WorldWideScience

Sample records for china reveals jarid2

  1. Analysis list: JARID2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JARID2 Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JARID...2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JARID2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JARID2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/JARID

  2. Analysis list: Jarid2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jarid2 Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jarid2.1.tsv http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jarid2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jar...id2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Jarid2.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  3. Analysis list: Jarid2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jarid2 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jar...id2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jarid2.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jarid2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Jarid2.Blood.tsv,http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Jarid2.Pluripote...nt_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  4. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, Sarah A; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J; Moore, Darcy L; Alexander, Warren S; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas; Blewitt, Marnie E

    2015-03-19

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  5. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, Sarah A.; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J.; Moore, Darcy L.; Alexander, Warren S.; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J.; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  6. The role of JARID2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    in the ability to propagate leukemia in secondary recipients. Furthermore, gene expression profiles for these cells were inversely correlated with relapse signatures for childhood T-ALL and the increased latency was reflected in a dramatic reduction in leukemic stem cells (LSC) frequency. Surprisingly......, the latencies were reverted upon re-transplantation into tertiary recipients, and this corresponded to a rise in LSC numbers. To study this further we performed exome sequencing of serially transplanted T-ALL and identified mutations in Pten, Ikzf1 and Smo likely responsible for rescuing the LSC deficiency...... observed for JARID2 depleted T-ALL. In summary our findings suggest that contrary to the other PRC2 components, JARID2 is dispensable for normal HSC function, but vital for the LSC maintenance in NOTCH1 induced T-ALL...

  7. Frequent deletions of JARID2 in leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puda, Ana; Milosevic, Jelena D; Berg, Tiina; Klampfl, Thorsten; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Gisslinger, Bettina; Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Malcovati, Luca; Elena, Chiara; Doubek, Michael; Steurer, Michael; Tosic, Natasa; Pavlovic, Sonja; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Gisslinger, Heinz; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have an inherent tendency to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using high-resolution SNP microarrays, we studied a total of 517 MPN and MDS patients in different disease stages, including 77 AML cases with previous history of MPN (N = 46) or MDS (N = 31). Frequent chromosomal deletions of variable sizes were detected, allowing the mapping of putative tumor suppressor genes involved in the leukemic transformation process. We detected frequent deletions on the short arm of chromosome 6 (del6p). The common deleted region on 6p mapped to a 1.1-Mb region and contained only the JARID2 gene--member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). When we compared the frequency of del6p between chronic and leukemic phase, we observed a strong association of del6p with leukemic transformation (P = 0.0033). Subsequently, analysis of deletion profiles of other PRC2 members revealed frequent losses of genes such as EZH2, AEBP2, and SUZ12; however, the deletions targeting these genes were large. We also identified two patients with homozygous losses of JARID2 and AEBP2. We observed frequent codeletion of AEBP2 and ETV6, and similarly, SUZ12 and NF1. Using next generation exome sequencing of 40 patients, we identified only one somatic mutation in the PRC2 complex member SUZ12. As the frequency of point mutations in PRC2 members was found to be low, deletions were the main type of lesions targeting PRC2 complex members. Our study suggests an essential role of the PRC2 complex in the leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid disorders. PMID:22190018

  8. China's new problems of food security revealed by the Food Equivalent Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.

  9. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  10. Revealed Comparative Advantage, Intra-industry Trade and the US Manufacturing Trade Deficit with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobing Shen; Anthony Yanxiang Gu

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses 4-digit SITC data to identify groups of manufactured goods exported from China to the USA that have strong or rising comparative advantages. We find that most of the trades are inter-industry, with only a small portion being vertical intra-industry trades (ⅡT). Our results confirm that Sino-US trade is complementary. We construct an imbalanced index of ⅡT, and identify the goods groups that aggravate and reduce the US trade deficit with China. We suggest an approach for calculating a dynamic ⅡT index that might mitigate the aggregation bias of the existing methodologies. Our improved index reveals that the dynamic imbalances of US-Chinese ⅡT in manufactured goods are worse than their static ⅡT imbalances, which means that it would be difficult to correct the deficit of US trade with China in the following couple of years. Adjusting and improving the structures of industries and products is China's major task for sustainable trade growth.

  11. Diversification of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum still causes severe parasitic disease in mainland China, but mainly in areas along the Yangtze River. However, the genetic diversity in populations of S. japonicum has not been well understood across its geographical distribution, and such data may provide insights into the epidemiology and possible control strategies for schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study infected Oncomelania snails were collected from areas in the middle and lower (ML reaches of the Yangtze River, including Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, and in the upper reaches of the river, including Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in southwest (SW China. The adult parasites obtained from experimentally infected mice using isolated cercariae were sequenced individually for several fragments of mitochondrial regions, including Cytb-ND4L-ND4, 16S-12S and ND1. Populations in the ML reaches exhibited a relatively high level of diversity in nucleotides and haplotypes, whereas a low level was observed for populations in the SW, using either each single fragment or the combined sequence of the three fragments. Pairwise analyses of F-statistics (Fst revealed a significant genetic difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW, with limited gene flow and no shared haplotypes in between. It is rather obvious that genetic diversity in the populations of S. japonicum was significantly correlated with the geographical distance, and the geographical separation/isolation was considered to be the major factor accounting for the observed difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW in China. CONCLUSIONS: S. japonicum in mainland China exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity, with a similar pattern of genetic diversity as observed in the intermediate host snails in the same region in China.

  12. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales,Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shenhui; CHONG Zhuo; ZHAO Fengjuan; YAO Jianting; DUAN Delin

    2013-01-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China.To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development,ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism)markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S.horneri.The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China.The percentage of polymorphic loci P% (ISSR,99.44%; SRAP,100.00%),Nei's genetic diversity H(ISSR,0.107-0.199; SRAP,0.100-0.153),and Shannon's information index I (ISSR,0.157-0.291; SRAP,0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations.Moreover,the high degree of gene differentiation Gst (ISSR,0.654; SRAP,0.718) and low gene flow Nm (ISSR,0.265; SRAP,0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation,possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation.The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices (Fst) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R=0.541 5,0.541 8; P=0.005 0,0.002 0 and R=0.728 6,0.641 2; P=0.001 0,0.001 0,respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception.Overall,the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation.The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S.horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  13. Genetic diversity and elite gene introgression reveal the japonica rice breeding in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; WANG Jia-yu; WANG Xiao-xue; YANG Xian-li; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abundant genetic diversity and rational population structure of germplasm beneift crop breeding greatly. To investigate genetic variation among geographical y diverse set of japonica germplasm, we analyzed 233 japonica rice cultivars col-lected from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of China, which were released from 1970 to 2011 by using 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 8 functional gene tags related to yield. A total of 195 al eles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.61 per locus, indicating a low level of genetic diversity level among al individuals. The genetic diversity of the cultivars from Jilin Province was the highest among the three geographic distribution zones. Moreover, the genetic diversity was increased slightly with the released period of cultivars from 1970 to 2011. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic differentiation was more diverse within the populations than that among the populations. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree indicated that cultivar clusters based on geographic distribution represented three independent groups, among which the cluster of cultivars from Heilongjiang is distinctly different to the cluster of cultivars from Liaoning. For the examined functional genes, two or three al elic variations for each were detected, except for IPA1 and GW2, and most of elite genes had been introgressed in modern japonica rice varieties. These results provide a valuable evaluation for genetic backgrounds of current japonica rice and wil be used directly for japonica rice breeding in future.

  14. Dengue in China: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Evaluation Reveals Evidence of Endemicity and Complex Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rubing; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing threat of dengue outbreaks in China, it is still considered as an imported disease and its introduction and/or circulation patterns remain obscure. On the basis of the most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, we showed highly complex genetic diversity of dengue viruses (DENVs) in south China with up to 20 different clades/lineages from multiple serotypes co-circulating in the same year. Despite that most of these clades/lineages were resulted from imported cases, evidence of local persistence of DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was observed, indicating its potential endemicity in Guangdong province. This study, therefore, provided an overview of DENV genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics in China, which will be useful for developing policies to prevent and control future dengue outbreaks in China. PMID:26458780

  15. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  16. What Developing International Markets for Ecosystem Services Reveal for China's Forestry Sector?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENKINS; Michael; BENNETT; Michael

    2009-01-01

    The market mechanism for forest ecosystem service has already become common knowledge among countries in the international movement to address global climate change.In this paper,international experiences of forest ecosystem market such as better understanding of concept,public participation, sound trading rules and measurement standards are analyzed,and its implication for China is also summarized.Finally,the prospects of forest ecosystem service market in China are discussed.The purpose of this paper i...

  17. Revealing the Secret of Paleoclimatic Change Harbored by Loess Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan; Zhao Baohua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Is this planet growing warmer and warmer? What climatic change will occur in the future? To answer these big questions, however, the scientific community has to know first what happened in the geological history of the Earth, namely, the paleoclimatic change. With his half-centurylong research on loess deposition in China, Prof. Liu Dongsheng from the CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics has unveiled an imposing paleoclimatic scenario happening in the Quaternary period; and more importantly, the work conducted by him and his colleagues and students has presented loess sediments in China as a complete and reliable databank of paleoclimatic change.

  18. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  19. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-01

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  20. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  1. Molecular variation of Sporisorium scitamineum in Mainland China revealed by internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Y; Huang, N; Xiao, X H; Huang, L; Liu, F; Su, W H; Que, Y X

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum is a worldwide disease and also one of the most prevalent diseases in sugarcane production in mainland China. To study molecular variation in S. scitamineum, 23 S. scitamineum isolates from the 6 primary sugar-cane production areas in mainland, China (Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, and Jiangxi Provinces), were assessed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) methods. The results of ITS sequence analysis showed that the organisms can be defined at the genus level, including Ustilago and Sporisorium, and can also differentiate between closely related species. This method was not suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis of different S. scitamineum isolates and could not provide support regarding their race ascription at the molecular level. The results of the present study will be useful for studies examining the molecular diversity of S. scitamineum and for establishing a genetic foundation for their pathogenicity differentiation and new race detection. In addition, our results can provide useful information for the pathogen selection principle in sugarcane smut resistance breeding and variety distribution. PMID:26214470

  2. Deep crustal structures of eastern China and adjacent seas revealed by magnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through reduction to the North Pole and upward continuation of the total field magnetic anomalies, we analyze magnetic patterns and spatial distributions of different tectonic blocks and crustal faults in eastern China and adjacent seas. Depths to the Curie isotherms are further estimated from radially averaged amplitude spectra of magnetic data reduced to the pole. Data reductions effectively enhance boundaries of regional tectonic belts, such as the Dabie ultra-high metamorphic belt, the Tanlu Fault, and the Diaoyudao Uplift. Curie depths are estimated at between 19.6 and 48.9 km, with a mean of 31.7 km. The Subei Basin and the south Yellow Sea Basin in the lower Yangtze block show relatively deep Curie isotherms, up to about 35 km in depth, whereas in the surrounding areas Curie depths are averaged at about 25 km. This implies that the lower Yangtze Block has experienced a unique tectonic evolution and/or has unique basement lithology and structures. From a regional perspective, sedimentary basins, such as the Subei Basin, the south Yellow Sea Basin, and the East China Sea Basin, normally show deeper Curie isotherms than surrounding uplifts such as the Diaoyudao Uplift and the Zhemin Uplifts. Curie isotherms also upwell significantly in volcanically active areas such as the Ryukyu Arc and the Cheju Island, confirming strong magmatic and geothermal activities at depth.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and morphology reveal a new species of Amyloporia (Basidiomycota) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bao-Kai; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Amyloporia pinea sp. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of collections from southern China. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences support this new species. Morphologically, it is characterized by resupinate, annual basidiocarps, cream to yellowish buff pore surface when fresh, which becomes yellowish brown to clay-buff upon drying, a dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and inamyloid skeletal hyphae, fusoid cystidioles, and cylindrical basidiospores; moreover, it causes a brown rot. Molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data suggested a close relationship between A. pinea and Amyloporia crassa sensu lato. Antrodia subxantha has amyloid skeletal hyphae, and grouped within the Amyloporia clade, hence, it is transferred to Amyloporia, and a new combination Amyloporia subxantha is proposed. PMID:23912447

  4. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  5. Variability of Indian summer monsoon over the past 252 kyr revealed by stalagmite record in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Fung, I. Y.; Edwards, R.; An, Z.; Cheng, H.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple proxies obtained from Arabian Sea sediments have revealed the variability of Indian summer Monsoon (ISM) on time scale of 100-105 years. These proxies mainly capture summertime winds over the Arabian Sea and our understanding of Indian summer monsoon precipitation variability; and the relationship between paleo-ISM and paleo East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) lacks precise articulation, however, due to the scarcity of high-resolution precipitation records spanning a glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present an absolutely-dated oxygen isotope record from stalagmites in Xiaobailong (XBL) cave, southwestern China, that documents the variability in local precipitation and the ISM for the past 252,000 years. This record is dominated by 23-kyr precessional cycles punctuated by prominent millennial-scale oscillations that are synchronous with Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. It also shows clear glacial-interglacial variations that are consistent with marine and other terrestrial proxies. The distinct glacial-interglacial range in XBL δ18O is larger than that of speleothem records from eastern China. Corroborated with results from an isotope-enabled global climate model, we hypothesize that these dissimilarities may reflect the different responses of ISM and EASM to changes in global circulation and moisture source, in particular those caused by glacial-interglacial sea-land configuration changes as manifested by notable coastline shifts in the Western Pacific and Maritime Continent.

  6. Pyrosequencing Reveals a Core Community of Anodic Bacterial Biofilms in Bioelectrochemical Systems from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Yue; Wu, Song; Zhang, En-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Ng, I-Son; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0-17.7%), Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e., Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas, and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study has presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potentially microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:26733958

  7. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  8. A giant spider from the Jurassic of China reveals greater diversity of the orbicularian stem group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2013-12-01

    A large female spider, Nephila jurassica, was described from Middle Jurassic strata of north-east China and placed in the modern genus Nephila (family Nephilidae) on the basis of many morphological similarities, but, as with many ancient fossils, the single specimen lacked synapomorphies of the family (Selden et al. 2011). In order to test the placement within the nephilid phylogenetic tree, Kuntner et al. (2013) calibrated the molecular phylogeny using N. jurassica in three different scenarios based on inferred mitochondrial substitution rates. They concluded that N. jurassica fitted better as a stem orbicularian than a nephilid. Now, a giant male spider has been discovered at the same locality that yielded N. jurassica. The two sexes are considered conspecific based on their similar morphological features, size, and provenance. The male cannot be accommodated in Nephilidae because of its pedipalp morphology, so the new genus Mongolarachne and family Mongolarachnidae are erected for the species. Comparison with possibly related families show that Mongolarachnidae is most likely on the orbicularian stem, close to other cribellate orbicularians (e.g., Deinopoidea), which suggests a greater diversity of cribellate orbicularians during the Middle Jurassic.

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals a core community of anodic bacterial biofilms in bioelectrochemical systems from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eXiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0-17.7%, Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e. Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potential microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems.

  10. Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Wong, Man Sing; Letu, Husi; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Sheng, Shijie; Teng, Jiyao; Xiao, Xin; Yuan, Limei

    2016-09-01

    By employing PM2.5 observation data, ground-based lidar measurements, MODIS and CALIPSO satellite images, meteorological data, and back trajectories analysis, we investigate a trans-boundary transport of aerosols during a large-area haze episode in China during 3-5 January 2015. The ground-based lidar observations indicated similar episodes of external aerosols passing through and mixing into three East China cities. A considerable amount of total AOD below 3 km (46% in average) was contributed by the external aerosol layers during passing over and importing. CALIPSO satellite observations of central and eastern China revealed a high altitude pollutant belt on January 3. Although the severest ground pollution was found in central and south-eastern Hebei, the high altitude pollution transport was greater in south-western Shandong, north-western Jiangsu, and north-western Anhui. These observations along with the analysis of air mass trajectories and wind fields indicates pollutants moving from Hebei, Henan and Hubei probably contributed to the haze pollution in Shandong and Jiangsu. This study reveals haze transports from North China Plain to East China could be a common phenomenon influenced by the winter monsoon in northern China. Hence, effective control of air pollution requires collaboration among different cities and provinces throughout China. The long-term measurements of aerosol vertical properties by ground-based lidar and CALIPSO are extremely valuable in quantifying the contributions of external factors and will be helpful in validating and improving various air quality models.

  11. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  12. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  13. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  14. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  15. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China.

  17. Relationships of Aegilops tauschii revealed by DNA fingerprints: The evidence for agriculture exchange between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiting Wei; Jun Li; Zhengsong Peng; Baorong Lu; Zhijun Zhao; Wuyun Yang

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of wild goat grass (Aegilops tauschii Cosson) from Iran and Xinjiang,west China,as well as its weedy type from the Yellow River region of Shaanxi and Henan provinces in China were analyzed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprints.A high level of genetic diversity in Aegilops tauschii accessions from Iran was observed,and the richness of genetic diversity was followed by accessions from Shaanxi,Henan,and Xinjiang.The weedy type of Aegilops tauschii showed a close genetic relationship with the wild type from different regions in Iran.The results indicated that the weedy Aegilops tauschii found in the Yellow River region was most likely introduced from lran-the diversity center of Aegilops tauschii.The weedy Aegilops tauschii populations found in the Yellow River region may be brought into the central part of China as a weed species together with common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the West during various periods of time in history.This finding has provided strong evidence for the introduction of common wheat from the West into China via the Silk Road,and also demonstrated the important role of the Silk Road in the exchange of agri-culture and other relevant technologies between China and the West.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China. PMID:26976139

  19. Severe Drought Events as Revealed in the Climate Records of China and Their Temperature Situations over the Last 1000 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De'er

    2005-01-01

    The total 15 severe droughts are discovered with the aid of the "Retrieval System of Chinese Historical Climate Records" for the last 1000 years. The droughts are extensive to envelope more than 4 provinces and persistent to cover 3 yr or more, and their severity is equivalent to or in excess of that in the 1930s in China.According to the documentary records and restorations it can be inferred that most droughts are more severe than those in the last 50 years. The 15 droughts may either occur warm or in a cold climate background,with 11 of the 15 cases in the cold phase. This indicates the difference in climate correspondence between China and northern America, showing the severity of the events in China to be in a cold instead of a warm climate situation. That is likely to relate to the monsoon climate in eastern Asia.

  20. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2016-08-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  1. Vertical characteristics revealed by biweekly and synoptic variability of upper sea temperature in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yani; ZHOU Faxiu; HUANG Fei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the sea temperature data that are observed from the three automatic temperature line acquisition sysem mooring buoys deployed in the central South China Sea (SCS) during South China Sea monsoon experiment, vertical features of biweekly and synoptic variability are discussed. There are five vertical modes, that is, subsurface temperature variability is in phase with,out of phase with, leads to, lags the surface temperature variability, and at depths within the subsurface layer the upper and lower temperature variations are out of phase. The formation of these vertical modes is related to the property of low-level atmospheric forcing and to the background in atmosphere and ocean. Wind stress curl is the main driving factor in forming Modes 1 and 3, and wind stresses in forming Modes 2 and 4.

  2. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment. PMID:26789286

  3. Epidemiological investigation reveals genetic diversity and high co-infection rate of canine bocavirus strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghua; Wang, Zhihui; Yao, Shuang; Li, Chunqiu; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Feng, Li; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-06-01

    To trace evolution of CBoV in Northeast China, 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs collected from May 2014 to April 2015 were investigated using PCR targeting partial NS1 gene (440bp). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the identified CBoV strains was conducted using nucleotide sequences of the partial NS1 gene. The results indicated that 15 of 201 fecal samples (7.5%) were positive for CBoV; the partial NS1 genes of the 15 CBoV strains exhibited 83.1%-100% nucleotide identity, and 75.8%-100% amino acid identity; the entire VP2 gene of five selected CBoV strains exhibited 82.9%-96.8% nucleotide identity, and 90.4%-99.1% amino acid identity. The 15 CBoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with CPV-2 (40%), CCoV (20%), and CaKV (26.67%). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial NS1 gene revealed that the 15 CBoV strains were divided into different subgroups of CBoV-2 when compared with CBoV-2 strains from South Korea, USA, Germany, and Hong Kong in China. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene indicated that five selected CBoV strains were divided into three different genetic groups of CBoV-2, involving in CBoV-2HK group, CBoV-2C group, and CBoV-2B group. The recombination analysis using the entire VP2 gene revealed three potential recombination events that occurred among five selected strains in our study. These data demonstrated that the CBoV strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China showed genetic diversities, potential recombination events, and high co-infection rate. Further studies will be required to address the potential pathogenic role of these diverse CBoV strains. PMID:27234529

  4. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T; Müller, J-F; Bauwens, M; De Smedt, I; Lerot, C; Van Roozendael, M; Coheur, P-F; Clerbaux, C; Boersma, K F; van der A, R; Song, Y

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices. PMID:27577535

  5. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  6. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; de Smedt, I.; Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Boersma, K. F.; van der A, R.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices.

  7. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  8. Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week%Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    On October 22nd, in the city of Shanghai, China witnessed a new era of sustainable fashion design during The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 Grand Final, organized by fashion NGO Redress, which saw ten competition finalists compete in Mainland China's inaugural mainstream sustainable fashion design competition.

  9. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per Alström; Tianlong Cai1; Paul I Holt; Hung Le Manh; Gang Song; Yang Liu; Yanyun Zhang; Fumin Lei; Canwei Xia; Pamela C Rasmussen; Urban Olsson; Bo Dai; Jian Zhao; Paul J Leader; Geoff J Carey; Lu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background:The Russet Bush Warbler Locustel a (previously Bradypterus) mandel i complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated, with one (L. seebohmi) to four (L. seebohmi, L. mandel i, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised. Methods:We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandel i complex. Results:We found that central Chinese L. mandel i differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and (wing+culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria (western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandel i, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandel i complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandel i idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L. montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically. Conclusions:We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species, which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces. The taxonomic status of the other

  10. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per; Alstr?m; Canwei; Xia; Pamela; C; Rasmussen; Urban; Olsson; Bo; Dai; Jian; Zhao; Paul; J; Leader; Geoff; J; Carey; Lu; Dong; Tianlong; Cai; Paul; I; Holt; Hung; Le; Manh; Gang; Song; Yang; Liu; Yanyun; Zhang; Fumin; Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Russet Bush Warbler Locustella(previously Bradypterus) mandelli complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated,with one(L. seebohmi) to four(L. seebohmi, L. mandelli, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised.Methods: We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandelli complex.Results: We found that central Chinese L. mandelli differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and(wing + culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b(cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria(western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandelli, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandelli complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandelli idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L.montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically.Conclusions: We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species,which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces.The taxonomic status of the other allopatric

  11. JARID2 regulates binding of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 to target genes in ES cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Diego; Cloos, Paul A C; Walfridsson, Julian;

    2010-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have an important role in controlling the expression of genes essential for development, differentiation and maintenance of cell fates. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is believed to regulate transcriptional repression by catalysing the di- and tri-methy...

  12. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  13. Geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining in the Fushun area, northeast China revealed by multitemporal satellite remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Y.F.; Fu, B.H.; Ninomiya, Y. [China Earthquake Administration, Beijing (China). Inst. of Earthquake Science

    2009-07-01

    Fushun is a famous coal-mining city in northeastern China with more than 100 years of history. Long-term underground coal mining has caused serious surface subsidence in the eastern part of the city. In this study, multitemporal and multi-source satellite remote sensing data were used to detect subsidence and geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining over a 10-year period (1996-2006). A digital elevation model (DEM) was generated through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry processing using data from a pair of European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) SAR images acquired in 1996. In addition, a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM obtained from data in 2000 and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM from 2006 were used for this study. The multitemporal DEMs indicated that the maximum vertical displacement due to subsidence was around 13 m from 1996 to 2006. Multitemporal ASTER images showed that the flooded water area associated with subsidence had increased by 1.73 km{sup 2} over the same time period. Field investigations and ground level measurements confirmed that the results obtained from the multitemporal remote sensing data agreed well with ground truth data. This study demonstrates that DEMs derived from multisource satellite remote sensing data can provide a powerful tool to map geomorphological changes associated with underground mining activities.

  14. Seasonal Trophic Shift of Littoral Consumers in Eutrophic Lake Taihu (China Revealed by a Two-Source Mixing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seasonal variation in the contributions of planktonic and benthic resources to 11 littoral predators in eutrophic Lake Taihu (China from 2004 to 2005. Seasonal fluctuations in consumer σ13C and σ15N were attributed to the combined impacts of temporal variation in isotopic signatures of basal resources and the diet shift of fishes. Based on a two-end-member mixing model, all target consumers relied on energy sources from coupled benthic and planktonic pathways, but the predominant energy source for most species was highly variable across seasons, showing seasonal trophic shift of littoral consumers. Seasonality in energy mobilization of consumers focused on two aspects: (1 the species number of consumers that relied mainly on planktonic carbon showed the lowest values in the fall and the highest during spring/summer, and (2 most consumer species showed seasonal variation in the percentages of planktonic reliance. We concluded that seasonal trophic shifts of fishes and invertebrates were driven by phytoplankton production, but benthic resources were also important seasonally in supporting littoral consumers in Meiliang Bay. Energy mobilization of carnivorous fishes was more subject to the impact of resource availability than omnivorous species.

  15. The presence of six cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex in China as revealed by crossing experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Di-Bing Sun; Bao-Li Qiu; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I(mtCOI)sequences of Bemisia tabaci worldwide indicates that the whitefly comprises at least 24 morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct cryptic species.While evidence of reproductive isolation has been reported for some of the putative species,more extensive crossing experiments are required to clarify the systematics of this species complex.In this study,we established laboratory cultures for six putative species of B.tabaci collected in China.We conducted 22 inter-species crosses among the six putative species.The data and those reported previously were collated,and the combined dataset covered all the 30 possible inter-species crosses among the six putative species.Intra-species controls always produced female and male progeny and the proportions of females in the first generation(F1)ranged from 56% to 70%.However,in inter-species crosses female progeny were rarely produced,and the few F1 females produced in four of the 30 inter-species crosses were either sterile or significantly weaker in viability.These results demonstrate a pattern of complete reproductive isolation among the six putative species and show that they are six cryptic species in the B.tabaci complex.

  16. Holocene environment changes around the Sara Us River, northern China, revealed by optical dating of lacustrine-aeolian sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Sheng, Yongwei; Li, Bo; Fan, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    The Sara Us River is located along the boundary of the Mu Us Desert and the Chinese Loess Plateau in northern China. The river has cut down through Quaternary sediments creating 70-80 m deep valleys with thick lacustrine/aeolian sequences exposed. We applied optical stimulated luminescence on sediments from a Holocene section of aeolian sand/lacustrine deposits in the top of the river valley. The dating results show that a humid period existed from 7.1 to 2.0 ka ago as evidenced by two layers of peat and lacustrine sediments. However, compared to other published Holocene sections in the Sara Us River valleys close to the section under studying, the local environment experienced very complicated changes during the Holocene. All of the sections recorded a period with drought and/or cold before the Holocene at around 13 ka, and an episode of aridity after about 2 ka ago as evidenced by the layers of aeolian sand. However, the ages of the lacustrine and peat layers in these sections are substantially different. Geomorphological analysis by digital elevation models does not support the existence of a mega lake covering the study area at 2 ka. The intricate environmental changes may have been caused by the meandering of the Sara Us River. Environmental changes also strongly affected human migration in this area, which is documented by Chinese historical records.

  17. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  18. Human induced dryland degradation in Ordos Plateau, China, revealed by multilevel statistical modeling of normalized difference vegetation index and rainfall time-series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHANG; JianMing NIU; Tongliga BAO; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; Qing ZHANG; JianJun DONG; XueFeng ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation causes serious environmental problems in many regions of the world, and although it can be effectively assessed and monitored using a time series of rainfall and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remotely-sensed imagery, dividing human-induced land degradation from vegetation dynamics due to climate change is not a trivial task. This paper presented a multilevel statistical modeling of the NDVI-rainfall relationship to detect human-induced land degradation at local and landscape scales in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, and recognized that anthropogenic activities result in either positive (land restoration and re-vegetation) or negative (degradation) trends. Linear regressions were used to assess the accuracy of the multi-level statistical model. The results show that:(1) land restoration was the dominant process in the Ordos Plateau between 1998 and 2012;(2) the effect of the statistical removal of precipitation revealed areas of human-induced land degradation and improvement, the latter reflecting successful restoration projects and changes in land man-agement in many parts of the Ordos; (3) compared to a simple linear regression, multilevel statistical modeling could be used to analyze the relationship between the NDVI and rainfall and improve the accuracy of detecting the effect of human activities. Additional factors should be included when analyzing the NDVI-rainfall relationship and detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands to improve the accuracy of the approach and elimi-nate some observed non-significant residual trends.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Two Important Groups of Maize Landraces with Same Name in China Revealed by M13 Tailed-Primer SSRs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-zhai; GUO Rong-hua; ZHAO Jiu-ran; CAI Yi-lin; WANG Feng-ge; CAO Mo-ju; WANG Rong-huan; SHI Yun-su; SONG Yan-chun; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu

    2009-01-01

    Maize landraces White Dent and Golden Queen played a very important role in the pre-hybrid era of maize production in China. However, dozens of accessions with the same names of White Dent and Golden Queen are preserved in China National Genebank (CNG). The present study investigated the genetic diversity of these two important groups of maize landraces, as well as the relationships within and among them. Thirty-four landrace accessions with the name of White Dent and 10 with Golden Queen preserved in CNG were fingerprinted with 52 simple sequence repeats with tailed primer M13. Summary statistics including average number of alleles per locus, gene diversity/expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were carried out using PowerMarker ver. 3.25 software. The test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of all the 44 maize landrace accessions were also performed by PowerMarker. We observed a significant differentiation in terms of the average number of alleles between White Dent and Golden Queen (6.44 alleles per locus in White Dent, 4.48 in Golden Queen), while both groups of maize landraces had a relatively high but similar gene diversity (0.61 of White Dent, 0.63 of Golden Queen). The fixation index (FST) was only 0.0044, while the percentage of loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within these two groups of White Dent and Golden Queen was 32.69 and 3.92%, respectively. The rather high genetic diversity and average number of alleles per locus confirmed that both groups of landraces had a rather broad germplasm base. The extremely low fixation index showed that there was little genetic variation between White Dent and Golden Queen and the molecular variation within these two groups was remarkably high, indicating no genetic drift between White Dent and Golden Queen and suggesting different improvement approaches to these two important groups of landraces. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed that the group of

  20. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010 over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas in Wuhan. A total of twelve TerraSAR-X images acquired during 2009–2010 are used in the InSAR time series analysis. InSAR-derived results are validated by levelling survey measurements and reveal a distinct subsidence pattern within six zones in major commercial and industrial areas, with a maximum subsidence rate up to −67.3 mm/year. A comparison analysis between subsiding patterns and urban developments as well as geological conditions suggests that land subsidence in Wuhan is mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities, natural compaction of soft soil, and karst dissolution of subsurface carbonate rocks. However, anthropogenic activities related to intensive municipal construction and industrial production have more significant impacts on the measured subsidence than natural factors. Moreover, remarkable signals of secular land uplift are found along both banks of the Yangtze River, especially along the southern bank, with deformation rates ranging mostly from +5 mm/year to +17.5 mm/year. A strong temporal correlation is highlighted between the detected displacement evolutions and the water level records of the Yangtze River, inferring that this previously unknown deformation phenomenon is likely related to seasonal fluctuations in water levels of the Yangtze River.

  1. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the dongting lake area of hunan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Balen; Zhao-Chun Liu; McManus, Donald P.; Giovanna Raso; Jürg Utzinger; Shui-Yuan Xiao; Dong-Bao Yu; Zheng-Yuan Zhao; Yue-Sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitab...

  2. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT or chemotherapy (CHT is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy (CHT were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001 while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028 than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001. Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001, SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049 and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016 but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834 and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055. Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  3. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  4. Isotopic composition and distribution of plutonium in northern South China Sea sediments revealed continuous release and transport of Pu from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junwen; Zheng, Jian; Dai, Minhan; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Weifang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-03-18

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in sediments of the northern South China Sea and its adjacent Pearl River Estuary were determined to examine the spatial and temporal variations of Pu inputs. We clarified that Pu in the study area is sourced from a combination of global fallout and close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands where above-ground nuclear weapons testing was carried out during the period of 1952-1958. The latter source dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as evidenced by elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) in a dated sediment core. Even after the 1950s, the Pacific Proving Grounds was still a dominant Pu source due to continuous transport of remobilized Pu from the Marshall Islands, about 4500 km away, along the North Equatorial Current followed by the transport of the Kuroshio current and its extension into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Using a simple two end-member mixing model, we have quantified the contributions of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds to the northern South China Sea shelf and the Pearl River Estuary are 68% ± 1% and 30% ± 5%, respectively. This study also confirmed that there were no clear signals of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident impacting the South China Sea.

  5. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    China relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  6. Asynchronous evolution of the isotopic composition and amount of precipitation in north China during the Holocene revealed by a record of compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotopes of long-chain n-alkanes from an alpine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhiguo; Jia, Guodong; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jianhui; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Fahu

    2016-07-01

    Both the timing of the maximum East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity in monsoonal China and the environmental significance of the Chinese stalagmite oxygen isotopic record (δ18O) have been debated. Here, we present a ca. 120-year-resolution compound-specific carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of terrestrial long-chain n-alkanes extracted from a well-dated sediment core from an alpine lake in north China. Our δ13C data, together with previously reported pollen data from a parallel core, demonstrate a humid mid-Holocene from ca. 8-5 ka BP. Assuming that the climatic humidity of north China is an indicator of the EASM intensity, then the maximum EASM intensity occurred in the mid-Holocene. Our δD data reveal a similar long-term trend to the δ18O record from nearby Lianhua Cave, indicating that the synchronous δD and δ18O records faithfully record the δD and δ18O of precipitation, respectively. The most negative δD and δ18O values occur in the early-mid Holocene, from ca. 11-5 ka BP. This contrast in the timing of isotopic variations demonstrates a complex relationship between the isotopic composition of precipitation and precipitation amount, or EASM intensity. Further comparisons indicate a possible linkage between the precipitation amount in north China and the west-east thermal gradient in the equatorial Pacific. In addition, the temperature of the moisture source area may play an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation in monsoonal China.

  7. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  8. Phylogenetic Relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus From India and China as Revealed from the Study of 12S and 16S mtDNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kr. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus from West Bengal, India with other members of the Bufonidiae group was undertaken using partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes. Mitochondria were isolated from the liver of Duttaphrynus melanostictus by a non-conventional method of membrane filtration. The technique allows trapping of mitochondria on cellulose acetate membrane followed by mtDNA isolation. 12S ribosomal RNA and 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced with primers designed in our laboratory. mtDNA sequence from 18 different Bufo sp. found across the world were used for the phylogenetic analysis. Results were interpreted from the transition/transversion of nucleotides, genetic distance and maximum parsimony analysis. The findings indicates that D. melanostictus is very closely related to the Bufo melanostictus of China. The possible reasons of such close similarity between two distantly residing species (D. melanostictus of India and Bufo melanostictus of China have been discussed.

  9. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010) over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bai; Liming Jiang; Hansheng Wang; Qishi Sun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas ...

  10. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng;

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... for the conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....

  11. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  12. High-level genetic diversity and complex population structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L. in China as revealed by nuclear SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L., an ecologically and economically important tree species with a high degree of tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, is widely distributed across the mountains of northeastern and northern China, eastern and southeastern regions of Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and the Maritime Territory of Russia. However, few studies have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Using 31 nuclear microsatellites, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot sampled from 22 populations across China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 33, with an average of 19.323 alleles. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.037 to 0.874 and 0.040 to 0.924 with average values of 0.639 and 0.774, respectively. A STRUCTURE-based analysis clustered all of the populations into four genetic clusters. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between all population pairs. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance attributed about 94% of the variation to within populations. No significant difference was detected between the wild and semi-wild groups, indicating that recent cultivation practices have had little impact on the genetic diversity of Siberian apricot. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance among the populations was not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.4651, p = 0.9940. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot in China to date, and it provides valuable information for the collection of genetic resources for the breeding of Siberian apricot and related species.

  13. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng;

    2011-01-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related...... value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities....

  14. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Boeva, Valentina; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is thought to participate in the early maintenance of the inactive state. Although Xist RNA is essential for the recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate th...

  15. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China.

  16. Revealed comparative advantage and competitiveness of China's agricultural products%中国主要农产品的显性比较优势及竞争力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹晶

    2005-01-01

    本文在大量数据的基础上测算了1980-2003年期间中国部分农产品的显性比较优势指数及其比较竞争力.测算结果表明中国在可食用蔬菜、茶叶等农产品上仍然具有比较优势,但是24年来中国农产品的显性比较优势指数呈现下降趋势.%This paper deals with the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, base on the index of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) using lots of data for the period of 1980 to 2003. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage. The research indicates that some agro-products in China such as edible vegetables and tea have a comparative advantage, but the RCA values have been declining over the 24-year period, which has vast impacts on future reform in China's agricultural structure.

  17. Temporal 222Rn distributions to reveal groundwater discharge into desert lakes: Implication of water balance in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Wang, Xu-sheng; Liu, Kun

    2016-03-01

    How lake systems are maintained and water is balanced in the lake areas in the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD), northeast of China have been debated for about a decade. In this study, continuous 222Rn measurement is used to quantify groundwater discharge into two representative fresh and brine water lakes in the desert using a steady-state mass-balance model. Two empirical equations are used to calculate atmospheric evasion loss crossing the water-air interface of the lakes. Groundwater discharge rates yielded from the radon mass balance model based on the two empirical equations are well correlated and of almost the same values, confirming the validity of the model. The fresh water and brine lakes have a daily averaged groundwater discharge rate of 7.6 ± 1.7 mm d-1 and 6.4 ± 1.8 mm d-1, respectively. The temporal fluctuations of groundwater discharge show similar patterns to those of the lake water level, suggesting that the lakes are recharged from nearby groundwater. Assuming that all the lakes have the same discharge rate as the two studied lakes, total groundwater discharge into all the lakes in the desert is estimated to be 1.59 × 105 m3 d-1. A conceptual model of water balance within a desert lake catchment is proposed to characterize water behaviors within the catchment. This study sheds lights on the water balance in the BJD and is of significance in sustainable regional water resource utilization in such an ecologically fragile area.

  18. A Study of the Driving Force Model Revealing Changes in Land Utilization Level Based on 3S Technologies--The Example of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin-feng; CHEN Guo-jie; YANG Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the theory and approaches of building driving force models revealing the changes in land utilization level by integrating RS, GPS, and GIS technologies based on the example of Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province. We first created the land utilization type database, natural driving forces for land utilization database, and human driving forces for land utilization database. Then we obtained the dependent and the independent variables of changes in land utilization level by exploring various data. Lastly we screened major factors affecting changes in land utilization level by using the po- werful spatial correlation analysis and main component analysis module of GIS and obtained a multivariable linear regression model of the changes in land utilization level by using GIS spatial regression analysis module.

  19. Genome wide analysis of narcolepsy in China implicates novel immune loci and reveals changes in association prior to versus after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in narcolepsy, an autoimmune disorder affecting hypocretin (orexin neurons and recently associated with H1N1 influenza, have demonstrated significant associations with five loci. Using a well-characterized Chinese cohort, we refined known associations in TRA@ and P2RY11-DNMT1 and identified new associations in the TCR beta (TRB@; rs9648789 max P = 3.7 × 10(-9 OR 0.77, ZNF365 (rs10995245 max P = 1.2 × 10(-11 OR 1.23, and IL10RB-IFNAR1 loci (rs2252931 max P = 2.2 × 10(-9 OR 0.75. Variants in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA- DQ region were associated with age of onset (rs7744020 P = 7.9×10(-9 beta -1.9 years and varied significantly among cases with onset after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic compared to previous years (rs9271117 P = 7.8 × 10(-10 OR 0.57. These reflected an association of DQB1*03:01 with earlier onset and decreased DQB1*06:02 homozygosity following 2009. Our results illustrate how genetic association can change in the presence of new environmental challenges and suggest that the monitoring of genetic architecture over time may help reveal the appearance of novel triggers for autoimmune diseases.

  20. Deflation in China (1997 - 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990's and after the turn of the century, the problem of deflation dramatically emerged in China and in other countries. Since the 'open door' policy the economy in China has been growing relatively fast. Available statistical data reveal that the growth process in China between 1997 and 2000 was accompanied by a deflation. The economic development in China is observed with great attention in business circles and by scientists. The goal of this dissertation is the theoretical and econo...

  1. Population Structure of‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in China Revealed by SSR Markers%基于SSR标记的中国亚洲韧皮杆菌种群结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱军; 苏华楠; 王雪峰; 唐科志; 李中安; 周常勇

    2014-01-01

    of this research was to investigate the population structure of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in China by multi SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci. [Method] To identify the polymorphism of SSR loci in the genome of Ca. L. asiaticus, 25 reported SSR primer sets were tested using DNA samples obtained from HLB-affected plants from 8 provinces of China. The selected SSR loci were used to analyze 285 samples by PCR and PAGE electrophoresis. The software Quantity One 4.5.0 was applied to estimate the base pairs of the amplicons. The polymorphism of 285 samples in the selected loci were evaluated via the software PopGen version 1.31, and the clustering analysis was performed by software Powermarker 3.25 and structure 2.3.4.[Result]A total of 5 SSR loci were identified, with Nei’s gene diversity index ranging from 0.1542 to 0.9556. The locus LasA showed high diversity. Its effective number of allele (NE) and Nei’s gene diversity (H) were 22.5 and 0.9556, respectively. Analysis on population structure of Ca. L. asiaticus of China from different geographical samples revealed that the isolates from Yunnan province had high diversity, (NE=5.7, H=0.6580). The genetic distance of different geographical populations ranged from 0.0236 to 0.5786 and genetic identity ranged from 0.5607 to 0.9767. The longest genetic distance and lowest genetic identity were identified from the geographical population between Guangxi and Sichuan. The clustering analysis indicated all isolates from China were clustered into two groups. One is from Sichuan and Yunnan, the other is from Fujian, Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong and Jiangxi. Structure analysis also showed the populations of Yunnan and Sichuan were constituted nearly by a single group and the rest of them were made up by mixed groups. [Conclusion]There are possible two kinds of different population structures of Ca. L. asiaticus in China by using the selected SSR markers and the results of this study will provide better

  2. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  3. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...... through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges...

  4. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  5. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  6. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  7. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  8. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  9. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  10. Infrastructure development and economic growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    SAHOO, Pravakar; Dash, Ranjan Kumar; Nataraj, Geethanjali

    2010-01-01

    China is the fastest growing country in the world for last few decades and one of the defining features of China's growth has been investment-led growth. China's sustained high economic growth and increased competitiveness in manufacturing has been underpinned by a massive development of physical infrastructure. In this context, we investigate the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth in China for the period 1975 to 2007. Overall, the results reveal that infrastructure stock, la...

  11. 山地灾害和人类活动干扰下九寨沟下季节海的沉积变化%Environmental Change Revealed by Lake Sedimentation in Jiuzhaigou National Reserve, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼; 唐亚; 乔雪; 肖维阳; 蹇代军

    2011-01-01

    九寨沟是我国旅游强度最大的山地旅游地之一,山地灾害是其旅游发展过程中面临的主要挑战.为了探讨山地灾害和人类活动对湖泊生态系统的影响,以下季节海湖泊沉积物为研究对象,利用137Cs和210Pb建立年代标尺,对沉积物粒度进行了分析.137Cs和210Pb定年法确定湖底下38.5 cm处为1952年的沉积物,50 cm处为1848年的;沉积物粒度分析结果显示,剖面内中值粒径平均值偏大,沉积速率和粗颗粒含量在1952年之后呈明显增大趋势.结果表明,沉积物来源主要是泥石流等山地灾害造成的泥砂人湖、旅游开发过程中道路等基础设施建设带来的颗粒物质;湖泊沉积对流域内的山地灾害,如泥石流等有较好的响应;森林采伐和旅游开发在一定程度上促进了湖泊沉积.%Jiuzhaigou is one of the most popular mountain tourist destinations in China. Fast increasing visitors, geological and mountain hazards and human activities like logging and construction of roads are recognized as the main challenges in sustainable tourism development. Grain size of sediments of the lower Seasonal Lake in Jiuzhaigou was studied in order to understand the responses of sedimentation to geological events, mountain hazards and human activities like earthquake, logging and road construction. 137Cs and 210Pb dating identified the 38. 5 cm of the profile to be the year 1952, and 50 cm 1848. Grain size analysis revealed that the average value of the profile was somewhat coarse and that the deposition rate and percentage of sand after 1952 were considerably increased. Occurrence of geological events in the region such as earthquakes and local mountain hazards like landslides and debris flows were well represented in the sediments. Construction of infrastructure, like roads, walk boards and other service facilities , has contributed to the present composition of grains of different sizes. Logging in the late 1960s to the mid

  12. Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LisaChiu

    2003-01-01

    CHINA-Enabling A New Era of Changes paints a comprehensive and extremely up-to-date look at the current growth trends in China and examines ways to maintain this fast-paced growth for future generations.

  13. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  14. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  15. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  16. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  17. Origin and lateral migration of linear dunes in the Qaidam Basin of NW China revealed by dune sediments, internal structures, and optically stimulated luminescence ages, with implications for linear dunes on Titan: discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.; Rubin, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Zhou et al. (2012) proposed that longitudinal dunes in the Qaidam Basin, China, formed like yardangs: by erosion into sediment that was not deposited by those dunes. Because erosion occurs on the upwind flanks of most migrating dunes (Rubin and Hunter, 1982, 1985), the key to demonstrating a yardang-like origin is to show that the dunes did not deposit the strata that they contain. Zhou et al. made this argument by proposing that: (1) The dunes have not deposited cross-strata in the past 810 yr. (2) Cross-bedding within the dunes was not deposited by the dunes on the present-day land surface, but rather by older dunes that had a different morphology. (3) The present dunes are a later generation, “most likely of erosional origin similar to yardangs with orientations controlled by strikes of joints,” (p. 1147). (4) Rates of deflation in the dune field have been extremely high for the past 810–2440 yr. This commentary reviews these conclusions, reviews contradictory observations, and considers alternative interpretations.

  18. NOx Change over China and Its Influences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu(刘煜); I. S. A. ISAKSEN; J. K. SUNDET; HE Jinhai(何金海); YAN Peng(颜鹏)

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of the increase of NOx emission over China.The model is capable to reproduce basically the seasonal variation of surface NOx and ozone over eastern China.NOx emission data and observations reveal that NOx over easternChina increases quite quickly with the economic development of China.Model results indicate that NOxconcentration over eastern China increasingly rises with the increase of NOx emission over China,and accelerates to increase in winter.When the NOx emission increases from 1995 to its double,the ratio of NO2/NOx abruptly drops in winter over northern China.Ozone at the surface decreases in winter with the continual enhancement of the NOx level over eastern China,but increases over southern China in summertime.It is noticeable that peak ozone over northern China increases in summer although mean ozone changes little.In summer,ozone increases in the free troposphere dominantly below 500 hPa.Moreover,the increases of total ozone over eastern China are proportional to the increases of NOx emission.In a word,the model results suggest that the relationship between NOx and ozone at the surface would change with NOx increase.

  19. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  20. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  1. Comparison of communities of both methane-producing and metabolizing archaea and bacteria in sediments between the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao eZhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME archaea and aerobic methantrophic bacteria were compared by profiling mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clade 1,2 and Methanomassiliicoccus like groups of methanogens were the most abundant constitutional parts in nSCS sediment samples . Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was completely updated. Mai Po mangrove wetland surface layer exhibited lower diversity than subsurface, but similar community structures were shared in both layers. Quantitative PCR was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4~3.9×106 copies per gram dry weight and of intertidal mudflat (5.5~5.8×106 copies per gram dry weight was observed, but higher abundance (6.9×106 to 1.02×108 copies per gram dry weight was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were more abundant in surface layers (6.7~11.1×105 copies per gram dry weight than the subsurface layers (1.2~5.9×105copies per gram dry weight based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal, but fewer abundant pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51×108 copies per g dry weight and pmoA gene (1.56×107 copies per g dry weight.

  2. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  3. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  4. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Despite sweeping natural disasters,China is on track to achieve a bounti tul harvest for this autumn's grain yield,which usually accounts for three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu. With the autumn harvest secured,win ter planting is already underway across the country,said Han.

  5. China's Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the spread of the global financial turmoil.China is Under growing tension from its large population,limited resource,environment Problems,and losing its competitive edge in the world as exports are being driven down by shrinking demand abroad as well as higher costs.

  6. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  7. Chinese Commercial Banks Risk Management Practices: A Research in China Banking Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...

  8. THIRSTY CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions have blighted much of China over the past year and a pattern of increasing drought has emerged. The problem is both economic and human. Swathes of farmland have been hit by drought leading to production losses and millions of people have had difficulty accessing fresh water. While the government is attempting to tackle the issue,increasingly dry weather is something that could prove a long-term problem for the countryA rare longdrought has had severe consequences across China and brought up difficult auestions about the thecause"Guilin tops the world in landscape"is a well-accepted saying for Chinese people. Guilin is a city and tourist resort in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and attracts many people because of its charming beauty,

  9. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  10. Designed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's embrace ofthe automobile over the past decade has been staggering.A total of 13.6 million vehicles were sold in China in 2009,when China overtook the United States as world's largest car market.

  11. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  12. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  13. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  14. Poverty in China seen from outer space

    OpenAIRE

    Almås, Ingvild; Johnsen, Åshild Auglænd; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of poverty are highly sensitive to price and income measures across time and space. This paper offers a complementary approach to traditional poverty measurement that ensures comparability: we use nighttime light as a proxy for poverty measurement. We measure the percentage of populated areas in China with no nighttime light, and the percentage of the population living in these areas.Between 1992 and 2005, both measures reveal a steady decrease in poverty in China. From 2005 to 2010...

  15. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.

  16. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhiwei; ZHAIPanmao; ZHANGHongtao

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions disolaved different trends.

  17. Essays on trade liberalization and the environment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fangya

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with understanding the relationship between trade liberalization and the environment in the context of China. Four empirical essays are conducted to investigate different aspects of the nexus. We first look at the changing patterns of revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries for China and other countries to examine whether dirty industries have `migrated' from developed countries to China as a result of an environmental regulatory gap. The attention ...

  18. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. PMID:25270734

  19. The crustal growth and evolution of North China Craton: Revealed by Hf isotopes in detrital zircons from modern rivers%华北克拉通地壳生长和演化:来自现代河流碎屑锆石Hf同位素组成的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    第五春荣; 孙勇; 王倩

    2012-01-01

    The outstanding questions is how to quantitatively estimate the rate of growth of the continental crust and the proportion of juvenile material added to the crust at any given time during its evolution. In recent years, the U-Pb and Hf isotopic composition of detrital zircons provide an effective and simple approach to constrain the periods and rate of continental growth. In order to characterize the crustal growth history of North China Craton, 187 detrital zircons in two sand samples from the lower reach of Jing River and the Luo River were measured for Lu-Hf isotopic compositions by LA-MC-ICPMS. Compared with the global continental crust, the North China Craton shows a characteristic of episodic continental growth rate. For instance, about 60% of the present crustal volume of the North China Craton was generated in the between Mesoarchean and Late Neoarchean (3. 0 to 2. 5Ga). Since then, the continental crust keeps a stable rate of growth and completely formed at the end of the Neoproterozoic (600Ma). It indicates that the present crustal of the North China Craton was mainly growth during Archean and Proterozoic, and the juvenile additions to the continental crust are almost negligible during Phanerozoic. Combined with the available studies and the early Precambrian crust growth curves of based on U-Pb ages, two-stage Hf crust formation ages(tDM2Cand tNO2C)and εHf(t) , our results also reveal that — 2. 7Ga and ~2. 5Ga are the most prominent time of magmatism and the period of continental rapidly growth, respectively. Indicating that the North China Craton has been experienced obviously twice crustal growth.%定量地给出大陆地壳生长速率以及生长量随时间的演化是研究大陆地壳形成与演化的核心问题之一.近年来,利用沉积岩和沉积物中碎屑锆石的U-Pb年龄和Hf同位素组成已成为目前研究大陆地壳生长和演化最为简捷、有效的工具.本文对来自华北克拉通西

  20. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music...... attractiveness of the Chinese market. Mandopop and rock music are carefully integrated, while national/international artists and companies engage in self-censorship and thereby support the mainstream ideology. The transformation of Chinese pop reflects necessary steps towards cultural liberalism, yet it is based...

  1. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  2. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  3. China Textile "Going Our"——Egypt, Opporthity for China Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has made a huge impact on China export-based enterprises,among which the first affected industry was textile industry.According to the latest reports from China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued in November 2008,revealed that profits for the textile industry in China that had increased 36.9% in 2007,and decreased by 0.7% for the same period in 2008.This amounted in a total loss of RMB 22.13 billion,an increase of 97.7%,with the scope of loss reaching up to 20.4%.

  4. Evolutionary Characteristics of China's Intermediate Manufactures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsung Kang; Jeong-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    China's economic development is characterized by progressive integration with international production chains as an assembly producer. Japan and South Korea are the major partners providing intermediate products to China. The present paper analyzes the Chinese intermediate sector's present condition and evolutionary characteristics revealed in bilateral trade with Japan and South Korea. The analysis uses the framework of new trade theory represented by "intra-industry trade". Trade statistics from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed using the database published by the OECD. Results show that China's inter-industrial evolution is characterized by its expanding positioning in the manner of the flying geese development paradigm of Asian countries. Furthermore, intra-industrial evolution is characterized by a concentration on price competitiveness. The framework and results of the industrial analysis presented in this paper assist in the understanding of China's manufacturing evolution and of the policy-making decisions taken in the process.

  5. An Analysis of Intra-Industry Trade between Japan, Malaysia and China

    OpenAIRE

    M. Affendy Arip; Lau Sim Yee; Madono Satoru

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the bilateral trade pattern between Japan, Malaysia and China (JMC) using the intra-industry trade (IIT) index analysis. Our empirical findings revealed the following. First, China shows a higher degree of IIT relation with Japan vis-à-vis Malaysia. Second, to the extent of whether rapid manufacturing development in China is affecting Malaysia’s export to Japan, our analytical evidence demonstrates that the degree of overlapping exports to Japan by Malaysia and China h...

  6. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  7. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  8. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  9. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  10. An Analysis of Southeast Asian Firms' Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaishengZeng

    2004-01-01

    Economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asian economies is increasingly attracting the attention of policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners. Firms from Southeast Asia have been playing an important role in China's utilization of foreign direct investment, though most of these firms have been viewed as small, labor-intensive, and ordinary in technology. This paper reveals one important dimension of economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia. It investigates the factors that influence Southeast Asian firms' investments in Guangdong, which is one of the largest provinces in China in terms of utilization of foreign direct investment, and it tries to answer the question of what make Southeast Asian firms invest in China in a large scale and in the way of advancing waves.T he research outcomes contribute to the knowledge of the changing economic relations between China and Southeast Asia.

  11. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  12. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  13. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  14. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  15. China Meets G7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵福

    2004-01-01

    Parties held by the wealthy, seldom welcome poor guests. But last week China made it through the doors into a gathering of the world's richest countries. Jin Renqing, China's finance minister, and Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of the People's Bank of China, joined a meeting of the Group of Seven'on October. It is the first time that China has had direct talks with the club.

  16. Geoinformatics Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Gong, J; Yue, P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by th...

  17. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  18. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  19. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  20. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  1. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  2. Soilless culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhilong

    2003-01-01

    Soilless culture in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The area of soilless culture in China was about0.1 ha in 1985, 117 ha in 1995, but in 2002 the area reached to 865 ha. This paper introduced the brief history of soillessculture in China, and the main soilless culture systems. The present situation and problems are also discussed in thispaper.

  3. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  4. CHINA PRINT 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Introduction CHINA PRINT 2009, the Seventh Beijing International Printing Technology Exhibition, will be held at New China International Exhibition Center from May 12 to 16, 2009.CHINA PRINT, known as the Olympics of China’s print-ing and printing related business, has been organized onceevery four years since 1984 by PEIAC and CIEC. It has be-come one of the

  5. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  6. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  7. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  8. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published......China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...

  9. Luxury Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, the level of capital income is expanding significantly. The size of the rich population in China is becoming larger than ever. At the same time, the luxury market of China is also showing great vitality. There is no doubt that China is already the luxury market with the most growth potential. With increasing numbers of high-end consumer goods now being sold, the consumption gap between China and the world is being gradually shortened. And Chinese...

  10. The Research of International Competitiveness of Textile and Clothing Industry of China%中国纺织服装业国际竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏性

    2005-01-01

    The paper measures international competitiveness of textile and clothing industry of China by using revealed comparative advantage coefficient, analyses the main factors to determine the current competitiveness, and provides some suggestions to keep the competitiveness of the industry of China.

  11. Revealing Cosmic Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amit P S; Keating, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological Birefringence (CB), a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such non-standard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the $B$-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that $EB$ correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The $EB$ based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of $B$-mode...

  12. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  13. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  14. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  15. Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahua Wang; Angang Hu

    2007-01-01

    Based on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and in other countries. The results show that since China's reform and opening up, knowledge, international, human and physical capital have grown rapidly, with speeds of growth higher than that of economic growth. As the five types of capital have all increased at varying paces, the savings level of total capital in China has quadrupled in 25 years and overtook that of the USA in the 1990s. The changes in the five types of capital and total capital reveal that there are progressively multiple driving forces behind China's rapid economic development. Implications for China's long-term economic development are thereby raised.

  16. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  17. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping the...... world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  18. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  19. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  20. Governing uranium in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patton Schell, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is playing an increasingly prominent role in China's long-term strategic energy calculus. In response, China is responding by producing more uranium domestically, buying more uranium on the international market, and investing heavily in overseas uranium properties. At the same time, China has been updating its nuclear regulations over the last three decades, resulting in a myriad of regulatory agencies with widely varying responsibilities related to implementing uranium regulati...

  1. "CHINA IS MY HOME"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>AMemoir of More Than 80 Years in China by Israel Epstein was translated into Chinese and published by the New World Press in April this year to celebrate the author’s 89th birthday. The 415-page book tells about his love for China, his profound friendly sentiments towards the Chinese people, his great expectation for the construction of new China and his confidence in the bright prospects for its future.

  2. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  3. IBF Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  4. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  5. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  6. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  7. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  8. China Satcom Merged Into CASC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Satellite Communications Corporation (China Satcom) merged with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently on the request under regrouping and structure readjustment by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

  9. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  10. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  11. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  12. Sony Style in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aince the normalization of the diplomatic ties between China and Japan,the bilateral economic relations have deepened continually.According to the statistic of Japan,China passed U.S.to become Japan's top trade partner as well as is the second Iargest export market for Japan and is the largest import resource for Japan.Japan companies such as Mitsui,Sumitomo,Sony and Panasonic,have set the subsidiaries in China and explored their scales.This year 2008 marks the 30th anniversary of the signing of the China Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

  13. The Review of The Development of Business English in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绚

    2004-01-01

    the purposes of this paper are to overview and evaluate the development of Business English in China. It will firstly cover what is known about BE in present China from school campus to training courses, and secondly reveal what are problems posed in Business English Education here. In doing this, the description of BE characteristics will be followed, the relationship between BE and EAP will be folded and even the history of Business English will be summarized bellowed to support the review of BE in China today.

  14. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    China has experienced a period of tremendous economic growth in recent years. In an attempt to explain this development, several existing growth-accounting studies reveal that impressively high rates of productivity growth have been at the heart of China's performance. This study investigates...... to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China...

  15. Foreign Grain Security Mechanisms and Implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhua; CAO; Lei; NIE; Weipeng; MA

    2014-01-01

    With constant growth of China’s population and increasingly serious situation of farmland protection,the grain security has become a hot issue of China.This study firstly elaborated grain security measures in grain exporters,such as the United States,Australia,and EU,and grain importers such as Japan,South Korea and India.In line with these security measures,it analyzed implementation background of these policies.Finally,combining social and economic development situations and natural resource endowment of China,it revealed the implications of these measures for China and came up with policy recommendations for China’s grain security.

  16. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  17. Revealing the Beast Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  18. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model. PMID:16225277

  19. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  20. The Media in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, John

    1980-01-01

    Provides a brief history of television and radio in China and describes the use of television, radio, and film there, noting the number of television sets, radios, public loudspeakers, and cinemas. Article is comprised of extracts from the author's 193-page publication "China Media Industry Report 1980." (JD)

  1. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China

  2. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China and the composer who is the pride of Poland will be on show this year.

  3. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  4. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  5. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  7. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  8. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  9. Wecome to CHINA FOUNDRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With publication of this issue,CHINA FOUNDRY has gone through four years of history. Many thanks to the more than fifty members of the editorial board and the expert referees from home and USA,UK,Japan etc.,who guarantee high quality papers for publication in CHINA FOUNDRY.

  10. University of Petroleum, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The University of Petroleum, China, sponsored and supervised by China National Petroleum Corporation,isone of the State key universities,The university provides mainly engineering programs,but also includes programs in science and management.Both soft and hard sciences are taught here.

  11. CHARTING CHINA'S NEW COURSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China aims to achieve "major breakthroughs" in economic restructuring and will take reform as "a powerful driving force"to accelerate the transformation of its economic development pattern. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) made its intentions clear after approving a blueprint for the next five years on its fifth plenary session, which ended on October 18.

  12. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong ana

  13. Luxury Loves China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ With luxury sales in the rest of the world either shrinking or growing more slowly,it showcased a completely different scene in China. Although not immune to the global economic crisis, the country has suffered far less than others,and the continued health of China's luxury market makes it an oasis of hope and possibility in a recession-battered world.

  14. Probing China's Lysine Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The lysine sector in China developed further in 2006. Both the capacity and the output hit new highs and China had a major impact on the global lysine market. The import amount of lysine satisfied only a very small portion of the domestic market's demand.

  15. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  16. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  17. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  18. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  19. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  20. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  1. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  2. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  3. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  4. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  5. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  6. Petaflop supercomputers of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After ten years of development, high performance computing (HPC) in China has made remarkable progress. In November, 2010, the NUDT Tianhe-1A and the Dawning Nebulae respectively claimed the 1st and 3rd places in the Top500 Supercomputers List; this recognizes internationally the level that China has achieved in high performance computer manufacturing.

  7. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  8. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)

  9. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Benjamin A

    2007-09-01

    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  10. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  11. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  12. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  13. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  14. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  15. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  16. Education Abroad, Human Capital Development, and National Competitiveness: China's Brain Gain Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This is a documentary study of education abroad policy in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between 1978 and 2009. By examining the dynamics underpinning the PRC state's efforts to shape the flow of Chinese students and scholars from and into China, this article reveals the major strategies that have enabled education abroad to become a source…

  17. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  18. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  19. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Chinese Agricultural Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, in relation to the rest of the world, based on the index of revealed comparative advantage, using lots of data during period of 1980 to 2000. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage, though a problem exits when using it. China is shown to have a comparative advantage in a range of agricultural products, including edible vegetables and tea. This complements the findings of those studies that have used price and cost based on approaches in identifying competitiveness in agricultural products. Results indicated that the RCA values had been weakening over the 21-year period. These have vastly different implication for the future reform in China's agriculture.

  20. Deepening Health Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Health Organization,; Ministry of Finance, P.R.C.; National Health and Family Planning Commission, P.R.C.; Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, P.R.C.

    2016-01-01

    At a meeting in July 2014 in Beijing, we committed to working together on a flagship report that would help set the direction for health sector reform in China. This report, Deepening Health Reform in China, is the result. Using the successful model offered by previous flagship reports like China 2030 and Urban China, this report primarily offers a blueprint for a new direction for China’s health sector. The report’s main theme is the need for China to transition...

  1. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  2. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  3. The Spiders of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sevaral books about Chinese spider systematics and biology have been published,mostly since the later 1970s and the majority of then are designed as classification guides to the spider fauna of a particular area of China,or focused on a particular group ,for example Fauna of Zhejiang Province ,Araneida and Salticids of China. The newly published book "The Spiders of China",in English,differs from all others by including all 2361 described Chinese spider species and by reviewing literature of over 200 years of work on Chinese spider classification.

  4. A Trip to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Martin

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:The Vermont School of Colombia is one of the few middle schools in the country that teaches Chinese as the second foreign language.In early June 2013,a 77-member student delegation came to China to attend a summer camp jointly hosted by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC)and the North China University of Technology(NCUT).The following is an essay written in Chinese by a Colombian student recording his tour in China.

  5. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spen......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  6. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spen......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  7. Analysis on Climatic Characteristics of the Precipitation Anomaly in Southwest China in Recent 60 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Rong; PANG; Jing; QIN; Jun

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the precipitation anomaly in southwest China from 1951 to 2010. [Method] Based on monthly precipitation data at 44 stations of southwest China and 160 stations of China from 1951 to 2010, by using EOF analysis, wavelet analysis and composite analysis, monthly and seasonal change rules of the precipitation in southwest China were analyzed. Corresponding spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the precipitation in drought and flood years were studied. Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the precipitation anomaly in southwest China in recent 60 years were revealed. [Result]Seasonal distribution of the precipitation in southwest China was uneven and was typical single-peak type. Precipitation concentrated from May to September, and peak appeared in July. In recent years, rainfall in autumn significantly became less, while that in other seasons had no obvious change. Precipitation in summer had the cycle of 14 years, another for 6 years and 3-4 years of periodic oscillations. In wet years, precipitation in southwest China had same phase with that in southern China, and anti-phase with that in the junction of Qinghai, Gansu, Xinjiang and Tibet. In dry years, precipitation in southwest China had same phase with that in the eastern part of northwest China and northern China. [Conclusion]The research provided reference basis for prediction and pre-warning of the precipitation in the zone.

  8. Japan's China Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01

    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  9. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  10. Winter Storms Paralyze China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Severe snowstorms over broad swaths of eastern and central China have wreaked havoc on traffic throughout the country, creating gigantic passenger backups, spawning acci- dents and leaving at least 24 people dead, according to

  11. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  12. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  13. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  14. China's New Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ The RMB4-trillion stimulus package is a bold move, but the economy still needs attention China unveiled a massive spending package in November to bolster investment and consumption as exports falter amid the global economic slowdown.

  15. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  16. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  17. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  18. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  19. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  20. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  1. Rural Transformation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThe history of China is marked by peasant rebellions which, when they succeeded, occasionally led to mitigation of extreme inequality and oppression and a change in dynasty but without substantial reorganization of the social structure.

  2. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  3. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  4. Orphan Care in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng, Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Orphan care in China was once provided by the central government as a means of social control. The centralized welfare delivery guaranteed some of the poorest orphans to be protected by the government. Since the economic reform, the central government started to relinquish its control over social welfare delivery, new forms of orphan care were introduced into China, sharing the responsibilities and burdens for caring the orphans. Yet, many issues and problems exist in social delivery due to a lack of finances, professionals, and policy support. In this chapter, we will discuss the background of social welfare changes in China, as pertains to orphan care, focusing on the different types of orphans as a result of social issues, service delivery, barriers and solutions. It is claimed that during the reform, the burden of orphan care in China may not be reduced in the coming future, and we offer suggestions to cope with that.

  5. Trade Unions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Li; David Metcalf

    2006-01-01

    China apparently has more trade union members than the rest of the world put together. But as David Metcalf and Jianwei Li have found, Chinese unions function very differently from unions in the West.

  6. An Analysis of Trade Structure,Comparative Advantage and Complementarity of Agricultural Products between China and the Main East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; WANG

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of describing trade value and trade structure of agricultural products between China and main countries in East Asia,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and trade complementarity index to calculate the comparative advantage and complementarity between China and Japan,Korea and ASEAN countries. The research shows that the trade complementarity of agricultural products between China and Japan & Korea is weak,but the complementarity of some agricultural products between China and Japan is very strong. The trade competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural products between China and ASEAN coexist,and there is strong cooperative potential between China and ASEAN.

  7. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).

  8. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).……

  9. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  10. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  11. Book review: Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Sin Yee

    2013-01-01

    "Urban China." Xuefei Ren. Polity. March 2013. --- Currently there are more than 125 Chinese cities with a population exceeding one million. The unprecedented urban growth in China presents a crucial development for studies on globalization and urban transformation. This book examines the past trajectories, present conditions, and future prospects of Chinese urbanization, by investigating five key themes – governance, migration, landscape, inequality, and cultural economy. Sin Yee Koh fin...

  12. The Elements of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING; WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Visitors flocked to the World Expo site in Shanghai when the grand fair officially opened to the public on May 1.The most visited pavilions on that day were the theme pavilions,the China Pavilion and China's joint provincial pavilions,said Hong Hao,Director of the Bureau of Shanghai World Expo Coordination at a press conference on the Expo's first day of operation.

  13. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  14. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  15. Minority languages of China

    OpenAIRE

    Poa, Dory; LaPolla, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter looks at language endangerment in the People's Republic of China, focusing on three of the main factors that influence language maintenance in China today: increased contact due to population movements and changes in the economy; the population policies of the government, particularly the identification of nationalities and languages; and the education system, particularly bilingual education. Finally, we give a brief account of the major efforts to document endangered languages.

  16. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  17. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  18. China's Regional Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shimin

    2005-01-01

    @@ China is a vast country with a long history and splendid culture. One reason for this is that the Chinese nation consists of many ethnic groups. They have lived, procreated, struggled and made creative achievements on this land for several thousand years. China is a big family consisting of 56 ethnic groups. While the Han ethnic group has the largest population, the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, so they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities."

  19. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  20. Is China becoming more Aggressive? A Neo-classical Realist Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I seek to improve the dominant neorealist analysis of China's rise. I offer a neoclassical realist analytical framework in order to identify the influence of certain Chinese domestic developments and priorities on Chinese foreign and security policy behavior. Rather than reflecting...... a more self-confident and aggressive China, developments in Chinese foreign and security policy in recent years reveal an internally conflicted, inward-looking, and reactive China not yet ready for its new international role. Beijing is uncertain how to manage the challenges and the inevitable tension......, both domestically and internationally, arising from China's rapid development....

  1. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  2. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  3. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Equine Influenza Viruses (H3N8 from China, 2010~2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu1,§, Jie Chen2,§, Wei Guo1,§, Ting Qi1,§, Liping Zhao1, Hongmei Li1, Yuanyuan Ji1, Zheng Wang1, Cuiyun Liu1, Shihua Zhao1 and Wenhua Xiang1,*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two equine influenza virus (EIV strains were isolated during two restricted outbreaks from Heilongjiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of HA1 (hemagglutinin 1 gene revealed that the isolates belonged to Florida 2 sublineage of American lineage. Further analysis of the putative antigenic sites located in HA1 subunit protein revealed each isolate had a unique amino acid change. Analysis of antigenic sites between Chinese EIV and vaccine strains indicated equine influenza (EI vaccines containing Richmond/1/07-like antigen seemed to have an optimum effect in China. Meanwhile, the Ohio/03 vaccine strain contained in updated ProteqFlu had the most closely genetically relationship with recent EIV isolates in China. China has not its own commercially available EI vaccine and most horses are still unvaccinated. Therefore, to monitor antigenic variation of circulating EIVs and give considerable suggestions on selection of vaccine candidate plays an important role in preventing and controlling EIV in China.

  5. China Eximbank:A Bridge Linking China and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Established in 1994 and solely owned by the central government, The ExportImport Bank of China (China Eximbank)is a government policy bank under the direct leadership of the State Council.……

  6. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  7. [Population programme of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Z

    1982-01-29

    Results of population programs started in China during the last decade have attracted worldwide attention. The Chinese population issues are important due to the following characteristics: 1) China is the most populated country in the world, with over 1 billion people (22% of world population), by the end of 1980; 2) its population is 80% rural; 3) despite improved living conditions that have helped lower the mortality rate from over 20/1000 before Liberation to 10/1000 in the 1960s and finally 6-8/1000 during the last decade, the Chinese population has increased from 540 million soon after Liberation to the current 1 billion, with an average yearly growth rate of 2%; 4) China has a young population, with 36.8% under 14 years old and less than 5% over 65, hence education and employment are big issues; and 5) due to longterm backward economy resulting from feudal and colonial influence before Liberation, efforts in developing a strong Chinese economy have met with many obstacles. The above 5 features of the Chinese population have important bearing on solving China's population problems and in building its economy, developing its society, and realizing its 4 modernizations. Although China is self-sufficient despite its large population, it faces many problems and challenges especially in the areas of educating its young population and subsequent employment. To achieve a strong economy and to improve the welfare of its people, China has put efforts into controlling the size and improving the quality of its population during the past decade. Programs in population control will continue to take priority in China. PMID:12338284

  8. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  9. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  10. The Educational Differences between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢咏雪

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, with the fast development of science and technology in China, there is an increasing number of people go⁃ing to study abroad (taking America as an example). For one hand, they want to get a better educational background to have a more promising career in the future. For the other, they want to change the way of getting knowledge, because they think the Chinese educational system still has a lot to be improved. With such tendency, more people are looking forward to an article that has a thorough analysis to reveal the educational differences between China and America from couple of aspects. It elaborates the educational differences in many ways with authentic research then comes to an analytic conclusion on what we can do to make a contribution to the Chinese educational system as a graduate student.

  11. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  12. [Climatic suitability of single cropping rice planting region in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ju-Qi; Zhou, Guang-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To clarify the leading climate factors affecting the distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China at national and annual temporal scales and to reveal the potential distribution and climatic suitability divisions of this planting region in China could not only provide scientific basis for optimizing the allocation of single cropping rice production, modifying planting pattern, and introducing fine varieties, but also ensure the food security of China. In this paper, the potential climate factors affecting the single cropping rice distribution in China at regional and annual scales were selected from related literatures, and the single cropping rice geographic information from the national agro-meteorological observation stations of China Meteorological Administration (CMA), together with the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and spatial analyst function of Arc-GIS software, were adopted to clarify the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, and to construct a model about the relationships between the potential distribution of the planting region and the climate. The results showed that annual precipitation, moisture index, and days of not less than 18 degrees C stably were the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, with their cumulative contribution rate reached 94.5% of all candidate climate factors. The model constructed in this paper could well simulate the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China. According to the appearance frequency, the low, medium and high climatic suitability divisions of single cropping rice planting region in China were clarified, and the climate characteristics of the planting region in each climatic suitability division were analyzed. PMID:22586968

  13. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  14. Internationalization of China's MBA Education: Failing to Walk the Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaozhuang; Trigo, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the internationalization of MBA education in Mainland China, exposes the main challenges this education is facing and proposes strategies to overcome them. Results reveal two main findings: 1) Chinese MBA educators show a growing interest and awareness in the internationalization of their MBA education, but…

  15. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  16. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  17. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  18. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  19. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  20. Palaeogeography of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Palaeogeography is a science that studies the features and evolution of physical geography in geological history and human history. The palaeogeography of China has multiple disciplines and multiple types of palaeogeographic map. These perfectly reflect "a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought content". The palaeogeography of China has three characteristics. The first is multiple disciplines flourishing simultaneously. The second is that lithofacies palaeogeography is in a leading position. The third is that palaeogeography of China is closely connected with industrial practice. It is why palaeogeography, especially lithofacies palaeogeography of China, can flourish continually. We have two journals of palaeogeography, i. e. Journal of Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition) and Journal of Palaeogeography (English Edition). The former primarily publishes articles of Chinese authors regarding Chinese palaeogeography and related disciplines and has a foothold in China. The latter will publish the articles of both Chinese and international authors and caters to foreign readers. These two journals will cooperate together and display their own expertise, which will effectively make a great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese palaeogeography and international palaeogeography.

  1. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  2. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  3. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  4. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  5. Marketing China Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China may grow into a global branding powerhouse, one master degree at a time Bringing the first international Master of Marketing program to Beijing, Professor Susan Ellis, Associate Dean of China Programs atMelbourne Business School, knows onething for

  6. Developing Good HR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT HU

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the shape of the recruitment market in China at the moment? What you have to understand first is that 20 years ago there was no recruiting market in China. The government allocated all jobs.

  7. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  8. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulaf, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  9. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  10. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  11. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulap rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  12. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural scienes sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular,rapid and authoritative reviews of currcnt important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China today.

  13. The Secret Behind China's Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the tumultuous period of the world financial crisis,China's economy sank,struck bottom and rebounded as its GDP in 2009 reached 8.7 percent,far beyond global expectations.But why has China succeeded so rapidly and what lessons can people draw from the experience? In his recent article China's New Deal: How to Response to International Financial Crisis,Hu Angang,Director of the Center for China Studies of Tsinghua University discussed these issues.

  14. An application of co-word analysis for revealing research themes and trends in China's nursing college education in recent 10 years%近10年我国护理专科教育的研究热点与趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亭桦; 刘利兴; 吴卓; 胡琛; 周兰姝; 李芳芳; 朱大乔

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨近10年我国护理专科教育的研究热点、研究主题及其发展趋势.方法 分别检索重庆维普科技期刊数据库和中国知网全文数据库2003年1月至2012年12月10年间有关我国护理专科教育的文献,分2个时间段(2003年至2007年和2008年至2012年)统计关键词的词频和共现频次.结果 共纳入相关文献646篇,包括前5年287篇和后5年359篇.前、后5年各截取到16个和17个高频关键词,均形成了“人才培养模式研究”和“课程建设与改革研究”2大类团,但其亚类团的内部结构和疏密程度在前后5年存在些许差异.结论 近10年我国护理专科教育的研究热点相对固定,研究主流方向不变.“校院合作”作为新的研究热点,存在进一步发展和分化的空间.课程建设与改革研究的重心已由医学基础课程转移到专业课程和人文课程.我国护理专科教育的学术研究主要受我国护理教育改革与发展实践的影响与推动.%Objective To explore the evolution of research themes and trends in China's nursing college education during the last decade.Methods A co-word analysis of keywords was performed in the research literatures around nursing college education from two Chinese databases,VIP China Science and Technology Journal Database and CKNI Periodical Full-text Database,between 2003 and 2012.The analysis was based on two different periods (phase Ⅰ from 2003 to 2007 and phase Ⅱ from 2008 to 2012).Results A total of 646 articles were included,with 287 articles published in phase Ⅰ and 359 articles in phase Ⅱ.Sixteen high-frequency keywords were identified during the phase Ⅰ,with seventeen during the phase Ⅱ.Two research themes,nursing student-training model and construction and reform of curriculum,were presented in both phases.However,some differences in research sub-themes exited between phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ.Conclusions Hot research topics in nursing college education

  15. Bringing Biocuration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhang; Weimin Zhu; Jingchu Luo

    2014-01-01

    Biocuration involves adding value to biomedical data by the processes of standardiza-tion, quality control and information transferring (also known as data annotation). It enhances data interoperability and consistency, and is critical in translating biomedical data into scientific discovery. Although China is becoming a leading scientific data producer, biocuration is still very new to the Chinese biomedical data community. In fact, there currently lacks an equivalent acknowledged word in Chinese for the word ‘‘curation”. Here we propose its Chinese translation as‘‘审编”(Pinyin:shen bian), based on its implied meanings taken by biomedical data community. The 8th International Biocuration Conference to be held in China (http://biocuration2015.tilsi.org) next year bears the potential to raise the general awareness in China of the significant role of biocuration in scientific discovery. However, challenges are ahead in its implementation.

  16. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... is driven by less formal decisions taken in the nexus between SOEs and relevant state agencies. Hence, although China suffers no lack of legislation at various levels (including laws, decrees, and guidelines) it is often difficult to identify the specific drivers for change. Practical implications...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  17. China's petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country's growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China's petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report

  18. Flooding in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  19. Arranged Marriage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>Marriage is an important institution in our society,which binds men and women the most frequently.When men and women are together,the gender relationship becomes obvious.Most societies in the world are patriarchal,so men’s power penetrates everywhere,including the marriage institution.Marriage institution is built on men’s power,and at the same time,it contributes to men’s power.Arranged marriage is a good example to illustrate how men’s power is over women,which was prevailing in China.China also has arranged marriage today,but particularly in rural areas.Urban China develops a new form of arranged marriage recently,but whether traditional arranged

  20. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from......Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... the industry by increasing transparency and connectedness between track owners and third-party logistics (3PL) companies. We find that the service concept helped the company to diversify as well as enhanced its growth and competitive advantages in a very competitive environment of the second and third tier...

  1. PetroChina & Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Back in December,CIB took a cue from Warren Buffett and looked at the recent A-share initial public offering (IPO) of PetroChina(中国石油),China's largest oil company and,at the time,the largest company in the world.We didn't like what we saw.While the argument in favor of PetroChina was obvious-it is of course,the primary provider of refined oil to a country with the fastest-growing oil demand in the world,and operating in a period of exponential growth in oil prices-the negatives were just as striking.It was overvalued from a revenue point of view,and had to contend with state price controls.

  2. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  3. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  4. Global China Insights December 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien T.; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  5. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  6. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  7. TAIWAN, The Treasure of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The island of Taiwan lies some 120 kilometers off the southeastern coast of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait, and has an area of 35,801 km2(13,822.8 sq mi). The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.

  8. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Ping

    2006-01-01

      China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.……

  9. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.

  10. China PR Industry Report 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Background The 2005 annual survey on the PR industry in China was conducted by China International Public Relations Association(CIPRA)from January 20the to February 20th ,in order to better reflect the development of the PR service market in China,investigate trends within the PR industry,and promote its continuous development.

  11. Hotels Continue to Target China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within the global hotel industry, China is the buzzword on everybody's lips.From April 26th to 28th,senior executives of leading international hotel brands and China hoteliers gathered in Shanghai to attend the 2nd China Hotel Investment Summit. The event attracted a record number of over 450international and local delegates from over 20 countries.

  12. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  13. Work with China, not Just for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Tarvin

    2011-01-01

    For the last decade, China has represented the fastest growing economy on the planet. It first tapped its vast resources as a cheap manufacturer due to the low cost of labor and favourable exchange rate. This attracted an endless supply of western companies wishing to improve their competitiveness by lowering their cost base. This was the catalyst that powered the urbanization of the Chinese people and with it the need for a vast array of new infrastructure and concomitant natural resources that helped sustain a general trend of global growth.

  14. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  15. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  16. Why China Is Confident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis is far from over as world economic growth continues to decline. Can China stop the downward tendency of economic growth and reach an economic soft landing? Can China take the lead in getting out of the shadow of the economic crisis? Chen Huai, Director of the Economic Research Institute of China’s Urban and Rural Development under the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, discussed these questions in a recent article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  17. Nuclear Industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  18. Handicapped people in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Tretter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the situation and living conditions of handicapped people in China. It describes the school and educational system, training and working conditions, rehabilitative and preventive activities as well as the public view and the view of the Chinese government on disabled persons.All in all it can be noticed that living conditions of handicapped people have improved a lot in China by, amongst others, national models of integration and local support. Nevertheless, there is still a big difference between rural and urban areas.

  19. Google in China

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong analysis. The central question is explored from different angles and well supported. In addition, this student shows himself to be a real engineer-to-be by not only giving an analysis, but also trying...

  20. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  1. China's Consumption Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The consumption in China is surging and Chinese consumers are more confident about their future this year despite the inflationary backdrop, according to the 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer Study by McKinsey & Co released recently. The survey estimates that by 2020 and within the course of one decade, real consumption will have doubled to $4.8 trillion and China will then be the world's second-biggest consumer market after the United States.Yet in some respects, private consumption remains stubbornly low.

  2. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI SHI

    2011-01-01

    A100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published on August 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.Visions of China,the planned theme park,would cover an area of 120 acres in Rotherham,South Yorkshire,and feature distinct Chinese architecture including Chinese gardens,theaters,restaurants,a temple,a children's fantasy land,a Shanghai-style shopping street,a Shaolin pagoda,a hotel and a wellness center.

  3. China in Overcapacity Exacerbating?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The problem of overcapacity has been plaguing China for years.Many economists claim that China's double-edged economic system of foreign trade and investment has resulted in a lack of consumption.It is estimated that approximately 35% of GDP depends solely on exports,some of which has naturally turned into excessive capacity due to the recent lack of external demand from western markets.Repeated build up in certain industries,which the government has failed to restrain,has resulted in prevailing overcapacity,and has also indirectly triggered the flood of anti-dumping cases against Chinese enterprises in recent years.

  4. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  5. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  6. PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON RIVER WATERCHEMISTRY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    River water resource is the most important component of water resources in China. This paper reviews the progress in the research on river water chemistry in China. It includes three parts: 1) the development of river water quality monitoring in China (at present, there exist three water quality monitoring networks in China: near 3000 water quality monitoring stations under the Ministry of Water Resources, several thousands water quality monitoring sites under the State Environmental Protection Administration and four sites under the China's GEMS/Water Program); 2) progress in the research on chemical characteristics of river water chemistry in China and their geographical roles on natio-wide and region-wide scales; and 3) progress in the research on river quality changes in the last 40 years (the 1ong-term monitoring data reveals that the water quality of the Changjiang River has acidification trend, the Songhuajiang River had alkalization trend, and the Huanghe River has concentration trend in the last 4 decades).

  7. A review of status of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Li, Jun; Yan, Shengjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), is employed primarily as a reactive flame retardant in printed circuit boards but also has additive applications in several types of polymers. TBBPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is observed in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This paper summarizes and critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the current pollution status of TBBPA in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels of TBBPA in China, the data are compared with available existing data from other countries of the world. According to the available data, the sources of TBBPA in China are mainly derived from the primitive e-waste dismantling, TBBPA manufacturing and processing of TBBPA-based materials. The most serious cases of TBBPA pollution in China are in Guiyu, Guangdong (primitive e-waste dismantling site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 66,010-95,040 pg m(-3) in air, Shouguang, Shandong (TBBPA manufacturing site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 1.64-7758 ng g(-1) dry weight in soil, and Chaohu Lake, Anhui (industry concentration site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 850-4870 ng L(-1) in water. In general, China is the most polluted region as affected by TBBPA compared with other countries. The present review preliminarily reveals the research status of TBBPA in China.

  8. A review of status of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Li, Jun; Yan, Shengjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), is employed primarily as a reactive flame retardant in printed circuit boards but also has additive applications in several types of polymers. TBBPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is observed in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This paper summarizes and critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the current pollution status of TBBPA in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels of TBBPA in China, the data are compared with available existing data from other countries of the world. According to the available data, the sources of TBBPA in China are mainly derived from the primitive e-waste dismantling, TBBPA manufacturing and processing of TBBPA-based materials. The most serious cases of TBBPA pollution in China are in Guiyu, Guangdong (primitive e-waste dismantling site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 66,010-95,040 pg m(-3) in air, Shouguang, Shandong (TBBPA manufacturing site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 1.64-7758 ng g(-1) dry weight in soil, and Chaohu Lake, Anhui (industry concentration site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 850-4870 ng L(-1) in water. In general, China is the most polluted region as affected by TBBPA compared with other countries. The present review preliminarily reveals the research status of TBBPA in China. PMID:26800486

  9. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  10. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  11. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia. PMID:24550578

  12. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    implications in Antiquity, Late Antiquity and the Renaissance in eleven cross-disciplinary contributions using both textual and archaeological sources. By exploring the revealing and concealing of knowledge across different social contexts, time frames and geographical locations, the book provides insight...

  13. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  14. Some evidence of drying trend over northern China from 1951 to 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhuguo; FU Congbin

    2006-01-01

    The surface wetness index, Palmer drought sererity index and the retrieval of soil moisture over China were calculated using monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature.Based on the contrast analysis of the variation of the above three indices and precipitation, the dry/wet spatio-temporal pattern of northern China in the last 54 years was revealed, and the evidence of drying trend over northern China was analyzed, especially.The results show the following four facts: (1) The drying trend is the main characteristic of the eastern part of Northwest China and the central part of North China since the 1980s and it was enhanced in the last 15 years mainly due to the precipitation decrease and the temperature increase; (2) During the last 54 years, there was only one dry/wet shift at the interdecadal scale occurring in the eastern part of Northwest China and the central part of North China in the late 1970s, which was related to 1977/1978 global abrupt change, whereas there were three shifts in Northeast China, one was in the mid 1990s and the other two were in 1965 and 1983, respectively; (3) Unlike the variation trend of other subregions of northern China,the western part of Northwest China is currently located in a relatively wetting period, which is weakened due to the temperature increase; (4) The extreme drought frequency is obviously increasing in the eastern part of Northwest China, the central part of North China and Northeast China since the 1980s,which is closely related to the precipitation decrease and temperature increase in these subregions.

  15. ANALISIS DAYA SAING DAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI EKSPOR CPO INDONESIA KE CHINA, MALAYSIA, DAN SINGAPURA DALAM SKEMA ASEAN-CHINA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Objective of this research is to analyze the competitiveness and the factors that influence Indonesia CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore in the ACFTA. Revealed Comparative Advantage was used to analyze competitiveness in China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Panel data regression method with fixed effect (cross section weight was used to analyze export supply model as an impact of ACFTA. The results shows that all dependent variables (domestic production of CPO, international price of CPO, price domestic of CPO, price of soybean oil, price of gasoline, exchange rate, lag of export, and dummy of ACFTA have the significant influence on CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore.   Keywords: CPO, ASEAN-China, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA  

  16. Why is China going nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2007, China's State Council approved its 'Medium- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Development Plan', which set as a goal to increase the nation's nuclear capacity from about 7 to 40 GWe by 2020. In March 2008, the National Development and Reform Commission suggested installed nuclear power capacity might even exceed 60 GWe by 2020 due to faster than expected construction. Even with this growth, nuclear power's share of China's installed total capacity would be only about 5 percent. Yet China's rapid nuclear expansion poses serious financial, political, security, and environmental challenges. This study investigates China's claim that nuclear energy is necessary to meet its growing energy demands by analyzing China's energy alternatives and assessing their likelihood of contributing to total Chinese capacity. By looking at China's transformative energy policy from several perspectives, this study finds that nuclear energy is indeed a necessity for China.

  17. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Britain to build Chinese themed attraction A 100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published onAugust 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.

  18. Cameron in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY BROWN

    2010-01-01

    @@ British Prime Minister David Cameron's fast official visit to China in November had two objectives.One was to lead one of the largest trade delegations ever accompanied by a UK prime minister to an increasingly important market.The other was for him to meet,and get to know,the Chinese leadership and key figures in the government.

  19. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  20. CHINA TEXTILE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s textile industry faces difficult times,but can survive them and create a brighter future. Sun Ruizhe,Vice Chairman of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC),shared his views with Belling Review while analysing the difficulties China’s textile industry is now confronted with.

  1. Chronicling China's Political Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Leading Chinese political scientist Zhao Baoxu has produced an overview of the evolution of China's political structure,its political studies as well as its foreign policy over the past six decades in his latest book In Pursuit of Harmony:An Academic Anthology of Zhao Baoxu.

  2. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  3. China's Path Toward Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China outlined the indigenous innovation strategy in its National Medium-and Long-term Science and Technology Development Plan(2006-20)four years ago.What is the main goal of the strategy and how has it been progressing? What are the Central Government's support policies and what efforts are still needed?

  4. China International Fashion Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-six young fashion designers from 17 countries and regions gathered at the Fourth Brother Cup China International Young Fashion Designers Contest in Beijing in mid-April. The designers drew ideas from colorful life and displayed their talents in art through the theme, "Splendid Attire for the Art Festival."

  5. Intellectuals in China: Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This annotated bibliography of 72 books, journal articles, government reports, and newspaper feature stories focuses on the changing role of intellectuals in China, primarily since the 1949 Chinese Revolution. Particular attention is given to the Hundred Flowers Movement of 1957 and the Cultural Revolution. Most of the cited works are in English,…

  6. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  7. NFL Delays China Bowl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2007-01-01

    The whistle blows, the crowd roars, and 22 armored athletes crash into each other with such force that players have broken bones, been knocked unconscious, paralyzed or even killed during gameplay. This is football, American style, but China is going to

  8. Narrating Self and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Irina

    about China and its people. Thus this study explores the questions of how these women writers adopted the roles of cultural interpreters, which allowed them to position themselves as authoritative and representative voices and, at the same time, rejuvenate China’s image in the global arena...

  9. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  10. Women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    2000-01-01

    One of my best experiences when I lived in China (1998-1999) was when mydaughter and her friend Kathy visited me and we went to Putuoshan together. I’ vealways been interested in women’s lives in my own and other cultures, so

  11. My Classroom: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  12. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  13. China Expands VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's top taxation watchdog said on October 1st this yearthat two more provinces are ready to pilot a reform of replacing turnover tax with value-added tax (VAT) in a bid to lower the overall tax burden and boost certain sectors.

  14. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  15. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong;

    2011-01-01

    football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  16. China's petroleum reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  17. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  18. CHARTING ROADMAP FOR CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hu Jintao,General Secretary of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC),outlines ambitious goals for economic,political and social developments,as well as the nation’s position on the world stage,in his keynote report to the 17th National Congress of the CPC at its opening on October 15.

  19. Hospital Development In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVIDWOOD

    2004-01-01

    China represents a complex society with a healthcare industry just emerging from years of public management and government control. The size of the marketplace and the built-in demand for high quality, service-oriented, healthcare provides many opportunities for the development of this industry along international lines.

  20. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  1. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  2. Murdoch Retreats from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessy Zhang

    2006-01-01

    @@ News Corp's Asian flagship enterprise Star Group announced in early June it would sell a 19.9 percent stake in Phoenix Satellite Television to China Mobile. This move is widely interpreted as a signal that Rudolf Murdoch, the helmsman of News Corp,might have lost his patience and could eventually retreat from the Chinese media market.

  3. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  4. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  5. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  6. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  7. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  8. China Goes Electric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHU JUN

    2011-01-01

    In the history of the auto industry,China is a latecomer,although it became the world's largest auto market in the last two years.Now the country is gearing up to take the lead in at least one field of the auto industry's future:the electric vehicle (EV).

  9. China's Mysterious Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Green

    2009-01-01

    @@ Car sales in China are booming,but gasoline consumption seems to be stuck in the slow lane.Chart 1 illustrates this apparent mystery(it shows sales of petroleum and oil products,since.we do not have data on retail gasoline sales).

  10. Lake monitoring in China

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Criado, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo propone un modelo para la obtención del nivel altitudinal de masas de agua mediante altimetría radar. Este modelo servirá para establecer un control sobre lagos, embalses y otras masas de agua. En concreto este trabajo está centrado una seria de lagos ubicados en las provincias chinas de Tibet y Qinghai.

  11. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... is impressive.” To be sure, there were also points of frictions such as the European arms embargo (introduced after the Tianmen massacre in 1989), but Shambaugh saw it as highly likely that the relationship between EU and China would continue to grow and develop. “Over time it will become a new axis in world...

  12. The China Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Steve; Juefei, Wang

    1991-01-01

    Nearly half of all Vermont school districts have participated in the China Project since its inception in 1986. During the program's first two years, participants examined Chinese history, politics, economy, geography, philosophy, arts, ancient inventions, foreign policy, social life, women's social status, the Chinese language, and the Beijing…

  13. Reading the World: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Presents picture books, fiction, nonfiction, biographies, folklore, and poetry for young students (kindergarten-grade 8) studying China. Suggests activities based on the books using art, physical education, language arts, research skills, math, science, geography, and drama. Highlights books and collections of folk tales with stories about…

  14. CONTEMPORARY CHINA HISTORY STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Before the eve of the establishment of New China, Liu Shaoqi led the CPC delegation to visit the Soviet Union secretly. For adapting the change of domestic struggle situations, the central government decided to move up the liberation time of Xinjiang from planned 1950 to 1949. In order to save the time,

  15. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  16. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper offers a new data set and window to empirically test Leviathan theory in the sense of China's transition economy. By combining time series and cross-section regression analysis and various variables used by previous empirical studies, we test the Leviathan hypothesis for verti

  17. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract(Last revised version December 2005) To address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War II, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal dece

  18. China Takes Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY If all goes according to plan, Chinese air travellers will be boarding big commercial airliners designed and manufactured in China by the year 2020. The aviation market, long dominated by Boeing and Airbus, will face a home grown challenge in

  19. THE CHINA MEDICAL ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the China Medical Abstracts (Internal Medicine) is to promote international exchange of works done by the Chinese medical profession in the field of internal medicine. The papers selected from journals represent the newest and most important advances and progress in various specialities in internal medicine.

  20. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  1. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  2. China's Energy Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The modern industrial world is underpinned by energy and also driven by energy.Today 80% of the world's energy comes from coal,oil and natural gas.China is known as a country and also one of the largest energy suppliers in the world.

  3. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  4. WAVFH delegates' reports: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of radiation protection has been given great attention in China. The Ministry of Health is the competent authority in charge of the work. Before the accident at Chernobyl, the government had formulated and promulgated laws and regulations concerning the radiation protection, such as the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection, the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection of Nuclear Plants, the institutions and organizations for monitoring radioactive pollution at national level and provincial level had been set up. After the accident at Chernobyl, each of the monitoring institutions and organizations took samples of air, subsided substances of atmosphere, rainwater, terrestrial surface water from various sources, vegetables, milk and thyroid glands of sheep and goats immediately, for the detection of radiation contamination. As far as we know that the samples had small extent contamination, the extent of contamination of samples in the south of China is smaller than that of samples in the north of China, that the content of nuclides in various samples is lower than the limits of radioactive substances set in national standard, and that radiation dosage subjected by residents of China caused by the contamination is also lower than the set quota in the national standard. The contamination did not interfere with the regular life of the residents

  5. Will China Save Europe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China is not the answer to Europe’s crisis, neither will it turn its back With a landslide victory in the Spanish general election on November 20, the People’s Party ousted the ruling Socialist Workers’ Party,which had governed Spain

  6. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  7. Web users’ language utilization behaviors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Maosheng; QU; Peng; ZHAO; Kang

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the habits of China Web users’language utilization behaviors in accessing the Web.It also seeks to make a general study on the basic nature of language phenomenon with regard to digital accessing.A questionnaire survey was formulated and distributed online for these research purposes.There were 1,267 responses collected.The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics,Chi-square testing and contingency table analyses.Results revealed the following findings.Tagging has already played an important role in Web2.0 communication for China’s Web users.China users rely greatly on all kinds of taxonomies in browsing and have also an awareness of them in effective searching.These imply that the classified languages in digital environment may aid Chinese Web users in a more satisfying manner.Highly subject-specific words,especially those from authorized tools,yielded better results in searching.Chinese users have high recognition for related terms.As to the demographic aspect,there is little difference between different genders in the utilization of information retrieval languages.Age may constitute a variable element to a certain degree.Educational background has a complex effect on language utilizations in searching.These research findings characterize China Web users’behaviors in digital information accessing.They also can be potentially valuable for the modeling and further refinement of digital accessing services.

  8. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  9. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  10. Urologic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  11. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  12. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  13. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  14. China's energy economy. Situation, reforms, behavior, and energy intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [Henan Agricultural Univ., Zhengzhou (China). College of Economics and Management; Oxley, Les [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept of Economics and Finance

    2012-07-01

    In the new millennium, understanding China's energy economy is crucial for politicians, businesspeople and energy economists, as China's energy policy choices will mean both challenges and opportunities for the world in terms of an increasing share of primary energy consumption and investment. This book initially reviews the literature on China's energy economy and in so doing reveals that many important areas have been overlooked or are outdated in their coverage. Given the size of China and its global importance, the book then review s China's current energy situation and fills the gaps in the literature for those who are interested in and concerned about China's economic development and energy reform in the new millennium. The book is different from previous studies in several important ways: Firstly, it presents recent, pioneering research rather than a simple textbook, several sections of which have been published in high-quality energy journals. Secondly, the book first subdivides China's energy intensity change into aspects of budget constraint, technological change, factor substitution, energy demand and economic growth using a newly developed econometric approach. Thirdly, it provides many new and different econometric findings and derives many new policy implications for China's energy economy. And lastly, it brings to light a wealth of new knowledge for those who are interested in China's energy economy, the world energy market and global environmental and climate change issues.

  15. Strategy on Development of Gasoline and Diesel Standards in China with Reference to Overseas Practice for Upgrading Gasoline and Diesel Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhe; Yang Guoxun

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the standards for car exhaust emissions and gasoline and diesel quality in Europe and the US. As revealed by the evolution of gasoline and diesel standards in China, the gasoline and diesel compositions of China and the exhaust gas emissions standard are closely related with the specifics of the petroleum refining industry and automotive industry in China. After studying the current situations of gasoline and diesel quality in China while taking into account the commonly accepted practice in the overseas this article raises some suggestions on development of gasoline and diesel standards in compliance with the actual conditions of China.

  16. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  17. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  18. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  19. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  20. China Benefits from FDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华民

    2007-01-01

    While China’s opening up policy has brought about rapid economic growth,it has also resulted in a certain loss of welfare.Many scholars have debated this issue extensively from different perspectives.An article entitled"An Open Economy Calls for New Development Theories"by Zhang Youwen (published in the Sept.2006 issue of China Economist) proposed a"new approach to opening up"-a reflection of the views held by some Chinese scholars. Disagreeing with these views,the author of this article believes that China should give more consideration to her resource endowment and economic growth stages and evaluate scientifically the benefits of"opening up".

  1. El enigma de China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside China's material growth, there has come a gradual but steady change in its mentality of governance. This article tries to show one crucial aspect of such a change, having taken place in the past couple of decades, which has given that social giant a new global outlook. The article, based on ethnographic field research, hopes to shed light on the process of statisticalization that, supposedly scientific and modern, has turned itself into a predominant official means for management and administration. The goal is to demonstrate the problematic nature of such a transformation, occurring on the Maoist ruins and generating a number of social sentiments that reflect the growing economic disparity already an undeniable social fact for today's China.

  2. Eucalyptus in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An account based on a visit by the author which reviews the history of eucalypt introduction, outlines current silvicultural practices with special reference to Guangdong province and Guangxi autonomous region and discusses prospects for the future use of eucalypts in China. There are over 300,000 hectare of plantations in southern China, the main species planted since 1950 being Eucalyptus citriodora, E. exserta, and E. globulus. They provide a wide range of products including sawn timber, posts, poles, fuelwood and essential oils, and are a potential source of pulp and fibreboard. A recent policy decision to increase forest cover from 12.7 to 20% of the land area by 2000 will require an increase in afforestation rate to 2 million hectares/year: it is anticipated that eucalypts will play a significant role.

  3. Is Financial Development Another Source of Comparative Advantage? Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Bao; Jiayu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Using panel data for 29 provinces in China during 1990-2004, the present paper attempts to explore a possible link between financial development and China' s foreign trade. Three measures of comparative advantage in manufactured goods have been applied in our study, including Balassa's revealed coraparative advantage, the net manufactured export index, and the Michaely index. We also use four indicators of financial development to identify the different fimctions of regional financial development, and to determine both size and efficiency features of financial institutions. The estimation results suggest that besides factor endowments, foreign firms and infrastructure, financial development has a quantitatively large and robust effect on China' s manufactured goods trade. Therefore, further reform of China' s financial system should be encouraged to fully exploit the comparative advantage of China's foreign trade.

  4. Present-day crustal movement and tectonic deformation in China continent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qi(王琪); ZHANG; Peizhen(张培震); NIU; Zhijun(牛之俊); J.T.Freymueller; LAI; Xi'an(赖锡安); LI; Yanxin(李延新); ZHU; Wenyao(朱文耀); LIU; Jingnan(刘经南); R.; Bilham; K.; M.; Larson

    2002-01-01

    Velocity field of China continent constrained by Global Positioning System (GPS) reveals both continuous and block-like styles of deformation. Continuous deformation commonly characterizes actively deforming mountain ranges such as the Tianshan Mountain, Qilian Mountain, and Tibet. The block-like movement often represents deformation in the tectonically stable regions such as Ordos, South China and Tarim blocks. GPS measurements indicate 5.1±2.5 mm/a left-lateral strike-slip rate along the Altun fault. Eastward convergence along the Longmenshan fault is less than 6.7±3.0 mm/a. South China moves 11-14 mm/a eastward compared with the stable Eurasia. These low slip rates do not imply rapid eastward extrusion of China continent predicted by the model of "continental extrusion". It appears that "crustal thickening" model more properly describes both continuous and block-like styles of deformation in China continent.

  5. Interventional Radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists

  6. Dreaming of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    DreamWorks plans to set up a studio in China From Disney’s Mulan in 1998 to DreamWorks’Kungfu Panda, cartoon characters originating from Chinese legends have become a trump card for the success of animation movies from Hollywood.DreamWorks CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg said their third quarter earnings were largely driven by the international box office success of Kungfu Panda 2, the number one grossing

  7. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hotel, Catering, Tourism China (Qingdao) Int'l Kitchen & Hotel Equipment Exhibition City: Oingdao Venue: Oingdao International Convention Center Duration: December 15, 2008-December 17, 2008 Frequency: Yearly Host: Oingdao Construction Committee Organizer: Oingdao Haichen Int'l Exhibition Co.,LtdAddress: 3-1802, No.1 Building, No.2 Fengxian Road, Qingdao, 266071Tel: 86-532-85018912 Fax: 86-532-83841887 Contact Person: Qu Chengqiang Web: www.cbea2qd.com Email: haichenhuizhan@sina.com

  8. Weather Forecasting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Relying on advanced technology, China has greatly improved its meteorological service in the past few years. The modern meteorological technical system has played an important role in preventing and reducing damage from natural disasters, thus helping to advance China’s economic construction. Meanwhile, the field has benefitted from international cooperation on scientific research and meteorological education. Women meteorologists have been essential to this process.

  9. Price Dynamics in China

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Chinese inflation, particularly non-food inflation, has been surprisingly modest in recent years. We find that supply factors, including those captured through upstream foreign commodity and producer prices, have been important drivers of non-food inflation, as has foreign demand for Chinese goods. Domestic demand and monetary conditions seem less important, possibly reflecting a large domestic output gap generated by many years of high investment. Inflation varies systemically within China, ...

  10. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  11. Event sponsorship in China

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Fan; Pfitzenmaier, N

    2002-01-01

    Event marketing is currently at the infant stage in China, but holds a great potential in future. This is concluded from an Internet-based survey. The respondents believe that event marketing provides international companies with a viable alternative to the increasingly cluttered mass media, and plays a key role in the integrated marketing communications (IMC). Sponsoring sports and music events is found particularly effective in reaching the opinion leaders and innovators, and establishing f...

  12. Green Food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    "Green Food" is a Chinese food production innovation, and has been described as "one of the most successful eco-labelling programs in the world" (Giovannucci, 2005, p.12). Green Food provides a "middle way" between chemical and organic farming. China's development of the Green Food concept resolves issues with both chemical and organic agriculture - for the former by offering reduced pesticide use, and for the latter by providing a stepped pathway for conversion from chemical to organic agric...

  13. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  14. Macroeconomic Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dena Sedeghian; Graham White; Patrick D’Arcy

    2013-01-01

    China’s economy has expanded at a rapid pace over the past three decades, underpinned by a range of economic reforms. While many of these reforms have focused on the supply side of the economy, the authorities have employed a range of policies to manage aggregate demand and control the build-up of inflationary pressures and financial risks. The operation of macroeconomic policy in China differs from that typically used in developed economies, reflecting China’s particular institutional and ec...

  15. China?s challenge: The opportunities and risks that China?s booming economy provides

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2009-01-01

    The capability of designing to very low cost, and to compete successfully in the tough Chinese market can be transformed into a competitive advantage in other markets. On the other hand, MNCs that are not successfully in China will probably not acquire these capabilities. They will be in a cost disadvantage to compete against Chinese companies in their own markets. They run the risk of becoming secondary players to Chinese companies in the world market, as those competing in the microwave-ove...

  16. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity and Trade Fair Urnmqi Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Fair Date:September 1-September 5,2008 Venue:Xinjiang International Exhibition Center Sector:Exhibition of new products,new technology and new project,to negotiate on import & export trade and domestic commodity trade,etc Web:www.urmqifair.com Add:107,Xinhua South Road,Urumchi,China, 830049 Tel:86-991-2850497/2879890 Fax:86-991-2850497/2879890 E-mail:office@urumqifair.com

  17. Turbine Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In view of the development of the electric power industry in China,in this paper,the author expounds the development of turbine manufacturing industry in recent years and analyses the development trends of the industry in the future,involving domestic market demand,the adjustment of power sources' structure,independent research and development and innovation,product structural adjustment,product technical level,enterprise management and market service,etc.

  18. Turbine Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianfu; Li Jialu

    2009-01-01

    @@ In view of the development of the electric power industry in China,in this paper,the author expounds the development of turbine manufacturing industry in recent years and analyses the development trends of the industry in the future,involving domestic market demand,the adjustment of power sources' structure,independent research and development and innovation,product structural adjustment,product technical level,enterprise management and market service,etc.

  19. Tornadoes of china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zixiu, Xu; Pengyun, Wang; Xuefang, Lin

    While the most important severe convective weather phenomenon in China is hail, the occasional tornadoes that do occur can inflict considerable damage. For example, on March 26, 1967, a family of 13 tornadoes occurred near Shanghai and North Zhejiang province. Along the path of this tornado outbreak, more than 10,000 homes were damaged. Several steel high-voltage power transmission towers, including some built to withstand Beaufort force 12 winds, were blown down or severely damaged.

  20. China's International Responsibility Examined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International responsibility falls upon the shoulders of every country. China's growing contributions to world peace and development have surpassed the view of her as a "threat. "Instead, it was, among world mainstream opinion, expected to shoulder a still-bigger burden. Such external expectations, together with internal yearnings for a higher profile abroad, urge a response in terms of Chinese diplomacy. What is to be done? This paper explores the answer.

  1. Healing Angels From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Medical teams from China fight death and disease in the harshest environments in Africa One Sunday in early August,Chen Zhufeng,chief of a Chinese medical team in Tanzania,drove to check the water supply for his members in Tabora,a water-is-life place in Tanzania. Walking by a small reservoir,he was stopped by an old woman. She held up several eggs in her hands,begging Chen to accept them.

  2. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  3. Organotin Pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Ji-yan Liu

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the occurrence of butyltin compounds was made in various environmental samples including water, sediment, sea products, and other commodities from China. Detection was carried out by the method of hydrogenation coupled with SPME or Grignard derivatization, followed by GC-FPD analysis. The results showed the universal existence of butyltin compounds in a wide range of tested samples, which was a potential danger for human health. Urgent control or management of o...

  4. China's New Energy Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Shuhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ At one of the routine meetings recently held by the State Council, the Chinese Government discussed and approved in principle the draft "Platform of Energy Development Plan (2004-2020)". This platform document is regarded as important to China's energy industrial development,according to the industrial insiders. In an interview with news media, Director of Energy Research Institute of State Development and Reform Commission Zhou Dadi specified eight key points of the new energy strategy.

  5. Earthquake engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡聿贤

    2002-01-01

    The development of earthquake engineering in China is described into three stages.The initial stage in 1950's -1960's was marked with the initiation of this branch of science from its creation in the first national 12-year plan of science andtechnology by specifying earthquake engineering as a branch item and IEM was one participant. The first earthquake zonationmap and the first seismic design code were soon completed and used in engineering design. Site effect on structural design andsite selection were seriously studied. The second stage marked with the occurrence of quite a few strong earthquakes in China,from which many lessons were learned and corresponding considerations were specified in our design codes and followed inconstruction practice. The third stage is a stage of disaster management, which is marked by a series of governmentdocumentations, leading by a national law of the People's Republic of China on the protecting against and mitigating earthquakedisasters adopted at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of Chinain 1997, and then followed by some provincial and municipal laws to force the actions outlined in the national law. It may beexpected that our society will be much more safer to resist the attack of future strong earthquakes with less losses. Lastly,possible future developments are also discussed.

  6. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  7. Review - China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ryan Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Beth Meriam. 2012. China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers: Sharing the Contested Ground. Leiden and Boston: Global Oriental. In recent years, the study of China's minorities has become something of an ethnographic subgenre. Given the political sensitivities involved, however, it is unsurprising that relatively little of this fieldwork has been conducted among populations the Chinese state defines as 'Tibetan'. Beth Merriam's important new addition to the literature, China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers, begins to fill this gap. However, as the author is quick to point out, hers is not an ethnography of Tibet or Tibetans, nor the ethno-cultural region of Khams, or even Yushu Prefecture. It is, instead, an intensely local, "school-based study" (10 of Trinde (Khri 'du, Chenduo Township, a remote, eponymously named county seat in the far south of Qinghai Province. Meriam spent fourteen months (2002-2003 as the first foreign teacher at Trinde County Nationalities Middle School. Her inquiry is focused on the region's cultural elite, "a small educated class of the local population" (10 primarily consisting of the school's directors and teachers, but also students, work unit functionaries, cadres, and NGO administrators. "Rather than analysing a specific 'ethnic group,' or political structure," Meriam writes, her study "proceeds from a critical vantage point of practices and concepts associated with a number of broadly-defined political themes and...

  8. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  9. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened,held by China National Textile and Apparel Council,23 cities and towns were awarded as China's Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District.By far,China's textile industrial clusters have grown to 164,which indicate a quick and gorgeous development.These textile industrial clusters have a great impact on the local economy and even the whole national textile industry's development.

  10. China and the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Justin Yifu

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the extraordinary performance in the past 20 years, China's status in the global economy has dramatically changed. In this article, I reflect on China's unprecedented growth, examine the reasons for that growth, and discuss promising prospects for the Chinese economy to maintain an 8% annual growth rate in the coming two decades. Although to maintain that growth rate, China will definitely encounter many challenges – both internally and externally. The twenty-first century has ...

  11. I Am Broadcasting From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since January 25,every morning from7 to 8 a.m.,listeners to China Radio International(CRI),one of China's national radio stations,have been able to hear a new voice hosting a news program called The Beijing Hour,a program with lively news and current affairs in China as well as around the world.The host was the focus of great attention even before she showed up for the program because of her career background.

  12. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Binns Colin W; Qiu Liqian; Xu Fenglian; Liu Xiaoxian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and sin...

  13. China's First Luxury Brands Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China now has its own luxury brands.The four brands Feitian (Moutai spirit), Yong-Qi Zitan (furniture), Rongbaozhai (works of art) and Dongding Oolong (tea) were released as the first Chinese luxury brands by the China Luxury Institute on Nov.11.Based on the Institute's investigation of over 500 enterprises and brands within over 30 kinds of industries like garments, tea, wine, china and jade, in combination with market questionnaire, the first four brands have made their debut.

  14. Stem cell research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Lianming; Li, Lingsong; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    In the past 5 years, China has increased its efforts in the field of stem cell research and practice. Basic research mainly focuses on bone marrow and embryonic stem cells. Clinical applications of stem cells in the treatment of acute heart failure, acute liver failure and lower limb ischaemia have been reported by many hospitals. China enacted its ‘Ethical Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research’ in 2003. At present, China has the most liberal and favourable environments for human ...

  15. China's Chemical Pharmaceutical Industry Rebounding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ After reorganization in 2006, China's chemical pharmaceutical industry began to pick up in 2007. According to the China Pharmaceutical Industry Association,China's chemical pharmaceutical industry achieved sales revenues of RMB202.5 billion in the first eight months this year, a growth of 24.6% - 5.6 percentage points faster than January to May this year. The net profit was RMB17.4 billion, an increase of 50.8% over the same period of 2006.

  16. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  17. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  18. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  19. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  20. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  2. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic Journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developmentsin scientific research, in China for scientific workers in both China and other countries. The contents are selected by anextensive editorial committeewhich is composed of the most highly-esteemed scientists in China today. This journalis published in five series. Series A (monthly) covers the following areas: mathematics, physics. astronomy; Series B

  3. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developmentsin scientific research in China for scientific workers in both China and other countries. The contents are selected by anextensive editorial committeewhich is composed of the most highly--esteemed scientists in China today. This journalis published in five series. Series A (monthly) covers the following areas : mathematics. physics. astronomy, Series B

  4. Second China-India Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second China-India Forum sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-India Friendship Association(CIFA) was held in Beijing May 15-16.CIFA President Jiang Zheng-hua,CIFA Advisor Wang Maolin,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and Indian Ambassador to China S.Jaishankar attended the opening ceremony.Over 200 officials,scholars,businessmen from the political,economic,cultural and environmental sectors of China,India and some other countries as well as reporters were present at the forum.

  5. Metal+Metallurgy China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 8the International Foundry,Metalforming & IndustrialFurnaces Exhibition,and the 10the Internationalmetallurgical Industry Expo Held in Beijing The 8th International Foundry, Metalforming & Industrial Furnaces Exhibition, which was organized by the China Foundry Association (CFA) and the Industrial Furnace Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES), and the 10th International Metallurgical Industry Expo, which was organized by the China Iron & Steel Association, the Metallurgical Council of China-Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) were held at China International Exhibition Center in Beijing.

  6. Benchmarking Hong Kong and China energy codes for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua [The Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2008-07-01

    Mandatory energy codes to curb energy use of residential buildings have been formally launched in China for more than two decades but little has been publicized in literature. Similar codes are not available for residential buildings in Hong Kong, but most residential buildings in Hong Kong, especially public housing estates, are HK-BEAM certified to demonstrate their compliance with regulatory and basic design requirements. Given HK-BEAM is internationally recognized and there are doubts about the effectiveness of the China codes, how the energy efficiency of the HK-BEAM certified buildings compare with buildings in compliance with the China codes is of interest to most building designers and policy makers. This paper describes how the energy efficiency of a case study building in compliance with the China codes compare with the one in compliance with HK-BEAM. The energy simulation by HTB2 and BECRES reveal that the case study building in compliance with the China codes is 51.1% better in energy use. In the study, the relative impact of each compliance criterion on energy use and cooling load has been quantified by sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity values indicate that energy use is most sensitive to air-conditioning operation hours, indoor design temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of the room air-conditioners (RAC) units, and the envelop characteristics. The results of this study indicate that a HK-BEAM certified building cannot satisfy the China codes requirements. This provides good reference to the policy makers, the building owners, and to the China and Hong Kong Governments when considering reciprocal recognition of building energy codes. (author)

  7. Dilemmas for China: Energy, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Benjamin C. McLellan; Snowden, Simon; Zhang, Baosheng; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    China's current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a "world factory", but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China's economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China...

  8. WTO's View: Improved China's Trade & Economic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ After the first Trade Policy Review of the People's Republic of China in 2006,WTO Secretariat released the second Trade Policy Review of China on May 21,2008,which"provided an excellent opportunity to improve transparency,and thereby a better understanding of China's trade and related policies"remarked by the China's officer in WTO.China's Foreign Trade picks up the summary observations of the Review to help our readers to grasp clearer picture on China's trade and economy.

  9. An Ethnographic Study Of Glocal Fashion Communication In Hong Kong And Greater China

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, HLT

    2015-01-01

    The rise of fashion businesses in mainland China and Hong Kong and the growth in their brands is attracting the attention of international fashion conglomerates. Recent case studies of socio-historical, economic and cultural influences in the greater China region were revisited applying communication, media and cultural studies theories. Participation observation and interviews were conducted in an attempt to reveal the nuanced process of fashion communication in Hong Kong’s fashion industry....

  10. The Inter-cultural Analysis of PSA for Disaster between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭琳

    2014-01-01

    As a special and extensive type of advertising, public service advertising(PSA) has become an important cultural phe⁃nomenon. Same as commercial advertisement, PSA can also convey cultural values. Out of similar purposes, however, PSA for di⁃sasters between China and other western countries contain many differences. Aiming to reveal the cultural differences, this paper undertakes the analysis of PSA for disasters of China and other western countries from the perspective of inter-cultural communi⁃cation.

  11. Self-employment in China: Are rural migrant workers and urban residents alike?

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuling; Nahm, Daehoon; Tani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies differences in the motivation to be self-employed between rural migrants and urban residents in modern China. Estimates of the wage differential between self-employment and paid-employment obtained through a three-stage methodology using the 2002 China Household Income Project (CHIP), reveal that rural migrants become self-employed to avoid low-pay city jobs, enhancing their odds of economic assimilation. Conversely, urban residents become entrepreneurs to move out of unemp...

  12. Trade flows between Australia and China: An opportunity for a free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Daniel; Nair, Roneel; Rodriguez, Gil; Buetre, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    The seemingly high degree of trade complementarity between Australia and China indicates that freer trade between these two countries is likely to lead to mutual trade gains. In this paper, this complementarity was assessed based on the use of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) indices. It is likely that trade gains could be achieved by Australia and China by adopting a bilateral free trade agreement. General equilibrium models – such as ABARE’s global trade and environment model (GTEM) – h...

  13. CHINA AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION - A BRIEF SKETCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carapinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The troubled course of the revolutionary process of building socialism in China reveals a gradual reorientation of revolutionary energies to the "technical tasks", focused on economic development and increase of productive forces. The theoretical and practical reframing of Chinese socialist transition acquires a qualitative dimension with the proclamation of the Reform and Opening policy and the recognition of the historical phase that the Communist Party of China, since Deng Xiaoping, defined as the primary stage of socialism. The economic reformulation stresses the issue of the use of market instruments in the process of socialist transition in China, establishing a parallel with the pioneering experience of Soviet NEP. The socialist market economy in China corresponds to a model of mixed economy, in which public ownership and the State hold the commanding heights of the economy, and the integration into the world economy is a key lever. This reality that does not set as granted a return of China to the dominance of capitalism. At the same time, the inevitable clash between the dynamics of two conflicting economic systems – socialism and capitalism – raises to the CCP and the Chinese proletariat the theoretical and practical requirement of safeguarding a re-updated class perspective.

  14. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  15. Explaining the lack of FDI in western China:an industrial perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨先明; 袁帆; 刘岩

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to attract FDI into western China.This situation might not be explained by traditional geographical factors,because the gap of inward FDI between the western and the eastern regions of China has increased.This paper attempts to explain the situation from an industrial perspective by exploring the industrial differences in the two regions and analyzing their effects in terms of industrial development level,industrial structure and industrial linking capability.The results reveal that industrial factors are important barriers to the inflow of FDI to western China.

  16. A Glimpse of Iron and Steel Industry of China in Recent Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiehua; ZHANG Xiaohui; SHEN Keyin; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The paper briefs the recent development of China's Iron & Steel Industry from the view of a refractories worker. Some data and statistics have been revealed in the paper including total output of steel, geological distribution of key steel enterprises, productivity, facilities,technical and economical indices as well as technical advance achieved in the last ten years. Structural adjustment and consolidation occurred in China's Iron & Steel Industry has also been described.The views on how much steel is demanded in China in the near future advanced by a steel expert has been accepted as the conclusion of the paper.

  17. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Chen; Xiangao Xia; Pucai Wang; Wenxing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the aerosol properties and their climatic effect over the continental source regions of China, it is of significance to carry out long-term ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. A couple of temporary and permanent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and three comprehensive radiative sites were established in China as a result of international cooperation in recent years. Heavy aerosol loading and significant temporal and spatial variation over North China are revealed by the AERONET data.Aerosol-induced reductions in surface radiation budget are examined on the basis of collocated observations by sun photometers and pyranometers.

  18. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  19. China's Pork Miracle? : Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi); S. Sharma (Shefali)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land a

  20. China's gender imbalance and its implications on China-Japan and China-Taiwan security relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tzeng, Jerry Y.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how China's gender imbalance could affect East Asian security with respect to China-Japan relations and China-Taiwan relations. The research result is ambiguous in that China's excess males may or may not force the Chinese government to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy stance with Japan and Taiwan. On the one hand, the Chinese government has been relatively calm in its dealings with Japan and Taiwan despite the rise of Chinese nationalism. Th...

  1. Application of nuclear instruments in China`s industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan-xiao [China Nuclear Information Center, Beijing (China); Cai Shan-yu; Wang Yi-shan; Lun Xiao [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-31

    The progress of nuclear instruments and their applications in China`s industries have been greatly dependent on the development of social economy. In recent years, the economy in China demands an increasing application of industrial nuclear instruments. The reliability of system performance and its adaptability are prerequisites to ensure widespread application in industry. Through the efforts over 40 years, a sound foundation for the development of nuclear instruments and their application has formed in China with the establishment of a comprehensive nuclear industrial system and skilled technical teams. The international cooperation and technical exchange between China and other countries has provided more opportunities to absorb new concepts, new ideas and new technology for upgrading current products and shorten the gap with the developed countries.

  2. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  3. Family Law: Notes from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  4. Meet French Architecture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan

    2005-01-01

    On April 5, a French architectural exhibition entitled ""French Visions: City, Architecture and Sustainable Development"" was unveiled in Beijing Urban Planning Center. As a key exhibition within the framework of French Year in China, the exhibition will also be displayed in Shanghai and Chongqing. The largest exhibition of its kind ever held in China, French Visions extensively showed accomplishments of contemporary French architectural design.

  5. 2009 China Market Suppliers List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Company Name:Desire Star(China)Tea Industrial Co.,Ltd. Company Profile:Desire Star (China)Tea Industrial Co.,Ltd.was founded in Oct 2001,it is a key provincial industrialized agricultural producer which engages in the cultivation,manufacture,production,sales,research of the oolong tea (especially in Wuyi Rock-essence Tea),green tea,jasmine

  6. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  7. The Objectivity of China English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fang

    2013-01-01

    China English, as one of the English varieties, is an objective reality. It is different from Chinglish which is an interlan-guage for Chinese English learners. This paper expresses the definition of China English, its objectivity and manifestations in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and text.

  8. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly refo

  9. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  10. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  11. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  12. During My Stay in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MuhammadAdeelTalib

    2004-01-01

    CHINA is often referred to as a land of mystery and intrigue - a country isolated from the West for centuries. It is considered one of the cradles of civilization, having a writ-ten history that goes back thousands of years. Today, China has opened its door to tourism, international trade and cultural exchange. I came

  13. Agrofood-trein naar China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, K.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    Transport van voedingsmiddelen en bloemen van Nederland naar China kan goed via het spoor, zegt LEI-onderzoeker Xiaoyong Zhang. Ze presenteerde haar bevindingen op 28 oktober aan een handelsdelegatie in China, met toehoorders als de Rotterdamse burgemeester Ahmed Aboutaleb en koning Willem-Alexander

  14. The Cretaceous System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China,which is based on rich data obtained from recent researches. Cretaceous deposits are widespread in China. Most strata are of nonmarine origin and marine sediments occur only in Tibet, western Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, Taiwan and limited localities of eastern Heilongjiang. All deposits are rich in fossils and well-constrained biostratigraphically. The stratigraphic successions of different regions are illustrated, and general stratigraphic division and correlation have been introduced. The marine deposits are described in the Tibetan Tethys, Kashi-Hotan Region of Xinjiang, eastern Heilongjiang,western Yunnan and Taiwan; the nonmarine deposits are outlined from northeast China, southeast China, southern interior China, southwest China, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, and northwestern China intermontane basins. The sedimentary facies and paleogeography are diversified.In Tibet the basin evolution is largely related to the subduction and collision of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Continent, and shows a tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous. Foraminifera are a dominant biota in the Tibet Tethys. Nonmarine sediments include variegated and red beds, coal- or salt-bearing horizons, and volcanic rocks. These deposits contain diverse and abundant continental faunas and floras, as well as important coal and oil resources. The Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China have presented a foundation for geological studies.

  15. Biomass resource assessment for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jingjing; Zhou Aiming [Energy Research Institute of State Planning and Development Commission (China)

    1999-07-01

    This paper calculated and assessed the biomass resource availability in China, especially straw and stalk, domestic animal excreta and municipal solid waste. The assessment showed that biomass energy will be a rich and sustainable resource in China, important for developing the social economy and improving the environment in the future. (author)

  16. Media Monitor: Images of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, Mary Robinson

    1981-01-01

    The author briefly describes selected instructional media--excluding films--on the geography, history, art, culture, and everyday life of China. Grade levels and ordering sources are provided. This is one of several articles on China studies appearing in this issue. (SJL)

  17. Israel Epstein Sees China Grow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan

    2004-01-01

    IN the past, there was much talk about how the advanc-ing world would change China. We are now in the period when China's role in the world is changing the world situation and attracting notice all over the globe, This is a very great change in international culture,"

  18. Business Culture of Modern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkina, L. E.; Зенкина, Л. Е.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the peculiarity of doing business in modern China. The author focuses on the country's cultural characteristics, specifics of Chinese communication and management styles, subtleties of business etiquette and negotiations as well as development of online commerce and other aspects of business dealings in China in the context of cross-cultural interaction.

  19. The Great Firewall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    Although China has made notable progress in liberalizing its economy over the past three decades, the Communist Party maintains a stranglehold on political freedom, and in no place is this more apparent than the roadblocks it places on the Information Superhighway. Indeed, according to Reporters Without Borders, China stands as "... the world's…

  20. Air Pollution Contributes in Sunshine Dimming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team led by Professor Yang Yonghui of Center for Agricultural Resources Research, In- stitute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, have revealed the magnitude and physical mechanism of the effect of air pollution on sunshine hours in 38 big cities across China. These results have recently been published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (VOL. 117, D00V14, doi. 10. 1029/ 2011JD016753). It was funded by international collaborative proiect from MOST and NSFC.

  1. China's responsiveness to internet opinion: a double-edged sword

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Hassid; Iowa State University

    2015-01-01

    "Despite its authoritarian bent, the Chinese government quickly and actively moves to respond to public pressure over misdeeds revealed and discussed on the internet. Netizens have reacted with dismay to news about natural and man-made disasters, official corruption, abuse of the legal system and other prominent issues. Yet in spite of the sensitivity of such topics and the persistence of China's censorship apparatus, Beijing usually acts to quickly address these problems rather than sweeping...

  2. The Schistosoma japonicum genome reveals features of host-parasite interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Xiangyi; Zhang, Lei; WANG Kai; Guo, Jing; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Bo; Huang, Wei; Jin, Ke; Tonghai, Dou; Hasegawa, Masami; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis, a significant cause of morbidity in China and the Philippines. Here we present a draft genomic sequence for the worm, which is the first reported for any flatworm, indeed for the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signaling ...

  3. Travel patterns in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  4. ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Purpose.To introduce the epidemical, pathological, and clinical characteristics as well as the diagnostic and therapeutical experiences of endomyocardial fibrosis(EMF) in China. Data sources.A CMBdisc search was done of the Chinese-language literature published from January 1983 through June 1997 about EMF and/or restrictive cardiomyopathy. A manual search was then done for other contributions, including abstracts, between January 1965 and June 1997.Results. Eighty-seven Chinese cases of EMF were collected in this paper. There were 49 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 28±13 years(range, 8 to 68 years). The distribution of the cases is mainly in the south of China. Combined right and left ventricular disease occurs in 48 percent of cases, with pure right ventricular involvement occurring in 42 percent and pure left ventricular involvement in the remaining 10 percent of patients who are examined postmortem. The diagnosis of EMF was confirmed in 21 cases at autopsy, and in 66 cases by echocardiography, angiocardiography, and/or endomyocardial biopsy which showed the characteristic changes. Clinically, right-sided disease is the commonest variety. Endocardiectomy and tricuspid(n=7) or mitral(n=1) valves replacement have been performed in 8 patients. There were 2 operative deaths. Six patients had a satisfactory recovery postoperatively and living well in the follow-up duration. Conclusion.EMF has been diagnosed clinically and confirmed at necropsy in a number of cases in the south of China. The etiology, incidence and epidemiology are still unknown. The pathological and clinical features are similar to those in tropical areas, but right ventricular involvement is the commonest type in our country.

  5. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    The global dispersion and fragmentation of value chains of companies all over the world is a well-known consequence of globalization. Facing the intense global competition, companies are configuring their operations and innovation activities on a global scale. The globalization of operations...... and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  6. China and Doha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China, as the biggest developing country and a trade giant in the world, plays an important role in the global trade system. Because of this dual identity, the country is under the global spotlight Both WTO Director General Pascal Lamy and U.S. Trade Representative Susan Schwab visited Beijing recently to exhort its leaders to strengthen their efforts toward a successful conclusion of the current Doha Round of trade negotiations and play a bigger role in reviving the world's multilateral trade system. Ma...

  7. CHINA'S LNG BUSINESS BOOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a low-temperature liquid mixture (-162℃) obtained by cooling and liquefaction of natural gas after deacidification and dehydration. In recent years, along with the surging global demand for energy and the drop of LNG cost, demand for LNG has been rising steadily. The primary underlying causes of that are the reduction of cost, the improvement of ship transportation and the changes in the form of trade. The tightening energy bottleneck brought by the rapid growth of China's economy might be well addressed by the active development of LNG industry, which can also help diversify the energy resources and facilitate the protection of environment.

  8. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  9. Lake Qinghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junqing

    2006-01-01

    Lake Qinghai lies on the northeast corner of the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau. It is a closed-basin lake and the largest water body in China with an area of about 4437 km2. Aragonite and calcite are precipitating from the brackish (TDS 12-14 g/l) and alkaline water (pH 9.1-9.4). Summer rainfall exerts an important control on changes in both lake level and water chemistry. As the lake today is situated at the outer margin of the Asian summer monsoon, past climate changes were sensitively documented i...

  10. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  11. Cupressaceae Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examed the Cupressaceae taxa in China. It is identifled that 30 species and 16 varieties in 7 genera in thefamily are indigenous, and estimated that about 25 species and 4 varieties have been introduced into this country since the beginning of this century. It is urgent that more furthur studies need to be carried out in the country on the taxonomy especially of junipers and cypresses, on the re-classification ofexisting cultivars, and on the development of new cultivars for future needs.

  12. Organotin pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Liu, Ji-yan

    2002-03-12

    A preliminary investigation of the occurrence of butyltin compounds was made in various environmental samples including water, sediment, sea products, and other commodities from China. Detection was carried out by the method of hydrogenation coupled with SPME or Grignard derivatization, followed by GC-FPD analysis. The results showed the universal existence of butyltin compounds in a wide range of tested samples, which was a potential danger for human health. Urgent control or management of organotin compounds is necessary to prevent the underlying hazard caused by this kind of pollutant. PMID:12805991

  13. Organotin Pollution in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-fang Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary investigation of the occurrence of butyltin compounds was made in various environmental samples including water, sediment, sea products, and other commodities from China. Detection was carried out by the method of hydrogenation coupled with SPME or Grignard derivatization, followed by GC-FPD analysis. The results showed the universal existence of butyltin compounds in a wide range of tested samples, which was a potential danger for human health. Urgent control or management of organotin compounds is necessary to prevent the underlying hazard caused by this kind of pollutant.

  14. Developing biorefinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min En-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Biorefinery based on biomass resources is an important approach for the oil refining and petrochemical industry to achieve sustainable development.Two types of biorefinery suitable for China's biomass resources are presented in this paper.With sorgo and cassava as raw material,an ethanol-biorefinery for the production of ethanol-gasoline and chemicals is explored,and with rape seed and cotton seed oil as raw material,a biodiesel-biorefinery for the production of biodiesel and chemicals is also explored.The associated problems and measures taken are discussed in the end.

  15. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  16. Forensic DNA typing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y P

    2009-04-01

    In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China also contributed to the progress of DNA analysis by the validation of numerous test methods and by optimization of these methods. During these years, forensic DNA analysis in China has experienced tremendous progress towards development of robust, efficient and precise protocols, including the development of short tandem repeat analysis, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analysis. Forensic scientists are constantly looking for new methods to further improve DNA typing. Therefore, this paper also focuses on emerging new technologies in China, which represent an interest for forensic genetics.

  17. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDY OF THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN RUSSIA AND CHINA. RUSSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM’ INFLUENCE ON THE CHINESE LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Yu Kolmakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features, similarities and differences of the legal systems of Russia and China and reveals that Russia is a more democratic state compared to China in the field of protection of the freedom of speech. The author concludes that Russia can influence China by methods of international treaties which allow cooperation between states with different state and social orders and by promoting the ideas of the freedom of expression through research exchanges.

  18. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000%1950-2000年中国北方干旱气候变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 翟盘茂; 张洪涛

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions displayed different trends.

  19. China's power policy; Die Energiepolitik Chinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Programm Politik Ostasien

    2006-07-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130