertical) processes. S2P3-R should therefore only be used in regions where horizontal processes - including mean flows, eddy fluxes and internal tides - are known to exert a weak influence in comparison with vertical processes. In such cases, S2P3-R may be used as a highly versatile research tool, alongside more complex and computationally expensive models. In undergraduate oceanography modules and research projects, the model serves as an effective practical tool for linking theory and field observations. Three different regional configurations of S2P3-R are described, illustrating a range of diagnostics, evaluated where practical with observations. The model can be forced with daily meteorological variables for any selected year in the reanalysis era (1948 onwards). Example simulations illustrate the considerable extent of synoptic-to-interannual variability in the physics and biology of shelf seas. In discussion, the present limitations of S2P3-R are emphasised, and future developments are outlined.

  17. The simulation of a storm surge and wave due to Typhoon Sarah using an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model of the Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow and East China Seas are characterized by shallow shelf seas, seasonal monsoons and typhoons, especially the Korean Peninsula's western coastal area, which features large tides, a complex coastline and many islands. This study implemented an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model based on an unstructured grid to evaluate the impact of Typhoon Sarah, which occurred in September of 1959, on the Yellow and East China Seas and, specifically, the southern coast of Korea in terms of waves and storm surges. The model results projected a significant wave height of 2-7 m, a mean wave period of 4-14 sec, and positive surge heights that were 0.3-1 m along the southern coast of Korea. Additional model runs included two independent model runs for waves and tides, and one tide-surge model run was conducted to investigate the interactions in the wave, tide and storm surge processes. The coupled tide-surgewave model reasonably reproduced wave properties and storm surges, but uncoupled models, i.e. independent models, slightly overestimated waves and surges. The wave forces associated with the gradient radiation stress resulted in water being elevated into coastal regions, thereby the water elevation increased onshore and the reverse happened offshore. A possible water level change due to a storm equivalent to Typhoon Sarah in the year 2100 was estimated by considering a mean sea level rise of 70 cm and was generally in the range of 70-100 cm in the Yellow and East China Seas and approximately 68 cm along the southern coast of Korea.

  18. Differential responses of seabirds to inter-annual environmental change in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamamoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU to the inter-annual change in environmental conditions. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf, but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in the colder year, 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250–300 km in 2013 and, bimodally, at 150–250 and 300–350 km in 2014 for RLKI, and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between years in RLKI, but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres during the colder year, 2013. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU, while δ13C (a proxy of prey origin were lower in 2014 than in 2013 in both species, suggesting possible differences in influx of oceanic prey items into foraging areas. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeast Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds

  19. Maritime Territorialisation as Performance of Sovereignty and Nationhood in the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Edyta

    2015-01-01

    that the various claims to the mostly uninhabited islands are motivated by the presence of submarine mineral resources, the conflicts evoke strong nationalist feelings in Vietnam and China, fuelled by narratives of the historical presence of fisheries and navies. By analyzing the tension between complex......The South China Sea (SCS) is a conflict-ridden international arena of rivalry between China, the US, India, and the other ASEAN countries over sovereignty, resources and security. In this geo-political clash China is the dominant force and Vietnam its main challenger. While most analysts assume...... is a paradox of treating the sea as ‘land’ produced by the performance of a socially constructed image of the state geo-body capitalizing on strong nationalistic sentiments in China and Vietnam....

  20. Middle Holocene warm period and sea level high in coastal areas,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guanglan; HAN Yousong; WANG Shaoqing

    2005-01-01

    Relevant geological, geographical, archaeological data were collected to study the characteristics of middle Holocene warm period and sea level high on North China coast. Middle Holocene climate and sea level change on North China coast were correlated to warm marine environment events in about 8-3 ka B.P. The sea level in about 8 ka B.P. was higher than present mean sea level, then fluctuated for 5 000 years and after that it became even in 3 ka B.P. The highest sea level occurred in about 6-5 ka B.P.; the maximum was about 2-3 m and minimum was about 1-2 m.

  1. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV0902 in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai) and Sulu Sea from 2009-02-06 to 2009-02-23 (NODC Accession 0116957)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116957 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV0902 in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  2. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MGLN32MV in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai) and Sulu Sea from 2008-02-07 to 2008-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0155954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155954 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MGLN32MV in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai) and...

  3. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MGLN31MV in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai) and Sulu Sea from 2008-01-09 to 2008-02-01 (NODC Accession 0098578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0098578 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MGLN31MV in the Philippine Sea, South China Sea (Nan Hai) and...

  4. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  5. On the recurrent Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Li, Daqiu; Chen, Changsheng; Ge, Jianzhong; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Liu, Junpeng; Yu, Feng; He, Ming-Xia

    2010-05-01

    A massive bloom of the green macroalgae Ulva prolifera (previously known as Enteromorpha prolifera) occurred in June 2008 in the Yellow Sea (YS), resulting in perhaps the largest "green tide" event in history. Using a novel index (Floating Algae Index) and multiresolution remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, we show that U. prolifera patches appeared nearly every year between April and July 2000-2009 in the YS and/or East China Sea (ECS), which all originated from the nearshore Subei Bank. A finite volume numerical circulation model, driven by realistic forcing and boundary conditions, confirmed this finding. Analysis of meteorological/environmental data and information related to local aquaculture activities strongly supports the hypothesis that the recurrent U. prolifera in the YS and ECS resulted from aquaculture of the seaweed Porphyra yezoensis (or nori) conducted along the 200 km shoreline of the Subei Bank north of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. Given the continuous growth in aquaculture efforts in the region, similar macroalgae bloom events, such as the summer 2008 event, are likely to occur in the future, particularly between May and July. This was confirmed by the 2009 bloom event in the same regions and the same period. The profit of the local P. yezoensis aquaculture industry (˜16,000 Ha in 2007) is estimated as U.S. 53 million, yet the cost to manage the impact of the summer 2008 U. prolifera bloom exceeded U.S. 100 million. Therefore, better strategies are required to balance the economic benefit of seaweed aquaculture and the costs of environmental impacts.

  6. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  7. New production in the East China Sea, comparison between well-mixed winter and stratified summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Lee, Wen-Huei; Hung, Chin-Chang; Wong, George T. F.; Kanda, Jota

    2001-04-01

    This paper compares the variations of nitrate-based "new" production (NP) in the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) between summer, when seawater stratification was strong, and winter when seawater was well mixed. New production and f-ratio (ratio of nitrate-based new production to primary production) showed no obvious seasonality and were generally low with two exceptions: one in the coastal upwelling off China in summer, and the other in the Kuroshio upwelling off northeastern Taiwan in winter. When not counting the two exceptional areas which were relatively small area-wise, integrated nitrate-based new production (INP) ranged 0.06-0.41 g C m -2 d -1 in summer and 0.08-0.27 g C m -2 d -1 in winter with f-ratios of 0.25-0.42 and 0.18-0.35. In summer, NP in the Changjiang-influenced coastal waters was significantly correlated to a high ambient nitrate concentration, which originated from the Changjiang discharge or from the coastal upwelling. Phosphate from the coastal upwelling alleviated the phosphorus deficiency caused by the river mixing, and the nitrate to phosphate ratio was near the Redfield ratio. Nitrate was readily consumed and converted into phytoplankton biomass. This leads to a low surface nitrate concentration (mostly below the detectable limit of 0.1 μM) and thus resulting in low NP in the surrounding shelf waters. NP in winter, in contrast, was not correlated to the nitrate concentration. Despite the abundant nitrate on the continental shelf (ranging between 0.52 and 14.24 μM), INP remained relatively low (0.01-0.55 g C m -2 d -1). Light limitation hampered nitrate utilization. The deep mixing layer (>euphotic depth), low photosynthesis available radiation, and a significant correlation between new production and stratification index indicated that NP in winter was controlled by irradiation intensity rather than nutrient concentration. The present results strongly suggest that production in the ECS was limited by N deficiency in summer

  8. Sea Ice Formation Rate and Temporal Variation of Temperature and Salinity at the Vicinity of Wilkins Ice Shelf from Data Collected by Southern Elephant Seals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, M. F.; Souza, R.; Wainer, I.; Muelbert, M.; Hindell, M.

    2013-05-01

    The use of marine mammals as autonomous platforms for collecting oceanographic data has revolutionized the understanding of physical properties of low or non-sampled regions of the polar oceans. The use of these animals became possible due to advancements in the development of electronic devices, sensors and batteries carried by them. Oceanographic data collected by two southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) during the Fall of 2008 were used to infer the sea-ice formation rate in the region adjacent to the Wilkins Ice Shelf, west of the Antarctic Peninsula at that period. The sea-ice formation rate was estimated from the salt balance equation for the upper (100 m) ocean at a daily frequency for the period between 13 February and 20 June 2008. The oceanographic data collected by the animals were also used to present the temporal variation of the water temperature and salinity from surface to 300 m depth in the study area. Sea ice formation rate ranged between 0,087 m/day in early April and 0,008 m/day in late June. Temperature and salinity ranged from -1.84°C to 1.60°C and 32.85 to 34.85, respectively, for the upper 300 m of the water column in the analyzed period. The sea-ice formation rate estimations do not consider water advection, only temporal changes of the vertical profile of salinity. This may cause underestimates of the real sea-ice formation rate. The intense reduction of sea ice rate formation from April to June 2008 may be related to the intrusion of the Circumpolar Depth Water (CDW) into the study region. As a consequence of that we believe that this process can be partly responsible for the disintegration of the Wilkins Ice Shelf during the winter of 2008. The data presented here are considered a new frontier in physical and biological oceanography, providing a new approach for monitoring sea ice changes and oceanographic conditions in polar oceans. This is especially valid for regions covered by sea ice where traditional instruments deployed by

  9. Assessment of satellite ocean color products of MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS along the East China Coast (in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Junwu; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Groom, Steve; Ma, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Song, Qingjun

    2014-01-01

    The validation of satellite ocean-color products is an important task of ocean-color missions. The uncertainties of these products are poorly quantified in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS), which are well known for their optical complexity and turbidity in terms of both oceanic and atmospheric optical properties. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the primary ocean-color products from three major ocean-color satellites, namely the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Through match-up analysis with in situ data, it is found that satellite retrievals of the spectral remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) at the blue-green and green bands from MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS have the lowest uncertainties with a median of the absolute percentage of difference (APDm) of 15-27% and root-mean-square-error (RMS) of 0.0021-0.0039 sr-1, whereas the Rrs(λ) uncertainty at 412 nm is the highest (APDm 47-62%, RMS 0.0027-0.0041 sr-1). The uncertainties of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) τa, diffuse attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance at 490 nm Kd(490), concentrations of suspended particulate sediment concentration (SPM) and Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) were also quantified. It is demonstrated that with appropriate in-water algorithms specifically developed for turbid waters rather than the standard ones adopted in the operational satellite data processing chain, the uncertainties of satellite-derived properties of Kd(490), SPM, and Chl-a may decrease significantly to the level of 20-30%, which is true for the majority of the study area. This validation activity advocates for (1) the improvement of the atmosphere correction algorithms with the regional aerosol optical model, (2) switching to regional in-water algorithms over turbid coastal waters, and (3) continuous support of the dedicated in situ data collection effort for the validation task.

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  11. Estimation of potential distribution of gas hydrate in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjuan; Du, Dewen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Liu, Yonggang; Yan, Shijuan; Yang, Gang

    2010-05-01

    Gas hydrate research has significant importance for securing world energy resources, and has the potential to produce considerable economic benefits. Previous studies have shown that the South China Sea is an area that harbors gas hydrates. However, there is a lack of systematic investigations and understanding on the distribution of gas hydrate throughout the region. In this paper, we applied mineral resource quantitative assessment techniques to forecast and estimate the potential distribution of gas hydrate resources in the northern South China Sea. However, current hydrate samples from the South China Sea are too few to produce models of occurrences. Thus, according to similarity and contrast principles of mineral outputs, we can use a similar hydrate-mining environment with sufficient gas hydrate data as a testing ground for modeling northern South China Sea gas hydrate conditions. We selected the Gulf of Mexico, which has extensively studied gas hydrates, to develop predictive models of gas hydrate distributions, and to test errors in the model. Then, we compared the existing northern South China Sea hydrate-mining data with the Gulf of Mexico characteristics, and collated the relevant data into the model. Subsequently, we applied the model to the northern South China Sea to obtain the potential gas hydrate distribution of the area, and to identify significant exploration targets. Finally, we evaluated the reliability of the predicted results. The south seabed area of Taiwan Bank is recommended as a priority exploration target. The Zhujiang Mouth, Southeast Hainan, and Southwest Taiwan Basins, including the South Bijia Basin, also are recommended as exploration target areas. In addition, the method in this paper can provide a useful predictive approach for gas hydrate resource assessment, which gives a scientific basis for construction and implementation of long-term planning for gas hydrate exploration and general exploitation of the seabed of China.

  12. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-05-01

    Two oceanographic cruises were carried out in the East China Sea (ECS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The main objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater, and then to estimate the Hg(0) flux. The GEM concentration was lower in summer (1.61 ± 0.32 ng m(-3)) than in fall (2.20 ± 0.58 ng m(-3)). The back-trajectory analysis revealed that the air masses with high GEM levels during fall largely originated from the land, while the air masses with low GEM levels during summer primarily originated from ocean. The spatial distribution patterns of total Hg (THg), fluorescence, and turbidity were consistent with the pattern of DGM with high levels in the nearshore area and low levels in the open sea. Additionally, the levels of percentage of DGM to THg (%DGM) were higher in the open sea than in the nearshore area, which was consistent with the previous studies. The THg concentration in fall was higher (1.47 ± 0.51 ng l(-1)) than those of other open oceans. The DGM concentration (60.1 ± 17.6 pg l(-1)) and Hg(0) flux (4.6 ± 3.6 ng m(-2) h(-1)) in summer were higher than those in fall (DGM: 49.6 ± 12.5 pg l(-1) and Hg(0) flux: 3.6 ± 2.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The emission flux of Hg(0) from the ECS was estimated to be 27.6 tons yr(-1), accounting for ∼0.98% of the global Hg oceanic evasion though the ECS only accounts for ∼0.21% of global ocean area, indicating that the ECS plays an important role in the oceanic Hg cycle. PMID:26975003

  13. Tidal Effects on Circulation in and near the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate tidal currents into a previously validated, three-dimensional, subtidal circulation model to assess tidal effects on the circulation in and around the East China Sea. Of particular interest is the tide-enhanced Changjiang plume dispersal and circulation in the southern East China Sea. The modeling results show that without tides, the Changjiang plume in summer presents itself as a stagnant, expansive pool in regions bordering the northern East China Sea and Yellow Sea, too far north and too accumulating relative to observations. The winter plume dispersal pushed by the north-northeast monsoon follows the China coastline southeastward as a coastal current that matches more closely with observations with or without tides. Incorporating the effect of tides brings the model closer to observation, especially in summer. During summer the Taiwan Warm Current shifts to lower latitudes, enhances upwelling off southeast China and induces a southward tidal residual coastal flow off southeast China. Tides also induce the observed seaward detachment of the summer plume. In winter, the prevailing north-northeast monsoon suppresses the Taiwan Warm Current to the minimum. However, if the winter monsoon is weakened for a few weeks, the Taiwan Warm Current reappears and these three mechanisms begin to operate as in summer. CTD surveys and satellite observations south of the Changjiang River estuary contribute to a better understanding of the tidal effects on regional ocean currents.

  14. Reconstruction of paleocoastlines for the northwestern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARFF; Jan; MEYER; Michael

    2009-01-01

    The range of relative sea level rise in the northwestern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum was over 100 m. As a result, lowland regions including the Northeast Vietnam coast, Beibu Gulf, and South China coast experienced an evolution from land to sea. Based on the principle of reconstructing paleogeography and using recent digital elevation model, relative sea level curves, and sediment accumulation data, this paper presents a series of paleogeographic scenarios back to 20 cal. ka BP for the northwestern South China Sea. The scenarios demonstrate the entire process of coastline changes for the area of interest. During the late glacial period from 20 to 15 cal. ka BP, coastline slowly retreated, causing a land loss of only 1×104 km2, and thus the land-sea distribution remained nearly unchanged. Later in 15-10 cal. ka BP coastline rapidly retreated and area of land loss was up to 24×104 km2, causing lowlands around Northeast Vietnam and South China soon to be underwater. Coastline retreat continued quite rapidly during the early Holocene. From 10 to 6 cal. ka BP land area had decreased by 9×104 km2, and during that process the Qiongzhou Strait completely opened up. Since the mid Holocene, main controls on coastline change are from vertical crustal movements and sedimentation. Transgression was surpassed by regression, resulting in a land accretion of about 10×104 km2.

  15. Reconstruction of paleocoastlines for the northwestern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO YanTao; HARFF Jan; MEYER Michael; ZHAN WenHuan

    2009-01-01

    The range of relative sea level rise in the northwestern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum was over 100 m. As a result, lowland regions including the Northeast Vietnam coast, Beibu Gulf, and South China coast experienced an evolution from land to sea. Based on the principle of recon structing paleogeography and using recent digital elevation model, relative sea level curves, and sediment accumulation data, this paper presents a series of paleogeographic scenarios back to 20 cal. ka BP for the northwestern South China Sea. The scenarios demonstrate the entire process of coastline changes for the area of interest. During the late glacial period from 20 to 15 cal. ka BP, coastline slowly retreated, causing a land loss of only 1 ×104 km2, and thus the land-sea distribution remained nearly unchanged. Later in 15--10 cal. ka BP coastline rapidly retreated and area of land loss was up to 24×104 km2, causing lowlands around Northeast Vietnam and South China soon to be underwater. Coastline retreat continued quite rapidly during the early Holocene. From 10 to 6 cal. ka BP land area had decreased by 9×104 km2, and during that process the Qiongzhou Strait completely opened up. Since the mid Holocene, main controls on coastline change are from vertical crustal movements and sedimentation. Transgression was surpassed by regression, resulting in a land accretion of about 10×104 km2.

  16. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  17. Modelling sea level data from China and Malay-Thailand to estimate Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah L.; Milne, Glenn A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Zong, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a new model of Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level (ESL), extending a previously published global ice sheet model (Bassett et al., 2005), which was unconstrained from 10 kyr BP to present. This new model was developed by comparing relative sea level (RSL) predictions from a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model to a suite of Holocene sea level index points from China and Malay-Thailand. Three consistent data-model misfits were found using the Bassett et al. (2005) model: an over-prediction in the height of maximum sea level, the timing of this maximum, and the temporal variation of sea level from the time of the highstand to present. The data-model misfits were examined for a large suite of ESL scenarios and a range of earth model parameters to determine an optimum model of Holocene ESL. This model is characterised by a slowdown in melting at ∼7 kyr BP, associated with the final deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, followed by a continued rise in ESL until ∼1 kyr BP of ∼5.8 m associated with melting from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. It was not possible to identify an earth viscosity model that provided good fits for both regions; with the China data preferring viscosity values in the upper mantle of less than 1.5 × 1020 Pa s and the Malay-Thailand data preferring greater values. We suggest that this inference of a very weak upper mantle for the China data originates from the nearby subduction zone and Hainan Plume. The low viscosity values may also account for the lack of a well-defined highstand at the China sites.

  18. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzam, Maher; Mejdoub, Noureddine El; Jedoui, Younes

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at -19 m b.s.l/100 ka and -8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  19. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  20. Bottom-up and top-down controls on picoplankton in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of picoplankton population distribution in the East China Sea (ECS, a marginal sea in the western North Pacific Ocean, were studied during two "CHOICE-C" cruises in August 2009 (summer and January 2010 (winter. Dilution experiments were conducted during the two cruises to investigate the growth and grazing among picophytoplantkon populations. Picoplankton accounted for an average of ~29% (2% to 88% of community carbon biomass in the ECS on average, with lower percentages in plume region than in shelf and kuroshio regions. Averaged growth rates (μ for Prochlorococcus (Pro, Synechococcus (Syn and picoeukaryotes (peuk were 0.36, 0.89, 0.90 d−1, respectively, in summer, and 0.46, 0.58, 0.56 d−1, respectively, in winter. Seawater salinity and nutrient availability exerted significant controls on picoplankton growth rate. Averaged grazing mortality (m were 0.46, 0.63, 0.68 d−1 in summer, and 0.22, 0.32, 0.22 d−1 in winter for Pro, Syn and peuk respectively. The three populations demonstrated very different distribution patterns regionally and seasonally affected by both bottom-up and top-down controls. In summer, Pro, Syn and peuk were dominant in Kuroshio, transitional and plume regions respectively. Protist grazing consumed 84%, 78%, 73% and 45%, 47%, 57% of production for Pro, Syn and peuk in summer and winter respectively, suggesting more significant top-down controls in summer. In winter, all three populations tended to distribute in offshore regions, although the area of coverage was different (peuk > Syn > Pro. Bottom-up factors can explain as much as 91.5%, 82% and 81.2% of Pro, Syn and peuk abundance variance in winter, while only 59.1% and 43.7% for Pro and peuk in summer. Regionally, Yangtze River discharge plays a significant role in affecting the intensity of top-down control, indicated by significant and negative association between salinity and grazing mortality of all three populations and higher grazing mortality to

  1. Size distributions and source function of sea spray aerosol over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingjia; Sheng, Lifang; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Dongliang; Jia, Nan; Kong, Yawen

    2016-08-01

    The number concentrations in the radius range of 0.06-5 μm of aerosol particles and meteorological parameters were measured on board during a cruise in the South China Sea from August 25 to October 12, 2012. Effective fluxes in the reference height of 10 m were estimated by steady state dry deposition method based on the observed data, and the influences of different air masses on flux were discussed in this paper. The number size distribution was characterized by a bimodal mode, with the average total number concentration of (1.50 ± 0.76)×103 cm-3. The two mode radii were 0.099 µm and 0.886 µm, both of which were within the scope of accumulation mode. A typical daily average size distribution was compared with that measured in the Bay of Bengal. In the whole radius range, the number concentrations were in agreement with each other; the modes were more distinct in this study than that abtained in the Bay of Bengal. The size distribution of the fluxes was fitted with the sum of log-normal and power-law distribution. The impact of different air masses was mainly on flux magnitude, rather than the shape of spectral distribution. A semiempirical source function that is applicable in the radius range of 0.06 µm< r 80<0.3 µm with the wind speed varying from 1.00 m s-1 to 10.00 m s-1 was derived.

  2. Land-sea interactions at the east coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Dao Ru; Jennerjahn, Tim; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2013-04-01

    The structure and function of coastal ecosystems is affected by land-based human activities, including changes in water, sediment and pollutant input, as well as land reclamation in coastal areas. Many coastal areas can be considered over-stressed systems as a whole, the ecosystem services of which are strongly impaired. This is particularly important in tropical regions, where the coastal zone is under the influence of a strong climate variability including monsoons and frequent extreme weather events, such as typhoons. During the past decades the continuous development of Hainan's coastal zone and its hinterland, in combination with episodic natural events (e.g., typhoons), caused environmental changes in its coastal ecosystems. However, little is known on the consequences of environmental changes for the biogeochemistry and ecology and, hence, the natural resources of the Hainan coastal ecosystems. The Sino-German inter-disciplinary LANCET (land-sea interactions along coastal ecosystems of tropical China: Hainan) project was designed to address these issues on a local to regional scale and at the same time, to contribute to the global data base in which this type of information from tropical regions is still under-represented. The results obtained from LANCET have been delivered to the local government for an adaptive management at the ecosystem level, and the knowledge is believed to be relevant to other studies of tropical and coastal regions.

  3. Exploitable wave energy assessment based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data-A case study in the East China Sea and the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy resources assessment is a very important process before the exploitation and utilization of the wave energy. At present, the existing wave energy assessment is focused on theoretical wave energy conditions for interesting areas. While the evaluation for exploitable wave energy conditions is scarcely ever performed. Generally speaking, the wave energy are non-exploitable under a high sea state and a lower sea state which must be ignored when assessing wave energy. Aiming at this situation, a case study of the East China Sea and the South China Sea is performed. First, a division basis between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy is studied. Next, based on recent 20 a ERA-Interim wave field data, some indexes including the spatial and temporal distribution of wave power density, a wave energy exploitable ratio, a wave energy level, a wave energy stability, a total wave energy density, the seasonal variation of the total wave energy and a high sea condition frequency are calculated. And then the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are compared each other;the distributions of the exploitable wave energy are assessed and a regional division for exploitable wave energy resources is carried out;the influence of the high sea state is evaluated. The results show that considering collapsing force of the high sea state and the utilization efficiency for wave energy, it is determined that the energy by wave with a significant wave height being not less 1 m or not greater than 4 m is the exploitable wave energy. Compared with the theoretical wave energy, the average wave power density, energy level, total wave energy density and total wave energy of the exploitable wave energy decrease obviously and the stability enhances somewhat. Pronounced differences between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are present. In the East China Sea and the South China Sea, the areas of an abundant and stable

  4. Evaluation of ecosystem status in the shelf-slope zone of the northeastern Black Sea based on the trophic index (TRIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, N. D.; Chasovnikov, V. K.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Mosharov, S. A.; Nikishina, A. B.; Kostyleva, A. V.; Louppova, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    The water conditions and trophic status in the shelf-slope zone and bays of the northeastern Black Sea were evaluated on the basis of monitoring data from 2007-2014. It has been shown that the concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll "a" in the studied area are at the level of the pristine period (of the late 1970s). The concentration of mineral nitrogen in the surface water layer varied from 0.19 to 5.64 μM. The concentration of phosphates differed from analytical zero to 0.56 μM. The concentration of chlorophyll "a" in different seasons ranged from 0.24 to 0.89 μg/L. The trophic index characterizes the status of the marine shelf ecosystem near Gelendzhik city as "excellent" even in the bays. Significant year-to-year differences in the index were not detected. The range between the values of the trophic index in the bays and open sea was low (3.7 and 3.2, respectively).

  5. United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea: Inevitable Way towards Revision to Overcome South China Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Prisekina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the authors’ opinions, some provisions and definitions of UNCLOS have serious gaps that lead to various interpretations and misunderstandings by countries. Due to provisional gaps, all parties of the South China Sea Disputes have their own opinions on the UNCLOS interpretations and are confident that they follow International Law. The authors propose that certain provisions of UNCLOS need revised in order to resolve actual disputes and prevent further debates. These provisions include, but are not limited to, the current distinction between an island and a rock; and the strait baseline concept that permits to delineate big sea areas far from the coast. 

  6. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  7. Measurement of single-fish target strength in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobao; LI Yongzhen; CHEN Pimao; ZHANG Jun; FANG Lichen; LI Nana

    2012-01-01

    We measured the target strength (TS) of three commercial fish species:whitespotted spinefoot (Siganus canaliculatus),black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii),and creek red bream (Lutjanus argentimaculatus),in the South China Sea.The TS of caged or tethered fish (n=76 total) was measured using a Simrad EY60 portable scientific echosounder at 120 kHz.We evaluated the relationship between TS and total length (TL,cm) for the three species.This is the first attempt to use split-beam acoustics to measure single-fish TS in the South China Sea by Chinese researchers.Our results will improve the accuracy and precision of acoustic abundance estimates of commercially important species and further the development of underwater acoustic survey techniques in fisheries in the South China Sea.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUMMER CIRCULATION IN THE EAST CHINA SEA AND ITS APPLICATION IN ESTIMATING THE SOURCES OF RED TIDES IN THE YANGTZE RIVER ESTUARY AND ADJACENT SEA AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-hua; ZHU Liang-sheng; ZHANG Hong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the COHERENS (a Coupled Hydrodynamical Ecological model for Regional Shelf seas), a three-dimensional baroclinic model for the summer of East China Sea (ECS) was established with the sigma-coordinate in the vertical direction and spherical coordinate in the horizontal direction. The circulation patterns of the Kuroshio Current, the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), the Tsushima Current and the Yangtze Diluted Water (YDW) were successfully simulated with this model. The calculated results are fairly consistent with previous observations and studies. Based on this baroclinic current field, the Lagranian particles tracking was simulated to estimate the possible origins of the red tides frequently occurring in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea areas. If there are "seeds" (cysts) of the red tide algae at the seabed of the Taiwan Strait, the offshore of Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and the northeast Taiwan Island, those are extremely possible sources of the red tides in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea areas. Field data are needed to confirm it. Numerical simulation to estimate the source of the red tides is a new application of the Lagrangian transport in the marine ecology.

  9. A New model to forecast fishing ground ofScomber japonicus in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

  10. A possible role of the South China Sea in ENSO cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启; 刘秦玉; 胡瑞金; 谢强

    2002-01-01

    A data-based hypothesis on the role of the South China Sea (SCS) in ENSO cycle is proposed: during El Nifio, there are westerly wind anomaly over the western equatorial Pacific and positive SST anomaly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Meanwhile anomalous convection moves to the central Pacific with anomalous sinking over Indonesian Archipelago. The latter can cause southerly wind anomaly over the north of South China Sea (NSCS) and makes the NSCS warmer. The warm NSCS can attract the anomalous convection to it in some degree. This attraction is in favor for producing easterly wind anomaly over the western equatorial Pacific, so it helps to form a cycle.

  11. Implementation and application of a nested numerical storm surge forecast model in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于福江; 张占海

    2002-01-01

    A nested numerical storm surge forecast model for the East China Sea is developed. A one-way relaxing nest method is used to exchange the information between coarse grid and fine grid. In the inner boundary of the fine grid model a transition area is set up to relax the forecast variables. This ensures that the forecast variables of the coarse model may transit to those of fine grid gradually, which enhances the model stability. By using this model, a number of hindcasts and forecast are performed for six severe storm surges caused by tropical cyclones in the East China Sea. The results show good agreement with the observations.

  12. Historical records of eutrophication in Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sediment cores from the Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea were collected and studied for eutrophication history using paleoecological records of environmental changes over the last century. A multiproxy approach by using biological and geochemical analyses revealed changes in diatom assemblages, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN and biogenic silica (BSi and give an indication of nutrient in status and trends in Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea. The diatom assemblages in the two cores generally increased gradually from the 1970s, and accelerated from the 1990s until now, reflecting the increased eutrophication and causing large algae blooms/red tides. The TOC, TN and BSi showing the similar trends, supported the interpretation of the eutrophication process indicated by diatom analyses. The two cores were located in different sea areas of the East China Sea, and we discuss their relative changes based on their environment characteristics. We also discuss the potential effect of anthropogenic influences and ongoing projects on eutrophication in the Changjiang River and its adjacent East China Sea.

  13. The productivity of return migrants: The case of China's Sea Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the productivity differential between return migrants ('Sea Turtles') and non-migrants through a case study of China's venture capital (VC) industry. I find that even after correcting for selection bias, return venture capitalists are less productive than comparable non-migrants in targeting promising projects and/or providing value-added services. Given that the VC industry is a useful laboratory in which to look at the performance of return migrants and China's economic ...

  14. Water Quality in Marginal Seas off China in the Last Two Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Baodong Wang; Linping Xie; Xia Sun

    2011-01-01

    Based on historical data, variations in seawater quality and pollutant origins in marginal seas off China in the recent two decades are overviewed. Analysis shows that the total area of nonclean water was increasing continuously in the 1990s, but it has been decreasing since 2000; however, the total polluted area (sum of areas of slightly, medium, and heavily polluted waters) in China's standard fluctuated without a clear trend of decline or increase, indicating that although the increasing t...

  15. Macrobenthos diversity and ecology of a Chinese mudflat in the East China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ha Trieu Hung

    2015-01-01

    Macrobenthic organisms play a crucial role in the system dynamics and form an important basis of the food web. As such, macrobenthic animals are often used in marine monitoring programmes as an indicator for the health of an ecosystem. In this thesis the macrobenthos were investigated with particular focus on their biology and ecology in the rapidly changing environment of the Hangzhou Bay (HZB), China. The HZB is a macro tidal mudflat in the East China Sea that is strongly influenced by a...

  16. Genetic Differentiation among Populations and Color Variants of Sea Cucumbers (Stichopus Japonicus) from Korea and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyong; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Jung-Yeon; An, Chul-Min; Kim, Bong-Seok; Jun, Je-Cheon; Kim, Sang-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The Far Eastern sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus, is a favored food in Eastern Asia, including Korea, Japan, and China. Aquaculture production of this species has increased because of recent declines in natural stocks and government-operated stock release programs are ongoing. Therefore, the analyses of genetic structure in wild and hatchery populations are necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this valuable marine resource. In addition, given that sea cucumber color affects market ...

  17. Governing maritime space: The South China Sea as a Mediterranean cultural area

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Whereas many institutions are in place to govern urban and rural land, maritime areas are less well covered. This situation of a "governance void" has led to uncertainty and conflicts. Thus the South China Sea has become a contested maritime space. In this paper the cultural theory of Oswald Spengler will be applied to stress the importance of conceptions of space as a basis for maritime governance. By comparing it to other maritime spaces, like the Baltic and the Mediterranean Sea, lessons w...

  18. Photophysiological state of natural phytoplankton communities in the South China Sea and Sulu Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cheah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increasing number of studies on phytoplankton in the tropical South China Sea (SCS and Sulu Sea (SS have been conducted. However, still little is known about the photophysiological state of natural phytoplankton communities under varying environmental conditions. This study investigates the photophysiological state of natural phytoplankton communities in the southern SCS and SS based on high horizontal and vertical resolution field observations collected during the SHIVA (Stratosphere ozone: Halogens in a Varying Atmosphere cruise (SO 218 in November 2011 on board RV Sonne. At the surface, pigment results revealed that total chlorophyll a (TChl a concentrations at all offshore stations were low at the surface and were generally dominated by cyanobacteria. Enhanced concentrations of TChl a were only observed below the upper mixed layer and above the euphotic depth with haptophytes, prochlorophytes and prasinophytes contributing most of the biomass. At stations close to the coast and river outflows, surface phytoplankton blooms (between 1 to 2.2 mg m−3 dominated by diatoms were observed. Overall, the study region exhibited strong nitrate + nitrite (NOx, −1, and phosphate (PO4, −1 depletion from surface down to about 50–60 m. Silicate (Si exhibited similar trends with the exception of some near shore stations in which high Si concentrations (> 2 μmol L−1 were observed in conjunction with increased TChl a and diatoms concentrations. Surface NOx concentrations were observed to correlate positively with temperature (τ = 0.22, p n = 108, whereas negative correlations were reported between surface NOx (τ = −0.27, p n = 108, Si (τ = −0.68, p n = 108 and salinity indicating that the enhancement in nutrients at the surface was probably supplied through fresher and warmer river waters near the coast. In contrast, the opposite was observed between temperature, salinity and all nutrients in the water column suggesting

  19. Nitrate dual isotopic composition in the northern South China Sea and neighboring West Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Xu, M.; Wu, Y.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrate nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) were used to diagnose nitrate dynamics and the origins of water masses in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and West Philippine Sea (WPS) where water exchanges via the Luzon Strait at different depths. In the SCS, 1-3‰ greater upward increase in δ18ONO3 relative to corresponding δ15NNO3 was just observed in the lower euphotic zone (EZ), indicating a rapid internal cycle of nitrate assimilation and remineralization. Much lower nitrate concentration in the EZ of WPS does not allow us to measure its dual isotopes. From 500 m deep to the base of EZ in the WPS, non-proportional decreases in δ15NNO3 (from 6.4‰ to 2.1-2.6‰) and δ18ONO3 (from 3.0‰ to 1.1‰) accompanying with elevated N:P ratio anomalies (N* from -1.2 μM up to 2 μM), suggest the accumulation of atmospheric-derived N (e.g. N2 fixation and/or N deposition). This allochthonous N signal cumulated in the subsurface of WPS may regulate the δ15NNO3 in the SCS subsurface due to seasonal Kuroshio intrusion, which could supply isotopically light nitrate as newly fixed N source to the SCS. The higher (~0.5‰) δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values, associated with lower N* were detected in the WPS intermediate water (WPS-IW, σθ = 26.5~27.1 kg m-3) around depth of 600-800 m (especially at a southern site) when compared to those of the conventional water source coming from North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). By combining nitrate concentration, N* and δ15NNO3 as constraints, we propose that an additional southerly source other than NPIW may feed into the WPS-IW. On the other hand, the SCS intermediate water (SCS-IW, ~400-700 m), which supposedly sourced from WPS-IW along similar isopycnal levels, showed ~1‰ lower δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values. This reduction in nitrate duel isotopes indicates intense diapycnal mixing primarily due to basin-wide upwelling in the SCS interior. This is the first hand data in the SCS for deep profiles

  20. Evaluation of an ocean data assimilation system for Chinese marginal seas with a focus on the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dazhi; LI Xichen; ZHU Jiang; QI Yiquan

    2011-01-01

    Data assimilation is a powerful tool to improve ocean forecasting by reducing uncertainties in forecast initial conditions. Recently, an ocean data assimilation system based on the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) scheme and HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for marginal seas around China was developed. This system can assimilate both satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) and along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the system. Two experiments were performed, which spanned a 3-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 30, 2006, with and without data assimilation. The data assimilation results were promising, with a positive impact on the modeled fields. The SST and SLA were clearly improved in terms of bias and root mean square error over the whole domain. In addition, the assimilations provided improvements in some regions to the surface field where mesoscale processes are not well simulated by the model. Comparisons with surface drifter trajectories showed that assimilated SST and SLA also better represent surface currents, with drifter trajectories fitting better to the contours of SLA field than that without assimilation. The forecasting capacity of this assimilation system was also evaluated through a case study of a birth-and-death process of an anticyclone eddy in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), in which the anticyclone eddy was successfully hindcasted by the assimilation system. This study suggests the data assimilation system gives reasonable descriptions of the near-surface ocean state and can be applied to forecast mesoscale ocean processes in the marginal seas around China.

  1. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guijun; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuefeng; LI Dong; HE Zhongjie; WANG Xidong; WU Xinrong; YU Ting; MA Jirui

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  2. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  3. Holocene temperature records from the East China sea mud area southwest of the Cheju Island reconstructed by the U{37/K'} and TEX86 paleothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Jiang, Yiqing; Yuan, Zineng; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Li; Zhou, Liping; Zhao, Meixun

    2013-12-01

    As an important marginal sea under the influences of both the Changjiang River and the Kuroshio, the East China Sea (ECS) environment is sensitive to both continental and oceanic forcing. Paleoenvironmental records are essential for understanding the long-term environmental evolution of the ECS and adjacent areas. However, paleo-temperature records from the ECS shelf are currently very limited. In this study, the U{37/K'} and TEX86 paleothermometers were used to reconstruct surface and subsurface temperature changes of the mud area southwest of the Cheju Island (Site F10B) in the ECS during the Holocene. The results indicate that temperature changes of F10B during the early Holocene (11.6-6.2 kyr) are associated with global climate change. During the period of 6.2-2.5 kyr, the similar variability trends of smoothing average of ΔT (the difference between surface and subsurface temperature) of Site F10B and the strength of the Kuroshio suggest that the Kuroshio influence on the site started around 6.2 kyr when the Kuroshio entered the Yellow Sea and continued to 2.5 kyr. During the late Holocene (2.5-1.45 kyr), apparent decreases of U{37/K'} sea surface temperature (SST) and ΔT imply that the direct influence of the Kuroshio was reduced while cold eddy induced by the Kuroshio gradually controlled hydrological conditions of this region around 2.5 kyr.

  4. Tidal changes in the Yellow/East China Sea caused by the rapid sea-level rise during the Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsutoUehara

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of M2 and K1 tides were performed in order to assess the effect of the rapid sea level change occurring during the last 20000 years in the Yellow/East China Sea (YECS). Results were interpreted by utilizing the difference of the dynamical nature inherited in diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. M2 tides at the coastal region south of Korea exceeded 2 m in amplitude when the sea-level was low, and decreased as the water depth become larger. In the Yellow Sea, on the other hand, tidal amplitudes were small at the low sea-level stages and increased along with the sea-level rise. The way of the increase was not monotonic but with fluctuations, which was due to the movement of the standing wave nodes. An additional experiment with closing the Taiwan Strait revealed that changing the sill depth of the strait not only affects the M2 tides around the southeastern Chinese coast, but also modifies the tides around the southwestern coast of Korea. This result recall us the significa

  5. The exceptional surface turbidity of the North-West European shelf seas during the stormy 2013-2014 winter: Consequences for the initiation of the phytoplankton blooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohin, F.; Bryère, P.; Griffiths, J. W.

    2015-08-01

    A succession of storms during the winter 2013-2014 enhanced the resuspension of sediments in the surface waters of the North-West European shelf seas. The effects of waves on satellite-derived non-algal SPM (Suspended Particulate Matters) are discussed for the January 2008-March 2014 period. A simple statistical model relating locally SPM to tidal intensity and waves helps us analyse the main characteristics of the winter 2013-2014. The exceptional run of storms observed in this stormy and rainy winter has resulted in the highest SPM concentration in the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay ever observed by remote-sensing during the 1998-2014 period. Despite the lower clarity of the surface waters over a large part of the continental shelf during the first days of March 2014, blooms occurred early off the coast of Southern Brittany (Bay of Biscay) and later in April, as usual, in the Celtic Sea. Off the coast of southern Brittany, a region of freshwater influence, the lower clarity of the waters was counterbalanced by stronger haline stratification, due to high river discharges, enabling the initiation of blooms in late winter when the solar irradiance is sufficient; which was the case in March 2014 with 7 sunny days in a row just after the last storm. As a consequence, we can postulate that a possible increase in the intensity of waves occurring from December to early March, along with a possible scenario of global change, would not restrict the productive period in the Bay of Biscay. However an extension of the period of storms later in March would delay the timing of the blooms as observed in March 2008 in most of the investigated area.

  6. Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L−1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (−1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 −1. ► Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ► Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

  7. Retrieval of Secchi disk depth in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea using 8-day MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secchi disk depth (SDD), is widely used as an indicator of water clarity. The traditional sampling method is not only time-consuming and labor-intensive but also limited in terms of temporal and spatial coverage. Remote sensing technology may deal with these limitations. In this paper, the applicability of 8-day MODIS-Aqua remote sensing reflectance data with 4 km spatial resolution for estimating water clarity in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea was investigated. Field data such as Secchi depths were collected from two cruises conducted in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from 5 May to 7 June 2009. A three-band algorithm to retrieve SDD was developed based on remote sensing reflectance at bands of 488, 555, and 678 nm, which performed better than single-band model and band ratio algorithm, with a determination coefficient of 0.72 and a mean relative error of 19%. This suggests that 8-day MODIS-Aqua products of remote sensing reflectance could be used to assess water transparency in the study area

  8. Quantitative relationship between flagellate abundance and suspended particle density in Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lingfeng; PAN Ke; GUO Feng

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea to study the quantitative relationship between the abundance of flagellates and the density of suspended particles in the summer of 2001. The results show that the abundance of flagellates varies from 44~12 600 cell/cm3, and flagellates sometimes constitutes a significant part of suspended particles. The size-spectra of suspended particles can be divided into four categories: flat spectrum, humped spectrum, plankton spectrum and mixed spectrum. In general, the abundance of flagellates varies in proportion to the density of suspended particles. However, their quantitative relations reveal different characteristics in the seawater samples of different types of particle-size spectrum. This is only a preliminary study of the quantitative relationship between flagellates and suspended particles, which might lead to a potential convenient approach to the estimation of flagellate abundance in the sea.

  9. Sea surface height oscillation with quasi-four-month period along the continental slope in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOW Chun Hoe; LIU Qinyu

    2012-01-01

    The sea surface height oscillation with a quasi-four-month period (SSHO4) along continental slope in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is detected using satellite altimeter data and an ocean model simulation.The SSHO4 is at southwest of Dongsha Island,and is characterized by a wavelength of~600 km and a southwestward phase speed of~0.1 rn/s.Crossing the climatological background SST front,geostrophic currents corresponding to the SSHO4 generally induce sea surface temperature (SST) “tongues” during January-March.The cold and warm SST tongues appear southwest of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies,respectively.The distance between the warm and cold SST tongues is about half the wavelength of the SSHO4.The geostrophic currents play an important r01e in lateral mixing,as manifested by the SST tongue phenomena in the NSCS.

  10. Contributions of riverborne inorganic and organic matters to the benthic food web in the East China Sea as inferred from stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N. N.; Shiao, J. C.; Gong, G. C.; Kao, S. J.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal areas adjoining rivers are nourished by both the riverborne nutrients and organic matters. Annually, the East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic carbon transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), as well as nutrients, which have brought about high primary production in the ECS. This study evaluated the respective contributions of terrigenous organic matters (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous food source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing the stable isotope compositions for zooplankton, benthic crustacea and demersal fish. Zooplankton exhibited consistently higher δ13C values (-21.31‰ ~ -19.22‰) in the inner shelf than in the outer shelf. The δ13C signals of fish (-19.64‰ ~ -13.46‰) and crustacea (-18.87‰ ~ -15.00‰) showed strong reliance on the marine production across the ECS continental shelf, regardless of distance from the shore. Moreover, the benthic crustacea and fish exhibited significantly higher δ13C values in the highly productive inshore sites and the δ13C values decreased seawards, implying a higher intrusion of atmospheric CO2 and lower photosynthetic fractionation due to algal blooming in the inner shelf. The δ13C values of fish also showed significant positive correlations with the concentration of surface chlorophyll a and nitrogen. Riverborne nutrients closely linked marine benthic consumers to the terrestrial watershed and tightly coupled the pelagic and benthic ecosystems in the ECS. The stable isotope compositions of benthic consumers can act as an indicator for pelagic trophic status. The future research combining analyses of stable isotope and community structure may improve assessment on the balance between contribution and risk of phytoplankton blooms.

  11. On the relationship between convection intensity of South China Sea summer monsoon and air-sea temperature difference in the tropical oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ailan; LIANG Jianyin; GU Dejun; WANG Dongxiao

    2004-01-01

    The annual, interannual and inter-decadal variability of convection intensity of South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon and air-sea temperature difference in the tropical ocean is analyzed, and their relationship is discussed using two data sets of 48-a SODA (simple ocean data assimilation) and NCEP/NCAR. Analyses show that in wintertime Indian Ocean (WIO), springtime central tropical Pacific (SCTP) and summertime South China Sea-West Pacific (SSCSWP), air-sea temperature difference is significantly associated with the convection intensity of South China Sea summer monsoon. Correlation of the inter-decadal time scale (above 10 a) is higher and more stable. There is interdecadal variability of correlation in scales less than 10 a and it is related with the air-sea temperature difference itself for corresponding waters. The inter-decadal variability of the convection intensity during the South China Sea summer monsoon is closely related to the inter-decadal variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Since the late period of the 1970s, in the lower troposphere, the cross-equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere has intensified. At the upper troposphere layer, the South Asian high and cross-equatorial flow from the Northern Hemisphere has intensified at the same time. Then the monsoon cell has also strengthened and resulted in the reinforcing of the convection of South China Sea summer monsoon.

  12. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea</