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Sample records for china reveals jarid2

  1. Whole Genome Association Study in a Homogenous Population in Shandong Peninsula of China Reveals JARID2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Schizophrenia

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    Yang Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA pooling can provide an economic and efficient way to detect susceptibility loci to complex diseases. We carried out a genome screen with 400 microsatellite markers spaced at approximately 10 cm in two DNA pools consisting of 119 schizophrenia (SZ patients and 119 controls recruited from a homogenous population in the Chang Le area of the Shandong peninsula of China. Association of D6S289, a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the JARID2 gene with SZ, was found and confirmed by individual genotyping (X2=17.89; P=.047. In order to refine the signal, we genotyped 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering JARID2 and the neighboring gene, DNTBP1, in an extended sample of 309 cases and 309 controls from Shandong peninsula (including the samples from the pools. However, rs2235258 and rs9654600 in JARID2 showed association in allelic, genotypic and haplotypic tests with SZ patients from Chang Le area. This was not replicates in the extended sample, we conclude that JARID2 could be a susceptibility gene for SZ.

  2. Analysis list: Jarid2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jarid2 Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jarid2.1.tsv http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jarid2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Jar...id2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Jarid2.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  3. Analysis list: JARID2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JARID2 Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JAR...ID2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JARID2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/JARID2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/JARID...2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  4. Analysis list: Jarid2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jarid2 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jar...id2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jarid2.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Jarid2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Jarid2.Blood.tsv,http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Jarid2.Pluripote...nt_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  5. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, Sarah A; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J; Moore, Darcy L; Alexander, Warren S; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas; Blewitt, Marnie E

    2015-03-19

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  6. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, Sarah A.; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J.; Moore, Darcy L.; Alexander, Warren S.; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J.; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  7. Frequent deletions of JARID2 in leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puda, Ana; Milosevic, Jelena D; Berg, Tiina; Klampfl, Thorsten; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Gisslinger, Bettina; Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Malcovati, Luca; Elena, Chiara; Doubek, Michael; Steurer, Michael; Tosic, Natasa; Pavlovic, Sonja; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Gisslinger, Heinz; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have an inherent tendency to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using high-resolution SNP microarrays, we studied a total of 517 MPN and MDS patients in different disease stages, including 77 AML cases with previous history of MPN (N = 46) or MDS (N = 31). Frequent chromosomal deletions of variable sizes were detected, allowing the mapping of putative tumor suppressor genes involved in the leukemic transformation process. We detected frequent deletions on the short arm of chromosome 6 (del6p). The common deleted region on 6p mapped to a 1.1-Mb region and contained only the JARID2 gene--member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). When we compared the frequency of del6p between chronic and leukemic phase, we observed a strong association of del6p with leukemic transformation (P = 0.0033). Subsequently, analysis of deletion profiles of other PRC2 members revealed frequent losses of genes such as EZH2, AEBP2, and SUZ12; however, the deletions targeting these genes were large. We also identified two patients with homozygous losses of JARID2 and AEBP2. We observed frequent codeletion of AEBP2 and ETV6, and similarly, SUZ12 and NF1. Using next generation exome sequencing of 40 patients, we identified only one somatic mutation in the PRC2 complex member SUZ12. As the frequency of point mutations in PRC2 members was found to be low, deletions were the main type of lesions targeting PRC2 complex members. Our study suggests an essential role of the PRC2 complex in the leukemic transformation of chronic myeloid disorders. PMID:22190018

  8. Immune function genes CD99L2, JARID2 and TPO show association with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Paula S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of clinical and basic research studies have implicated immunological abnormalities as being associated with and potentially responsible for the cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD children. Here we test the hypothesis that immune-related gene loci are associated with ASD. Findings We identified 2,012 genes of known immune-function via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Family-based tests of association were computed on the 22,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the 2,012 immune-related genes on 1,510 trios available at the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE repository. Several SNPs in immune-related genes remained statistically significantly associated with ASD after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Specifically, we observed significant associations in the CD99 molecule-like 2 region (CD99L2, rs11796490, P = 4.01 × 10-06, OR = 0.68 (0.58-0.80, in the jumonji AT rich interactive domain 2 (JARID2 gene (rs13193457, P = 2.71 × 10-06, OR = 0.61 (0.49-0.75, and in the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO (rs1514687, P = 5.72 × 10-06, OR = 1.46 (1.24-1.72. Conclusions This study suggests that despite the lack of a general enrichment of SNPs in immune function genes in ASD children, several novel genes with known immune functions are associated with ASD.

  9. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

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    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  10. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

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    Yu, Shenhui; Chong, Zhuo; Zhao, Fengjuan; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2013-05-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China. To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development, ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S. horneri. The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China. The percentage of polymorphic loci P % (ISSR, 99.44%; SRAP, 100.00%), Nei's genetic diversity H (ISSR, 0.107-0.199; SRAP, 0.100-0.153), and Shannon's information index I (ISSR, 0.157-0.291; SRAP, 0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations. Moreover, the high degree of gene differentiation G st (ISSR, 0.654; SRAP, 0.718) and low gene flow N m (ISSR, 0.265; SRAP, 0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation, possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation. The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices ( F st) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R =0.541 5, 0.541 8; P =0.005 0, 0.002 0 and R =0.728 6, 0.641 2; P =0.001 0, 0.001 0, respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception. Overall, the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation. The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S. horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  11. The role of JARID2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are under tight transcriptional regulation ensuring proper function and maintenance of key features such as self-renewal and multi-lineage reconstitution potential. Erroneous regulation can confer unwanted properties to the cells and ultimately lead to malignant...

  12. Population genetic structure and migration patterns of Liriomyza sativae in China: moderate subdivision and no Bridgehead effect revealed by microsatellites.

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    Tang, X-T; Ji, Y; Chang, Y-W; Shen, Y; Tian, Z-H; Gong, W-R; Du, Y-Z

    2016-02-01

    While Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), an important invasive pest of ornamentals and vegetables has been found in China for the past two decades, few studies have focused on its genetics or route of invasive. In this study, we collected 288 L. sativae individuals across 12 provinces to explore its population genetic structure and migration patterns in China using seven microsatellites. We found relatively low levels of genetic diversity but moderate population genetic structure (0.05 < F ST < 0.15) in L. sativae from China. All populations deviated significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygote deficiency. Molecular variance analysis revealed that more than 89% of variation was among samples within populations. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed that SH and GXNN populations formed one cluster separate from the other populations, which is in accordance with STRUCTURE and GENELAND analyses. A Mantel test indicated that genetic distance was not correlated to geographic distance (r = -0.0814, P = 0.7610), coupled with high levels of gene flow (M = 40.1-817.7), suggesting a possible anthropogenic influence on the spread of L. sativae in China and on the effect of hosts. The trend of asymmetrical gene flow was from southern to northern populations in general and did not exhibit a Bridgehead effect during the course of invasion, as can be seen by the low genetic diversity of southern populations. PMID:26615869

  13. Dengue in China: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Evaluation Reveals Evidence of Endemicity and Complex Genetic Diversity.

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    Chen, Rubing; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing threat of dengue outbreaks in China, it is still considered as an imported disease and its introduction and/or circulation patterns remain obscure. On the basis of the most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, we showed highly complex genetic diversity of dengue viruses (DENVs) in south China with up to 20 different clades/lineages from multiple serotypes co-circulating in the same year. Despite that most of these clades/lineages were resulted from imported cases, evidence of local persistence of DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was observed, indicating its potential endemicity in Guangdong province. This study, therefore, provided an overview of DENV genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics in China, which will be useful for developing policies to prevent and control future dengue outbreaks in China. PMID:26458780

  14. What Developing International Markets for Ecosystem Services Reveal for China's Forestry Sector?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENKINS; Michael; BENNETT; Michael

    2009-01-01

    The market mechanism for forest ecosystem service has already become common knowledge among countries in the international movement to address global climate change.In this paper,international experiences of forest ecosystem market such as better understanding of concept,public participation, sound trading rules and measurement standards are analyzed,and its implication for China is also summarized.Finally,the prospects of forest ecosystem service market in China are discussed.The purpose of this paper i...

  15. Phytoliths reveal the earliest fine reedy textile in China at the Tianluoshan site

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    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Sun, Guoping; Flad, Rowan; Wu, Naiqin; Huan, Xiujia; He, Keyang; Wang, Yonglei

    2016-01-01

    Textiles are among the longest and most widespread technologies in human history, although poor preservation of perishable artifacts in Paleolithic and Neolithic contexts makes them difficult to unearth and has hampered study of their production and use. Here we report evidence of a plain-woven mat from the Tianluoshan site, Zhejiang, Eastern China. Phytolith and AMS dating from the mat and modern reference collections shown that the mat was made of reeds (Phragmites australis (Cav.)) and dated to 6775-6645 cal. yr. BP. This is the earliest directly dated fiber artifact so far known in China, over at least one thousand years earlier than any established dates for woven remains elsewhere. The evidence of the mat and other related remains suggest that textile products might occur earlier than 7000-8000 years ago and are significant for understanding the history of textiles, as well as production and human adaptation in Neolithic China.

  16. Revealing the Secret of Paleoclimatic Change Harbored by Loess Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan; Zhao Baohua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Is this planet growing warmer and warmer? What climatic change will occur in the future? To answer these big questions, however, the scientific community has to know first what happened in the geological history of the Earth, namely, the paleoclimatic change. With his half-centurylong research on loess deposition in China, Prof. Liu Dongsheng from the CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics has unveiled an imposing paleoclimatic scenario happening in the Quaternary period; and more importantly, the work conducted by him and his colleagues and students has presented loess sediments in China as a complete and reliable databank of paleoclimatic change.

  17. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

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    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  18. 129I assessment reveals the impact of Fukushima incident on Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the radioactive impact of Fukushima Incident on the coastal environment of Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen, China, combining accelerator mass spectrometry with epithermal neutron activation analysis, we measured the 129I/127I ratios and 129I levels in surface seawater, oyster (Ostrea gigas) and kelp (Sargassum henslouianum). The results showed that the influence of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base was ignorable to local environment, but the Fukushima Incident had caused significant increase of 129I levels in oyster (P 129I levels in oyster and kelp were far below the guideline given by Codex Alimentarius Commission and would not cause immediate harm to the health of local residents. (author)

  19. Deep crustal structures of eastern China and adjacent seas revealed by magnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through reduction to the North Pole and upward continuation of the total field magnetic anomalies, we analyze magnetic patterns and spatial distributions of different tectonic blocks and crustal faults in eastern China and adjacent seas. Depths to the Curie isotherms are further estimated from radially averaged amplitude spectra of magnetic data reduced to the pole. Data reductions effectively enhance boundaries of regional tectonic belts, such as the Dabie ultra-high metamorphic belt, the Tanlu Fault, and the Diaoyudao Uplift. Curie depths are estimated at between 19.6 and 48.9 km, with a mean of 31.7 km. The Subei Basin and the south Yellow Sea Basin in the lower Yangtze block show relatively deep Curie isotherms, up to about 35 km in depth, whereas in the surrounding areas Curie depths are averaged at about 25 km. This implies that the lower Yangtze Block has experienced a unique tectonic evolution and/or has unique basement lithology and structures. From a regional perspective, sedimentary basins, such as the Subei Basin, the south Yellow Sea Basin, and the East China Sea Basin, normally show deeper Curie isotherms than surrounding uplifts such as the Diaoyudao Uplift and the Zhemin Uplifts. Curie isotherms also upwell significantly in volcanically active areas such as the Ryukyu Arc and the Cheju Island, confirming strong magmatic and geothermal activities at depth.

  20. Molecular variation of Sporisorium scitamineum in Mainland China revealed by internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Y; Huang, N; Xiao, X H; Huang, L; Liu, F; Su, W H; Que, Y X

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum is a worldwide disease and also one of the most prevalent diseases in sugarcane production in mainland China. To study molecular variation in S. scitamineum, 23 S. scitamineum isolates from the 6 primary sugar-cane production areas in mainland, China (Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, and Jiangxi Provinces), were assessed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) methods. The results of ITS sequence analysis showed that the organisms can be defined at the genus level, including Ustilago and Sporisorium, and can also differentiate between closely related species. This method was not suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis of different S. scitamineum isolates and could not provide support regarding their race ascription at the molecular level. The results of the present study will be useful for studies examining the molecular diversity of S. scitamineum and for establishing a genetic foundation for their pathogenicity differentiation and new race detection. In addition, our results can provide useful information for the pathogen selection principle in sugarcane smut resistance breeding and variety distribution. PMID:26214470

  1. Environmental regulation and revealed comparative advantages in Europe: is China a pollution haven?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marconi

    2010-01-01

    The relocation of more polluting industries in poorer countries due to gaps in environmental standards is known as the pollution haven effect, whereby the scale and the composition of output change across countries. Changes in the composition of the output mix might translate into changes of comparative advantages across countries, as revealed by trade flows. This paper focus on this issue and looks at the changes of bilateral revealed comparative advantages (RCAs) in the last decade between ...

  2. Molecular phylogeny and morphology reveal a new species of Amyloporia (Basidiomycota) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bao-Kai; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Amyloporia pinea sp. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of collections from southern China. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences support this new species. Morphologically, it is characterized by resupinate, annual basidiocarps, cream to yellowish buff pore surface when fresh, which becomes yellowish brown to clay-buff upon drying, a dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and inamyloid skeletal hyphae, fusoid cystidioles, and cylindrical basidiospores; moreover, it causes a brown rot. Molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data suggested a close relationship between A. pinea and Amyloporia crassa sensu lato. Antrodia subxantha has amyloid skeletal hyphae, and grouped within the Amyloporia clade, hence, it is transferred to Amyloporia, and a new combination Amyloporia subxantha is proposed. PMID:23912447

  3. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

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    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  4. Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Wong, Man Sing; Letu, Husi; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Sheng, Shijie; Teng, Jiyao; Xiao, Xin; Yuan, Limei

    2016-09-01

    By employing PM2.5 observation data, ground-based lidar measurements, MODIS and CALIPSO satellite images, meteorological data, and back trajectories analysis, we investigate a trans-boundary transport of aerosols during a large-area haze episode in China during 3-5 January 2015. The ground-based lidar observations indicated similar episodes of external aerosols passing through and mixing into three East China cities. A considerable amount of total AOD below 3 km (46% in average) was contributed by the external aerosol layers during passing over and importing. CALIPSO satellite observations of central and eastern China revealed a high altitude pollutant belt on January 3. Although the severest ground pollution was found in central and south-eastern Hebei, the high altitude pollution transport was greater in south-western Shandong, north-western Jiangsu, and north-western Anhui. These observations along with the analysis of air mass trajectories and wind fields indicates pollutants moving from Hebei, Henan and Hubei probably contributed to the haze pollution in Shandong and Jiangsu. This study reveals haze transports from North China Plain to East China could be a common phenomenon influenced by the winter monsoon in northern China. Hence, effective control of air pollution requires collaboration among different cities and provinces throughout China. The long-term measurements of aerosol vertical properties by ground-based lidar and CALIPSO are extremely valuable in quantifying the contributions of external factors and will be helpful in validating and improving various air quality models.

  5. Paleotethyan subduction process revealed from Triassic blueschists in the Lancang tectonic belt of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiming; Wang, Yuejun; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Yuzhi; Jourdan, Fred; Zi, Jianwei; Liu, Huichuan

    2015-11-01

    The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event in Southwest China, but the event of the subduction preceding the final collision is still not well-constrained. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide crucial records of the Paleotethyan subduction process. In this paper, we present a set of new petrologic, geochronological and geochemical data for the Suyi mafic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30%), albite (15-20%), epidote (25-30%), phengite (5-10%), chlorite (~ 5-10%), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphene, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. This suggests a prograde metamorphism from ~ 0.5 to ~ 0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~ 0.6 GPa) within the temperature range of 300-450 °C. The Suyi blueschists give a zircon U-Pb age of 260 ± 4 Ma and glaucophane minerals formed during prograde metamorphism yield a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 242 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 0.77; P = 0.54). The blueschists have geochemical compositions of subalkaline basalt and show typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and εNd(t) values ranging from + 3.35 to + 4.85. Based on available data, it is inferred that the protolith formed at 260 Ma and originated from a basaltic seamount. The basaltic rocks subducted down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc to form the epidote blueschists at ~ 242 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the subducted slab and the continent-continent collision in the middle-late Triassic. These results provide a systematic constraint on the tectonic evolution and temporal framework of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt in Southwest China.

  6. Relocation of the Yellow River as revealed by sedimentary isotopic and elemental signals in the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yellow River (YR) supplies a large amount of nutrients and fresh water to the northern Chinese marginal seas, and greatly influences the ecosystem and current patterns. The relocation of the YR outlet from the southern Yellow Sea (YS) to the Bohai Sea in 1855 was demonstrated using northern East China Sea (ECS) sediment characteristics. Both isotopic (δ13C, δ15N) signals and C/N ratios in the organic matter (OM) indicate that prior to 1750, the predominant source of OM to the sediments was terrestrial. The terrestrial influences continuously weakened until 1855, when the YR estuary moved; after 1855, the OM was characterized by oceanic sources. Major elements (Al, Ti, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb) had a much closer association with Malan loess prior to 1855, as >90% of the YR sediment was loess-derived. These results reveal that the relocation of the YR induced significant changes in the current patterns of the northern China Seas in the last 250 years; however, more studies are needed to further examine these linkages.

  7. Genetic variation in wild populations of the tuber crop Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae) in central China as revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C; Gichira, A W; Chen, J M

    2015-01-01

    Amorphophallus konjac is an economically important crop. In order to provide baseline information for sustainable development and conservation of the wild plant resources of A. konjac, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of this species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. We sampled 139 individuals from 10 wild populations of A. konjac in central China. Using five AFLP primer combinations, we scored a total of 270 DNA fragments, most of which were polymorphic (98.2%). Percentage of polymorphic loci, Nei's genetic diversity index, and Shannon's information index showed high levels of genetic variation within A. konjac populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the variance (68%) resided within populations. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations was 0.348 and the estimated gene flow was 0.469, indicating that there was limited gene flow among the populations. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis and principal coordinates analysis indicated that geographically close populations were more likely to cluster together. The Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (R2 = 0.2521, P konjac and the complex geography of central China are likely to have contributed to the current pattern of genetic variation of this species. In the present study, we provide several suggestions on the future protection of the wild plant genetic resources of A. konjac. PMID:26782525

  8. Variability of Indian summer monsoon over the past 252 kyr revealed by stalagmite record in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Fung, I. Y.; Edwards, R.; An, Z.; Cheng, H.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple proxies obtained from Arabian Sea sediments have revealed the variability of Indian summer Monsoon (ISM) on time scale of 100-105 years. These proxies mainly capture summertime winds over the Arabian Sea and our understanding of Indian summer monsoon precipitation variability; and the relationship between paleo-ISM and paleo East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) lacks precise articulation, however, due to the scarcity of high-resolution precipitation records spanning a glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present an absolutely-dated oxygen isotope record from stalagmites in Xiaobailong (XBL) cave, southwestern China, that documents the variability in local precipitation and the ISM for the past 252,000 years. This record is dominated by 23-kyr precessional cycles punctuated by prominent millennial-scale oscillations that are synchronous with Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. It also shows clear glacial-interglacial variations that are consistent with marine and other terrestrial proxies. The distinct glacial-interglacial range in XBL δ18O is larger than that of speleothem records from eastern China. Corroborated with results from an isotope-enabled global climate model, we hypothesize that these dissimilarities may reflect the different responses of ISM and EASM to changes in global circulation and moisture source, in particular those caused by glacial-interglacial sea-land configuration changes as manifested by notable coastline shifts in the Western Pacific and Maritime Continent.

  9. A giant spider from the Jurassic of China reveals greater diversity of the orbicularian stem group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2013-12-01

    A large female spider, Nephila jurassica, was described from Middle Jurassic strata of north-east China and placed in the modern genus Nephila (family Nephilidae) on the basis of many morphological similarities, but, as with many ancient fossils, the single specimen lacked synapomorphies of the family (Selden et al. 2011). In order to test the placement within the nephilid phylogenetic tree, Kuntner et al. (2013) calibrated the molecular phylogeny using N. jurassica in three different scenarios based on inferred mitochondrial substitution rates. They concluded that N. jurassica fitted better as a stem orbicularian than a nephilid. Now, a giant male spider has been discovered at the same locality that yielded N. jurassica. The two sexes are considered conspecific based on their similar morphological features, size, and provenance. The male cannot be accommodated in Nephilidae because of its pedipalp morphology, so the new genus Mongolarachne and family Mongolarachnidae are erected for the species. Comparison with possibly related families show that Mongolarachnidae is most likely on the orbicularian stem, close to other cribellate orbicularians (e.g., Deinopoidea), which suggests a greater diversity of cribellate orbicularians during the Middle Jurassic.

  10. Pyrosequencing Reveals a Core Community of Anodic Bacterial Biofilms in Bioelectrochemical Systems from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Yue; Wu, Song; Zhang, En-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Ng, I-Son; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0-17.7%), Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e., Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas, and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study has presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potentially microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:26733958

  11. The genetic diversity of the mangrove kandelia obovata in China revealed by ISSR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic diversity of 7 populations of Kandelia obovata in China was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique. A total of 50 primers were screened, of which 9 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. ISSR amplification was conducted on 140 individuals from 7 populations, and 88 polymorphic loci were detected from 106 total loci. The total percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) was 83.02%. The percentage of PPL at the population level ranged from 32.08% to 47.17%, with an average of 39.89%. Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's information index (I) of K. obovata at the species level were 0.3631 and 0.5203, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) among populations was 0.5548. Among populations component accounted for 55.48% of the total variation, whereas the within populations component accounted for 44.52%, suggesting that genetic differentiation among K. obovata populations was relatively high. The gene flow among populations was 0.4012, indicating that gene flow was low among geographically diverse populations of K. obovata. The results of the genetic diversity and cluster analysis suggest that geographical isolation of K. obovata populations mainly results in low gene flow and random genetic drift, leading to genetic differentiation. (author)

  12. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  13. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  14. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  15. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  16. Oxygenation of a Cryogenian ocean (Nanhua Basin, South China) revealed by pyrite Fe isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Xiangkun; Yan, Bin; Kendall, Brian; Peng, Xi; Li, Jin; Algeo, Thomas J.; Romaniello, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The nature of ocean redox chemistry between the Cryogenian Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations (ca. 663-654 Ma) is important for understanding the relationship between environmental conditions and the subsequent emergence and expansion of early animals. The Cryogenian-to-Ediacaran stratigraphic succession of the Nanhua Basin in South China provides a nearly complete sedimentary record of the Cryogenian, including a continuous record of interglacial sedimentation. Here, we present a high-resolution pyrite Fe isotope record for a ∼120-m-long drill-core (ZK105) through Sturtian glacial diamictites and the overlying interglacial sediments in the Nanhua Basin to explore changes in marine chemistry during the late Cryogenian. Our pyrite Fe isotope profile exhibits significant stratigraphic variation: Interval I, comprising middle to upper Tiesi'ao diamictites (correlative with the Sturtian glaciation), is characterized by light, modern seawater-like Fe isotope compositions; Interval II, comprising uppermost Tiesi'ao diamictites and the basal organic-rich Datangpo Formation, is characterized by an abrupt shift to heavier Fe isotope compositions; and Interval III, comprising organic-poor grey shales in the middle Datangpo Formation, is characterized by the return of lighter, seawater-like Fe isotope compositions. We infer that Interval I pyrite was deposited in a predominantly anoxic glacial Nanhua Basin through reaction of dissolved Fe2+ and H2S mediated by microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). The shift to heavier pyrite Fe isotope values in Interval II is interpreted as partial oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and subsequent near-quantitative reduction and transformation of Fe-oxyhydroxides to pyrite through coupling with oxidation of organic matter in the local diagenetic environment. In Interval III, near-quantitative oxidation of ferrous iron to Fe-oxyhydroxides followed by near-quantitative reduction and conversion to pyrite in the local diagenetic environment

  17. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  18. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2015-09-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  19. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  20. Phylogenetic Analyses of Armillaria Reveal at Least 15 Phylogenetic Lineages in China, Seven of Which Are Associated with Cultivated Gastrodia elata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Wang, Han Chen; Xue, Wan Qiu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Zhu L.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species of Armillaria, which can act as plant pathogens and/or symbionts of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata (“Tianma”), are ecologically and economically important and have consequently attracted the attention of mycologists. However, their taxonomy has been highly dependent on morphological characterization and mating tests. In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed Chinese Armillaria samples using the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene and beta-tubulin gene. Our data revealed at least 15 phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria from China, of which seven were newly discovered and two were recorded from China for the first time. Fourteen Chinese biological species of Armillaria, which were previously defined based on mating tests, could be assigned to the 15 phylogenetic lineages identified herein. Seven of the 15 phylogenetic lineages were found to be disjunctively distributed in different continents of the Northern Hemisphere, while eight were revealed to be endemic to certain continents. In addition, we found that seven phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria were used for the cultivation of Tianma, only two of which had been recorded to be associated with Tianma previously. We also illustrated that G. elata f. glauca (“Brown Tianma”) and G. elata f. elata (“Red Tianma”), two cultivars of Tianma grown in different regions of China, form symbiotic relationships with different phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria. These findings should aid the development of Tianma cultivation in China. PMID:27138686

  1. Relationships of Aegilops tauschii revealed by DNA fingerprints: The evidence for agriculture exchange between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiting Wei; Jun Li; Zhengsong Peng; Baorong Lu; Zhijun Zhao; Wuyun Yang

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of wild goat grass (Aegilops tauschii Cosson) from Iran and Xinjiang,west China,as well as its weedy type from the Yellow River region of Shaanxi and Henan provinces in China were analyzed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprints.A high level of genetic diversity in Aegilops tauschii accessions from Iran was observed,and the richness of genetic diversity was followed by accessions from Shaanxi,Henan,and Xinjiang.The weedy type of Aegilops tauschii showed a close genetic relationship with the wild type from different regions in Iran.The results indicated that the weedy Aegilops tauschii found in the Yellow River region was most likely introduced from lran-the diversity center of Aegilops tauschii.The weedy Aegilops tauschii populations found in the Yellow River region may be brought into the central part of China as a weed species together with common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the West during various periods of time in history.This finding has provided strong evidence for the introduction of common wheat from the West into China via the Silk Road,and also demonstrated the important role of the Silk Road in the exchange of agri-culture and other relevant technologies between China and the West.

  2. Severe Drought Events as Revealed in the Climate Records of China and Their Temperature Situations over the Last 1000 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De'er

    2005-01-01

    The total 15 severe droughts are discovered with the aid of the "Retrieval System of Chinese Historical Climate Records" for the last 1000 years. The droughts are extensive to envelope more than 4 provinces and persistent to cover 3 yr or more, and their severity is equivalent to or in excess of that in the 1930s in China.According to the documentary records and restorations it can be inferred that most droughts are more severe than those in the last 50 years. The 15 droughts may either occur warm or in a cold climate background,with 11 of the 15 cases in the cold phase. This indicates the difference in climate correspondence between China and northern America, showing the severity of the events in China to be in a cold instead of a warm climate situation. That is likely to relate to the monsoon climate in eastern Asia.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China. PMID:26976139

  4. Climate variability in central China over the last 1270 years revealed by high-resolution stalagmite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Dorte Eide; Li, Hong-Chun; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2003-03-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic variations in the upper section of a stalagmite (SF-1) from Buddha Cave (33°40'N 109°05'E) dated by 230Th/ 234U 210Pb and lamination counting to a time resolution as fine as 1-3 years have recorded climate changes in central China for the last 1270 years. The changes include those corresponding to the Medieval Warm Period Little Ice Age and 20th-century warming lending support to the global extent of these events. The isotopic records also show cycles of 33, 22, 11, 9.6, and 7.2 years. The 33-year cycle could well represent the ˜35-year periodicity of climate fluctuations previously recognized in China and Europe. Cycles of 22, 11, and 9.6 years have often been associated with the Sunspot or lunar-orbit variations. The 7.2-year cycle was recently identified also in tree-ring records from an area close to Buddha Cave. These cycles suggest that external forcing (e.g. solar irradiance) may affect the summer monsoon over eastern China. The general consistency between the climate characteristics inferred from the stable isotope records of SF-1 and those from other proxy records underscores the value of stalagmites as recorders of paleoclimate.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eleutheronema rhadinum in the East and South China Seas revealed in mitochondrial COI sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxu; Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Tao; Xin, Jian; Guo, Yaoshi; Ma, Shilei

    2013-11-01

    Eleutheronema rhadinum is a potential commercial fisheries species and is subject to intense exploitation in China. Knowledge on the population structure of E. rhadinum in Chinese coastal waters, which is important for sustainable exploitation and proper resource management, is lacking. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of E. rhadinum were evaluated using a 564-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 76 specimens were collected from three localities around the East (Qidong and Zhoushan) and South China Seas (Zhuhai). Among these individuals, nine polymorphic sites were detected and 11 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity ( h =0.759±0.035) and low levels of nucleotide diversity ( π= 0.001 98±0.003 26) were observed in these populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 96.72% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, whereas 3.28% occurred among populations. No significant genealogical branches or clusters were recognized on the neighbor-joining tree. Intra-group variation among populations was significant ( φ st=0.032 85, P<0.01). These results suggest that E. rhadinum populations in the East and South China Seas have developed divergent genetic structures. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that E. rhadinum may have experienced a population expansion. The present study provides basic information for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species.

  6. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment. PMID:26789286

  7. Epidemiological investigation reveals genetic diversity and high co-infection rate of canine bocavirus strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghua; Wang, Zhihui; Yao, Shuang; Li, Chunqiu; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Feng, Li; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-06-01

    To trace evolution of CBoV in Northeast China, 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs collected from May 2014 to April 2015 were investigated using PCR targeting partial NS1 gene (440bp). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the identified CBoV strains was conducted using nucleotide sequences of the partial NS1 gene. The results indicated that 15 of 201 fecal samples (7.5%) were positive for CBoV; the partial NS1 genes of the 15 CBoV strains exhibited 83.1%-100% nucleotide identity, and 75.8%-100% amino acid identity; the entire VP2 gene of five selected CBoV strains exhibited 82.9%-96.8% nucleotide identity, and 90.4%-99.1% amino acid identity. The 15 CBoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with CPV-2 (40%), CCoV (20%), and CaKV (26.67%). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial NS1 gene revealed that the 15 CBoV strains were divided into different subgroups of CBoV-2 when compared with CBoV-2 strains from South Korea, USA, Germany, and Hong Kong in China. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene indicated that five selected CBoV strains were divided into three different genetic groups of CBoV-2, involving in CBoV-2HK group, CBoV-2C group, and CBoV-2B group. The recombination analysis using the entire VP2 gene revealed three potential recombination events that occurred among five selected strains in our study. These data demonstrated that the CBoV strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China showed genetic diversities, potential recombination events, and high co-infection rate. Further studies will be required to address the potential pathogenic role of these diverse CBoV strains. PMID:27234529

  8. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  9. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T; Müller, J-F; Bauwens, M; De Smedt, I; Lerot, C; Van Roozendael, M; Coheur, P-F; Clerbaux, C; Boersma, K F; van der A, R; Song, Y

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices. PMID:27577535

  10. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  11. Geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining in the Fushun area, northeast China revealed by multitemporal satellite remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Y.F.; Fu, B.H.; Ninomiya, Y. [China Earthquake Administration, Beijing (China). Inst. of Earthquake Science

    2009-07-01

    Fushun is a famous coal-mining city in northeastern China with more than 100 years of history. Long-term underground coal mining has caused serious surface subsidence in the eastern part of the city. In this study, multitemporal and multi-source satellite remote sensing data were used to detect subsidence and geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining over a 10-year period (1996-2006). A digital elevation model (DEM) was generated through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry processing using data from a pair of European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) SAR images acquired in 1996. In addition, a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM obtained from data in 2000 and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM from 2006 were used for this study. The multitemporal DEMs indicated that the maximum vertical displacement due to subsidence was around 13 m from 1996 to 2006. Multitemporal ASTER images showed that the flooded water area associated with subsidence had increased by 1.73 km{sup 2} over the same time period. Field investigations and ground level measurements confirmed that the results obtained from the multitemporal remote sensing data agreed well with ground truth data. This study demonstrates that DEMs derived from multisource satellite remote sensing data can provide a powerful tool to map geomorphological changes associated with underground mining activities.

  12. The presence of six cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex in China as revealed by crossing experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Di-Bing Sun; Bao-Li Qiu; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I(mtCOI)sequences of Bemisia tabaci worldwide indicates that the whitefly comprises at least 24 morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct cryptic species.While evidence of reproductive isolation has been reported for some of the putative species,more extensive crossing experiments are required to clarify the systematics of this species complex.In this study,we established laboratory cultures for six putative species of B.tabaci collected in China.We conducted 22 inter-species crosses among the six putative species.The data and those reported previously were collated,and the combined dataset covered all the 30 possible inter-species crosses among the six putative species.Intra-species controls always produced female and male progeny and the proportions of females in the first generation(F1)ranged from 56% to 70%.However,in inter-species crosses female progeny were rarely produced,and the few F1 females produced in four of the 30 inter-species crosses were either sterile or significantly weaker in viability.These results demonstrate a pattern of complete reproductive isolation among the six putative species and show that they are six cryptic species in the B.tabaci complex.

  13. Magmatic underplating beneath the Emeishan large igneous province (South China) revealed by the COMGRA-ELIP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangfan; Chen, Yun; Wang, Peng; Essa, Khalid S.; Xu, Tao; Liang, Xiaofeng; Badal, José

    2016-03-01

    Because of the abundant geological, geochemical and geophysical studies conducted on the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in South China, the Permian mantle plume model associated with this region is widely accepted. Furthermore, the dome-shaped structure related with this plume has been determined with success by sedimentological data and gravity stripping. Although the sediment thickness, upper crust, Moho depth and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are well constrained by active- and passive-source seismological results, the density anomaly in ELIP is still a poorly constrained issue that needs further attention. With the aim especially to understand the impact on surface of the magmatic processes that originated in the deep mantle, we performed the COMGRA-ELIP gravity experiment across this region. Using a stripping method, we determined the residual gravity in ELIP and surrounding areas. The residual gravity reaches a maximum value of + 150 mGal in the inner zone of ELIP and its strength decreases gradually when measuring from the inner zone to the middle and outer zones. Combining active and passive seismic results and the least-squares variance analysis method, we propose a strong density contrast of 0.2 g/cm3 (density of 3.14 g/cm3) for the 15- to 20-km-thick igneous layer accreted at the base of the crust, as evidence of crustal underplating in ELIP, to explain the present-day residual gravity anomaly.

  14. Seasonal Trophic Shift of Littoral Consumers in Eutrophic Lake Taihu (China Revealed by a Two-Source Mixing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seasonal variation in the contributions of planktonic and benthic resources to 11 littoral predators in eutrophic Lake Taihu (China from 2004 to 2005. Seasonal fluctuations in consumer σ13C and σ15N were attributed to the combined impacts of temporal variation in isotopic signatures of basal resources and the diet shift of fishes. Based on a two-end-member mixing model, all target consumers relied on energy sources from coupled benthic and planktonic pathways, but the predominant energy source for most species was highly variable across seasons, showing seasonal trophic shift of littoral consumers. Seasonality in energy mobilization of consumers focused on two aspects: (1 the species number of consumers that relied mainly on planktonic carbon showed the lowest values in the fall and the highest during spring/summer, and (2 most consumer species showed seasonal variation in the percentages of planktonic reliance. We concluded that seasonal trophic shifts of fishes and invertebrates were driven by phytoplankton production, but benthic resources were also important seasonally in supporting littoral consumers in Meiliang Bay. Energy mobilization of carnivorous fishes was more subject to the impact of resource availability than omnivorous species.

  15. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-01-01

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P < 0.05). Most of the variance was within populations. These findings will be important for more sustainable octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization. PMID:26634529

  16. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng;

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... Lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument...... conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....

  17. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng;

    2011-01-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related...... lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in...... values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent...

  18. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  19. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Two Important Groups of Maize Landraces with Same Name in China Revealed by M13 Tailed-Primer SSRs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-zhai; GUO Rong-hua; ZHAO Jiu-ran; CAI Yi-lin; WANG Feng-ge; CAO Mo-ju; WANG Rong-huan; SHI Yun-su; SONG Yan-chun; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu

    2009-01-01

    Maize landraces White Dent and Golden Queen played a very important role in the pre-hybrid era of maize production in China. However, dozens of accessions with the same names of White Dent and Golden Queen are preserved in China National Genebank (CNG). The present study investigated the genetic diversity of these two important groups of maize landraces, as well as the relationships within and among them. Thirty-four landrace accessions with the name of White Dent and 10 with Golden Queen preserved in CNG were fingerprinted with 52 simple sequence repeats with tailed primer M13. Summary statistics including average number of alleles per locus, gene diversity/expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were carried out using PowerMarker ver. 3.25 software. The test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of all the 44 maize landrace accessions were also performed by PowerMarker. We observed a significant differentiation in terms of the average number of alleles between White Dent and Golden Queen (6.44 alleles per locus in White Dent, 4.48 in Golden Queen), while both groups of maize landraces had a relatively high but similar gene diversity (0.61 of White Dent, 0.63 of Golden Queen). The fixation index (FST) was only 0.0044, while the percentage of loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within these two groups of White Dent and Golden Queen was 32.69 and 3.92%, respectively. The rather high genetic diversity and average number of alleles per locus confirmed that both groups of landraces had a rather broad germplasm base. The extremely low fixation index showed that there was little genetic variation between White Dent and Golden Queen and the molecular variation within these two groups was remarkably high, indicating no genetic drift between White Dent and Golden Queen and suggesting different improvement approaches to these two important groups of landraces. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed that the group of

  1. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010 over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas in Wuhan. A total of twelve TerraSAR-X images acquired during 2009–2010 are used in the InSAR time series analysis. InSAR-derived results are validated by levelling survey measurements and reveal a distinct subsidence pattern within six zones in major commercial and industrial areas, with a maximum subsidence rate up to −67.3 mm/year. A comparison analysis between subsiding patterns and urban developments as well as geological conditions suggests that land subsidence in Wuhan is mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities, natural compaction of soft soil, and karst dissolution of subsurface carbonate rocks. However, anthropogenic activities related to intensive municipal construction and industrial production have more significant impacts on the measured subsidence than natural factors. Moreover, remarkable signals of secular land uplift are found along both banks of the Yangtze River, especially along the southern bank, with deformation rates ranging mostly from +5 mm/year to +17.5 mm/year. A strong temporal correlation is highlighted between the detected displacement evolutions and the water level records of the Yangtze River, inferring that this previously unknown deformation phenomenon is likely related to seasonal fluctuations in water levels of the Yangtze River.

  2. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the dongting lake area of hunan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Balen; Zhao-Chun Liu; McManus, Donald P.; Giovanna Raso; Jürg Utzinger; Shui-Yuan Xiao; Dong-Bao Yu; Zheng-Yuan Zhao; Yue-Sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitab...

  3. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  4. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT or chemotherapy (CHT is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy (CHT were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001 while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028 than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001. Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001, SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049 and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016 but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834 and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055. Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  5. Asynchronous evolution of the isotopic composition and amount of precipitation in north China during the Holocene revealed by a record of compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotopes of long-chain n-alkanes from an alpine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhiguo; Jia, Guodong; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jianhui; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Fahu

    2016-07-01

    Both the timing of the maximum East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity in monsoonal China and the environmental significance of the Chinese stalagmite oxygen isotopic record (δ18O) have been debated. Here, we present a ca. 120-year-resolution compound-specific carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of terrestrial long-chain n-alkanes extracted from a well-dated sediment core from an alpine lake in north China. Our δ13C data, together with previously reported pollen data from a parallel core, demonstrate a humid mid-Holocene from ca. 8-5 ka BP. Assuming that the climatic humidity of north China is an indicator of the EASM intensity, then the maximum EASM intensity occurred in the mid-Holocene. Our δD data reveal a similar long-term trend to the δ18O record from nearby Lianhua Cave, indicating that the synchronous δD and δ18O records faithfully record the δD and δ18O of precipitation, respectively. The most negative δD and δ18O values occur in the early-mid Holocene, from ca. 11-5 ka BP. This contrast in the timing of isotopic variations demonstrates a complex relationship between the isotopic composition of precipitation and precipitation amount, or EASM intensity. Further comparisons indicate a possible linkage between the precipitation amount in north China and the west-east thermal gradient in the equatorial Pacific. In addition, the temperature of the moisture source area may play an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation in monsoonal China.

  6. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  7. Phylogenetic Relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus From India and China as Revealed from the Study of 12S and 16S mtDNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kr. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus from West Bengal, India with other members of the Bufonidiae group was undertaken using partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes. Mitochondria were isolated from the liver of Duttaphrynus melanostictus by a non-conventional method of membrane filtration. The technique allows trapping of mitochondria on cellulose acetate membrane followed by mtDNA isolation. 12S ribosomal RNA and 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced with primers designed in our laboratory. mtDNA sequence from 18 different Bufo sp. found across the world were used for the phylogenetic analysis. Results were interpreted from the transition/transversion of nucleotides, genetic distance and maximum parsimony analysis. The findings indicates that D. melanostictus is very closely related to the Bufo melanostictus of China. The possible reasons of such close similarity between two distantly residing species (D. melanostictus of India and Bufo melanostictus of China have been discussed.

  8. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010) over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bai; Liming Jiang; Hansheng Wang; Qishi Sun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas ...

  9. High-level genetic diversity and complex population structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L. in China as revealed by nuclear SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L., an ecologically and economically important tree species with a high degree of tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, is widely distributed across the mountains of northeastern and northern China, eastern and southeastern regions of Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and the Maritime Territory of Russia. However, few studies have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Using 31 nuclear microsatellites, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot sampled from 22 populations across China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 33, with an average of 19.323 alleles. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.037 to 0.874 and 0.040 to 0.924 with average values of 0.639 and 0.774, respectively. A STRUCTURE-based analysis clustered all of the populations into four genetic clusters. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between all population pairs. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance attributed about 94% of the variation to within populations. No significant difference was detected between the wild and semi-wild groups, indicating that recent cultivation practices have had little impact on the genetic diversity of Siberian apricot. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance among the populations was not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.4651, p = 0.9940. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot in China to date, and it provides valuable information for the collection of genetic resources for the breeding of Siberian apricot and related species.

  10. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  11. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Boeva, Valentina; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is thought to participate in the early maintenance of the inactive state. Although Xist RNA is essential for the recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate th...

  12. Deflation in China (1997 - 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990's and after the turn of the century, the problem of deflation dramatically emerged in China and in other countries. Since the 'open door' policy the economy in China has been growing relatively fast. Available statistical data reveal that the growth process in China between 1997 and 2000 was accompanied by a deflation. The economic development in China is observed with great attention in business circles and by scientists. The goal of this dissertation is the theoretical and econo...

  13. Holocene Asian monsoon evolution revealed by a pollen record from an alpine lake on the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlou; Wang, Yongbo; Sun, Weiwei; Shen, Ji

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of pollen analyses from a 1105 cm long sediment core from Wuxu Lake in southwestern China, which depict the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the last 12.3 ka. During the period of 12.3 to 11.3 cal ka BP, the dominance of Betula forest and open alpine shrub and meadow around Wuxu Lake indicates a climate with relatively cold winters and dry summers, corresponding to the Younger Dryas event. Between 11.3 and 10.4 cal ka BP, further expansion of Betula forest and the retreat of alpine shrubs and meadows reflect a greater seasonality with cold winters and gradually increasing summer precipitation. From 10.4 to 4.9 cal ka BP, the dense forest understory, together with the gradual decrease in Betula forest and increase in Tsuga forest, suggest that the winters became warmer and summer precipitation was at a maximum, corresponding to the Holocene climatic optimum. Between 4.9 and 2.6 cal ka BP, Tsuga forest and alpine shrubs and meadows expanded significantly, reflecting relatively warm winters and decreased summer precipitation. Since 2.6 cal ka BP, reforestation around Wuxu Lake indicates a renewed humid period in the late Holocene; however, the vegetation in the catchment may also have been affected by grazing activity during this period. The results of our study are generally consistent with previous findings; however, the timing and duration of the Holocene climatic optimum from different records are inconsistent, reflecting real contrast in local rainfall response to the ISM. Overall, the EAWM is broadly in-phase with the ISM on the orbital timescale, and both monsoons exhibit a trend of decreasing strength from the early to late Holocene, reflecting the interplay of solar insolation receipt between the winter and summer seasons and El Niño-Southern Oscillation strength in the tropical Pacific.

  14. Stress adjustment revealed by seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms in northeast China before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyu; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yajing; Ning, Jieyuan; Chen, Qi-Fu; Lin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of the March 11, 2011, MW 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on regional-scale seismicity, we study the seismicity rate and focal mechanism solutions (FMSs) of earthquakes in northeast China (NEC) before and after the megathrust event. Broadband seismic waveforms from 270 permanent and temporary stations are used to invert for the moment tensors of 69 earthquakes between 2009 and 2013 in the NEC. Our results show that there are distinct changes in seismicity rate on major NEC faults before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event although the seismic moment rate of the whole region remains roughly constant. In comparison to a wide distribution of earthquakes before the Tohoku-Oki event, FMSs of crustal earthquakes in the NEC after the megathrust event can be categorized into two groups: strike-slip events with E-W compression and normal-faulting events with N-S extension. Stress field inversions before and after the Tohoku-Oki event suggest that the variations in seismicity and FMSs are due to a minor adjustment of regional stress state imposed by the megathrust event, which is further confirmed by static Coulomb stress change calculations. Mantle-depth seismicity is also influenced by the megathrust event, possibly via a down-dip transfer of compressional stress along the subducting plate, as manifested by the absence of moderate-sized mantle-depth earthquakes (~ MW 4-5) between May 2011 and April 2013 and the occurrence of deep-focus events with P axes along the dip direction of the subducting Pacific Plate in E-W vertical cross-sectional view and in WNW-ESE direction in map view.

  15. Temporal 222Rn distributions to reveal groundwater discharge into desert lakes: Implication of water balance in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Wang, Xu-sheng; Liu, Kun

    2016-03-01

    How lake systems are maintained and water is balanced in the lake areas in the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD), northeast of China have been debated for about a decade. In this study, continuous 222Rn measurement is used to quantify groundwater discharge into two representative fresh and brine water lakes in the desert using a steady-state mass-balance model. Two empirical equations are used to calculate atmospheric evasion loss crossing the water-air interface of the lakes. Groundwater discharge rates yielded from the radon mass balance model based on the two empirical equations are well correlated and of almost the same values, confirming the validity of the model. The fresh water and brine lakes have a daily averaged groundwater discharge rate of 7.6 ± 1.7 mm d-1 and 6.4 ± 1.8 mm d-1, respectively. The temporal fluctuations of groundwater discharge show similar patterns to those of the lake water level, suggesting that the lakes are recharged from nearby groundwater. Assuming that all the lakes have the same discharge rate as the two studied lakes, total groundwater discharge into all the lakes in the desert is estimated to be 1.59 × 105 m3 d-1. A conceptual model of water balance within a desert lake catchment is proposed to characterize water behaviors within the catchment. This study sheds lights on the water balance in the BJD and is of significance in sustainable regional water resource utilization in such an ecologically fragile area.

  16. A Study of the Driving Force Model Revealing Changes in Land Utilization Level Based on 3S Technologies--The Example of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin-feng; CHEN Guo-jie; YANG Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the theory and approaches of building driving force models revealing the changes in land utilization level by integrating RS, GPS, and GIS technologies based on the example of Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province. We first created the land utilization type database, natural driving forces for land utilization database, and human driving forces for land utilization database. Then we obtained the dependent and the independent variables of changes in land utilization level by exploring various data. Lastly we screened major factors affecting changes in land utilization level by using the po- werful spatial correlation analysis and main component analysis module of GIS and obtained a multivariable linear regression model of the changes in land utilization level by using GIS spatial regression analysis module.

  17. Genome wide analysis of narcolepsy in China implicates novel immune loci and reveals changes in association prior to versus after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in narcolepsy, an autoimmune disorder affecting hypocretin (orexin neurons and recently associated with H1N1 influenza, have demonstrated significant associations with five loci. Using a well-characterized Chinese cohort, we refined known associations in TRA@ and P2RY11-DNMT1 and identified new associations in the TCR beta (TRB@; rs9648789 max P = 3.7 × 10(-9 OR 0.77, ZNF365 (rs10995245 max P = 1.2 × 10(-11 OR 1.23, and IL10RB-IFNAR1 loci (rs2252931 max P = 2.2 × 10(-9 OR 0.75. Variants in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA- DQ region were associated with age of onset (rs7744020 P = 7.9×10(-9 beta -1.9 years and varied significantly among cases with onset after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic compared to previous years (rs9271117 P = 7.8 × 10(-10 OR 0.57. These reflected an association of DQB1*03:01 with earlier onset and decreased DQB1*06:02 homozygosity following 2009. Our results illustrate how genetic association can change in the presence of new environmental challenges and suggest that the monitoring of genetic architecture over time may help reveal the appearance of novel triggers for autoimmune diseases.

  18. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  19. Population Structure of‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in China Revealed by SSR Markers%基于SSR标记的中国亚洲韧皮杆菌种群结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱军; 苏华楠; 王雪峰; 唐科志; 李中安; 周常勇

    2014-01-01

    of this research was to investigate the population structure of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in China by multi SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci. [Method] To identify the polymorphism of SSR loci in the genome of Ca. L. asiaticus, 25 reported SSR primer sets were tested using DNA samples obtained from HLB-affected plants from 8 provinces of China. The selected SSR loci were used to analyze 285 samples by PCR and PAGE electrophoresis. The software Quantity One 4.5.0 was applied to estimate the base pairs of the amplicons. The polymorphism of 285 samples in the selected loci were evaluated via the software PopGen version 1.31, and the clustering analysis was performed by software Powermarker 3.25 and structure 2.3.4.[Result]A total of 5 SSR loci were identified, with Nei’s gene diversity index ranging from 0.1542 to 0.9556. The locus LasA showed high diversity. Its effective number of allele (NE) and Nei’s gene diversity (H) were 22.5 and 0.9556, respectively. Analysis on population structure of Ca. L. asiaticus of China from different geographical samples revealed that the isolates from Yunnan province had high diversity, (NE=5.7, H=0.6580). The genetic distance of different geographical populations ranged from 0.0236 to 0.5786 and genetic identity ranged from 0.5607 to 0.9767. The longest genetic distance and lowest genetic identity were identified from the geographical population between Guangxi and Sichuan. The clustering analysis indicated all isolates from China were clustered into two groups. One is from Sichuan and Yunnan, the other is from Fujian, Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong and Jiangxi. Structure analysis also showed the populations of Yunnan and Sichuan were constituted nearly by a single group and the rest of them were made up by mixed groups. [Conclusion]There are possible two kinds of different population structures of Ca. L. asiaticus in China by using the selected SSR markers and the results of this study will provide better

  20. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  1. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  2. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  3. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  4. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  5. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  6. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  7. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  8. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  9. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  10. NOx Change over China and Its Influences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu(刘煜); I. S. A. ISAKSEN; J. K. SUNDET; HE Jinhai(何金海); YAN Peng(颜鹏)

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of the increase of NOx emission over China.The model is capable to reproduce basically the seasonal variation of surface NOx and ozone over eastern China.NOx emission data and observations reveal that NOx over easternChina increases quite quickly with the economic development of China.Model results indicate that NOxconcentration over eastern China increasingly rises with the increase of NOx emission over China,and accelerates to increase in winter.When the NOx emission increases from 1995 to its double,the ratio of NO2/NOx abruptly drops in winter over northern China.Ozone at the surface decreases in winter with the continual enhancement of the NOx level over eastern China,but increases over southern China in summertime.It is noticeable that peak ozone over northern China increases in summer although mean ozone changes little.In summer,ozone increases in the free troposphere dominantly below 500 hPa.Moreover,the increases of total ozone over eastern China are proportional to the increases of NOx emission.In a word,the model results suggest that the relationship between NOx and ozone at the surface would change with NOx increase.

  11. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  12. Origin and lateral migration of linear dunes in the Qaidam Basin of NW China revealed by dune sediments, internal structures, and optically stimulated luminescence ages, with implications for linear dunes on Titan: discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.; Rubin, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Zhou et al. (2012) proposed that longitudinal dunes in the Qaidam Basin, China, formed like yardangs: by erosion into sediment that was not deposited by those dunes. Because erosion occurs on the upwind flanks of most migrating dunes (Rubin and Hunter, 1982, 1985), the key to demonstrating a yardang-like origin is to show that the dunes did not deposit the strata that they contain. Zhou et al. made this argument by proposing that: (1) The dunes have not deposited cross-strata in the past 810 yr. (2) Cross-bedding within the dunes was not deposited by the dunes on the present-day land surface, but rather by older dunes that had a different morphology. (3) The present dunes are a later generation, “most likely of erosional origin similar to yardangs with orientations controlled by strikes of joints,” (p. 1147). (4) Rates of deflation in the dune field have been extremely high for the past 810–2440 yr. This commentary reviews these conclusions, reviews contradictory observations, and considers alternative interpretations.

  13. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  14. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  15. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  16. Comparison of communities of both methane-producing and metabolizing archaea and bacteria in sediments between the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao eZhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME archaea and aerobic methantrophic bacteria were compared by profiling mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clade 1,2 and Methanomassiliicoccus like groups of methanogens were the most abundant constitutional parts in nSCS sediment samples . Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was completely updated. Mai Po mangrove wetland surface layer exhibited lower diversity than subsurface, but similar community structures were shared in both layers. Quantitative PCR was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4~3.9×106 copies per gram dry weight and of intertidal mudflat (5.5~5.8×106 copies per gram dry weight was observed, but higher abundance (6.9×106 to 1.02×108 copies per gram dry weight was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were more abundant in surface layers (6.7~11.1×105 copies per gram dry weight than the subsurface layers (1.2~5.9×105copies per gram dry weight based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal, but fewer abundant pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51×108 copies per g dry weight and pmoA gene (1.56×107 copies per g dry weight.

  17. Chinese Commercial Banks Risk Management Practices: A Research in China Banking Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...

  18. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  19. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  20. Designed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's embrace ofthe automobile over the past decade has been staggering.A total of 13.6 million vehicles were sold in China in 2009,when China overtook the United States as world's largest car market.

  1. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  2. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  3. Poverty in China seen from outer space

    OpenAIRE

    Almås, Ingvild; Johnsen, Åshild Auglænd; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of poverty are highly sensitive to price and income measures across time and space. This paper offers a complementary approach to traditional poverty measurement that ensures comparability: we use nighttime light as a proxy for poverty measurement. We measure the percentage of populated areas in China with no nighttime light, and the percentage of the population living in these areas.Between 1992 and 2005, both measures reveal a steady decrease in poverty in China. From 2005 to 2010...

  4. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music...... attractiveness of the Chinese market. Mandopop and rock music are carefully integrated, while national/international artists and companies engage in self-censorship and thereby support the mainstream ideology. The transformation of Chinese pop reflects necessary steps towards cultural liberalism, yet it is based...

  5. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. PMID:25270734

  6. 'Threatening' China and US Security: The International Politics of Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Turner

    2013-01-01

    China's increasing capabilities are a central focus of modern day US security concerns. The International Relations literature is a key forum for analyses of the so-called ‘China threat’ and yet it remains relatively quiet on the role of ideas in the construction and perpetuation of the dangers that country is understood to present. This article reveals that throughout history ‘threats’ from China towards the United States, rather than objectively verifiable phenomena, have always been social...

  7. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhiwei; ZHAIPanmao; ZHANGHongtao

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions disolaved different trends.

  8. Essays on trade liberalization and the environment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fangya

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with understanding the relationship between trade liberalization and the environment in the context of China. Four empirical essays are conducted to investigate different aspects of the nexus. We first look at the changing patterns of revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries for China and other countries to examine whether dirty industries have `migrated' from developed countries to China as a result of an environmental regulatory gap. The attention ...

  9. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  10. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  11. Breastfeeding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D S; Wang, X

    1995-01-01

    In China, where breast feeding was almost universal 30-40 years ago, the prevalence of breast feeding has declined rapidly in urban and periurban areas because of 1) separation of the newborn and mother in the hospital, 2) mothers returning to work early and working far from home, 3) perceptions of too little milk, and 4) easy access to substitutes. Studies have revealed that breast-fed babies over 6 months old grow at a slightly lower rate than bottle-fed babies, suggesting that proper weaning foods should be provided after 6 months of age. Breast feeding is associated with lower infant morbidity (lower respiratory infection, gastrointestinal tract infection, eczema, and rickets). Despite their fears to the contrary, Chinese mothers produce an amount of breast milk in the range of that produced by women in Western countries and greater than that produced by women in other developing countries. Studies of the nutritional composition of the milk of Chinese mothers also found that it is adequate for the baby's needs. Research has indicated, however, that the foods offered to the baby during weaning satisfy only about 18% of their caloric needs. Thus, not only does breast feeding need promotion in China, weaning practices also require modification. PMID:7495141

  12. China Textile "Going Our"——Egypt, Opporthity for China Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has made a huge impact on China export-based enterprises,among which the first affected industry was textile industry.According to the latest reports from China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued in November 2008,revealed that profits for the textile industry in China that had increased 36.9% in 2007,and decreased by 0.7% for the same period in 2008.This amounted in a total loss of RMB 22.13 billion,an increase of 97.7%,with the scope of loss reaching up to 20.4%.

  13. Evolutionary Characteristics of China's Intermediate Manufactures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsung Kang; Jeong-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    China's economic development is characterized by progressive integration with international production chains as an assembly producer. Japan and South Korea are the major partners providing intermediate products to China. The present paper analyzes the Chinese intermediate sector's present condition and evolutionary characteristics revealed in bilateral trade with Japan and South Korea. The analysis uses the framework of new trade theory represented by "intra-industry trade". Trade statistics from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed using the database published by the OECD. Results show that China's inter-industrial evolution is characterized by its expanding positioning in the manner of the flying geese development paradigm of Asian countries. Furthermore, intra-industrial evolution is characterized by a concentration on price competitiveness. The framework and results of the industrial analysis presented in this paper assist in the understanding of China's manufacturing evolution and of the policy-making decisions taken in the process.

  14. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  15. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  16. An Analysis of Intra-Industry Trade between Japan, Malaysia and China

    OpenAIRE

    M. Affendy Arip; Lau Sim Yee; Madono Satoru

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the bilateral trade pattern between Japan, Malaysia and China (JMC) using the intra-industry trade (IIT) index analysis. Our empirical findings revealed the following. First, China shows a higher degree of IIT relation with Japan vis-à-vis Malaysia. Second, to the extent of whether rapid manufacturing development in China is affecting Malaysia’s export to Japan, our analytical evidence demonstrates that the degree of overlapping exports to Japan by Malaysia and China h...

  17. An Analysis of Southeast Asian Firms' Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaishengZeng

    2004-01-01

    Economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asian economies is increasingly attracting the attention of policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners. Firms from Southeast Asia have been playing an important role in China's utilization of foreign direct investment, though most of these firms have been viewed as small, labor-intensive, and ordinary in technology. This paper reveals one important dimension of economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia. It investigates the factors that influence Southeast Asian firms' investments in Guangdong, which is one of the largest provinces in China in terms of utilization of foreign direct investment, and it tries to answer the question of what make Southeast Asian firms invest in China in a large scale and in the way of advancing waves.T he research outcomes contribute to the knowledge of the changing economic relations between China and Southeast Asia.

  18. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  19. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  20. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  1. Geoinformatics Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Gong, J; Yue, P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by th...

  2. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported

  3. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  4. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  5. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  6. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  7. Soilless culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhilong

    2003-01-01

    Soilless culture in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The area of soilless culture in China was about0.1 ha in 1985, 117 ha in 1995, but in 2002 the area reached to 865 ha. This paper introduced the brief history of soillessculture in China, and the main soilless culture systems. The present situation and problems are also discussed in thispaper.

  8. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  9. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  10. Luxury Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, the level of capital income is expanding significantly. The size of the rich population in China is becoming larger than ever. At the same time, the luxury market of China is also showing great vitality. There is no doubt that China is already the luxury market with the most growth potential. With increasing numbers of high-end consumer goods now being sold, the consumption gap between China and the world is being gradually shortened. And Chinese...

  11. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  12. The Research of International Competitiveness of Textile and Clothing Industry of China%中国纺织服装业国际竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏性

    2005-01-01

    The paper measures international competitiveness of textile and clothing industry of China by using revealed comparative advantage coefficient, analyses the main factors to determine the current competitiveness, and provides some suggestions to keep the competitiveness of the industry of China.

  13. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping the...... world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  14. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  15. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  16. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  17. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  18. Governing uranium in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patton Schell, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is playing an increasingly prominent role in China's long-term strategic energy calculus. In response, China is responding by producing more uranium domestically, buying more uranium on the international market, and investing heavily in overseas uranium properties. At the same time, China has been updating its nuclear regulations over the last three decades, resulting in a myriad of regulatory agencies with widely varying responsibilities related to implementing uranium regulati...

  19. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  20. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  1. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  2. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  3. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  4. Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahua Wang; Angang Hu

    2007-01-01

    Based on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and in other countries. The results show that since China's reform and opening up, knowledge, international, human and physical capital have grown rapidly, with speeds of growth higher than that of economic growth. As the five types of capital have all increased at varying paces, the savings level of total capital in China has quadrupled in 25 years and overtook that of the USA in the 1990s. The changes in the five types of capital and total capital reveal that there are progressively multiple driving forces behind China's rapid economic development. Implications for China's long-term economic development are thereby raised.

  5. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  6. All Fish for China?

    OpenAIRE

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A.; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China’s seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961–2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish...

  7. Sony Style in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aince the normalization of the diplomatic ties between China and Japan,the bilateral economic relations have deepened continually.According to the statistic of Japan,China passed U.S.to become Japan's top trade partner as well as is the second Iargest export market for Japan and is the largest import resource for Japan.Japan companies such as Mitsui,Sumitomo,Sony and Panasonic,have set the subsidiaries in China and explored their scales.This year 2008 marks the 30th anniversary of the signing of the China Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

  8. China's Post Accession WTO Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Mallon; John Whalley

    2004-01-01

    We discuss China's stance in the WTO post-accession, noting the many issues with implementation of China's accession terms by 2007. We evaluate how much benefit China can realistically receive from WTO membership given current problems with dumping actions against China and trade restrictions against textile and apparel exports. We discuss emerging WTO and non-WTO trade disputes involving China, and China's now extensive regional trade initiatives which raise issues of multilateral regional b...

  9. Intensification of phosphorus cycling in China since the 1600s

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Sheng, Hu; Jiang, Songyan; Yuan, Zengwei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Elser, James J.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus (P) has been massively altered in China, challenging its food security and causing eutrophication of freshwaters. This study shows, for the first time to our knowledge, how P cycling in China was intensified in the past four centuries to sustain the increasing population and its demand for animal protein. Our analysis also reveals the spatial disparity of its concomitant eutrophication impact. The findings advance the knowledge base needed for closing th...

  10. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE STRATEGY TOOLS IMPLEMENTATION: CHINA AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGOROVA I.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the overview of the experience in strategy implementation both in China and Russia, whereas the commonalities are stressed out. As China started its way to capitalistic economy earlier than Russia, it has been revealed that Western practices proved to be inefficient in Chinese culture of business. Therefore, it is essential to customize the existing strategic tools before implementation or put more effort in research and the elaboration of the Russian-type of a business strategy.

  11. The Review of The Development of Business English in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绚

    2004-01-01

    the purposes of this paper are to overview and evaluate the development of Business English in China. It will firstly cover what is known about BE in present China from school campus to training courses, and secondly reveal what are problems posed in Business English Education here. In doing this, the description of BE characteristics will be followed, the relationship between BE and EAP will be folded and even the history of Business English will be summarized bellowed to support the review of BE in China today.

  12. Foreign Grain Security Mechanisms and Implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhua; CAO; Lei; NIE; Weipeng; MA

    2014-01-01

    With constant growth of China’s population and increasingly serious situation of farmland protection,the grain security has become a hot issue of China.This study firstly elaborated grain security measures in grain exporters,such as the United States,Australia,and EU,and grain importers such as Japan,South Korea and India.In line with these security measures,it analyzed implementation background of these policies.Finally,combining social and economic development situations and natural resource endowment of China,it revealed the implications of these measures for China and came up with policy recommendations for China’s grain security.

  13. Shadow banking in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjun; Hsu, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This is an English summary of a 300-page report produced by Jianjun Li, Sara Hsu and Guangning Tian, “The Annual Report of China Shadow Banking System,” Project Sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project Number 71173246,

  14. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  15. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  16. CHARTING CHINA'S NEW COURSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China aims to achieve "major breakthroughs" in economic restructuring and will take reform as "a powerful driving force"to accelerate the transformation of its economic development pattern. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) made its intentions clear after approving a blueprint for the next five years on its fifth plenary session, which ended on October 18.

  17. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong ana

  18. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate the...... absence of a direct link between financial development and economic growth....

  19. Rural Informatization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Wei Qiang, Christine; Bhavnani, Asheeta; Nagy K. Hanna; Kimura, Kaoru; Sudan, Randeep

    2009-01-01

    China's recent economic growth has expanded industrialization and urbanization, upgraded consumption, increased social mobility, and initiated a shift from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry and services. Still more than half of China's people still live in rural areas where average income per capita is less than a third of the urban average, a gap that is among the l...

  20. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  1. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US...

  2. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  3. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  4. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it ...

  5. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  6. University of Petroleum, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The University of Petroleum, China, sponsored and supervised by China National Petroleum Corporation,isone of the State key universities,The university provides mainly engineering programs,but also includes programs in science and management.Both soft and hard sciences are taught here.

  7. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  8. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  9. Reference evapotranspiration changes in China: natural processes or human influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Xiaohong

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we systematically analyze the changing properties of reference evapotranspiration (ETref) across China using Penman-Monteith (P-M) method, exploring the major sensitive meteorological variables for ETref, and investigating influences of human activities, mainly urbanization in this study, on ETref changes in both space and time. We obtain some important conclusions: (1) decreasing annual and seasonal ETref is observed in the east, south and northwest China. However, a long strip lying between these regions is identified to be characterized by increasing ETref; (2) in the regions east to 100°E, the net total solar radiation is the main cause behind the decreasing ETref. In northwest China, however, relative humidity is recognized as the most sensitive variable for the ETref; (3) in the east and south China, urbanization greatly influences the ETref by directly decreasing net solar radiation. The increased air pollution and aerosols in the highly urbanized regions are the main driving factors causing decreasing net radiation; and (4) this study reveals accelerating hydrological cycle from south to north China. Besides, increasing ETref in the source regions of large rivers in China may pose new challenges for the basin-scale water resource management. The results of this study highlight the integrated effects of climate changes and human activities on ETref changes in different regions of China, which will be of great scientific and practical merits in in-depth understanding of hydrological cycle alterations under the changing environment in China.

  10. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)

  11. Proverbs Reveal Culture Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of property of culture and proverb, it can be known that proverb can help one to understand a culture. The way proverb reveals culture diversity can be connected with the patterns of value dimension, which conveys the information of a culture’s deep meaning. From the perspective of uncertainty-avoidance, it can be seen that although Ireland and America both are low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures, they mainly have different life attitudes, because that Americans put more e...

  12. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  13. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Erie; Allen Carlson

    2014-01-01

    Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism ...

  14. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  15. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  16. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  17. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Y. Zhang; Yang, H.; M. J. Shi; Zehnder, A. J. B.; K. C. Abbaspour

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 ×...

  18. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  19. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  20. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  1. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  2. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  3. Deepening Health Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Health Organization,; Ministry of Finance, P.R.C.; National Health and Family Planning Commission, P.R.C.; Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, P.R.C.

    2016-01-01

    At a meeting in July 2014 in Beijing, we committed to working together on a flagship report that would help set the direction for health sector reform in China. This report, Deepening Health Reform in China, is the result. Using the successful model offered by previous flagship reports like China 2030 and Urban China, this report primarily offers a blueprint for a new direction for China’s health sector. The report’s main theme is the need for China to transition...

  4. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong;

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical....... Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global...

  5. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...

  6. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  7. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  8. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test in...... which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even in...

  9. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  10. Revealing Cosmic Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amit P S; Keating, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological Birefringence (CB), a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such non-standard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the $B$-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that $EB$ correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The $EB$ based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of $B$-mode...

  11. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  12. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  13. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  14. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  15. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  16. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  17. China and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    China was far in advance of the West in its technology and science by 1400. Yet the industrial revolution happened in the west. Christopher Cullen talks about some of the possible reasons for this puzzling fact.

  18. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  19. Rural Transformation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThe history of China is marked by peasant rebellions which, when they succeeded, occasionally led to mitigation of extreme inequality and oppression and a change in dynasty but without substantial reorganization of the social structure.

  20. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  1. Orphan Care in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng, Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Orphan care in China was once provided by the central government as a means of social control. The centralized welfare delivery guaranteed some of the poorest orphans to be protected by the government. Since the economic reform, the central government started to relinquish its control over social welfare delivery, new forms of orphan care were introduced into China, sharing the responsibilities and burdens for caring the orphans. Yet, many issues and problems exist in social delivery due to a lack of finances, professionals, and policy support. In this chapter, we will discuss the background of social welfare changes in China, as pertains to orphan care, focusing on the different types of orphans as a result of social issues, service delivery, barriers and solutions. It is claimed that during the reform, the burden of orphan care in China may not be reduced in the coming future, and we offer suggestions to cope with that.

  2. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges to the......“Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power and...

  3. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  4. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  5. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  6. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  7. Trade Unions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Li; David Metcalf

    2006-01-01

    China apparently has more trade union members than the rest of the world put together. But as David Metcalf and Jianwei Li have found, Chinese unions function very differently from unions in the West.

  8. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  9. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  10. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  11. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  12. Economic Planning in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory C. Chow

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date study of economic planning in China as it affects the economic development, growth and fluctuations of the Chinese economy. Although economic planning has been practiced in China since 1953 when the first Five-Year Plan began, its nature has changed after economic reform started in 1978. Market reform reduced the importance of central planning, but more recently the global economic recession and China’s active macro-economic policy interventions have increase...

  13. China in den Medien

    OpenAIRE

    Psarris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Diese Dissertation befasst sich mit der zeitgenössischen Berichterstattung über China in den deutschen Medien. In ihrem Zentrum steht die Frage, wie die moderne Entwicklung Chinas und deren Auswirkungen auf den Rest der Welt von den deutschen Medien erfasst und dargestellt werden. Der Untersuchungszeitraum erstreckt sich vom Januar 1997 bis März 2011. Die Untersuchung bezieht sechs Printmedien ein, darunter die "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung", die "Süddeutsche Zeitung", "Die Welt", "Die Zeit...

  14. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  15. Book review: Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Sin Yee

    2013-01-01

    "Urban China." Xuefei Ren. Polity. March 2013. --- Currently there are more than 125 Chinese cities with a population exceeding one million. The unprecedented urban growth in China presents a crucial development for studies on globalization and urban transformation. This book examines the past trajectories, present conditions, and future prospects of Chinese urbanization, by investigating five key themes – governance, migration, landscape, inequality, and cultural economy. Sin Yee Koh fin...

  16. Healthy Aging in China

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  17. The Elements of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING; WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Visitors flocked to the World Expo site in Shanghai when the grand fair officially opened to the public on May 1.The most visited pavilions on that day were the theme pavilions,the China Pavilion and China's joint provincial pavilions,said Hong Hao,Director of the Bureau of Shanghai World Expo Coordination at a press conference on the Expo's first day of operation.

  18. Minority languages of China

    OpenAIRE

    Poa, Dory; LaPolla, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter looks at language endangerment in the People's Republic of China, focusing on three of the main factors that influence language maintenance in China today: increased contact due to population movements and changes in the economy; the population policies of the government, particularly the identification of nationalities and languages; and the education system, particularly bilingual education. Finally, we give a brief account of the major efforts to document endangered languages.

  19. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  20. Arbitration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, W

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, with China entering into the era of “reform and opening up”, the drive towards economic modernization via the policy of attracting foreign investment has been pressing. Although China has promulgated an impressive body of laws and regulations concerning foreign trade and investment, their enforcement has been less than satisfactory. In view of the lack of competence of Chinese courts and the reluctance of Chinese firms to put their fate in the hands of foreign courts, the Beijing ...

  1. Strategic choices: China's challenges of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China faces a multitude of fundamental challenges in its present state of transformation and development - in social, economic, technical, and administrative terms, etc. This paper focuses on the cross-section of three elements: (i) China's current and dramatically developing energy trends, profoundly different from projections made only a few years ago, (ii) implications, to the implementation of centrally adopted policy instruments and decrees, of China's transition from a planned to a market-based economic system, and (iii) global climate change. Putting the spot-light on the point of this cross-section reveals a turmoil of actors on a stage, where short- and long-term agendas clash, traditional governance systems fail, and different policy frameworks - local, provincial, central, regional and global - are in disarray and misalignment. On this chaotic stage, academics and policy planners apply their analytic skills to construct scenarios and to identify key conditions for the arrival at different futures, benign or less appealing in various degrees. This paper suggests how, in failing to account for the present, these futures are often inherently flawed. In consequence, it is argued that the logic of scenario- and policy-making needs to be adapted to the logic and incentives of actual stakeholders, rather than that of modelled ones, in order to better serve as guidance to a China that has to meet the challenges of rapid change on multiple fronts

  2. An Analysis of Trade Structure,Comparative Advantage and Complementarity of Agricultural Products between China and the Main East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; WANG

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of describing trade value and trade structure of agricultural products between China and main countries in East Asia,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and trade complementarity index to calculate the comparative advantage and complementarity between China and Japan,Korea and ASEAN countries. The research shows that the trade complementarity of agricultural products between China and Japan & Korea is weak,but the complementarity of some agricultural products between China and Japan is very strong. The trade competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural products between China and ASEAN coexist,and there is strong cooperative potential between China and ASEAN.

  3. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  4. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  5. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  6. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  7. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  8. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Equine Influenza Viruses (H3N8 from China, 2010~2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu1,§, Jie Chen2,§, Wei Guo1,§, Ting Qi1,§, Liping Zhao1, Hongmei Li1, Yuanyuan Ji1, Zheng Wang1, Cuiyun Liu1, Shihua Zhao1 and Wenhua Xiang1,*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two equine influenza virus (EIV strains were isolated during two restricted outbreaks from Heilongjiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of HA1 (hemagglutinin 1 gene revealed that the isolates belonged to Florida 2 sublineage of American lineage. Further analysis of the putative antigenic sites located in HA1 subunit protein revealed each isolate had a unique amino acid change. Analysis of antigenic sites between Chinese EIV and vaccine strains indicated equine influenza (EI vaccines containing Richmond/1/07-like antigen seemed to have an optimum effect in China. Meanwhile, the Ohio/03 vaccine strain contained in updated ProteqFlu had the most closely genetically relationship with recent EIV isolates in China. China has not its own commercially available EI vaccine and most horses are still unvaccinated. Therefore, to monitor antigenic variation of circulating EIVs and give considerable suggestions on selection of vaccine candidate plays an important role in preventing and controlling EIV in China.

  10. Prospects for nuclear power development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the need to support and sustain rapid economic growth in the next 30 years, energy demand in China will increase significantly. Large energy deficiencies will exist owing to the various restrictions on the production of primary energy, i.e. from coal, oil, natural gas and hydro. Developing nuclear power appears to be a way to solve the problem. The paper presents a comparative economic analysis between nuclear and coal fired power plants. By considering the overall energy production cycle, the investment costs of the two types of plant are forecast. The analysis reveals that nuclear power will play an important role in tackling the energy shortage problem in China and show that it will become increasingly competitive in economic terms vis-a-vis coal fired power plant in the energy constrained coastal regions. (author). 6 tabs

  11. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  12. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can...... explain attitude formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both...

  13. CHINA Continuing cooperation with CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a visit to China in July, CERN Director General Carlo Rubbia signed an agreement with the Chinese Academy of Sciences which provides a reciprocal framework for CERN and China to continue and develop their scientific and technical cooperation

  14. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  15. Developing Good HR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT HU

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the shape of the recruitment market in China at the moment? What you have to understand first is that 20 years ago there was no recruiting market in China. The government allocated all jobs.

  16. Marketing China Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China may grow into a global branding powerhouse, one master degree at a time Bringing the first international Master of Marketing program to Beijing, Professor Susan Ellis, Associate Dean of China Programs atMelbourne Business School, knows onething for

  17. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  18. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  19. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  20. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  1. Palaeogeography of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Palaeogeography is a science that studies the features and evolution of physical geography in geological history and human history. The palaeogeography of China has multiple disciplines and multiple types of palaeogeographic map. These perfectly reflect "a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought content". The palaeogeography of China has three characteristics. The first is multiple disciplines flourishing simultaneously. The second is that lithofacies palaeogeography is in a leading position. The third is that palaeogeography of China is closely connected with industrial practice. It is why palaeogeography, especially lithofacies palaeogeography of China, can flourish continually. We have two journals of palaeogeography, i. e. Journal of Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition) and Journal of Palaeogeography (English Edition). The former primarily publishes articles of Chinese authors regarding Chinese palaeogeography and related disciplines and has a foothold in China. The latter will publish the articles of both Chinese and international authors and caters to foreign readers. These two journals will cooperate together and display their own expertise, which will effectively make a great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese palaeogeography and international palaeogeography.

  2. Lifting China's water spell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  3. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulaf, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  4. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  5. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  6. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulap rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  7. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural scienes sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular,rapid and authoritative reviews of currcnt important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China today.

  8. The Secret Behind China's Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the tumultuous period of the world financial crisis,China's economy sank,struck bottom and rebounded as its GDP in 2009 reached 8.7 percent,far beyond global expectations.But why has China succeeded so rapidly and what lessons can people draw from the experience? In his recent article China's New Deal: How to Response to International Financial Crisis,Hu Angang,Director of the Center for China Studies of Tsinghua University discussed these issues.

  9. Understanding and learning from china

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Virgínia

    2009-01-01

    The inauguration of a new research centre at ISCTE Business School: the Centre of Asian Studies - Asiânia. On Asiânia; on the day's events and on foreign multinationals in China - the case of Xian-Janssen. The making of a successful joint venture in China. On problems of brand transfer in China. Understanding the Chinese culture and working together. On distribution systems in China.

  10. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  11. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  12. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  13. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  14. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  15. Hotels Continue to Target China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within the global hotel industry, China is the buzzword on everybody's lips.From April 26th to 28th,senior executives of leading international hotel brands and China hoteliers gathered in Shanghai to attend the 2nd China Hotel Investment Summit. The event attracted a record number of over 450international and local delegates from over 20 countries.

  16. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.

  17. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Ping

    2006-01-01

      China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.……

  18. Arranged Marriage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>Marriage is an important institution in our society,which binds men and women the most frequently.When men and women are together,the gender relationship becomes obvious.Most societies in the world are patriarchal,so men’s power penetrates everywhere,including the marriage institution.Marriage institution is built on men’s power,and at the same time,it contributes to men’s power.Arranged marriage is a good example to illustrate how men’s power is over women,which was prevailing in China.China also has arranged marriage today,but particularly in rural areas.Urban China develops a new form of arranged marriage recently,but whether traditional arranged

  19. Nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation will discuss the role of nuclear energy in China. It will commence with a summary of the overall situation for electricity generation and the importance of nuclear energy, outlining the major electrical power entities, why nuclear power currently only provides 1.9% of the electricity generated in China, why nuclear power has a major future in China along with coal and hydro power, and the roles of the China National Nuclear Corporation. It will then provide more information on the 11 operating NPPs, the 11 reactors under the construction in China, and the plans for the future. The current plan for 2005-2020 is to reach 40 GWe for NP by 2020, but the Chinese government is modifying this plan to increase the nuclear power target to 70 GWe along with other 30 GWe under the construction. Is it dream or will be implemented in the future? The total drilling footage finished in last two years reached 950 000 meters (450 000 meters in 2007 and 500 000 in 2008) including the 700 000 meters focused on the sedimentary basins in the northern China. The uranium resource and reserve in the northern China are dramatic increased. The new discovery resulted three large uranium deposits named Mengqiguer deposit located in the southern margin of Yili basin in Xinjiang, Sunjialiang deposit located in northern part of Erdos basin and Nuheting deposit og Erlain basin located in Inner Mongolia, two medium size deposits called Subeng deposit located in Erlain basin and Baixingtu deposit located in Songliao basin of Inner Mongolia respectively. And the potential areas such as Ciyaobo of Erdos basin, Shazhaoquan of Badanjilin basin in Inner Mongolia, Honghaigou of Yili basin are localized to make sure of future targets and prospects. Those prove that the future exploration focus will be given to the basins located in the northern China to discover more uranium resources. Meanwhile the progress to find more uranium resources in the southern China achieved and a

  20. PetroChina & Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Back in December,CIB took a cue from Warren Buffett and looked at the recent A-share initial public offering (IPO) of PetroChina(中国石油),China's largest oil company and,at the time,the largest company in the world.We didn't like what we saw.While the argument in favor of PetroChina was obvious-it is of course,the primary provider of refined oil to a country with the fastest-growing oil demand in the world,and operating in a period of exponential growth in oil prices-the negatives were just as striking.It was overvalued from a revenue point of view,and had to contend with state price controls.

  1. China's petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country's growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China's petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report

  2. Work with China, not Just for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Tarvin

    2011-01-01

    For the last decade, China has represented the fastest growing economy on the planet. It first tapped its vast resources as a cheap manufacturer due to the low cost of labor and favourable exchange rate. This attracted an endless supply of western companies wishing to improve their competitiveness by lowering their cost base. This was the catalyst that powered the urbanization of the Chinese people and with it the need for a vast array of new infrastructure and concomitant natural resources that helped sustain a general trend of global growth.

  3. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Chinese Agricultural Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, in relation to the rest of the world, based on the index of revealed comparative advantage, using lots of data during period of 1980 to 2000. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage, though a problem exits when using it. China is shown to have a comparative advantage in a range of agricultural products, including edible vegetables and tea. This complements the findings of those studies that have used price and cost based on approaches in identifying competitiveness in agricultural products. Results indicated that the RCA values had been weakening over the 21-year period. These have vastly different implication for the future reform in China's agriculture.

  4. Handicapped people in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Tretter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the situation and living conditions of handicapped people in China. It describes the school and educational system, training and working conditions, rehabilitative and preventive activities as well as the public view and the view of the Chinese government on disabled persons.All in all it can be noticed that living conditions of handicapped people have improved a lot in China by, amongst others, national models of integration and local support. Nevertheless, there is still a big difference between rural and urban areas.

  5. Nuclear Industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  6. China in Overcapacity Exacerbating?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The problem of overcapacity has been plaguing China for years.Many economists claim that China's double-edged economic system of foreign trade and investment has resulted in a lack of consumption.It is estimated that approximately 35% of GDP depends solely on exports,some of which has naturally turned into excessive capacity due to the recent lack of external demand from western markets.Repeated build up in certain industries,which the government has failed to restrain,has resulted in prevailing overcapacity,and has also indirectly triggered the flood of anti-dumping cases against Chinese enterprises in recent years.

  7. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI SHI

    2011-01-01

    A100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published on August 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.Visions of China,the planned theme park,would cover an area of 120 acres in Rotherham,South Yorkshire,and feature distinct Chinese architecture including Chinese gardens,theaters,restaurants,a temple,a children's fantasy land,a Shanghai-style shopping street,a Shaolin pagoda,a hotel and a wellness center.

  8. Gnomons in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  9. Google in China

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong analysis. The central question is explored from different angles and well supported. In addition, this student shows himself to be a real engineer-to-be by not only giving an analysis, but also trying...

  10. Why China Is Confident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis is far from over as world economic growth continues to decline. Can China stop the downward tendency of economic growth and reach an economic soft landing? Can China take the lead in getting out of the shadow of the economic crisis? Chen Huai, Director of the Economic Research Institute of China’s Urban and Rural Development under the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, discussed these questions in a recent article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  11. China: a critical decade

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Fergus; Stern, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    China’s consumption of coal could reach a peak by 2020, or even earlier, as part of its plans to pursue more sustainable economic growth. The policy paper by Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern notes that discussions are already taking place in China about the possibility of setting a target for ending the rise in its annual consumption of coal before the end of its 13th Five-Year Plan, which will cover the period from 2016 to 2020. The paper states: “China could intensify its efforts to re...

  12. China's satellite communications discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  13. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  14. India China Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Danendran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    This research report addresses the topic of India China supply chain. This study would be looking at the existing policies among the China India trade and a real life scenario of this trade will be analysed. By conducting this study, the current situation of trades can be put forward and it will give an idea to what extent trade policies are useful when it comes to trading and to what extent the policies aid the bottlenecks faced by a trader. The objectives of the research are to understa...

  15. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. PMID:24922282

  18. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  19. PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON RIVER WATERCHEMISTRY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    River water resource is the most important component of water resources in China. This paper reviews the progress in the research on river water chemistry in China. It includes three parts: 1) the development of river water quality monitoring in China (at present, there exist three water quality monitoring networks in China: near 3000 water quality monitoring stations under the Ministry of Water Resources, several thousands water quality monitoring sites under the State Environmental Protection Administration and four sites under the China's GEMS/Water Program); 2) progress in the research on chemical characteristics of river water chemistry in China and their geographical roles on natio-wide and region-wide scales; and 3) progress in the research on river quality changes in the last 40 years (the 1ong-term monitoring data reveals that the water quality of the Changjiang River has acidification trend, the Songhuajiang River had alkalization trend, and the Huanghe River has concentration trend in the last 4 decades).

  20. A review of status of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Li, Jun; Yan, Shengjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), is employed primarily as a reactive flame retardant in printed circuit boards but also has additive applications in several types of polymers. TBBPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is observed in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This paper summarizes and critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the current pollution status of TBBPA in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels of TBBPA in China, the data are compared with available existing data from other countries of the world. According to the available data, the sources of TBBPA in China are mainly derived from the primitive e-waste dismantling, TBBPA manufacturing and processing of TBBPA-based materials. The most serious cases of TBBPA pollution in China are in Guiyu, Guangdong (primitive e-waste dismantling site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 66,010-95,040 pg m(-3) in air, Shouguang, Shandong (TBBPA manufacturing site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 1.64-7758 ng g(-1) dry weight in soil, and Chaohu Lake, Anhui (industry concentration site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 850-4870 ng L(-1) in water. In general, China is the most polluted region as affected by TBBPA compared with other countries. The present review preliminarily reveals the research status of TBBPA in China. PMID:26800486

  1. Some evidence of drying trend over northern China from 1951 to 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhuguo; FU Congbin

    2006-01-01

    The surface wetness index, Palmer drought sererity index and the retrieval of soil moisture over China were calculated using monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature.Based on the contrast analysis of the variation of the above three indices and precipitation, the dry/wet spatio-temporal pattern of northern China in the last 54 years was revealed, and the evidence of drying trend over northern China was analyzed, especially.The results show the following four facts: (1) The drying trend is the main characteristic of the eastern part of Northwest China and the central part of North China since the 1980s and it was enhanced in the last 15 years mainly due to the precipitation decrease and the temperature increase; (2) During the last 54 years, there was only one dry/wet shift at the interdecadal scale occurring in the eastern part of Northwest China and the central part of North China in the late 1970s, which was related to 1977/1978 global abrupt change, whereas there were three shifts in Northeast China, one was in the mid 1990s and the other two were in 1965 and 1983, respectively; (3) Unlike the variation trend of other subregions of northern China,the western part of Northwest China is currently located in a relatively wetting period, which is weakened due to the temperature increase; (4) The extreme drought frequency is obviously increasing in the eastern part of Northwest China, the central part of North China and Northeast China since the 1980s,which is closely related to the precipitation decrease and temperature increase in these subregions.

  2. Why is China going nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2007, China's State Council approved its 'Medium- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Development Plan', which set as a goal to increase the nation's nuclear capacity from about 7 to 40 GWe by 2020. In March 2008, the National Development and Reform Commission suggested installed nuclear power capacity might even exceed 60 GWe by 2020 due to faster than expected construction. Even with this growth, nuclear power's share of China's installed total capacity would be only about 5 percent. Yet China's rapid nuclear expansion poses serious financial, political, security, and environmental challenges. This study investigates China's claim that nuclear energy is necessary to meet its growing energy demands by analyzing China's energy alternatives and assessing their likelihood of contributing to total Chinese capacity. By looking at China's transformative energy policy from several perspectives, this study finds that nuclear energy is indeed a necessity for China.

  3. CHINA TEXTILE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s textile industry faces difficult times,but can survive them and create a brighter future. Sun Ruizhe,Vice Chairman of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC),shared his views with Belling Review while analysing the difficulties China’s textile industry is now confronted with.

  4. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  5. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  6. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  7. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  8. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R...

  9. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R...

  10. Chronicling China's Political Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Leading Chinese political scientist Zhao Baoxu has produced an overview of the evolution of China's political structure,its political studies as well as its foreign policy over the past six decades in his latest book In Pursuit of Harmony:An Academic Anthology of Zhao Baoxu.

  11. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  12. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  13. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  14. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  15. Women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosemary; Adang

    2000-01-01

    One of my best experiences when I lived in China (1998-1999) was when mydaughter and her friend Kathy visited me and we went to Putuoshan together. I’ vealways been interested in women’s lives in my own and other cultures, so

  16. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  17. Will China Save Europe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China is not the answer to Europe’s crisis, neither will it turn its back With a landslide victory in the Spanish general election on November 20, the People’s Party ousted the ruling Socialist Workers’ Party,which had governed Spain

  18. China's Demographic Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H. Yuan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    China's herculean efforts to slow the increase of its giant population appear to have worked: the annual birth rate fell from about 35 births per 1,000 in the 1950s to 20 per 1,000 in the 1990s. This bulletin examines the development and consequences of the strict population planning control measures introduced in the 1970s, and strengthened in…

  19. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  20. CHARTING ROADMAP FOR CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hu Jintao,General Secretary of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC),outlines ambitious goals for economic,political and social developments,as well as the nation’s position on the world stage,in his keynote report to the 17th National Congress of the CPC at its opening on October 15.

  1. Hospital Development In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVIDWOOD

    2004-01-01

    China represents a complex society with a healthcare industry just emerging from years of public management and government control. The size of the marketplace and the built-in demand for high quality, service-oriented, healthcare provides many opportunities for the development of this industry along international lines.

  2. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  3. CONTEMPORARY CHINA HISTORY STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Before the eve of the establishment of New China, Liu Shaoqi led the CPC delegation to visit the Soviet Union secretly. For adapting the change of domestic struggle situations, the central government decided to move up the liberation time of Xinjiang from planned 1950 to 1949. In order to save the time,

  4. China Takes Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY If all goes according to plan, Chinese air travellers will be boarding big commercial airliners designed and manufactured in China by the year 2020. The aviation market, long dominated by Boeing and Airbus, will face a home grown challenge in

  5. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  6. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Britain to build Chinese themed attraction A 100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published onAugust 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.

  7. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  8. WAVFH delegates' reports: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of radiation protection has been given great attention in China. The Ministry of Health is the competent authority in charge of the work. Before the accident at Chernobyl, the government had formulated and promulgated laws and regulations concerning the radiation protection, such as the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection, the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection of Nuclear Plants, the institutions and organizations for monitoring radioactive pollution at national level and provincial level had been set up. After the accident at Chernobyl, each of the monitoring institutions and organizations took samples of air, subsided substances of atmosphere, rainwater, terrestrial surface water from various sources, vegetables, milk and thyroid glands of sheep and goats immediately, for the detection of radiation contamination. As far as we know that the samples had small extent contamination, the extent of contamination of samples in the south of China is smaller than that of samples in the north of China, that the content of nuclides in various samples is lower than the limits of radioactive substances set in national standard, and that radiation dosage subjected by residents of China caused by the contamination is also lower than the set quota in the national standard. The contamination did not interfere with the regular life of the residents

  9. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  10. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  11. China Expands VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's top taxation watchdog said on October 1st this yearthat two more provinces are ready to pilot a reform of replacing turnover tax with value-added tax (VAT) in a bid to lower the overall tax burden and boost certain sectors.

  12. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  13. China's Mysterious Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Green

    2009-01-01

    @@ Car sales in China are booming,but gasoline consumption seems to be stuck in the slow lane.Chart 1 illustrates this apparent mystery(it shows sales of petroleum and oil products,since.we do not have data on retail gasoline sales).

  14. Lake monitoring in China

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Criado, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo propone un modelo para la obtención del nivel altitudinal de masas de agua mediante altimetría radar. Este modelo servirá para establecer un control sobre lagos, embalses y otras masas de agua. En concreto este trabajo está centrado una seria de lagos ubicados en las provincias chinas de Tibet y Qinghai.

  15. Juvenile Delinquency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Irving, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Contains nine articles which describe the causes and treatment of juvenile delinquency in China. Focuses on the social causes of delinquency, family factors shaping juvenile crimes and mistakes, criminal peer groups, psychological factors related to delinquency, and the role of education in prevention of delinquency. (JDH)

  16. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  17. Plasma research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that, in China, the research work in the field of nuclear fusion and plasma physical began to study the space plasma physics. In recent years, the plasma applications have been emphasized. The experimental and theoretical studies in these fields have been carried out

  18. ANALISIS DAYA SAING DAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI EKSPOR CPO INDONESIA KE CHINA, MALAYSIA, DAN SINGAPURA DALAM SKEMA ASEAN-CHINA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Objective of this research is to analyze the competitiveness and the factors that influence Indonesia CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore in the ACFTA. Revealed Comparative Advantage was used to analyze competitiveness in China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Panel data regression method with fixed effect (cross section weight was used to analyze export supply model as an impact of ACFTA. The results shows that all dependent variables (domestic production of CPO, international price of CPO, price domestic of CPO, price of soybean oil, price of gasoline, exchange rate, lag of export, and dummy of ACFTA have the significant influence on CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore.   Keywords: CPO, ASEAN-China, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA  

  19. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  20. Urologic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  1. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  2. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  3. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  4. Web users’ language utilization behaviors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Maosheng; QU; Peng; ZHAO; Kang

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the habits of China Web users’language utilization behaviors in accessing the Web.It also seeks to make a general study on the basic nature of language phenomenon with regard to digital accessing.A questionnaire survey was formulated and distributed online for these research purposes.There were 1,267 responses collected.The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics,Chi-square testing and contingency table analyses.Results revealed the following findings.Tagging has already played an important role in Web2.0 communication for China’s Web users.China users rely greatly on all kinds of taxonomies in browsing and have also an awareness of them in effective searching.These imply that the classified languages in digital environment may aid Chinese Web users in a more satisfying manner.Highly subject-specific words,especially those from authorized tools,yielded better results in searching.Chinese users have high recognition for related terms.As to the demographic aspect,there is little difference between different genders in the utilization of information retrieval languages.Age may constitute a variable element to a certain degree.Educational background has a complex effect on language utilizations in searching.These research findings characterize China Web users’behaviors in digital information accessing.They also can be potentially valuable for the modeling and further refinement of digital accessing services.

  5. Coal consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between coal consumption and real GDP of China with the use of panel data. This paper applies modern panel data techniques to help shed light on the importance of the heterogeneity among different regions within China. Empirical analyses are conducted for the full panel as well as three subgroups of the panel. The empirical results show that coal consumption and GDP are both I(1) and cointegrated in all regional groupings. Heterogeneity is found in the GDP equation of the full panel. The regional causality tests reveal that the coal consumption–GDP relationship is bidirectional in the Coastal and Central regions whereas causality is unidirectional from GDP to coal consumption in the Western region. Thus, energy conservation measures will not adversely affect the economic growth of the Western region but such measures will likely encumber the economy of the Coastal and Central regions, where most of the coal intensive industries are concentrated. - Highlights: ► We investigate the relationship between coal consumption and GDP in China. ► Panel data are used to account for the potential heterogeneity across different regions. ► Bidirectional causality is found in the Eastern and Central regions. ► Unidirectional causality from GDP to coal consumption is found in the Western region.

  6. China's energy economy. Situation, reforms, behavior, and energy intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [Henan Agricultural Univ., Zhengzhou (China). College of Economics and Management; Oxley, Les [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept of Economics and Finance

    2012-07-01

    In the new millennium, understanding China's energy economy is crucial for politicians, businesspeople and energy economists, as China's energy policy choices will mean both challenges and opportunities for the world in terms of an increasing share of primary energy consumption and investment. This book initially reviews the literature on China's energy economy and in so doing reveals that many important areas have been overlooked or are outdated in their coverage. Given the size of China and its global importance, the book then review s China's current energy situation and fills the gaps in the literature for those who are interested in and concerned about China's economic development and energy reform in the new millennium. The book is different from previous studies in several important ways: Firstly, it presents recent, pioneering research rather than a simple textbook, several sections of which have been published in high-quality energy journals. Secondly, the book first subdivides China's energy intensity change into aspects of budget constraint, technological change, factor substitution, energy demand and economic growth using a newly developed econometric approach. Thirdly, it provides many new and different econometric findings and derives many new policy implications for China's energy economy. And lastly, it brings to light a wealth of new knowledge for those who are interested in China's energy economy, the world energy market and global environmental and climate change issues.

  7. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  8. Revealed Cores: Characterizations and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Vannucci

    2010-01-01

    Characterizations of the choice functions that select the cores or the externally stable cores induced by an underlying revealed dominance digraph are provided. Relying on such characterizations, the basic order-theoretic structure of the corresponding sets of revealed cores is also analyzed

  9. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  10. Strategy on Development of Gasoline and Diesel Standards in China with Reference to Overseas Practice for Upgrading Gasoline and Diesel Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhe; Yang Guoxun

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the standards for car exhaust emissions and gasoline and diesel quality in Europe and the US. As revealed by the evolution of gasoline and diesel standards in China, the gasoline and diesel compositions of China and the exhaust gas emissions standard are closely related with the specifics of the petroleum refining industry and automotive industry in China. After studying the current situations of gasoline and diesel quality in China while taking into account the commonly accepted practice in the overseas this article raises some suggestions on development of gasoline and diesel standards in compliance with the actual conditions of China.

  11. Eucalyptus in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An account based on a visit by the author which reviews the history of eucalypt introduction, outlines current silvicultural practices with special reference to Guangdong province and Guangxi autonomous region and discusses prospects for the future use of eucalypts in China. There are over 300,000 hectare of plantations in southern China, the main species planted since 1950 being Eucalyptus citriodora, E. exserta, and E. globulus. They provide a wide range of products including sawn timber, posts, poles, fuelwood and essential oils, and are a potential source of pulp and fibreboard. A recent policy decision to increase forest cover from 12.7 to 20% of the land area by 2000 will require an increase in afforestation rate to 2 million hectares/year: it is anticipated that eucalypts will play a significant role.

  12. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  13. Family planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, A B

    1976-10-01

    The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575

  14. El enigma de China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside China's material growth, there has come a gradual but steady change in its mentality of governance. This article tries to show one crucial aspect of such a change, having taken place in the past couple of decades, which has given that social giant a new global outlook. The article, based on ethnographic field research, hopes to shed light on the process of statisticalization that, supposedly scientific and modern, has turned itself into a predominant official means for management and administration. The goal is to demonstrate the problematic nature of such a transformation, occurring on the Maoist ruins and generating a number of social sentiments that reflect the growing economic disparity already an undeniable social fact for today's China.

  15. China seeks Korean partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May

  16. Price Dynamics in China

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Chinese inflation, particularly non-food inflation, has been surprisingly modest in recent years. We find that supply factors, including those captured through upstream foreign commodity and producer prices, have been important drivers of non-food inflation, as has foreign demand for Chinese goods. Domestic demand and monetary conditions seem less important, possibly reflecting a large domestic output gap generated by many years of high investment. Inflation varies systemically within China, ...

  17. China's International Responsibility Examined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International responsibility falls upon the shoulders of every country. China's growing contributions to world peace and development have surpassed the view of her as a "threat. "Instead, it was, among world mainstream opinion, expected to shoulder a still-bigger burden. Such external expectations, together with internal yearnings for a higher profile abroad, urge a response in terms of Chinese diplomacy. What is to be done? This paper explores the answer.

  18. Event sponsorship in China

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Fan; Pfitzenmaier, N

    2002-01-01

    Event marketing is currently at the infant stage in China, but holds a great potential in future. This is concluded from an Internet-based survey. The respondents believe that event marketing provides international companies with a viable alternative to the increasingly cluttered mass media, and plays a key role in the integrated marketing communications (IMC). Sponsoring sports and music events is found particularly effective in reaching the opinion leaders and innovators, and establishing f...

  19. Agricultural Clusters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminami, Lily; Kiminami, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of clustering in the development of agriculture and rural communities in China. We shall examine in detail the food industry, which is the link in the food chain that propels the industrialization of agriculture, and identify instances of industrial agglomeration and business collaboration. Next, we shall analyze the externalities (i.e. spillovers) of clusters, demand conditions in cluster formation, and the effectiveness of business collab...

  20. Accounting for China's Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Loren; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    China has achieved impressive growth over the last three decades. However, there has been debate over the sources of the growth, and the role of the intensive versus extensive margin. Growth accounting exercises at the aggregate level (Rawski and Perkins, 2008; Bosworth and Collins, 2008) suggest an equal role for both. For the non-agricultural sector, there have been doubts about the contribution of TFP improvements to growth. For the period between 1978 and 1998, Young (2003) stresses the r...

  1. Interventional Radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists

  2. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hotel, Catering, Tourism China (Qingdao) Int'l Kitchen & Hotel Equipment Exhibition City: Oingdao Venue: Oingdao International Convention Center Duration: December 15, 2008-December 17, 2008 Frequency: Yearly Host: Oingdao Construction Committee Organizer: Oingdao Haichen Int'l Exhibition Co.,LtdAddress: 3-1802, No.1 Building, No.2 Fengxian Road, Qingdao, 266071Tel: 86-532-85018912 Fax: 86-532-83841887 Contact Person: Qu Chengqiang Web: www.cbea2qd.com Email: haichenhuizhan@sina.com

  3. Green Food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    "Green Food" is a Chinese food production innovation, and has been described as "one of the most successful eco-labelling programs in the world" (Giovannucci, 2005, p.12). Green Food provides a "middle way" between chemical and organic farming. China's development of the Green Food concept resolves issues with both chemical and organic agriculture - for the former by offering reduced pesticide use, and for the latter by providing a stepped pathway for conversion from chemical to organic agric...

  4. Healing Angels From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Medical teams from China fight death and disease in the harshest environments in Africa One Sunday in early August,Chen Zhufeng,chief of a Chinese medical team in Tanzania,drove to check the water supply for his members in Tabora,a water-is-life place in Tanzania. Walking by a small reservoir,he was stopped by an old woman. She held up several eggs in her hands,begging Chen to accept them.

  5. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity and Trade Fair Urnmqi Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Fair Date:September 1-September 5,2008 Venue:Xinjiang International Exhibition Center Sector:Exhibition of new products,new technology and new project,to negotiate on import & export trade and domestic commodity trade,etc Web:www.urmqifair.com Add:107,Xinhua South Road,Urumchi,China, 830049 Tel:86-991-2850497/2879890 Fax:86-991-2850497/2879890 E-mail:office@urumqifair.com

  6. Deviant fertility in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li

    1992-01-01

    While most Western and Chinese scholars emphasize the success of Chinese family planning programs, this dissertation focuses on fertility behavior which violates family planning regulations in China. The study contributes to a better understanding of the Chinese "deviant" fertility by conceptualizing the phenomenon in a theoretical framework and conducting an empirical investigation of the issue. In this dissertation, the concept of "deviant fertility" is defined as reprodu...

  7. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  8. Macroeconomic Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dena Sedeghian; Graham White; Patrick D’Arcy

    2013-01-01

    China’s economy has expanded at a rapid pace over the past three decades, underpinned by a range of economic reforms. While many of these reforms have focused on the supply side of the economy, the authorities have employed a range of policies to manage aggregate demand and control the build-up of inflationary pressures and financial risks. The operation of macroeconomic policy in China differs from that typically used in developed economies, reflecting China’s particular institutional and ec...

  9. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  10. Derivative actions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  11. China?s challenge: The opportunities and risks that China?s booming economy provides

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2009-01-01

    The capability of designing to very low cost, and to compete successfully in the tough Chinese market can be transformed into a competitive advantage in other markets. On the other hand, MNCs that are not successfully in China will probably not acquire these capabilities. They will be in a cost disadvantage to compete against Chinese companies in their own markets. They run the risk of becoming secondary players to Chinese companies in the world market, as those competing in the microwave-ove...

  12. Organotin Pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Ji-yan Liu

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the occurrence of butyltin compounds was made in various environmental samples including water, sediment, sea products, and other commodities from China. Detection was carried out by the method of hydrogenation coupled with SPME or Grignard derivatization, followed by GC-FPD analysis. The results showed the universal existence of butyltin compounds in a wide range of tested samples, which was a potential danger for human health. Urgent control or management of o...

  13. Turbine Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In view of the development of the electric power industry in China,in this paper,the author expounds the development of turbine manufacturing industry in recent years and analyses the development trends of the industry in the future,involving domestic market demand,the adjustment of power sources' structure,independent research and development and innovation,product structural adjustment,product technical level,enterprise management and market service,etc.

  14. Turbine Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianfu; Li Jialu

    2009-01-01

    @@ In view of the development of the electric power industry in China,in this paper,the author expounds the development of turbine manufacturing industry in recent years and analyses the development trends of the industry in the future,involving domestic market demand,the adjustment of power sources' structure,independent research and development and innovation,product structural adjustment,product technical level,enterprise management and market service,etc.

  15. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  16. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  17. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  18. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  19. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened,held by China National Textile and Apparel Council,23 cities and towns were awarded as China's Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District.By far,China's textile industrial clusters have grown to 164,which indicate a quick and gorgeous development.These textile industrial clusters have a great impact on the local economy and even the whole national textile industry's development.

  20. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  1. Stem cell research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Lianming; Li, Lingsong; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    In the past 5 years, China has increased its efforts in the field of stem cell research and practice. Basic research mainly focuses on bone marrow and embryonic stem cells. Clinical applications of stem cells in the treatment of acute heart failure, acute liver failure and lower limb ischaemia have been reported by many hospitals. China enacted its ‘Ethical Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research’ in 2003. At present, China has the most liberal and favourable environments for human ...

  2. China and the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Justin Yifu

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the extraordinary performance in the past 20 years, China's status in the global economy has dramatically changed. In this article, I reflect on China's unprecedented growth, examine the reasons for that growth, and discuss promising prospects for the Chinese economy to maintain an 8% annual growth rate in the coming two decades. Although to maintain that growth rate, China will definitely encounter many challenges – both internally and externally. The twenty-first century has ...

  3. China's First Luxury Brands Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China now has its own luxury brands.The four brands Feitian (Moutai spirit), Yong-Qi Zitan (furniture), Rongbaozhai (works of art) and Dongding Oolong (tea) were released as the first Chinese luxury brands by the China Luxury Institute on Nov.11.Based on the Institute's investigation of over 500 enterprises and brands within over 30 kinds of industries like garments, tea, wine, china and jade, in combination with market questionnaire, the first four brands have made their debut.

  4. I Am Broadcasting From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since January 25,every morning from7 to 8 a.m.,listeners to China Radio International(CRI),one of China's national radio stations,have been able to hear a new voice hosting a news program called The Beijing Hour,a program with lively news and current affairs in China as well as around the world.The host was the focus of great attention even before she showed up for the program because of her career background.

  5. China's Chemical Pharmaceutical Industry Rebounding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ After reorganization in 2006, China's chemical pharmaceutical industry began to pick up in 2007. According to the China Pharmaceutical Industry Association,China's chemical pharmaceutical industry achieved sales revenues of RMB202.5 billion in the first eight months this year, a growth of 24.6% - 5.6 percentage points faster than January to May this year. The net profit was RMB17.4 billion, an increase of 50.8% over the same period of 2006.

  6. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Binns Colin W; Qiu Liqian; Xu Fenglian; Liu Xiaoxian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and sin...

  7. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  8. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  9. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  10. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  11. Dilemmas for China: Energy, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Benjamin C. McLellan; Snowden, Simon; Zhang, Baosheng; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    China's current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a "world factory", but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China's economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China...

  12. WTO's View: Improved China's Trade & Economic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ After the first Trade Policy Review of the People's Republic of China in 2006,WTO Secretariat released the second Trade Policy Review of China on May 21,2008,which"provided an excellent opportunity to improve transparency,and thereby a better understanding of China's trade and related policies"remarked by the China's officer in WTO.China's Foreign Trade picks up the summary observations of the Review to help our readers to grasp clearer picture on China's trade and economy.

  13. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  14. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  15. CHINA AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION - A BRIEF SKETCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carapinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The troubled course of the revolutionary process of building socialism in China reveals a gradual reorientation of revolutionary energies to the "technical tasks", focused on economic development and increase of productive forces. The theoretical and practical reframing of Chinese socialist transition acquires a qualitative dimension with the proclamation of the Reform and Opening policy and the recognition of the historical phase that the Communist Party of China, since Deng Xiaoping, defined as the primary stage of socialism. The economic reformulation stresses the issue of the use of market instruments in the process of socialist transition in China, establishing a parallel with the pioneering experience of Soviet NEP. The socialist market economy in China corresponds to a model of mixed economy, in which public ownership and the State hold the commanding heights of the economy, and the integration into the world economy is a key lever. This reality that does not set as granted a return of China to the dominance of capitalism. At the same time, the inevitable clash between the dynamics of two conflicting economic systems – socialism and capitalism – raises to the CCP and the Chinese proletariat the theoretical and practical requirement of safeguarding a re-updated class perspective.

  16. Seismic tomographic evidence for upwelling mantle plume in NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we collected teleseismic data recorded by permanent and mobile seismic stations and carried out a teleseismic P-wave tomographic study. The results reveal low velocity perturbation regions at the central part of NE China and specifically in the Songliao basin at different depths, which correspond to the location of a proposed upwelling mantle plume identified by receiver function in a recent study. Receiver function data show a predominantly mafic/ultra-mafic lower crust in the Songliao basin, in contrast to the predominantly felsic lower crust in the other regions. The vestige of upwelling mantle plume is well defined at the mantle transition region. Based on the above results, we suggest that the volcanism in NE China and the Songliao basin formation might be related to Mesozoic mantle plume beneath NE China. We also evaluate alternate models on lower crustal delamination contributing to the volcanism in NE China following collision and amalgamation between the Siberia craton and the North China-Mongolian block during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous.

  17. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  18. China's Pork Miracle? : Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi); S. Sharma (Shefali)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land a

  19. China's gender imbalance and its implications on China-Japan and China-Taiwan security relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tzeng, Jerry Y.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how China's gender imbalance could affect East Asian security with respect to China-Japan relations and China-Taiwan relations. The research result is ambiguous in that China's excess males may or may not force the Chinese government to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy stance with Japan and Taiwan. On the one hand, the Chinese government has been relatively calm in its dealings with Japan and Taiwan despite the rise of Chinese nationalism. Th...

  20. Application of nuclear instruments in China`s industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan-xiao [China Nuclear Information Center, Beijing (China); Cai Shan-yu; Wang Yi-shan; Lun Xiao [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-31

    The progress of nuclear instruments and their applications in China`s industries have been greatly dependent on the development of social economy. In recent years, the economy in China demands an increasing application of industrial nuclear instruments. The reliability of system performance and its adaptability are prerequisites to ensure widespread application in industry. Through the efforts over 40 years, a sound foundation for the development of nuclear instruments and their application has formed in China with the establishment of a comprehensive nuclear industrial system and skilled technical teams. The international cooperation and technical exchange between China and other countries has provided more opportunities to absorb new concepts, new ideas and new technology for upgrading current products and shorten the gap with the developed countries.

  1. Applying the payment card approach to estimate the WTP for green food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaohua; Holst, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a payment card approach to reveal consumers' willingness to pay for green food in China. We first present a brief introduction of the payment card approach and introduce several methods to estimate the WTP with payment cards, which we subsequently use to estimate WTP values regarding green vegetables, green meat and green eggs in China. Our results indicate that consumers in big cities are willing to pay a higher premium for green food and that WTP values are relatively higher...

  2. An Ethnographic Study Of Glocal Fashion Communication In Hong Kong And Greater China

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, HLT

    2015-01-01

    The rise of fashion businesses in mainland China and Hong Kong and the growth in their brands is attracting the attention of international fashion conglomerates. Recent case studies of socio-historical, economic and cultural influences in the greater China region were revisited applying communication, media and cultural studies theories. Participation observation and interviews were conducted in an attempt to reveal the nuanced process of fashion communication in Hong Kong’s fashion industry....

  3. Self-employment in China: Are rural migrant workers and urban residents alike?

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuling; Nahm, Daehoon; Tani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies differences in the motivation to be self-employed between rural migrants and urban residents in modern China. Estimates of the wage differential between self-employment and paid-employment obtained through a three-stage methodology using the 2002 China Household Income Project (CHIP), reveal that rural migrants become self-employed to avoid low-pay city jobs, enhancing their odds of economic assimilation. Conversely, urban residents become entrepreneurs to move out of unemp...

  4. Trade flows between Australia and China: An opportunity for a free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Daniel; Nair, Roneel; Rodriguez, Gil; Buetre, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    The seemingly high degree of trade complementarity between Australia and China indicates that freer trade between these two countries is likely to lead to mutual trade gains. In this paper, this complementarity was assessed based on the use of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) indices. It is likely that trade gains could be achieved by Australia and China by adopting a bilateral free trade agreement. General equilibrium models – such as ABARE’s global trade and environment model (GTEM) – h...

  5. Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Zeying; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Heng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Cui, Yazhou; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helpi...

  6. The Political Economy of China's Incursion into the Caribbean and Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, Jerome L.; Wenwen Bai

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the recent incursion by China (meaning both Beijing and Taipei) into the Caribbean and Pacific. The general contours of Chinese trade and investment are discussed to provide a background context for a more specific exploration of Chinese aid, especially to small islands across the two regions. A review of recent literature primarily from Western sources reveals that the main strategic use of aid by Beijing (People’s Republic of China – PRC) has been to support the demands ...

  7. Explaining the lack of FDI in western China:an industrial perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨先明; 袁帆; 刘岩

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to attract FDI into western China.This situation might not be explained by traditional geographical factors,because the gap of inward FDI between the western and the eastern regions of China has increased.This paper attempts to explain the situation from an industrial perspective by exploring the industrial differences in the two regions and analyzing their effects in terms of industrial development level,industrial structure and industrial linking capability.The results reveal that industrial factors are important barriers to the inflow of FDI to western China.

  8. Is China becoming more Aggressive? A Neo-classical Realist Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I seek to improve the dominant neorealist analysis of China's rise. I offer a neoclassical realist analytical framework in order to identify the influence of certain Chinese domestic developments and priorities on Chinese foreign and security policy behavior. Rather than reflecting...... a more self-confident and aggressive China, developments in Chinese foreign and security policy in recent years reveal an internally conflicted, inward-looking, and reactive China not yet ready for its new international role. Beijing is uncertain how to manage the challenges and the inevitable...

  9. A Glimpse of Iron and Steel Industry of China in Recent Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiehua; ZHANG Xiaohui; SHEN Keyin; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The paper briefs the recent development of China's Iron & Steel Industry from the view of a refractories worker. Some data and statistics have been revealed in the paper including total output of steel, geological distribution of key steel enterprises, productivity, facilities,technical and economical indices as well as technical advance achieved in the last ten years. Structural adjustment and consolidation occurred in China's Iron & Steel Industry has also been described.The views on how much steel is demanded in China in the near future advanced by a steel expert has been accepted as the conclusion of the paper.

  10. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Chen; Xiangao Xia; Pucai Wang; Wenxing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the aerosol properties and their climatic effect over the continental source regions of China, it is of significance to carry out long-term ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. A couple of temporary and permanent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and three comprehensive radiative sites were established in China as a result of international cooperation in recent years. Heavy aerosol loading and significant temporal and spatial variation over North China are revealed by the AERONET data.Aerosol-induced reductions in surface radiation budget are examined on the basis of collocated observations by sun photometers and pyranometers.

  11. The Objectivity of China English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fang

    2013-01-01

    China English, as one of the English varieties, is an objective reality. It is different from Chinglish which is an interlan-guage for Chinese English learners. This paper expresses the definition of China English, its objectivity and manifestations in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and text.

  12. Family Law: Notes from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  13. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  14. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  15. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly refo

  16. Media Monitor: Images of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, Mary Robinson

    1981-01-01

    The author briefly describes selected instructional media--excluding films--on the geography, history, art, culture, and everyday life of China. Grade levels and ordering sources are provided. This is one of several articles on China studies appearing in this issue. (SJL)

  17. Meet French Architecture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan

    2005-01-01

    On April 5, a French architectural exhibition entitled ""French Visions: City, Architecture and Sustainable Development"" was unveiled in Beijing Urban Planning Center. As a key exhibition within the framework of French Year in China, the exhibition will also be displayed in Shanghai and Chongqing. The largest exhibition of its kind ever held in China, French Visions extensively showed accomplishments of contemporary French architectural design.

  18. Israel Epstein Sees China Grow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan

    2004-01-01

    IN the past, there was much talk about how the advanc-ing world would change China. We are now in the period when China's role in the world is changing the world situation and attracting notice all over the globe, This is a very great change in international culture,"

  19. Business Culture of Modern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkina, L. E.; Зенкина, Л. Е.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the peculiarity of doing business in modern China. The author focuses on the country's cultural characteristics, specifics of Chinese communication and management styles, subtleties of business etiquette and negotiations as well as development of online commerce and other aspects of business dealings in China in the context of cross-cultural interaction.

  20. CDM Country Guide for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  1. China's oil industry and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book examines China's energy policy and its soaring oil demand. Topics reviewed include the economic and political outlook, oil policy and its impact, crude oil production, the refining industry, petroleum product demand, oil quality and its environmental impact, the supply and demand balance and its implications for trade, and China's impact on the Asian market

  2. Biomass resource assessment for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jingjing; Zhou Aiming [Energy Research Institute of State Planning and Development Commission (China)

    1999-07-01

    This paper calculated and assessed the biomass resource availability in China, especially straw and stalk, domestic animal excreta and municipal solid waste. The assessment showed that biomass energy will be a rich and sustainable resource in China, important for developing the social economy and improving the environment in the future. (author)

  3. China on the Silver Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    The author evaluates several intermediate/secondary-level films about China--past and present--and suggests criteria to use in evaluating others. Avoidance of stereotypes is emphasized. Sources and prices are provided for the cited films. One of several articles on China studies in this journal issue. (SJL)

  4. The Cretaceous system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.Q.; Chen, P.J.; Wei, M.J. [Capital Normal University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper provides an outline of Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China, which is based on rich data obtained from recent researches. Cretaceous deposits are widespread in China. Most strata are of nonmarine origin and marine sediments occur only in Tibet, western Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, Taiwan and limited localities of eastern Heilongjiang. All deposits are rich in fossils and well-constrained biostratigraphically. The stratigraphic successions of different regions are illustrated, and general stratigraphic division and correlation have been introduced. The marine deposits are described in the Tibetan Tethys, Kashi-Hotan Region of Xinjiang, eastern Heilongjiang, western Yunnan and Taiwan; the nonmarine deposits are outlined from northeast China, southeast China, southern interior China, southwest China, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, and northwestern China intermontane basins. The sedimentary facies and paleogeography are diversified. In Tibet the basin evolution is largely related to the subduction and collision of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Continent, and shows a tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous. Foraminifera are a dominant biota in the Tibet Tethys. Nonmarine sediments include variegated and red beds, coal- or salt-bearing horizons, and volcanic rocks. These deposits contain diverse and abundant continental faunas and floras, as well as important coal and oil resources. The Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China have presented a foundation for geological studies.

  5. 2009 China Market Suppliers List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Company Name:Desire Star(China)Tea Industrial Co.,Ltd. Company Profile:Desire Star (China)Tea Industrial Co.,Ltd.was founded in Oct 2001,it is a key provincial industrialized agricultural producer which engages in the cultivation,manufacture,production,sales,research of the oolong tea (especially in Wuyi Rock-essence Tea),green tea,jasmine

  6. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  7. [Family planning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyin, H

    1972-01-01

    Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly

  8. ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Purpose.To introduce the epidemical, pathological, and clinical characteristics as well as the diagnostic and therapeutical experiences of endomyocardial fibrosis(EMF) in China. Data sources.A CMBdisc search was done of the Chinese-language literature published from January 1983 through June 1997 about EMF and/or restrictive cardiomyopathy. A manual search was then done for other contributions, including abstracts, between January 1965 and June 1997.Results. Eighty-seven Chinese cases of EMF were collected in this paper. There were 49 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 28±13 years(range, 8 to 68 years). The distribution of the cases is mainly in the south of China. Combined right and left ventricular disease occurs in 48 percent of cases, with pure right ventricular involvement occurring in 42 percent and pure left ventricular involvement in the remaining 10 percent of patients who are examined postmortem. The diagnosis of EMF was confirmed in 21 cases at autopsy, and in 66 cases by echocardiography, angiocardiography, and/or endomyocardial biopsy which showed the characteristic changes. Clinically, right-sided disease is the commonest variety. Endocardiectomy and tricuspid(n=7) or mitral(n=1) valves replacement have been performed in 8 patients. There were 2 operative deaths. Six patients had a satisfactory recovery postoperatively and living well in the follow-up duration. Conclusion.EMF has been diagnosed clinically and confirmed at necropsy in a number of cases in the south of China. The etiology, incidence and epidemiology are still unknown. The pathological and clinical features are similar to those in tropical areas, but right ventricular involvement is the commonest type in our country.

  9. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    third tier Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed to...... the limitations associated with the use of qualitative methodology based on a single case and geographic delimitation. Rather than providing definite answers, the findings of this study should be seen as propositions which open avenues for future research on the subject. Implications – The findings...

  10. Cupressaceae Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examed the Cupressaceae taxa in China. It is identifled that 30 species and 16 varieties in 7 genera in thefamily are indigenous, and estimated that about 25 species and 4 varieties have been introduced into this country since the beginning of this century. It is urgent that more furthur studies need to be carried out in the country on the taxonomy especially of junipers and cypresses, on the re-classification ofexisting cultivars, and on the development of new cultivars for future needs.

  11. China and Doha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China, as the biggest developing country and a trade giant in the world, plays an important role in the global trade system. Because of this dual identity, the country is under the global spotlight Both WTO Director General Pascal Lamy and U.S. Trade Representative Susan Schwab visited Beijing recently to exhort its leaders to strengthen their efforts toward a successful conclusion of the current Doha Round of trade negotiations and play a bigger role in reviving the world's multilateral trade system. Ma...

  12. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept......In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...

  13. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    The global dispersion and fragmentation of value chains of companies all over the world is a well-known consequence of globalization. Facing the intense global competition, companies are configuring their operations and innovation activities on a global scale. The globalization of operations and...... innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  14. Developing biorefinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min En-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Biorefinery based on biomass resources is an important approach for the oil refining and petrochemical industry to achieve sustainable development.Two types of biorefinery suitable for China's biomass resources are presented in this paper.With sorgo and cassava as raw material,an ethanol-biorefinery for the production of ethanol-gasoline and chemicals is explored,and with rape seed and cotton seed oil as raw material,a biodiesel-biorefinery for the production of biodiesel and chemicals is also explored.The associated problems and measures taken are discussed in the end.

  15. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  16. Autosuficiencia alimentaria en China

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Rodríguez y Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    La seguridad alimentaria ha sido componente esencial de las diferentes estrategias de desarrollo socioeconómico de la República Popular China durante casi 50 años. Pero lo que comenzó como autosuficiencia en granos en el espacio de la aldea rural, en el contexto de economía cerrada y de aislamiento casi total respecto del resto del mundo evolucionó hasta convertirse en un conjunto de políticas para la agricultura, tendientes a la preservación de la independencia nacional en el aprovisionamien...

  17. Floods in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Lake Qinghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junqing

    2006-01-01

    Lake Qinghai lies on the northeast corner of the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau. It is a closed-basin lake and the largest water body in China with an area of about 4437 km2. Aragonite and calcite are precipitating from the brackish (TDS 12-14 g/l) and alkaline water (pH 9.1-9.4). Summer rainfall exerts an important control on changes in both lake level and water chemistry. As the lake today is situated at the outer margin of the Asian summer monsoon, past climate changes were sensitively documented i...

  19. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  20. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  1. China's power policy; Die Energiepolitik Chinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Programm Politik Ostasien

    2006-07-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed.

  2. Tackling unemployment in China: state capacity and governance issues

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett, J.; Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers China's state capacity and changing governance as revealed through its policies to tackle unemployment. Despite high levels of growth, economic restructuring has resulted in rising unemployment over the last decade. The Chinese state has been able to manage job losses from state enterprises, demonstrating some state capacity in relation to this sector and some persistent command economy governance mechanisms. However both design and implementation of policies to compensat...

  3. Air Pollution Contributes in Sunshine Dimming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team led by Professor Yang Yonghui of Center for Agricultural Resources Research, In- stitute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, have revealed the magnitude and physical mechanism of the effect of air pollution on sunshine hours in 38 big cities across China. These results have recently been published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (VOL. 117, D00V14, doi. 10. 1029/ 2011JD016753). It was funded by international collaborative proiect from MOST and NSFC.

  4. China's responsiveness to internet opinion: a double-edged sword

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Hassid; Iowa State University

    2015-01-01

    "Despite its authoritarian bent, the Chinese government quickly and actively moves to respond to public pressure over misdeeds revealed and discussed on the internet. Netizens have reacted with dismay to news about natural and man-made disasters, official corruption, abuse of the legal system and other prominent issues. Yet in spite of the sensitivity of such topics and the persistence of China's censorship apparatus, Beijing usually acts to quickly address these problems rather than sweeping...

  5. The awakening of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has made a spectacular entry onto the international energy scene. Excluding one or two minor points, all studies agree on three essential factors:- 1) Energy consumption will continue to rise sharply over the next two decades even in the event of outstandingly high gains in energy efficiency.- 2) Coal will remain the predominant energy source during this same period despite the government's stated wish to significantly increase the use of natural gas and renewable energy sources.- 3) The increase in oil consumption over the next two decades will account fir or almost 20 % of the global increase in consumption. Fears in China and around the world concerning the negative impacts upon the environment both at a local and global scale and the continued tension in the oil market are both justified. It is likely that, as in the past, the oil market will adjust itself in order to balance supply and demand, but probably at a slower pace due to anticipated structural changes. Solutions to solve the problems related to the environment are not easy, and will require dialogue (involving India, the other y Asian giant) in addition to international co-operation going far be and the development mechanism itself. (author)

  6. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  7. Autosuficiencia alimentaria en China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Rodríguez y Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La seguridad alimentaria ha sido componente esencial de las diferentes estrategias de desarrollo socioeconómico de la República Popular China durante casi 50 años. Pero lo que comenzó como autosuficiencia en granos en el espacio de la aldea rural, en el contexto de economía cerrada y de aislamiento casi total respecto del resto del mundo evolucionó hasta convertirse en un conjunto de políticas para la agricultura, tendientes a la preservación de la independencia nacional en el aprovisionamiento de alimentos básicos, ya con amplia apertura al exterior y cierto grado de aprovechamiento de las ventajas comparativas regionales. El reto para China es preservar la seguridad alimentaria sin recurrir a las políticas anteriores de autosuficiencia a ultranza, cuyos costos económicos y sociales han dejado rastros en términos de desigualdad creciente entre campo y ciudad.

  8. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  9. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  10. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  11. Facing the globalization of China's agricultural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; LIU Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.

  12. China Pavilion’s Red Letter Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The glorious celebration of China Pavilion Day on October 1,the National Day The China Pavilion became the focus of attention on October 1,2010,as it was the time to celebrate the 61st anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China,as well as China Pavilion Day at the World Expo in Shanghai.

  13. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000%1950-2000年中国北方干旱气候变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 翟盘茂; 张洪涛

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions displayed different trends.

  14. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDY OF THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN RUSSIA AND CHINA. RUSSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM’ INFLUENCE ON THE CHINESE LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Yu Kolmakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features, similarities and differences of the legal systems of Russia and China and reveals that Russia is a more democratic state compared to China in the field of protection of the freedom of speech. The author concludes that Russia can influence China by methods of international treaties which allow cooperation between states with different state and social orders and by promoting the ideas of the freedom of expression through research exchanges.

  15. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...... offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China....

  16. ENSO cycle and climate anomaly in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongli; ZHAO Yongping; FENG Junqiao; WANG Fan

    2012-01-01

    The inter-annual variability of the tropical Pacific Subsurface Ocean Temperature Anomaly (SOTA) and the associated anomalous atmospheric circulation over the Asian North Pacific during the El Ni(n)o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) atmospheric reanalysis data and simple ocean data simulation (SODA).The relationship between the ENSO and the climate of China was revealed.The main results indicated the following:1) there are two ENSO modes acting on the subsurface tropical Pacific.The first mode is related to the mature phase of ENSO,which mainly appears during winter.The second mode is associated with a transition stage of the ENSO developing or decaying,which mainly occurs during summer; 2) during the mature phase of El Ni(n)o,the meridionality of the atmosphere in the mid-high latitude increases,the Aleutian low and high pressure ridge over Lake Baikal strengthens,northerly winds prevail in northern China,and precipitation in northern China decreases significantly.The ridge of the Ural High strengthens during the decaying phase of El Ni(n)o,as atmospheric circulation is sustained during winter,and the northerly wind anomaly appears in northern China during summer.Due to the ascending branch of the Walker circulation over the western Pacific,the western Pacific Subtropical High becomes weaker,and south-southeasterly winds prevail over southern China.As a result,less rainfall occurs over northern China and more rainfall over the Changjiang River basin and the southwestern and eastern region of Inner Mongolia.The flood disaster that occurred south of Changjiang River can be attributed to this.The La Ni(n)a event causes an opposite,but weaker effect; 3) the ENSO cycle can influence climate anomalies within China via zonal and meridional heat transport.This is known as the "atmospheric-bridge",where the energy anomaly within the tropical Pacific

  17. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  18. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  19. The changing hues of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-07-15

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs.

  20. The changing hues of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs

  1. China's carbon flow: 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Huanan Li; Yi-Ming Wei; Zhi-Fu Mi

    2014-01-01

    As the world's largest CO2 emitter, China's CO2 emissions have become one of the most popular issues concerned by domestic and foreign researchers. Therefore, analysis of the current status of China's carbon emissions is very important. After drawing a chart of China's carbon flow in 2012, based on the IPCC carbon emission inventory method and China's energy balance table, this paper gives a detailed description of the current status of China's carbon flow and compares the changing characteri...

  2. China-EU Over Ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 10th China-EU Meeting took place in Beijing on November 28, 2007. This was an important annual meeting held at a critical point in the history of China-EU relations. Since this regularly scheduled meeting was first established in 1998, leaders from both China and the EU have met continuously. Over the past decade, many fundamental changes have taken place between China and the EU, and the China-EU relationship has evolved into full strategic partnership.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  5. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  6. Sustainable meat consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoru Shimokawa

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable meat consumption is critical to achieve a sustainable food system because meat products are among the most energy-intensive, ecological y burdensome, and ethical y concerned foods. This paper focuses on the case of China and discusses the dififculties and possibilities to achieve sustainable meat consumption in China by reviewing previous empirical studies and descriptive statistics, particularly considering consumers’ dietary transitions in quantity and quality fol owing China’s rapid economic growth. Given China’s sheer size of population and meat demand, the sustainable meat consumption in China is also a relevant topic in the global food system.

  7. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  8. Torrential Rain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Concentric ovals of red, orange, yellow, and green are draped over southern China, showing rainfall totals for the week of June 4 through June 11, 2007. The rainfall totals are from the Goddard Space Flight Center Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, which is based on rainfall measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Though seasonal rains are not unexpected in the area, the rain that fell during the week was torrential and relentless. As the image shows, a broad stretch of China received up to 200 millimeters (8 inches) of rain, and some areas were inundated with up to 500 millimeters (20 inches). Floods and landslides resulted, destroying crops and forcing some 643,000 people from their homes, reported the Xinhua News Agency on ReliefWeb. As of June 11, 71 people had died and 13 were missing. The most affected area was the southern coast, where rainfall totals are highest in this image. Heavy tropical rains combined with steep mountains make southeastern China prone to devastating landslides. Monitoring landslide-producing conditions typically requires extensive networks of ground-based rain gauges and weather instruments. But many developing countries in high-risk areas lack the resources to maintain such systems; heavy rains and flooding often wash away ground-based instruments. Robert Adler, a senior scientist in the Laboratory for Atmospheres at Goddard Space Flight Center, and Yang Hong, a research scientist at Goddard Earth Sciences Technology Center, are confronting the problem by developing a satellite-based system for predicting landslides. The system relies on TRMM data to predict when rainfall in different areas has reached a landslide-triggering threshold. The system makes data available on the Internet just a few hours after the satellite makes its observations. To read more about the landslide-monitoring system, please read the feature article Satellite Monitors Rains That Trigger Landslides, http

  9. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  10. Genetic differentiation of Wolffia globosa in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Xia YUAN; Jin PAN; Bao-Sheng WANG; Da-Ming ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid.(Lemnaceae) includes the world’s smallest angiosperms.Morphologically,their bodies are extremely simplified,making classification difficult and long-disputed.No reports about the genetic structure of these clonal-dominant aquatic plants have been published until now.In this study,of 247 samples from 42 populations spanning representative locations in China,two chloroplast haplotypes (glo-cp and un-cp) and 66 amplified fragment length polymorphism genotypes were identified.Based on wide sampling,cpDNA haplotypes,and amplified fragment length polymorphism profiles,we found that there are two genetic lineages (glo- and unlineages) of Wolffia species in China.Genotypic and genetic diversity of Wolffia species are high compared with other clonal plants (Simpson’s index,D =0.97; Nei’s diversity,H =0.1835).Different spatial structure patterns were detected between glo- and un- lineages.Positive autocorrelation at short distances (<400 km) and slightly negative autocorrelations at larger distances (> 1500 km) were detected within the glo-lineage,but no significant spatial genetic structure was detected beyond 100 km within the un-lineage.Overall,spatial genetic analysis of W.globosa revealed significant autocorrelation within short distances,indicating that restricted gene flow might be one of the most important factors in shaping genetic structure.

  11. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  12. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  13. Lipid sorting revealed by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at the contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The fitting of the observed SANS profile revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet, which supports that the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model. (author)

  14. China's Pork Miracle?: Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Mindi; Sharma, Shefali

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land and resource constraints to feed its population of 1.3 billion people. The country is celebrated for its successes in reducing poverty and hunger over the last 30 years, and more recently, for creat...

  15. Atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition: Analysis of nationwide data and a case study in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of atmospheric dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) deposition is not very clear at present. Across China, the DON deposition was substantially larger than that of world and Europe, and we found significant positive correlation between contribution of DON and the deposition flux with pristine site data lying in outlier, possibly reflecting the acute air quality problems in China. For a case study in Northeast China, we revealed the deposited DON was mainly derived from intensive agricultural activities rather than the natural sources by analyzing the compiled dataset across China and correlating DON flux with NH4+–N and NO3−–N. Crop pollens and combustion of fossil fuels for heating probably contributed to summer and autumn DON flux respectively. Overall, in Northeast China, DON deposition could exert important roles in agro-ecosystem nutrient management and carbon sequestration of natural ecosystems; nationally, it was suggested to found rational network for monitoring DON deposition. -- Highlights: •Contribution and deposition flux of DON across China was positively correlated. •Deposited DON was more influenced by human in China than across the world and Europe. •DON of a farmland in Northeast China was mainly derived from agricultural activities. •Crop pollen and combustion of fossil fuels contributed to summer and autumn DON. •Deposited DON should not be neglected when evaluating its ecological impacts. -- Synthesis of DON deposition across China implied regional importance of anthropogenic sources, and an observation in Northeast China suggested the ecological significances of the DON flux should be considered

  16. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secrecy and the act of concealing and revealing knowledge effectually segregate the initiated and the uninitiated. The act of sharing or hiding knowledge plays a central role in all human relations private or public, political or religious. This volume explores the concept of secrecy and its impl...... the concept of secrecy and its potential for illuminating the agendas behind identity constructions, political propaganda, literary works, religous practices and shared history....

  17. Norm Exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a brief introduction to exposure to NORM and other natural sources in China. The number of workers monitored for occupational exposure to natural sources exceeds 10.5 million, of whom 6.5 million work in underground coal mines and 3 million work in other non-metal mines. The average annual dose received by monitored workers, mainly due to inhalation of radon, is 2.1 mSv overall. For workers in metal mines, the average dose is more than 5.5 mSv. The paper also reviews the exposure of workers in the production of thorium containing gas mantles and welding electrodes, the exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation and exposure to radon in underground workplaces other than mines, in hot spring facilities and in homes. (author)

  18. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  19. Occupational health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, David C; Tan, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid industrialization and economic growth, resulting in a transformed industrial structure and expansion of the labor force. Occupational health and safety services, nonexistent before 1949, have made remarkable advances over the past decades. However, these services face greater challenges, consisting of both traditional and new occupational health problems. Poorly regulated work environments often lacking health services in recently developed and thriving small-scale industries and joint venture enterprises have created increasing risks for occupational diseases and work-related injuries. A special strategy based on cooperation among and contributions from the legal, administrative, social, economic, and scientific communities is critical to achieving the ultimate goal of control and prevention of these occupational health problems. PMID:12028948

  20. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources and...... costs. This paper elaborates on the key stakeholders, crucial polices and general challenges in the context of the Chinese smart grid development. The paper finds that the Chinese energy market is a state monopoly and foreign companies can only become key stakeholders in the role of suppliers or service...... providers. It can be concluded that the Chinese smart grid development has still to overcome technological and political issues, such as overlapping authority structures, not installed or immature key technologies, the absence of standards and governmental market protectionism....

  1. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  2. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  3. Refractory Raw Materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANBo

    2001-01-01

    The rich resources of main refractory raw materials in China are outlined.The tehnical development and progress in the production of high quality raw materias are reviewed.Some of future trends are predicted.

  4. Carving a Niche in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In a year or two, Beijing and Ljubljana, the capitals of two geographically distant countries, hopefully will become sister cities, according to Marjan Cencen, Slovenian Ambassador to China. However, developing sister city relations is only a small fract

  5. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  6. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  7. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  8. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  9. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  10. Brideg Spain & China in Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Spanish King H.E.Juan Carlos visited China in last June.Both sides had agreed to deepen cooperation in various fields,such as telecommuncations,environmental protection and renewable energy resources.

  11. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  12. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  13. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  14. Interest Rate Liberalization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tarhan Feyzioglu; Nathan Porter; Elöd Takáts

    2009-01-01

    What might interest rate liberalization do to intermediation and the cost of capital in China? China's most binding interest rate control is a ceiling on the deposit rate, although lending rates are also regulated. Through case studies and model-based simulations, we find that liberalization will likely result in higher interest rates, discourage marginal investment, improve the effectiveness of intermediation and monetary transmission, and enhance the financial access of underserved sectors....

  15. Teaching human parasitology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Guanghui; He Shenyi; Chen Lin; Shi Na; Bai Yang; Zhu Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic di...

  16. The China Digital Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, G. W.; Q. D. Mu; Chen, Y T

    1994-01-01

    The China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN) program was initiated in May 1983. On October 1, 1986, the CDSN began to distribute the network-day tapes to the research community. On October 22, 1987, the CDSN began full operation. The CDSN are supported by the State Seismological Bureau, People's Republic of China and the United States Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance of the network are taken by the staffs at the 10th Division of the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological...

  17. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  18. Architectural heritage conservation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qilin; 郑琪琳

    2011-01-01

    As a contribution to econometric research on the role of architectural heritage, this dissertation evaluates non-aggregate data for a total of 2142 designated National Priority Protected Sites (NPPS) in China using hedonic model and ordered probit model. Attempting to verify economic costs of conserving architectural heritage sites in China, the objectives of the dissertation are to find out the grading system of NPPS; to compare the monetary value and non-monetary value methods on architectu...

  19. Urban Health Service in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Li; Heng-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform and development, China's healthcare system has not improved as well as the economy has. Instead, it has deteriorated in many aspects, both in rural and urban areas. The present situation can be briefly summarized as "Low accessibility and high prices in healthcare service". In terms of quality, efficiency, and fairness of health care, China's urban health care system is far behind the current economic status and people's demands. There are a lot of complaints...

  20. China's Macroeconomic Picture in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ In general China's economic develop-ment has basically been good until now. In 2007, China's economic growth rate stood at 11.9%, while in the first quarter of this year, this rate maintained 10.6% growth, as national fiscal revenue increased by 35.5% compared with the same period last year. However, more macro control measures for the economy are still ahead.

  1. Bridging China to the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is going global and embracing overseas penetration in every respect, including sciences.Thomson Scientific has booked passage to China by incor- porating the Chinese Scientific Citation Database(CSCD)of the Chinese Academy of Sciences into its renowned ISI Web of Knowledge.The news was announced by Thomson Scientific on December 4,2007. Launched by Thomson Scientific in 2002,ISI Web of Knowledge is a daily and essential resource for millions around the

  2. Remote Sensing Archeology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is a country noted for its vast territory and time-honored civilization. Cultural sites can be found across the country, including the famous Silk Road, which was started in the 2nd century BC and served as terrestrial and maritime outlets for the cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world. So understanding these legacies of human development is of great significance in exploration of the history both Chinese and worldwide.

  3. SAE-China Congress 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These Proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2014 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  4. Retaining Middle Managers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Extensive media reports and recent studies have aroused the retention of talented managers as the biggest management challenge for foreign firms in China. Bearing the highest turnover rate, middle managers are considered to be the most demanding group on the labor market. The purpose of this thesis is to get a better understanding of the measures foreign companies in China are taking to retain employees and the impact of them in the retention of middle managers. Case studies are conduct...

  5. China takes to the roads.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, I.

    1995-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...

  6. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  7. SAE-China Congress 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  8. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  9. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Tang; Jin-Lu Sun; Jia Yin; Zhi Li

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia a...

  10. 2007 China Harbor Ten People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 China Harbor Ten People elected the entrepreneurs who contributed a lot to port economy and enterprises this year trough their talent management.These ten people embody their social responsibility,professional skills,creative ability,and charming personality.Bearing full confidence in China's port economy,the port entrepreneurs are brave enough to explore a brand new area,so as to promote harbor economic development.

  11. Power industry restructuring in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, J.; Ni, Y

    2006-01-01

    China power industry is on the way to a deregulated electricity market since the industry restructuring in 2002. The integrated generation and transmission has been regrouped into five independent generation companies and two grid companies. The regional grid companies act as the system operators and exchange centers for the regional electricity markets. The customer side is still regulated by the government. In this paper, we will introduce the situation of China power industry restructuring...

  12. A Comparative Study on Flood Management in China and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This study examines flood management concepts and practices in China and Japan during different periods of time in history and the differences in the two countries’ current management of flood retarding basins. It reveals that during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–24 AD, China proposed to redirect a river course to gain sufficient flood retarding capacity, and this same concept was realized, either coincidentally or intentionally, during the Edo period of Japan (1603–1868. In modern times, however, the management of flood retarding basins differs fundamentally between China and Japan. In addition, this study investigates the differences in emergency evacuation practices between China and Japan. This is the first study to highlight the link between a Chinese concept and a Japanese practice that are separated by more than 1000 years.

  13. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  14. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  15. Desertification in China: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Chen, Fahu; Hasi, Eerdun; Li, Jinchang

    2008-06-01

    Arid and semiarid China have experienced multiple arid phases throughout the Quaternary, and over the past five decades, there have been several periods with relatively high or low rates of desertification and rehabilitation. The causes of these changes and their historical trends have been debated by scientists because of their potentially huge significance for China, as well as for the global ecology and food supply. This paper reviews recent studies of desertification in different regions of arid and semiarid China. In general, the results of systematic monitoring, and analyses of the causes of desertification and the contemporaneous human impacts, suggest that desertification in China has been primarily caused by climate change, and particularly by strong wind regimes (with high sand transport potential) accompanied by decreased spring precipitation. Unfortunately, although numerous scientists have claimed that desertification in China is primarily due to human impacts; there is surprisingly little unassailable evidence to support this claim. The review presented in this paper show that desertification in China is likely to be controlled by climate change and geomorphological processes, even though human impacts have undeniably exacerbated their effects. Our arguments for both climate change and human activity as factors responsible for the observed changes in desertification rely primarily on inferences based on correlations between trends, thus future research must seek stronger and more direct evidence for the causal relationships that we have proposed as possibilities. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy decisions on how best to combat desertification.

  16. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  17. SPARTINA CONTROL STRATEGY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fang-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Spartina is a kind of very important and invasive grass. In its native range, it is very important for erosion control, fish, wildlife, and estuary reclamation. Therefore, it was introduced to many countries. Since 1963, it was introduced to China. Up to now, it was intentionally or accidentally planted nearly all estuaries in the east coast of China and the area was estimated over 0.1 × 106 hm2. As other introduced plants, Spartina grows very vigorously in China,and this caused many environmental and economical problems. So, it is an emergency to develop a Spartina control strategy of China. In the paper, the history of Spartina introduction in China was reviewed, and several methods which were probably feasible for China to control Spartina were introduced, including physical/mechanical (such as mowing, digging, and dredging), chemical, and biological methods. Before taking any measurments to control Spartina, 2 things should be done. The first was to develop a plan and make an inventory; the second was to select a feasible method according to local climatic, economic, social, and ecological conditions. It was suggested that it would be very important to assess the possible effect of control methods on the environment in order to prevent from causing other environmental problems.KEY WORDS :Spartina; control method; control strategy; environmental assessment

  18. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  19. The role of CO2 embodiment in US-China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the influence of US-China trade on national and global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The three basic questions are as follows: (1) What amount of CO2 emissions is avoided in the US by importing Chinese goods? (2) How much are CO2 emissions in China increased as a result of the production of goods for export to the US? and (3) What are the impacts of US-China trade on global CO2 emissions? Our initial findings reveal that during 1997-2003: (1) US CO2 emissions would have increased from 3% to 6% if the goods imported from China had been produced in the US (2) About 7%-14% of China's current CO2 emissions were a result of producing exports for US consumers, and (3) US-China trade has increased global CO2 emissions by an estimated 720millionmetrictons. We suggest that the export of US technologies and expertise related to clean production and energy efficiency to China could be a ''win-win'' strategy for both countries for reducing their trade imbalance and mitigating global CO2 emissions. Improved international accounting methodologies for assigning responsibility for CO2 emissions must be designed to account for the dynamic nature of international trade

  20. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.