WorldWideScience

Sample records for china resource assessment

  1. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangsheng; Dai, Ning; Yang, Jianqing; Wang, Jinxing

    2016-10-01

    Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i) comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii) annual water resources assessment, and (iii) industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP) has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  2. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    modeling to develop procedures and best practices for satellite based wind resource assessment offshore. All existing satellite images from the Envisat Advanced SAR sensor by the European Space Agency (2002-12) have been collected over a domain in the South China Sea. Wind speed is first retrieved from...

  3. Water resources assessment issues and isotope hydrology application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 陈明忠

    2001-01-01

    As one of the largest countries in the world, China has a highest population and great potential in water resources and land. Water is a key issue for sustainable development in the fu-rure, because the average water and land availability per-capita is much lower than the world averages. Water resources assessment plays a very important role. However, certain problems could not be solved due to lack of hydrological data, such as groundwater in arid and semi-arid zones. Environment isotope technologies have been applied and show promise of wide application.

  4. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  6. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  8. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Rong, Zhu; Badger, Merete

    2015-01-01

    offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS). The wind roses from...

  9. Characterization and normalization factors of abiotic resource depletion for life cycle impact assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The availability of resources for economic activities differs between regions, and the importance of the resources is consequently observed to be different within regions compared to a global scale. With the current situation in Chinese mining industry and its statistic characteristics, the characterization procedures of abiotic resource in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) have demonstrated certain limita-tions in the Chinese materials industry. The aim of this paper is to propose new characterization and normalization factors for abiotic resource depletion categories such as metals and non-renewable en- ergy resources in a Chinese context. The actual production of abiotic resources calculated by a modi- fied model is compared to the reserve base in line with the new national standard to determine char- acterization factors in equivalence units, with antimony as the reference mineral. The normalization factors are based on the total base reserves of the most important minerals in China. A case study on primary magnesium production using the Pidgeon process is used to compare LCIA results for abiotic resource categories that are between current LCIA factors and the new Chinese factors. These factors not only reflect the importance of abiotic resource with respect to region-specific resource depletion, but also can compare with the global factors.

  10. Monte-Carlo Method for Coalbed Methane Resource Assessment in Key Coal Mining Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yongguo; Chen Yuhua; Qin Yong; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Monte-Carlo method is used for estimating coalbed methane (CBM) resources in key coal mining areas of China. Monte-Carlo method is shown to be superior to the traditional volumetric method with constant parameters in the calculation of CBM resources. The focus of the article is to introduce the main algorithm and the realization of functions estimated by Monte-Carlo method, including selection of parameters, determination of distribution function, generation of pseudo-random numbers, and evaluation of the parameters corresponding to pseudo-random numbers. A specified software on the basis of Monte-Carlo method is developed using Visual C++ for the assessment of the CBM resources. A case study shows that calculation results using Monte-Carlo method have smaller error range in comparison with those using volumetric method.

  11. Assessment of Off-shore Wind Energy Resource in China using QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiuzhi, Zhang; Yanbo, Shen; Jingwei, Xu;

    2010-01-01

    From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one ...

  12. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Rong, Zhu; Badger, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Using accurate inputs of wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment, as predicted power is proportional to the wind speed cubed. This study outlines a methodology for combining multiple ocean satellite winds and winds from WRF simulations in order to acquire the accurate reconstructed...... offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS). The wind roses from...... (SD) of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s) and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80). When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea) are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean...

  13. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  14. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  15. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  16. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujisguleng Wujisguleng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products.

  17. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  18. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  19. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  20. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  1. Terrestrial tight oil reservoir characteristics and Graded Resource Assessment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Wu, Xiaozhi; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    The success of shale/tight plays and the advanced exploitation technology applied in North America have triggered interest in exploring and exploiting tight oil in China. Due to the increased support of exploration and exploitation,great progress has been made in Erdos basin, Songliao basin, Junggar basin, Santanghu basin, Bohai Bay basin, Qaidam Basin, and Sichuan basin currently. China's first tight oil field has been found in Erdos basin in 2015, called xinanbian oil field, with over one hundred million tons oil reserves and one million tons of production scale. Several hundred million tons of tight oil reserve has been found in other basins, showing a great potential in China. Tight oil in China mainly developed in terrestrial sedimentary environment. According to the relations of source rock and reservoir, the source-reservoir combination of tight oil can be divided into three types, which are bottom generating and top storing tight oil,self- generating and self-storing tight oil,top generating and bottom storing tight oil. The self- generating and self-storing tight oil is the main type discovered at present. This type of tight oil has following characteristics:(1) The formation and distribution of tight oil are controlled by high quality source rocks. Terrestrial tight oil source rocks in China are mainly formed in the deep to half deep lacustrine facies. The lithology includes dark mudstone, shale, argillaceous limestone and dolomite. These source rocks with thickness between 20m-150m, kerogen type mostly I-II, and peak oil generation thermal maturity(Ro 0.6-1.4%), have great hydrocarbon generating potential. Most discovered tight oil is distributed in the area of TOC greater than 2 %.( 2) the reservoir with strong heterogeneity is very tight. In these low porosity and permeability reservoir,the resources distribution is controlled by the physical property. Tight sandstone, carbonate and hybrid sedimentary rocks are three main tight reservoir types in

  2. Reanalysis of Water, Land Use, and Production Data for Assessing China's Agricultural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Pan, J.; McLaughlin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative data about water availability, crop evapotranspiration (ET), agricultural land use, and production are needed at high temporal and spatial resolutions to develop sustainable water and agricultural plan and policies. However, large-scale high-resolution measured data can be susceptible to errors, physically inconsistent, or incomplete. Reanalysis provides a way to develop improved physically consistent estimates of both measured and hidden variables. The reanalysis approach described here uses a least-squares technique constrained by water balances and crop water requirements to assimilate many possibly redundant data sources to yield estimates of water, land use, and food production variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. As an example, this methodology is applied in China, where food demand is expected to increase but land and water resources could constrain further increases in food production. Hydrologic fluxes, crop ET, agricultural land use, yields, and food production are characterized at 0.5o by 0.5o resolution for a nominal year around the year 2000 for 22 different crop groups. The reanalysis approach provides useful information for resource management and policy, both in China and around the world.

  3. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  4. A wave energy resource assessment in the China's seas based on multi-satellite merged radar altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy resources are abundant in both offshore and nearshore areas of the China's seas. A reliable assessment of the wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. First, for a water depth in offshore waters of China, a parameterized wave power density model that considers the effects of the water depth is introduced to improve the calculating accuracy of the wave power density. Second, wave heights and wind speeds on the surface of the China's seas are retrieved from an AVISO multi-satellite altim-eter data set for the period from 2009 to 2013. Three mean wave period inversion models are developed and used to calculate the wave energy period. Third, a practical application value for developing the wave energy is analyzed based on buoy data. Finally, the wave power density is then calculated using the wave field data. Using the distribution of wave power density, the energy level frequency, the time variability indexes, the to-tal wave energy and the distribution of total wave energy density according to a wave state, the offshore wave energy in the China's seas is assessed. The results show that the areas of abundant and stable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, southeast of Taiwan in the China's seas; the wave power density values in these areas are approximately 14.0–18.5 kW/m. The wave energy in the China’s seas presents obvious seasonal variations and optimal seasons for a wave energy utilization are in winter and autumn. Except for very coastal waters, in other sea areas in the China's seas, the energy is primarily from the wave state with 0.5 m≤Hs≤4 m, 4 s≤Te≤10 s whereHs is a significant wave height andTe is an energy period; within this wave state, the wave energy accounts for 80% above of the total wave energy. This characteristic is advantageous to designing wave energy convertors (WECs). The practical application value of the wave energy is higher

  5. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...... offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China....

  6. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  7. Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain-assessing and achieving groundwater resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduno, Hector; Evans, Richard; Olson, Doug; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weizhen; Han, Zaisheng

    The Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain is one of the world's largest aquifer systems and supports an enormous exploitation of groundwater, which has reaped large socio-economic benefits in terms of grain production, farming employment and rural poverty alleviation, together with urban and industrial water-supply provision. Both population and economic activity have grown markedly in the past 25 years. Much of this has been heavily dependent upon groundwater resource development, which has encountered increasing difficulties in recent years primarily as a result of aquifer depletion and related phenomena. This paper focuses upon the hydrogeologic and socio-economic diagnosis of these groundwater resource issues, and identifies strategies to improve groundwater resource sustainability. L'aquifère Quaternaire de la Plaine du Nord de la Chine est l'un des plus grands systèmes aquifères du monde; il permet une exploitation énorme d'eau souterraine, qui a permis des très importants bénéfices socio-économiques en terme de production de céréales, d'emplois ruraux et de réduction de la pauvreté rurale, en même temps que l'approvisionnement en eau potable et pour l'industrie. La population comme l'activité économique ont remarquablement augmenté au cours de ces 25 dernières années. Elles ont été sous la forte dépendance du développement de la ressource en eau souterraine, qui a rencontré des difficultés croissantes ces dernières années, du fait du rabattement de l'aquifère et des phénomènes associés. Cet article est consacré aux diagnostiques hydrogéologique et socio-économique des retombées de cette ressource en eau souterraine; il identifie les stratégies pour améliorer la pérennité des ressources en eau souterraine. El acuífero cuaternario de la Llanura Septentrional de China es uno de los mayores sistemas acuíferos del mundo y soporta una enorme explotación de su agua subterránea, las cuales han originado grandes

  8. A Holistic Assessment of the Sustainability of Groundwater Resources in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.; Li, W.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural and economic regions of China and also one of the most densely populated in the world (~ 900 people/km2). In recent years, groundwater provides ~ 70% of the total water supply to support grain production, rapid economic development and population growth. Analysis of historical groundwater level contour maps and more than 230 monitoring well time series across the NCP shows a general long-term trend of depletion in groundwater storage in both shallow unconfined and deep confined aquifer zones. Groundwater depletion in the NCP has adversely affected the environment and ecosystems, including drying-up of rivers, land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and groundwater quality deterioration. The volume of groundwater depleted from the aquifer has been estimated from groundwater level fluctuation data by directly integrating the groundwater level change and specific yield across the NCP. The estimated amount of annual groundwater storage change based on this method is ~4 billion m3. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for the entire Quaternary aquifer of the NCP and is reasonably well calibrated for both the predevelopment period (1960s) and post-development conditions over the past 40 years. The output of the groundwater model provides estimates of groundwater depletion rates over the post-development period, and the model-calculated storage variation is consistent with the amount determined from groundwater level fluctuation data independent of the model. Moreover, the mean annual total recharge calibrated through the groundwater model is ~120 mm, which is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values based on the water balance method. The groundwater storage depletion derived either from the groundwater level fluctuation data or from the numerical simulation model is highly correlated with spatially averaged precipitation. The model simulations indicate that a decrease in

  9. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  10. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    processes among the ore bodies, alteration rock, metallogenic stratum, intrusive rock, and the Tongshan Fault. This study provides important technical support and a scientific basis for assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit and surrounding exploration and mineral resources.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Quantitative assessment of resource-use efficient cropping systems: a case study for Ansai in the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rabbinge, R.

    2003-01-01

    Severe soil erosion and food security problems are the most important issues in the Loess Plateau of northern China, which are closely related to the over-cultivation and poor management of marginal land resources. Alleviation of these unsustainability problems requires, among many other things, alt

  14. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  15. Medical Information Resources Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Jiying; Zhan Youxiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper expatiates on the recent medical information resource development and utilization in China. A comparison isdrawn between the medical information resource development and utilization in China and developed countries in five aspects: outlay of medical information resources, constructing and sharing of medical information resources, medical information policy and related rules of law, revelation of library collections and quadratic exploiture, etc. Finally some suggestions are put forward for the medical information resource development in China.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  17. Forest Resources and Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZENGXiangwei; ZHANGQun

    2004-01-01

    With a vast territory, China is rich in forest resources and diversified environments. The changes in forest resources have a direct bearing on environmental quality. The paper gives a detailed account of the dynamic change in forest resources in China, including the overall process of forest evolution, the status quo and features of the existing forest resources and the development and use of major forest resources. In addition, it analyses the current situation of China' s environment and explores the main contn'buting factors based on the overall environmental situation. In order to achieve sustainable management of forest resources and improve the environment in China, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection and development of forest resources as well as environmental development and improvement. The paper gives an overview of the thinking for sustainable forest resource and environmental development in the future and current focus of efforts.

  18. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  19. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Chen

    Full Text Available Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and Zinc (Zn in surface soils (0-20cm of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05 between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1, which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2. Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

  20. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  1. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  2. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  3. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  4. Eco-environmental vulnerability assessment for large drinking water resource: a case study of Qiandao Lake Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Li, Jun; Deng, Jinsong; Lin, Yi; Ma, Ligang; Wu, Chaofan; Wang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The Qiandao Lake Area (QLA) is of great significance in terms of drinking water supply in East Coast China as well as a nationally renowned tourist attraction. A series of laws and regulations regarding the QLA environment have been enacted and implemented throughout the past decade with the aim of negating the harmful effects associated with expanding urbanization and industrialization. In this research, an assessment framework was developed to analyze the eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA from 1990-2010 by integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and geographical information systems (GIS) in an attempt to gain insights into the status quo of the QLA so as to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the related policies. After processing and analyzing the temporal and spatial variation of eco-environmental vulnerability and major environmental issues in the QLA, we found that the state of eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA was acceptable, though a moderate deterioration was detected during the study period. Furthermore, analysis of the combination of vulnerability and water quality indicated that the water quality showed signs of declination, though the overall status remained satisfactory. It was hence concluded that the collective protection and treatment actions were effective over the study period, whereas immediately stricter measures would be required for protecting the drinking water quality from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Finally, the spatial variation of the eco-environmental vulnerability assessment also implied that specifically more targeted measures should be adopted in respective regions for long-term sustainable development of the QLA.

  5. Status of Lead Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the global context, China boasts rich reserve of lead resources, up till 2009 China’s reserve of lead resources ranks second in the world,accounting for 15.19% of global total reserve.By the end of 2009, there were 1634 lead mines nationwide, up by 127 over the figure in 2008.

  6. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  7. Escaping the resource curse in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Li, Shurong; Ma, Hua; Sun, Yutong

    2015-02-01

    Many societies face an income gap between rich regions with access to advanced technology and regions that are rich in natural resources but poorer in technology. This "resource curse" can lead to a Kuznets trap, in which economic inequalities between the rich and the poor increase during the process of socioeconomic development. This can also lead to depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, social instability, and declining socioeconomic development. These problems will jeopardize China's achievements if the current path continues to be pursued without intervention by the government to solve the problems. To mitigate the socioeconomic development gap between western and eastern China, the government implemented its Western Development Program in 2000. However, recent data suggest that this program has instead worsened the resource curse. Because each region has its own unique strengths and weaknesses, China must escape the resource curse by accounting for this difference; in western China, this can be done by improving education, promoting high-tech industry, adjusting its economic strategy to balance regional development, and seeking more sustainable approaches to socioeconomic development.

  8. Should the Red Dragon arise? Assessing China's options vis-Ã -vis the enactment of a domestic space resources utilization law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Tronchetti, F.

    2017-05-01

    The past couple of years have witnesses one of the most exciting, yet controversial, developments in the field of space law, namely the adoption of domestic laws authorizing the (private) appropriation and utilization of outer space resources. Even though the technology to effectively mine resources in outer space is still under development countries like the United States and Luxembourg have taken this legislative step as a mean to promote the growth of a domestic private space mining sector. The enactment of national space resources utilization laws has generated extensive interest both within academic circles and official fora, such as the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). In this context, several countries have expressed their opinion about these initiatives, by often criticizing their legality vis-a-vis international space law. Despite this remarkable level of interest there is a country that throughout this process has maintained a low profile, namely China. Indeed, China has neither reacted to the US and Luxembourgish moves nor has officially commented on the lawfulness of domestic space mining laws. This conduct is particularly relevant not only in the light of the growing importance of the Chinese space program but also if one considers that China is the country most involved in the exploration and study of celestial bodies and their resources, particularly the Moon. For this reasons it would have been legitimate to expect China to have a more engaged behavior. However, China has acted otherwise. It seems thus worth evaluating whether China should maintain this 'wait and see' approach or should instead switch towards a more assertive position, both internationally and domestically, especially one which includes the adoption of a space resources utilization act.

  9. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  10. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  11. Overview Landslide Hazard Assessment of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kunlong; Zhang Guirong; Zhu Liangfeng

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, China has suffered serious geological disasters, most of slope movements due to complex geology, geomorphology, unusual weather conditions, and large-scale land explorations during high speed economic development. According to geological hazard investigations organized by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, there are 400 towns and more than 10 000 villages under the threatening of those landslide hazards. This paper presents the overview landslide hazard assessment in terms of GIS, which aims to evaluate the overview geohazard potentials, vulnerabilities of lives and land resources, and risks in conterminous China on the scale of 1∶6 000 000. This is the first overview landslide hazard potential map of China.

  12. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate

  13. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  14. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  16. Assessing and regulating the impacts of climate change on water resources in the Heihe watershed on the Loess Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Climate change can cause considerable changes in water resources and assessing the potential impacts can provide important information for regional sustainable development. The objectives were to evaluate the possible impacts of climate change during 2010-2039 on water resources (runoff, soil water content, and evapotranspiration) in the Heihe watershed on the Loess Plateau of China and to further explore adaptive measures to cope with the changes. Projections of four climate models (CCSR/NIES, CGCM2, CSIRO-Mk2, and HadCM3) under three emission scenarios (A2, B2, and GGa) were used to estimate future changes in precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature based on Change Factor method. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to simulate the hydrologic responses to climate changes. The CA-Markov model was used to develop land use scenarios. Compared with the present climate, the climate models predicted a -2.3% to 7.8% change in annual precipitation, 0.7 to 2.2°C rises in maximum temperature, and 1.2 to 2.8°C rises in minimum temperature. Without consideration of land use change, SWAT predicted a -19.8% to 37.0% change for runoff, -5.5% to 17.2% change for soil water content, and 0.1% to 5.9% increase for evapotranspiration during 2010–2039 under all climate scenarios. Though the change of hydrometeorolocial variables are complex, they would possibly increase with great probability, and the hydrological regime would be influenced such as a decrease in runoff in winter months. With land use changes, the projected land use of 2015 would increase soil water content by 4.0% and surface runoff by 5.7% while slightly decrease evapotranspiration by 0.6% compared with the 2000 land use. This result showed that adjustment of land use patterns was capable of regulating water resources and could be used to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.

  17. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  18. Resources Conditions of Coalbed Methane Districts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The China National Administration of Coal Geology accomplished an assessment of coalbed methane resources of China in 1988. The total amount of coalbed methane resources in China is 14336.944 billion m3,occurring in recoverable coal seams and beneath weathering zones,with coalbed methane content equal to or higher than 4 m3 per ton and buried depths smaller than 2000 m,among which there are 967.51 billion m3 of predicted reserves and 13369.434 billion m3 of future reserves. The resources in coal reservoirs with methane content of more than 8 m3 per ton are 12444.087 billion m3,and those with methane content between 4 to 8 m3 per ton are 1892.856 billion m3. There are 35 districts in which the resources abundance is higher than 150 million m3/km2,49 districts with the abundance between 50 million and 150 million m3/km2,and 31 districts with the abundance less than 50 million m3/km2. There is 9256.078 billion m3 of methane occurring in coal seams with buried depths less than 1500 m,and 5080.866 billion m3 in coal seams with buried depths between 1500 and 2000 m. There are 28 large-scale districts in which coalbed methane resources are more than 100 billions m3,28 medium-scale districts with coalbed methane resources between 20 billion and 100 billion m3 and 59 small-scale districts with resources amount less than 20 billion m3. The Jincheng area is one of the most favourable districts for coalbed methane resources in China.

  19. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  20. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  1. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  2. Assessment under Resource Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Steve; Curtis, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and the measurement of learning are receiving increasing emphasis in American higher education. This is a case study that demonstrates a simple, inexpensive method of measuring freshman to senior "gains" or learning using a cross-sectional methodology. Seniors and freshmen within a four-year business program were both given…

  3. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  4. Urban Mining's Potential to Relieve China's Coming Resource Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Zongguo; Zhang, Chenkai; Ji, Xiaoli; Xue, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    China's mineral resource consumption has gone through multiple increases since 1980, resulting in the inadequacy of important strategic resources and a high level of external dependence. Some developed countries have already reduced primary resources consumption through urban mining. Can China also

  5. China Revises Its Oil Resources Rules for Foreign Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiujuan

    2001-01-01

    @@ The State Council has recently revised two regulations concerning recovery of oil and gas resources to relax the restrictions on foreign companies.The revised regulations are "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Onshore Petroleum Resources" and "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Offshore Petroleum Resources".

  6. Development of Hydropower Resources in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Zhongming; Wu Yun; Tong Mingdong; Xiao Jinyu

    2009-01-01

    @@ There is a boom of hydropower development in Southwest China recently because of the abundant hydropower resources there,especially in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces,which has attracted the attentions of various major power generation companies and private enterprises.Based on the situation of hydropower development in the Southwest and combined with the analysis of prospective receiving market and the capability of electrical and mechanical equipment's manufacturing,this paper discusses the main problems of the hydropower development in the Southwest and makes some suggestions for its orderly development and efficient utilization.

  7. Urban Fresh Water Resources Consumption of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peng; LU Chunxia; ZHANG Lei; CHENG Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    From the point of view of urban consumption behavior, urban fresh water consumption could be classified as three types, namely, direct, indirect and induced water consumption. A calculation approach of urban fresh water consumption was presented based on the theory of urban basic material consumption and the input-output method, which was utilized to calculate urban fresh water consumption of China, and to analyze its structural change and causes. The results show that the total urban fresh water consumption increased 561.7×109m3, and the proportion to the total national fresh water resources increased by 20 percentage points from 1952 to 2005. The proportion of direct and induced water consumption had been continuously rising, and it increased by 15 and 35 percentage points separately from 1952 to 2005, while the proportion of indirect water consumption decreased by 50 percentage points. Urban indi-rect water consumption was mainly related to urban grain, beef and mutton consumption, and urban induced water consumption had a close relationship with the amount of carbon emission per capita. Finally, some countermeasures were put forward to realize sustainable utilization of urban fresh water resources in China.

  8. PetroChina to Harness New Natural Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As climate change is alarming policymakers,a string of oil companies are eyeing to harness China's plentiful unconventional natural gas resources,such as coalbed methane gas,deeply locked in China's bountiful coal reserves,which is expected to reduce China's reliance on natural gas imports for decades to come.

  9. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently be

  10. China's water resources vulnerability: A spatio-temporal analysis during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Varis, O.; Yin, H.

    2015-12-01

    The present highly serious situation of China's water environment and aquatic ecosystems has occurred in the context of its stunning socioeconomic development over the past several decades. Therefore, an analysis with a high spatio-temporal resolution of the vulnerability assessment of water resources (VAWR) in China is burningly needed. However, to our knowledge, the temporal analysis of VAWR has been not yet addressed. Consequently, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis of China's water resources vulnerability (WRV), using a composite index approach with an array of aspects highlighting key challenges that China's water resources system is nowadays facing. During our study period of 2003-2013, the political weight of China's integrated water resources management has been increasing continuously. Hence, it is essential and significant, based on the historical socioeconomic changes influenced by water-environment policy making and implementation, to reveal China's WRV for pinpointing key challenges to the healthy functionality of its water resources system. The water resources system in North and Central Coast appeared more vulnerable than that in Western China. China's water use efficiency has grown substantially over the study period, and so is water supply and sanitation coverage. In contrast, water pollution has been worsening remarkably in most parts of China, and so have water scarcity and shortage in the most stressed parts of the country. This spatio-temporal analysis implies that the key challenges to China's water resources system not only root in the geographical mismatch between socioeconomic development (e.g. water demand) and water resources endowments (e.g. water resources availability), but also stem from the intertwinement between socioeconomic development and national strategic policy making.

  11. Assessing Resource Assessment for MRE (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H. P.; Bozec, A.; Duerr, A. S.; Rauchenstein, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center at Florida Atlantic University is concerned with marine renewable energy (MRE) recovery from the Florida Current using marine hydrokinetic technology and, in the future, from the thermocline in the Florida Straits via ocean thermal energy conversion. Although neither concept is new, technology improvements and the evolution of policy now warrant optimism for the future of these potentially rich resources. In moving toward commercial-scale deployments of energy-generating systems, an important first step is accurate and unembellished assessment of the resource itself. In short, we must ask: how much energy might be available? The answer to this deceptively simple question depends, of course, on the technology itself - system efficiencies, for example - but it also depends on a variety of other limiting factors such as deployment strategies, environmental considerations, and the overall economics of MRE in the context of competing energy resources. While it is universally agreed that MRE development must occur within a framework of environmental stewardship, it is nonetheless inevitable that there will be trade-offs between absolute environmental protection and realizing the benefits of MRE implementation. As with solar-energy and wind-power technologies, MRE technologies interact with the environment in which they are deployed. Ecological, societal, and even physical resource concerns all require investigation and, in some cases, mitigation. Moreover, the converse - how will the environment affect the equipment? - presents technical challenges that have confounded the seagoing community forever. Biofouling, for example, will affect system efficiency and create significant maintenance and operations issues. Because this will also affect the economics of MRE, nonlinear interactions among the limiting factors complicate the overall issue of resource assessment significantly. While MRE technology development is

  12. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  13. The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Yao; Shen, Zehao; Peng, Shushi; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Yuecun; Ding, Yihui; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Liu, Chunzhen; Tan, Kun; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Tianyi; Fang, Jingyun

    2010-09-02

    China is the world's most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, much research has focused on China's influence on climate change but somewhat less has been written about the impact of climate change on China. China experienced explosive economic growth in recent decades, but with only 7% of the world's arable land available to feed 22% of the world's population, China's economy may be vulnerable to climate change itself. We find, however, that notwithstanding the clear warming that has occurred in China in recent decades, current understanding does not allow a clear assessment of the impact of anthropogenic climate change on China's water resources and agriculture and therefore China's ability to feed its people. To reach a more definitive conclusion, future work must improve regional climate simulations-especially of precipitation-and develop a better understanding of the managed and unmanaged responses of crops to changes in climate, diseases, pests and atmospheric constituents.

  14. Descriptive models of major uranium deposits in China - Some results of the Workshop on Uranium Resource Assessment sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, in cooperation with China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, and Reston, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W.I.; Feng, S.; Zuyi, C.; McCammon, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Four major types of uranium deposits occur in China: granite, volcanic, sandstone, and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock. These types are major sources of uranium in many parts of the world and account for about 95 percent of Chinese production. Descriptive models for each of these types record the diagnostic regional and local geologic features of the deposits that are important to genetic studies, exploration, and resource assessment. A fifth type of uranium deposit, metasomatite, is also modeled because of its high potential for production. These five types of uranium deposits occur irregularly in five tectonic provinces distributed from the northwest through central to southern China. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  15. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  16. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  17. Institutional Innovations for Resource-saving Urbanization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The author argues in this article that,in China,the serious waste of resources amid urbanization is mainly due to the defects in resource institutions.The unreasonable pricing mechanism result in undervalued prices which encourages waste rather than saving resources.In order to promote resource-saving urbanization,a series of institutional innovations in resource utilization must be carried out.Efforts should be made to strengthen the monitoring over resource market and to increase the costs for resource utilization,so as to prevent the waste of resources amid urbanization through economic measures.

  18. Multi–Model Ensemble Approaches to Assessment of Effects of Local Climate Change on Water Resources of the Hotan River Basin in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change threaten the availability of water resources worldwide and modify their tempo-spatial pattern. Properly quantifying the possible effects of climate change on water resources under different hydrological models is a great challenge in ungauged alpine regions. By using remote sensing data to support established models, this study aimed to reveal the effects of climate change using two models of hydrological processes including total water resources, peak flows, evapotranspiration, snowmelt and snow accumulation in the ungauged Hotan River Basin under future representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios. The results revealed that stream flow was much more sensitive to temperature variation than precipitation change and increased by 0.9–10.0% according to MIKE SHE or 6.5–10.5% according to SWAT. Increased evapotranspiration was similar for both models with a range of 7.6–31.3%. The snow-covered area shrank from 32.5% to 11.9% between the elevations of 4200–6400 m, respectively, and snow accumulation increased when the elevation exceeded 6400 m above sea level (asl. The results also suggested that the fully distributed and semi-distributed structures of these two models strongly influenced the responses to climate change. The study proposes a practical approach to assess the climate change effect in ungauged regions.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources Development: ... the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water ... In the arena of Integrated Water Resources Management, the environment ...

  20. [Environmental damages assessment: establishment of system framework in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Jin-Nan; Niu, Kun-Yu; Dong, Jing-Qi; Cao, Dong; Zhang, Tian-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Health injury, properties compensation and ecological and environmental destruction caused by environmental pollutions have become the focuses of the government, the public and the society at present in China. The experiences of developed countries have revealed that the environmental damage assessment system must be established through development of environmental damage assessment legislations, technologies and funding guarantee system suitable for the nation's conditions based on the specific environmental situation and main issues. China has some experience in marine ecological environment, fishery resources damage assessment, forest resources damage assessment and remediation management of contaminated sites; however, the managing function of environmental damage assessment is assigned to different governmental departments. There are also shortcomings such as few cases of environmental public compensation, insufficient environmental privacy determination and compensation, etc. Based on the methods of materials and information collections, questionnaires, visiting environmental court and government sectors, interviews to assessment organizations and professionals, launching practical assessments to related cases and participating in environmental public lawsuits, the situation of environmental pollution damages in China was analyzed, the related legislation and management mechanism were reviewed, the corresponding assessment organizations regarding environmental damages were sort out, and the funding sources of environmental damage assessment were explored. Aiming at the main issues in Chinese environmental damage management, a standard and unified system for environmental damage assessment based on current managing and technological systems is important to improve the practical work in determination, assessment and compensation of environmental pollution damage in China, and to further explore the feasible environmental damage quantitative management.

  1. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  2. China Speeds up in Finding Metal Resources Overseas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to Luotao, general manager of China Nonferrous Metals Group (CNMG), the company is speeding up its efforts in the development for overseas nonferrous metals resources. Presently, the company has developed some projects with certain scale for overseas mineral resources and it has become a

  3. China Lags behind in Marine Resources Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢布; 杨瑞珍; 陈印军; 吴凯; 张燕卿

    2007-01-01

    With the growing need for resources brought about by economic development, countries throughout the world have attached greater importance to the development and exploitation of marine resources.However,the scope and sphere of marine resources development are limited by the development level of marine resources technology.This paper introduces the achievements and problems of China’s marine resources development and exploitation,as well as the achievements,advantages and disadvantages in the scientific and technological development of our marine resources.It also discusses the general aims,key fields,preferred options and advanced techniques in the development of marine resources technology during the 11th Five-Year Plan,and offers policy suggestions for enhancing the creative abilities of marine resources technology.

  4. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.

  5. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  6. The safety mining theory studying for coal resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; SUN Hong-xing; PENG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The coal resource has an important role in the energy development strategy in China. Because the coal resources are a kind of non-renewable resources, a kind of exhausting resource, which is limited in quantity, and the exploitation of the recourses are not economized now, so how to realize the sustainable development for coal resource in China is very important. In this paper, two parts were researched to optimize the coal mining. In order to optimize the mining order of different mining areas, the fuzzy logic evaluation was used to build the evaluation system. The economic control theory model was built to realize the proper period to explore the coal recourses for the same mining areas.

  7. Research and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present situation of forest tree genetic germplasm resources research and conservation in China is introduced which including the background, decision-making of conservation strategies and principles, the plan of area division and tree species classification, the sample strategy of germplasm conservation, the advances in conservation pattern and related technologies research, the achievements of germplasm conservation and utilization in China, and the problems to be solved. The recent achievements a...

  8. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  9. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  10. Available Resources for Algal Biofuel Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuel research in China has made noticeable progress, and algae cultivation for biofuel production is considered to be an important contribution to Greenhouse Gas (GHG mitigation and energy security. In this paper, the algal biofuel potentiality in China was reviewed from the points of view of algal biodiversity, algal culture collection, GHGs (especially CO2 mitigation, and the availability of the required sunlight, wastewater and land resources. The cultivation of microalgae utilizing power plants gas with large amounts of CO2 and wastewaters from urban households, industry and animal husbandry are suitable for large scale production in China. Land is hardly a limitation for algae cultivation.

  11. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...... based on the industrial symbiosis concept. Firstly, an investigation on the panoramic view, challenges, transiting policies of China's resource dependent cities' project has been carried out. Subsequently, Guiyang city in Guizhou province of China, as a typical resource dependent city, has been chosen...... as example of industrial and regional symbiosis focusing on the integration and symbiosis of coal, electricity, aluminum, phosphor chemical, iron/steel industry and urban. Then, a quantitative assessment on the environmental benefits has been conducted based on material flow analysis approach. Results...

  12. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  13. Resources of medicinal plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.

  14. Portfolios. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    In developmental assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a map of developing skills, knowledge, and understanding. Portfolio assessment is a tool to use in developmental assessment, and there are many types of portfolios to support developmental assessment of students. When considering a portfolio type, it is important to consider…

  15. Methodologies and results of the latest assessment of coalbed methane resources in China%新一轮全国煤层气资源评价方法与结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成林; 朱杰; 车长波; 杨虎林; 樊明珠

    2009-01-01

    新一轮的全国煤层气资源评价是迄今为止评价规模最大、范围最广、资源系列最全的一次,其成果已经得到了广泛应用.为此,详细介绍了新一轮全国煤层气资源评价采用的方法,并与我国历次煤层气资源评价进行了对比.新一轮全国煤层气资源评价采用了以体积法为主的评价方法体系,以煤层含气量、可采系数、煤层气资源类别评价标准等为关键评价参数,系统评价了全国42个主要含煤层气盆地(群)、121个含气区带的煤层气资源.评价结果表明:全国埋深2 000 m以浅煤层气地质资源量为36.81×10~(12)m~3,可采资源量为10.87×10~(12)m~3;煤层气资源集中分布在鄂尔多斯、沁水、准噶尔等大型盆地,在层系,深度和地理环境的分布上具有很强的不均衡性,资源品质较好,以Ⅰ、Ⅱ类为主.%The latest nationwide assessment of coal-bed methane resources is the largest in size and the most complete in re-source series, and the assessment results have been widely applied. The methodologies are introduced in detail and compared with that applied in previous assessments of coal-bed methane resources in China. The latest round of coal-bed resources assess-ment used a method system dominated by volumetric method and various key evaluation parameters including coal-bed methane content, recovery factors, and standards for classification and evaluation of coal-bed methane. A total of 42 major basins (basin groups) containing coal-bed methane and 121 gas-bearing zones methane plays were systematically assessed. The results show that the original coal-bed methane in-place is 36.81 tcm in the coal layers with a burial depth of less than 2000 m, of which 10.87 tcm is ultimately recoverable. The coal-bed methane resources are concentrated in large basins such as Ordos, Qinshui and Junggar. Their distribution in layer series, depth and geographic environment is highly uneven. The resources volume is large and

  16. Optimizing MPBSM Resource Allocation Based on Revenue Management: A China Mobile Sichuan Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to determining the network service level of telecom operators is resource allocation for mobile phone base station maintenance (MPBSM. Given intense market competition and higher consumer requirements for network service levels, an increasing proportion of resources have been allocated to MPBSM. Maintenance costs account for the rising fraction of direct costs, and the management of MPBSM resource allocation presents special challenges to telecom operators. China Mobile is the largest telecom operator in the world. Its subsidiary, China Mobile Sichuan, is the first in China to use revenue management in improving MPBSM resource allocation. On the basis of comprehensive revenue (including both economic revenue and social revenue, the subsidiary established a classification model of its base stations. The model scientifically classifies more than 25,000 base stations according to comprehensive revenue. China Mobile Sichuan also conducted differentiation allocation of MPBSM resources on the basis of the classification results. Furthermore, it optimized the assessment system of the telecom base stations to establish an assurance system for the use of MPBSM resources. After half-year implementation, the cell availability of both VIP base stations and total base stations significantly improved. The optimization also reduced economic losses to RMB 10.134 million, and enhanced customer satisfaction with network service by 3.2%.

  17. Impact of Water Intensity and Efficiency on Water Resources Sustainability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIN, Lingling; XU, Xinyi; YANG, Zhongwen; XU, Kui

    2015-04-01

    Water problems in China have characters of less per capita, highly developed and low efficiency; it is essential to pay close attention to the sustainable utilization of water resources. This paper aims to explore the impact of human activities on the sustainability of water resources in China. Three important factors affecting sustainability significantly were involved: Water Resources (WR), Water Intensity (WI) and Water Efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three factors were conducted in 356 cities in mainland China, and each indicator is graded from "very low" to "very high" according to the eigenvalue magnitude. China is then classified into four zones to differentiate regional variations of the impact of human activities on water sustainability. Results show that 34% of the areas have high WI values and 58% have low WE values. It is recommended that water resource polices be turned to a more sustainable management strategy in areas with high intensity and low efficiency and sustainability significantly low. Zone I regions should be focused on particular attention for its exploitation of water resources reached an extreme state, water efficiency should be highly improved and water-saving management policy implemented to maintain the sustainable development of water resources and ecosystems.

  18. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  19. 我国能源资源行业对外直接投资风险及评估%Risk Characteristics and Its Assessment for China's OFDI of Energy and Resources Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎; 杨海余; 洪联英

    2016-01-01

    文章基于能源资源行业对外投资风险的总体特征和分类特征,以中亚、西亚和俄罗斯为例,评估并分析三大地区2014-2015年期间投资的分类风险和总体风险。研究表明:整体上西亚风险最高,其次中亚,俄罗斯风险相对最低;投资俄罗斯应注意政策风险、经济风险,投资中亚应重点注意经济风险和资源风险,投资西亚应注意政治风险和文化风险。优化评估方法,科学建立风险预警机制;构建能源资源海外投资风险保障制度;充分发挥行业商会引导中国企业与当地员工、土著、自然和谐相处,是有效预防和化解能源资源行业对外投资风险困境的有效路径。%Based on the general and classified characteristics of OFDI for China's energy and resources industry,this paper builds an evaluation model for avoiding risk and takes Central Asia,Western Asia,Russia for instance to assess and analyze the general and classified risks of OFDI from 2014-201 5.It turns out that generally the risk of Western Asia is the highest,followed by Central Asia and Russia is the lowest.Currently we should pay attention to policy risks and economic risks in Russia investment,the economic risk and resource risks in Central Asia,and political risk and cultural risks in Western Asia.Optimizing evaluation method and scientifically establishing a risk warning mecha-nism throughout the investment stag,constructing the risk- sharing system of mutual support for overseas invest-ment,and giving full play to the Industry Chamber of Commerce to guide Chinese enterprises integrate into local em-ployees,indigenous and nature,are efficient approaches to prevent and deal with the risky dilemma of OFDI for China 's energy and resources industry.

  20. Performances. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Performance assessment is the assessment of students engaged in an activity. It is the on-the-spot evaluation of a performance, behavior, or interaction. Ordinarily, there is no concrete product that can be judged at a later date. In Developmental Assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a preconstructed map of developing skills,…

  1. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  2. Taking Advantages of China's Increasing Demand for Recycled Resources : Case Company: Ni-Met Resources Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the feasibility and advise the management of Ni-Met on the location of a warehouse in China. Ni-Met is a global company involved in trading of resources and commodities - primary and secondary metals, minerals and plastics. A sizeable portion of its sales are into China. The objective of this thesis is to suggest the most suitable way for Ni-Met to take advantage of China’s huge demand for commodities and resources. Ni-Met wants to increase...

  3. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  4. Outstanding issues for new geothermal resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A critical question for the future energy policy of the United States is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Electric power production from geothermal sources exceeds that from wind and solar combined, yet the installed capacity falls far short of the geothermal resource base characterized in past assessments, even though the estimated size of the resource in six assessments completed in the past 35 years varies by thousands of Megawatts-electrical (MWe). The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir permeability, limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production, and include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology.

  5. Solar System Resource Assessment in 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Trilling, D.; Hagerty, J.; Moskovitz, N.; Milazzo, M.

    2017-02-01

    Given this potential to enable human activity in deep space, we expect that Congress will have directed the USGS by 2050 to provide resource assessments of the NEOs, likely landing sites on Mars, and perhaps the Moon.

  6. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  7. Lunar resource assessment: an industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. C.; Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.

    The goals of the U.S. space program are to return to the Moon, establish a base, and continue onward to Mars. To accomplish this in a relatively short time frame and to avoid the high costs of transporting materials from the Earth, resources on the Moon will need to be mined. Oxygen will be one of the most important resources, to be used as a rocket propellant and for life support. Ilmenite and lunar regolith have both been considered as ores for the production of oxygen. Resource production on the Moon will be a very important part of the U.S. space program. To produce resources we must explore to identify the location of ore or feedback and calculate the surface and underground reserves. Preliminary resource production tests will provide the information that can be used in final plant design. Bechtel Corporation's experience in terrestrial engineering and construction has led to an interest in lunar resource assessment leading to the construction of production facilities on the Moon. There is an intimate link between adequate resource assessment to define feedstock quantity and quality, material processing requirements, and the successful production of lunar oxygen. Although lunar resource assessment is often viewed as a research process, the engineering and production aspects are very important to consider. Resource production often requires the acquisition of different types, scales, or resolutions of data than that needed for research, and it is needed early in the exploration process. An adequate assessment of the grade, areal extent, and depth distribution of the resources is a prerequisite to mining. The need for a satisfactory resource exploration program using remote sensing techniques, field sampling, and chemical and physical analysis is emphasized. These data can be used to define the ore for oxygen production and the mining, processing facilities, and equipment required.

  8. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... IMF to establish a formal financial arrangement designed to give the ..... with the construction of new foreign ministry buildings and stadiums in ..... Reilly, James, and Bates, Gill, 2007, 'The Tenuous Hold of China Inc. in Africa',.

  9. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  10. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  11. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  12. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  13. Preliminary Accounting on Economic Value of Bamboo Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The current area of bamboo resource in China is 7.21 million ha, 4.21 million ha of which is the pure bamboo forest The stock value of the bamboo resource is 30.312 billion Renminbi (RMB) yuan, the present value of actual output from bamboo wood and shoot is 149.062 billion RMB yuan. The bamboo forest land is valuated as much as 8.133 billion RMB yuan. It is raised to improve the production and management conditions of the 2nd and 3rd type bamboo forests to raise production capacity of wood and shoot an...

  14. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in spring 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends, and likely future of southern forests. A descriptive assessment such as SFRA can be used to highlight the major dynamics and uncertainties at play within a region's forested ecosystems, thereby focusing public discourse. Because...

  15. Evaluation of agricultural climatic resource utilization during spring maize cultivation in Northeast China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Yuan, Bin; Ye, Mingzhu

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural climatic resources (such as light, temperature, and water) are environmental factors that affect crop productivity. Predicting the effects of climate change on agricultural climatic resource utilization can provide a theoretical basis for adapting agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production. This study investigates these effects under the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B using daily data from the high-resolution RegCM3 (0.25°×0.25°) during 1951-2100. Model outputs are adjusted using corrections derived from daily observational data taken at 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1971 and 2000. Agricultural climatic suitability theory is used to assess demand for agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China during the cultivation of spring maize. Three indices, i.e., an average resource suitability index ( I sr), an average efficacy suitability index ( I se), and an average resource utilization index ( K), are defined to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate change on climatic resource utilization between 1951 and 2100. These indices change significantly in both temporal and spatial dimensions in Northeast China under global warming. All three indices are projected to decrease in Liaoning Province from 1951 to 2100, with particularly sharp declines in I sr, I se, and K after 2030, 2021, and 2011, respectively. In Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, I sr is projected to increase slightly after 2011, while I se increases slightly and K decreases slightly after 2030. The spatial maxima of all three indices are projected to shift northeastward. Overall, warming of the climate in Northeast China is expected to negatively impact spring maize production, especially in Liaoning Province. Spring maize cultivation will likely need to shift northward and expand eastward to make efficient use of future agricultural climatic resources.

  16. Reviews of Metallurgical Technology to Recovery Platinum Group Metals from Secondary Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junmei; HE Xiaotang; WANG Huan; WU Xilong; ZHAO Yu; LI Yong; LI Kun; HAN Shouli

    2012-01-01

    China is extremely poor in mineral resources of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs),productive output of PGMs from mineral resource is 2.5 tons per year.At the same time,China is the biggest PGMs consumption country in the world,the mineral resource of PGMs is critical shortage,it shows the importance of recycling the secondary resource of PGMs.Sino-Platinum Metals Resource (Yimen) Co.,Ltd.is the leader in recycling of PGMs from secondary resource,and has made outstanding contributions to China PGMs secondary resources recycling.This article elucidates the current situation of secondary resources recovery and development of metallurgical technology for PGMs.

  17. Equality of Medical Health Resource Allocation in China Based on the Gini Coefficient Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government is trying to achieve the goal of "universal access to basic health care services". However, the inequality of the distribution of health care resources across the country is the biggest obstacle. This paper aims to explore these inequalities and the extent to which the method of analysis influences the perception.The indicators of health care resource distribution studied consisted of the number of health care institutions, the number of beds in health care institutions and the number of medical personnel. Data were obtained from the China Statistical Yearbook 2014. The extent of equality was assessed using the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient Method.Health care resource distribution in China demonstrates inequalities. The demographic Gini Coefficients based on the Lorenz Curves for the distribution of health care institutions, beds in health care institutions and medical personnel are 0.190, 0.070 and 0.070 respectively, while the corresponding Coefficients based on geographical areas are 0.616, 0.639 and 0.650.The equality of China's demographically assessed distribution of health care resources is greater than that of its geographically measured distribution. Coefficients expressed by population imply there is ready access to healthcare in all regions, whilst the Coefficients by geographical area apparently indicate inequality. This is the result of the sparsity of population.

  18. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  19. Review on the Development of Human Resource Accounting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEZongjie

    2002-01-01

    A review through the origination,development and prospect of Human resource accounting(HPA) is presented based on the study of plentiful literatures about if.HRA is defined as an accounting procedure and method to discriminate and meaure the data of human resources,aiming to provide information which is concerned with the change of human resources for the outside people to serve human resource management,It is experiencing a nearly frozen period following its hot time in 1970s after its origination in America in 1960s.The theoretic foundation of HRA is classical plutonomy dated back to 17th century,There were two preeminent persons in the higtory of HRA,One was Theodore Schultz who established his human capital theory relating education that improves the human capital value with economy;the other was Eric G.Flamholtz who enriched the concept,research methods and application of HRA,In China,the research on HRA started i 1980s beginning with introducing overseas achievements.Multiple views coexist i the academy on whether human resources should be taken as accounting assets and on where to put the HRA information in financial statements.The application of HRA is constrained by the absence of ull-blown theories and methodological systems about it as well as difficulties in evaluating human resources and the obstacle of conventional understandings,However,with the coming of intellective economy,the globalization of competition and the entry of China into WTO.The day of HRA will surely come.

  20. The Current State of China's Freshwater Resources and Related Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ruijin

    2001-01-01

    China has many lakes, marshlands and rivers. Due to their uneven geographical distribution and varied degrees of salinity, their exploitable freshwater resources are limited. In the wake of the highspeed growth of national economy in recent years, human infringement upon their natural settings has been increasingly intense, leading to the degeneration of China's lacustrine ecosystems and the degradation of their surrounding environments. Lakes are shrinking and becoming more saline. In arid and semi-arid inland areas, some of them have even disappeared. In addition, lake water pollution and eutrophication in densely populated areas are getting worse, resulting in serious water shortages in some places. Silt deposition in lake basins, water surface shrinkage caused by hectic and irrational reclamation for farmland, the prevalence of flooding and water-logging calamities and ecosystem depletion caused by predatory exploitation of fishery resources, all of these have become restrictive factors in regional sustainable development. The author of this article suggests measures for the protection and sustainable exploitation of limnetic settings in China.

  1. FIJI geothermal resource assessment and development programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autar, Rohit K.

    1996-01-24

    The Fiji Department of Energy (DOE) has a comprehensive resource assessment programme which assesses and promotes the use of local renewable energy resources where they are economically viable. DOE is currently involved in the investigation of the extent of geothermal resources for future energy planning and supply purposes. The aim is to determine (a) whether exploitable geothermal fields exist in the Savusavu or Labasa areas. the two geothermal fields with the greatest potential, (b) the cost of exploiting these fields for electricity generation/process heat on Vanua Levu. (c) the comparative cost per mega-watt-hour (MWh) of geothermal electricity generation with other generating options on Vanua Levu, and. (d) to promote the development of the geothermal resource by inviting BOO/BOOT schemes. Results to date have indicated that prospects for using geothermal resource for generating electricity lies in Savusavu only - whereas the Labasa resource can only provide process heat. All geophysical surveys have been completed and the next stage is deep drilling to verify the theoretical findings and subsequent development.

  2. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  3. Geothermal resources assessment in Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-02-21

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program.

  4. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European reg...

  5. China Adjusts Natural Gas Price for Better Allocation of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has recently increased the wholesale prices of natural gas by around 25 percent to curb demand and better allocate resources.Natural gas benchmark prices went up by 230 yuan to 1,155 yuan per thousand cubic meters,according to the announcement made by the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC)at the end of May."It is necessary to make the adjustment,as the country's natural gas price is significantly lower than that of other fuels,"said Cap Changqing,head of NDRC's pricing department.

  6. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  7. Grazing Resource Management and Grassland Degradation in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; HAO Ruimin

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction Grassland degradation in China's northem steppe has been a major and increasingly serious problem affecting the productivity and sustainability of pastoral systems.The economic and property rights reforms in the early 1980s dramatically modified grazing management and resource institutions in the area.Livestock were privatized,but most of the pastures were jointly used by all herding households or small groups within villages.When a seemingly accelerating deterioration of grassland condition was observed through the 1980s and 1990s,numerous research and government reports suggested that the reform had created the classic problem of resource degradation from privately owned animals grazing on common land (Hardin 1968).At the same time,pastures allocated to and actually controlled by individual households also were subject to overexploitation caused by perceived institutional uncertainties (Longworth and Williamson 1993).

  8. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    of the growing demand for water to irrigation, industrial and domestic uses. As a response, the Chinese authorities have launched the 2011 No. 1 Central Policy Document, which set targets related to water scarcity and water quality and marks the first step towards sustainable management of the Chinese water...... resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... basin-wide costs of water supply and water curtailment. Water users are characterized by water demand and economic value, turning the complex water management problem into a single objective cost minimization problem. The physical system and management scenarios are represented as constraints...

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  10. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  11. Using Multiple Tools to Analyze Resource Exchange in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of globalization, the function of international physical resource exchange is becoming increasingly important in economic growth through resource optimization. However, most existing ecological economy studies use physical trade balance (PTB directly or use physical imports and exports individually to analyze national material metabolization. Neither the individual analysis of physical imports and exports nor the direct analysis of PTB is capable of portraying the comprehensive contributions of a certain product to total physical trade. This study introduced an indicator, i.e., the physical contribution to the trade balance (PCB, which evolved from the traditional index of contribution to the trade balance (CB. In addition, trade balance (TB, PTB, CB, and PCB were systematically related and combined. An analysis was conducted using the four tools to obtain overall trade trends in China. This study discovered that both physical trade value and quantity exhibited different characteristics when China joined the World Trade Organization in 2002 and experienced the global economic crisis in 2009. Finally, the advantages of a supporting policy decision by applying multiple analytical tools to physical trade were discussed.

  12. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  13. Outcome-based Carbon Sequestration Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Jain, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities for carbon sequestration are an important consideration in developing policies to manage the mass balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Assessments of potential carbon sequestration, like other resource assessments, should be widely accepted within the scientific community and broadly applicable to public needs over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The essential public concern regarding all forms of carbon sequestration is their effectiveness in offsetting CO2 emissions. But the diverse forms and mechanisms of potential sequestration are reflected in diverse assessment methodologies that are very difficult for decision-makers to compare and apply to comprehensive carbon management. For example, assessments of potential geologic sequestration are focused on total capacities derived from probabilistic analyses of rock strata, while assessments of potential biologic sequestration are focused on annual rates calculated using biogeochemical models. Non-specialists cannot readily compare and apply such dissimilar estimates of carbon storage. To address these problems, assessment methodologies should not only tabulate rates and capacities of carbon storage, but also enable comparison of the time-dependent effects of various sequestration activities on the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. This outcome-based approach requires consideration of the sustainability of the assessed carbon storage, as well as the response of carbon-cycle feedbacks. Global models can be used to compare atmospheric CO2 trajectories implied by alternative global sequestration strategies, but such simulations may not be accessible or useful in many decision settings. Simplified assessment metrics, such as ratios using impulse response functions, show some promise in providing comparisons of CO2 mitigation that are broadly useful while minimizing sensitivity to differences in global models and emissions scenarios. Continued improvements will require close

  14. The impacts of climate change on water resources in the Second Songhua River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, W. C.; Li, Z. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Northeast China Plain is one of the main grain growing regions in China. Due to the high latitude and black soil ecological system, the crop growth in there is vulnerable to climate change, which makes it important to evaluate the influences of climate change on water resources. In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources of a typical basin in northeast China, the Second Songhua River Basin were assessed using the SWAT model. Ensemble downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted as the regional climate scenario and was used to drive SWAT model to predict hydrological changes. The prediction shows that mean evapotranspiration of whole basin increases in most time of a year. Stream flow of Fuyu gauging station downstream this basin exhibits a decrease trend from April to June, November and December, and increases in the remaining period of the year. It is indicated that water resources may not be sufficient in spring for irrigation and the possibility of flood in summer may increases, indicating countermeasures should be made to ensure agricultural water use and prevent possible damages of flood on crop.

  15. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xi-kui

    2001-01-01

    Ke-qin, 1997. Paleoclimatic and environmental change since 2000a B. P. recorded in ice Core[J]. The Front of Ceo-science, 4(1): 95-100.(in Chiniese)[13]ZHANG Zhen-ke, WU Rui-jin, WANG Su-min, 1998. Paleoenvironmeal evolution during historic time reflected by frequency susceptibility of the lacustrine sediment in Daihai[J]. Geography Reaserch. 17(3) :297-300. (in Chinese)[14]ZHANG Pi-yuan, 1996. Climatic Changes During Historic Time in China[J]. Jinan: Shandong Science and Technology Press, 434-435. (in Chinese)[15]ZHANG Pi-yuan, GE Quan-sheng, 1997. The stage and abrupt ness of climatic evolution[J]. The Front of Geo-science, 4(1):122-126. (in Chinese)[16]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, Tashplati etal., 1998a. The preliminary study on the Spore-pollen combination of the Tagele section in Cele oasis[J]. Arid Zone Research, 15 (3):14-17. (in Chinese)[17]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, 1998b. Preliminary study on paleoclimatic evolution since about 12ka B.P. in Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Enviorment, 12(3) :28-35. (in Chinese)[18]ZHU Ke-zhen. 1973, Preliminary study of climatic changes since about 5000 years in China[J]. Science in China, (2):291-296. (in Chinese)[19]CHEN Mo-xiang, WANG Ji-yang, DENG Xiao, 1994. Geothermal Resources in China[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 139 -159. (in Chinese)[20]CHEN Wen-ji, LI Da-ming, LI Qi et al. , 1992. Chronology and geochemistry of basalts in Lower Liaohe Basin[A] . In: LIU Ruo-xin. Chronology and Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in China [C] . Beijing: Seismological Press, 44-80. (in Chinese)[21]E Mo-lan, ZHAO Da-sheng, 1987. Cenozoic Basalts and Deep Source Rock Inclusions[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 86-132. (in Chinese)[22]LIU Jia-qi, 1987. Research on chronology of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in Northeast China[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 3(4):21-31. (in Chinese)[23]MACHIDA H, ARAI F, 1983. Extensive ash falls in and around the Sea of Japan

  16. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  17. ResourceCheck: Assess Your District's Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For over a decade, Education Resource Strategies, Inc. (ERS) has helped leaders of urban school districts strategically reallocate their resources to improve student performance. This work identifies seven Core Transformational Strategies that support high-performing schools; in high-functioning districts, resources (people, time, and money) are…

  18. Assessment of bioenergy potential on marginal land in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Lei; Huang, Yaohuan [Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bioenergy developed from energy plants will play a more and more important role in future energy supply. Much attention has been paid to energy plants in recent years. As China has fairly limited cultivated land resources, the bioenergy development may mainly rely on the exploitation of marginal land. This study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bio-fuel potential in China using newly acquired data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. A multi-factor analysis method was adopted to identify marginal lands for bioenergy development in China, with data of several main types of energy plants on the eco-environmental requirements and natural habits employed. A combined planting zonation strategy was proposed, which was targeted for five species of energy plants including Helianthus tuberous L., Pistacia chinensis, Jatropha curcas L., Cassava and Vernicia fordii. The results indicated that total area of marginal land exploitable for development of energy plants on a large scale was about 43.75 million ha. If 10% of this marginal land was fully utilized for growing the energy plants, the production of bio-fuel would be 13.39 million tons. (author)

  19. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important role in improving the industrial performance because of the advantage in technology and capital. However, this paper analyzed the performance of China’s renewable resource industry from two aspects—the overall industrial development and the listed companies, from which two conclusions have drawn: (1 Above a designated size, private enterprises have the greatest contribution, while the contribution of state-owned and foreign-funded enterprises is different; (2 The main reason for the high positive growth rate of total factor productivity between 2009 and 2013 is the rapid growth of technological progress such as the improvement of production processes and manufacturing skills, rather than the promotion of management, system, or polices.

  20. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  3. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  4. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  5. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

  7. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  8. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  9. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  10. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  11. Resource Room Model for Inclusive Education in China: Practitioners' Conceptualisation and Contextualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2016-01-01

    China launched the "learning in a regular classroom" (LRC) model for inclusive education in the 1980s. In late 1990s, a few major cities of China began to adopt the resource room model as a key feature of the LRC to improve instructional qualities. This exploratory study examined resource teachers' (RTs) attitude towards inclusive…

  12. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  13. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Recent trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently be

  14. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT AT PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Boncea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world we are living in today has increasingly become aware of the importance of the human factor in all types of organizations. The present paper is intended to assess the performance of the human resource department at PricewaterhouseCoopers and to provide adequate recommendations for activity improvement. After a statement of the current HR strategy and an in-depth analysis of the external and internal environment, the paper continues with some proposals upon a more efficient HR function and the corresponding action plan to achieve this objective. In addition, the paper presents a section on how employees respond to change inside the company.

  15. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Quivira NWR describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource needs and...

  16. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Pixley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Pixley National Wildlife Refuge describes hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  17. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Patuxent Research Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Patuxent Research Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  18. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Yi-Leng [Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  19. Biomass Resources Distribution in the Terrestrial Ecosystem of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and the multiple linear regression model were used to estimate distribution of biomass resources in 2010. The establishment of models, developed using different vegetation biomass sample data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf area index (LAI, meteorological data, coordinates, terrain data, and statistical data. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model can explain 95.6% of the variance in biomass, with a relative estimation error of 67 g·m−2 for a range of biomass between 0–73,875 g·m−2. Spatial statistic results were consistent with the practical condition in most cases. The above- and below-ground biomass (ABGB of China was estimated to be 31.1 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g in 2010. The forest ecosystem has the largest total biomass, which represents about 70% of the whole terrestrial ecosystem. The desert ecosystem has minimum biomass value. The Belowground Endowment (BRE varied differently in spatial distribution, with the high values occurring in the southeast and northeast. The low values were primarily distributed in north and northwest regions, where it is mostly desert and few plants. Biomass per capita indicates the availability of natural resources per capita. Tibet had the maximum biomass per capita (807 tone in 2010. Shanghai and Tianjin had the minimum biomass per capita, less than 500 kg. Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Hainan had negative growth of biomass per capita.

  20. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  1. Wind Power Error Estimation in Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; del Río, Jesús A.; Jaramillo, Oscar A.; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies. PMID:26000444

  2. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    CERN Document Server

    Paudel, Subodh; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Corre, Olivier Le

    2015-01-01

    In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European regions for three types of wind turbines. To do so, the simplified Chou wind turbine model is used for different set of parameters as: nominal power and size of the wind turbines, and cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. Based on the calculation of the emergy indices, a mapping is proposed to identify the most appropriate locations for an implementation of wind turbines in European regions. The influence of the wind turbine type on the sustainability is also analyzed, in link with the local wind resource. Thus, it is concluded that the emergy sustainabi...

  3. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  4. 1st Meeting of China-ROK Eligibility Assessment Subcommittee Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 1st Meeting of China-ROK Eligibility Assessment Subcommittee was held in Beijing on May 27. Sun Dawei, Chief Chinese representative and Certification and Accreditation Administration of China (CNCA)Deputy Director of presided over the meeting and Hong Zong, Chief ROK representative and Director of Security Service Standard Department of Technology Standard Institute of the Ministry of Industrial Resources of the Republic of Korea led a delegation to Beijing for the meeting.

  5. World Water Resources Assessment for 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Agata, Y.; Kanae, S.; Musiake, K.; Saruhashi, T.

    2003-04-01

    nticipated water scarcity in the first half of this century is one of the most concerned international issues to be assessed adequately. However, even though the issue has an international impact and world wide monitoring is critical, there are limited number of global estimates at present. In this study, annual water availability was derived from annual runoff estimated by land surface models using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) with 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree longitude/latitude resolution globally. Global distribution of water withdrawal for each sector in the same horizontal spatial resolution was estimated based on country-base statistics of municipal water use, industrial water use, and agricultural intake, using global geographical information system with global distributions of population and irrigated crop land area. The total population under water stress estimated for 1995 corresponded very well with former estimates, however, the number is highly depend on how to assume the ratio how much water from upstream of the region can be considered as ``available'' water resources within the region. It suggests the importance of regional studies evaluating the the water quality deterioration in the upper stream, the real consumption of water resources in the upper stream, and the accessibility to water. The last factor should be closely related to how many large scale water withdrawal schemes are implemented in the region. Further studies by an integrated approach to improve the accuracy of future projections on both the natural and social sides of the water resources should be promoted. About the future projection of the global water resources assessment, population growth, climatic change, and the increase of water consumption per capita are considered. Population growth scenario follows the UN projection in each country. Change in annual runoff was estimated based on the climatic simulation by a general circulation model by the Center of Climate System

  6. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES DUE TO THE DROUGHT AND FLOOD DISASTERS BY PROVINCES IN CHINA%我国旱涝灾害的水资源承险脆弱性区域差异评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常欣; 邓祥征; 甄林

    2011-01-01

    从旱涝灾害的水资源承险能力出发,定性分析与定量评价相结合,建立评价旱涝灾害的水资源承险能力指标体系,运用层次分析法对所选指标进行计算,确定各省区旱涝灾害的水资源承险脆弱度.结果表明:中国的旱涝灾害水资源承险能力整体水平不均衡,存在明显的地域差异,承险能力自北向南、由内陆向沿海逐渐提高,这是各区域自然、社会与经济条件综合作用的结果.%Centering on the ability assessment of water resources due to the occurrences of the drought and flood disasters, this paper built an indicator system to assess the vulnerability of water resources with the combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative evaluation. By using the Analytical Hierarchical Process ( AHP), this text evaluates the vulnerability degree of water resources by provinces. The results shows that the total capacity is low and it has obvious geographical differences. The capacity exists gradually increasing trend from the northwest to the southeast, which is the combined effects of regional natural and social conditions.

  7. Coenoses risk assessment in industry (resource specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyaglov Sergey, G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the economic infrastructure of modern Russia is now essential, taking a natural limiter necessary momentum, which is especially important in the current conditions of global trends and taking into account the efforts taken by the State, aimed at large-scale growth of production of Russian companies. This paper discusses the direction of overcoming the problem of lack of access to financial services to business entities, due to the lack of a universal tool to identify risks in the provision of credit resources to the understanding that, despite the differences in interpretation of Russian and foreign sources, is a complex of ontological perception of researchers, proposed expanded by generally accepted phenomenon of self-organization. It is proposed to assess the risks of the enterprises on the basis of the provisions of coenoses theory, which allows using a few key parameters to determine the degree of efficiency of use of available resources, to identify the stability of the enterprise as a system and predict its dynamic changes.

  8. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dynamic Tracking and Comprehensive Evaluation on the Natural Resources Security Elements and System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yulong; Zhou Hong

    2010-01-01

    System theory,pressure-state-response and drivingpressure-state-impact-response model have been applied to establishing China's dynamic tracking evaluation system of natural resources security in this article.Based on analytic hierarchy process and Delphi methods,the natural resources security situation has been evaluated systematically from 1991 to 2007.The result showed that the overall level of China's natural resources security presented a downtrend from 1991 to 2007.The basic reasons are the pressure indicators such as population,GDP,natural resources trade increased gradually,resulting in tension and fragility of natural resources security.

  10. Contents and assessment of basic tourism resources

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Rade

    2008-01-01

    The article looks at the attractive factors of basic tourism resources and the structure of their attractions. The general term ‘resource’ refers to both natural and anthropogenic resources, while the content of this concept refers to elements used in creating a tourism product. Basic tourism resources are the most important factors of tourism processes, with a vital attribute of direct and indirect tourism resources being their substitutability. Natural (biotropic) resources are consid...

  11. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  12. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  13. Strategic Environmental Assessment: A New Tool for Ecological Urbanization of Coastal Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Qinhua; Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Jiang Yuwu; Chen Bin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concerns about environmental issues related to urbanization in China. The intense natural resources utilization and increasing population has brought great pressure,especially in coastal areas, consequently affecting the sustainable development of coastal cities. In 2002,Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA Act) was enacted in China. Environmental impact assessment targeted at planning, one level of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), thus became a legislative requirement.This paper considers SEA to be one of the important approaches not only to control coastal pollution, but also to conserve coastal ecosystems and finally to achieve sustainable development during urbanization, thus it will be a set an example for other areas of China. The experience of SEA in Xiamen, a coastal city in southeast China, illustrates the potentials of SEA. This paper first briefly introduces the concept and potentials of SEA,then compares two SEA cases and a project EIA case in Xiamen, and finally identifies the key characteristics of SEA.

  14. Karst landscapes and associated resources: a resource assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Baichtal; Douglas N. Swanston

    1996-01-01

    The Tongass National Forest contains world-class karst features and the largest concentration of associated dissolved caves known in the state of Alaska. This paper describes the dominant karst formation processes operating in southeast Alaska, the controlling geologic and hydrologic characteristics, and the influence of karst landscapes on associated forest resources...

  15. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  16. Study Progress and Trends of Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Chunmiao; Shang Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in China has developed rapidly since it was introduced into China in the 1990s.Chinese government promulgated the Environmental Impact As-sessment Law of China (hereinafter referred to as the EIA Law) in 2002.In this law, it is stipulated clearly that regional and sector plans should be assessed.Through investigating materials and ana-lyzing literatures, this article analyses the practical and academic study achievements of SEA in China that have been achieved since the EIA Law was implemented, probes into the current situation of the main level of SEA in China--plan EIA, then summarizes the development characteristics, and eventually, puts forward the development trends of SEA in China.The research conclusions can offer the foundations for comprehending systematically the progress of SEA in China.

  17. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  18. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  19. How Mobile Are Resources in Chinese Agriculture?——Implications for China's Agricultural Trade Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Funing Zhong; Jing Zhu; Zhengqin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural trade policy in China has been the subject of heated discussion since China's accession to the WTO. Studies have been carried out and propositions put forth regarding comparative advantage, food security, development of the industry, and farmers' income.In this paper, we attempt to provide an analysis from another important perspective:resource mobility, which is an essential assumption in free trade theory. By examining the mobility of different production resources in Chinese agriculture, namely natural resources,capital inputs, human resources and institutional arrangements, we found that for most production resources in Chinese agriculture, mobility is low. The results have significant policy implications in two respects: first, protective measures in the transitional period for certain crops in certain areas in China are legitimate and necessary to ensure social stability; and second, policy instruments to improve resource mobility in Chinese agricultural should be explored and implemented to realize more trade benefit in the future.

  20. 75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability... Regulatory Commission proposes to approve a regional Reliability Standard, BAL-502-RFC-02, Planning Resource... regional Reliability Standard requires planning coordinators within the RFC geographical footprint to...

  1. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refugesummarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources,...

  2. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources, provides an assessment of refuge water resource needs and issues of concern, and...

  3. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXue-gong; LINHui-ping; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation,this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developing capability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China.At first ,an index system of agricultural sustainable development in China is built up,which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources,agricultural develop-ment ,environment and ecosystem,rural society,sciences-esucation and management.We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes.Second,a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values (relative superiority) of every provincial unit,which are as supporting data for assessment.We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem(GIS) to gain the area units of assessment.Third,according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in every agricultural assessing unit.After making order and grade,we complete the sustainable developing capability assessment to integrated agricultural regionalization in China.The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural devdelop-ing capability of China is not high.Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainable development.The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China.It needs a long period and great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China.Finally,there is a discussion to the study method.

  4. Road Assessment Model and Pilot Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of roads is an effective approach for road agencies to determine safety improvement investments. It can increases the cost-effective returns in crash and injury reductions. To get a powerful Chinese risk assessment model, Research Institute of Highway (RIOH is developing China Road Assessment Programme (ChinaRAP model to show the traffic crashes in China in partnership with International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP. The ChinaRAP model is based upon RIOH’s achievements and iRAP models. This paper documents part of ChinaRAP’s research work, mainly including the RIOH model and its pilot application in a province in China.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  6. Complex Assessment of Sufficiency of the Bank Resource Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizova Kateryna M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of methodical recommendations regarding assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential by means of identification and analysis of all its components and use of the method of rating assessment. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of foreign and Ukrainian scientists, the article considers a complex approach to the bank resource potential management. In the result of the study the article identifies specific features of a complex approach in the bank resource potential management. The method of geometric average and normative values of selected ratios for calculation was used for the generalising complex assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential. The rating assessment of the Public JSC Mercury Bank resource potential was calculated by such indicators as: debt, loan and own resources. The stated algorithm of the rating assessment of the resource potential could be applied for comparison of banks in dynamics.

  7. Human Resource Staffing and Service Functions of Community Health Services Organizations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Hang; Duckitt, Roger; Liang, Wannian

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE We report a study on the developmental status of human resource staffing and service functions of community health services (CHS) in China and offer recommendations for improving the CHS in the future.

  8. Research on Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition of agricultural plant genetic resources,this paper takes the two most important forms of intellectual property protection regarding agricultural plant genetic resources-patent rights and new plant variety rights as an example,to expound the current situation of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.It reveals the problems of intellectual property protection as follows:the awareness of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources is weak;the system of laws and regulations is not sound;the protection system is not perfect;the management system lacks standardization.It further puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the protection awareness of agricultural plant genetic resources in whole society;enact special law system to protect agricultural plant genetic resources;improve the management system of agricultural plant genetic resources;strengthen the international protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.

  9. CONSTRAINING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Jin-liang; FENG Ren-guo; XIA Jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China, and the countermeasures to realize sustainable water utilization. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China are complicated, including physical geographical factors and socio-economic factors, such as uneven distribution of water resources at temporal and spatial scales,inappropriate institutional arrangement and non-water-saving and non-water-conservation production and life mode.The countermeasures against constraining factors to water resources sustainable development are put forward as follows: 1) using wetlands and forests, and through spatial conversion to realize temporally sustainable supply of water resources; 2) transferring water between basins and areas and developing various water resources in water shortage area; 3) establishing water-saving society; 4) strengthening water pollution control and water resources protection;and 5) establishing unified water resources management mechanism.

  10. Status and future of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Q. L.; Barker, G. C.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Tian, M.S.; Song, X. Y.; Malakar, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China in 2009 use of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) has increased. QMRA is used to assess the risk posed to consumers by pathogenic bacteria which cause the majority of foodborne outbreaks in China. This review analyses the progress of QMRA research in China from 2000 to 2013 and discusses 3 possible improvements for the future. These improvements include planning and scoping to initiate QMRA, eff...

  11. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  12. Status of the Preservation of Digital Resources in China: Results of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiazhen, Liu; Daoling, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain first-hand data on the main challenges in preserving digital resources in libraries, archives and information centres in China. Design/methodology/approach: The data in this paper have been acquired by e-mail questionnaire. The conclusions are based on feedback from 57 respondents, distributed in 14 provinces in China, who work…

  13. Study on the reform of resource tax and sustainable development of the underdeveloped resource-rich regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The underdeveloped resource-rich regton in China refers to the underdeveloped region with abundant natural resources. The problem for these regions sustainable development cannot be negligible for its particularity in natural resources and environment. This paper mainly examines the issue about resource tax reform and the sustainable development of underdeveloped resource-rich regions. lt first expatiates on regional characteristics of underdeveloped resource-rich regions, then analyzes the effect that resource tax has on the sustainable development of this type of regions,takes Yulin City as example to illuminate the negative influence on the sustainable development of those regions due to the design limitation of the existing resource tax, and put forward some suggestions, including to delegate tax legislative power to lower levels, to increase resource tax rate. to expand its levied scope to give play to the potential main tax to local revenue, to improve the design of resource tax, to enhance the its function of resource saving and environmental protection, to attach importance to regional interest of underdeveloped resource-rich regions and to improve of the interest distribution system concerning the tax system and resource exploitation.

  14. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  15. Prospect for Oil and Gas Resources in China in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chengde

    2001-01-01

    @@ China imported 72 million tons of crude oil from abroad in 2000 at the cost of US$15 billion. Some people hold the opinion that China will exhaust its oil resources by 2017 on the basis of the current remaining recoverable reserves and annual production rate since petroleum and natural gas are of nonrecoverable resources. However, the study indicates the period between 2010and 2017 will be still the peak discovery period in the country.

  16. China will Implement Total Mining Volume Control on Advantageous Mineral Resources Such As Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On the end of January,the Ministry of Land and Resources convened the third round of mineral resource planning compilation work video conference,which made re-mobilization and re-deployment for a new round of planning compilation work.According to report from the China Land and Resources News,the third round of mineral resource plan compilation will place focus on

  17. Recent glacial retreat in High Asia in China and its impact on water resource in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Tandong; WANG; Youqing; LIU; Shiying; PU; Jianchen; S

    2004-01-01

    Under the impact of climatic warming, the glaciers in the High Asia in China have been retreating continuously with negative glacial mass balance in recent several decades. The retreat became more intensive in the past 10 years. The spatial pattern of the glacial retreat in the High Asia in China is that the smallest magnitude of retreat is in the inland of the Tibetan Plateau, the magnitude increases from the inland to the margin of the Tibetan Plateau, and the largest magnitude at the margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The glacial retreat in the High Asia in China has an important impact on the water resource of the arid regions in Northwest China. This study shows that the glacial retreat in the 1990s has caused an increase of 5.5% in river runoff in Northwest China. In the Tarim River basin, the increase of river runoff is higher than 5.5%.

  18. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  19. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  20. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  1. [Current status of mangrove germplasm resources and key techniques for mangrove seedling propagation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-You; Chen, Shun-Yang; Wang, Wen-Qing; Dong, Ke-Zuan; Lin, Guang-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Mangrove germplasm and nursery operation are the foundations of all mangrove ecological restoration projects. Based on the existing literatures and our own experiences, and by using cluster analysis and other methods, this paper assessed the current status of the mangrove germplasm resources and the key techniques for mangrove seedlings propagation in China. In China, the mangrove communities could be divided into 4 types, including low temperature tolerant widespread type, widespread type, thermophilic widespread type, and tropical type, and the mangrove distribution sites could be divided into 5 regions, i. e., eastern Hainan coast, Beibuwan Gulf coast, Pearl River estuary and eastern Guangdong coast, southern Fujian and Taiwan coast, and eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang coast. The mangroves in Beibuwan Gulf coast region took up 75.3% of the total mangrove germplasm resources in the country. At present, the percentage of the mangrove species applied for seedling propagation in China was estimated at 52.6%, most of which were of viviparous species. The six key steps in mangrove nursery operation included the selection of proper seedling propagation methods, the collection and storage of seeds or propagules, the ways of raising seedlings, the management of water and salinity, the control of diseases and pests, and the prevention of cold damage during winter. The structure, functions, and applieations of the present five types of mangrove nurseries, including dry land nursery, mangrove tidal nursery, mudflat nursery, Jiwei pond nursery, and Spartina mudflat nursery, were also analyzed, which could provide guidance for the integrated management of mangrove ecological restoration engineering.

  2. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...

  3. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment...

  4. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  5. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  7. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  8. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  9. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Port Louisa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Port Louisa NWR, including an inventory, assessment, and summary of water rights, water quantity, water quality,...

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  11. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  12. Global water resources assessment at a sub-annual timescale: Application to climate change impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using the widely accepted withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (hereafter WWR). This index is defined as the ratio of annual withdrawal to the annual renewable water resources (runoff). The index has also been used widely to assess the impact of climate change on global water resources. Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the mean annual runoff in many parts of the world. Therefore, in these regions, the WWR decreases, by definition. However, water scarcity may not always be alleviated in these regions. Global warming is also projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. These phenomena may increase the temporal gap between water availability and water demand, which might worsen local water scarcity, even if the mean annual runoff is increased. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating subannual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index, the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (hereafter CWD). This index is defined as the ratio of the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from local water resources to the accumulation of daily water demand. To estimate daily water withdrawal and water demand, we used the state-of-the-art H08 global water resources model. Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 52% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and northern Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff increase and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe

  13. Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol (NP is an international legal framework for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. It opened for signature on February1, 2011, and was proposed to be in force 90 days after the date when the fiftieth country or regional organization had ratified it. By October 2013, the protocol had been signed by 92 countries and ratified by 26 countries. The protocol is now expected to be in force before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 2014. The Nagoya Protocol will change the current situation of unordered access to and free development of genetic resources. It will provide a premise and guarantee for the principle of national sovereignty of genetic resources and implementation of equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization. Analyses show that although genetic resources indigenous to China have been widely utilized by other developed countries, with patents taken out on some products, utilization in China has been poor owing to a weak capacity for independent innovation and underdeveloped biotechnology. China currently lacks a policy and regulatory system for access and benefit sharing (ABS to its genetic resources. It is, therefore, a pressing matter for China to improve the implementation of the NP by strengthening national and local policies and regulations on ABS. There is also a need to increase investment to support basic research capacity and develop biological technology to fully utilize genetic resources in China

  14. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  15. The Accelerated Urbanization Process: A Threat to Soil Resources in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The eastern coastal region of China has been experiencing rapid urbanization which has imposed great challenges on soil resources, characterized by soil sealing and fragmented soil landscapes. Taking Zhejiang Province—a fairly economically-developed and highly-urbanized region in eastern China—as a case study, a practical framework that integrates remote sensing, GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape analysis was employed to track and analyze the rapid urbanization process and spatiotemporal dynamics of soil sealing and landscape change from 1990 to 2010. Meanwhile, this paper qualitatively explored the regional inequality and characteristics in soil sealing intensity among cities of different geo-zones in Zhejiang Province. Results showed that total area of 6420 km2 had been sealed during the past two decades for the entire study area, which represents 6.2% of the provincial area. Among these sealed soils, 68.6% are fertile soils located in flat plains, such as Paddy soils. Soil landscapes became more fragmented and dispersed in distribution, more irregular and complex in shape, and less dominant and diverse in soil type, as evidenced by the constant change of various spatial landscape metrics. What is more, different geo-zones exhibited significant differences in dynamics of soil sealing intensity, soil composition and soil landscape patterns. The permanent loss of valuable soil resource and increasing fragmented soil landscape patterns concomitant with rapid urbanization processes may inevitably bring about potential threats to regional soil resources and food security.

  16. Influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan

    2014-01-01

    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer.

  17. An integrated hydrological, ecological, and economical (HEE) modeling system for assessing water resources and ecosystem production: calibration and validation in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglian; Yang, Xiusheng; Gao, Wei

    2006-08-01

    Effective management of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas demands studies that cross over the disciplinaries of natural and social sciences. An integrated Hydrological, Ecological and Economical (HEE) modeling system at regional scale has been developed to assess water resources use and ecosystem production in arid and semi-arid areas. As a physically-based distributed modeling system, the HEE modeling system requires various input parameters including those for soil, vegetation, topography, groundwater, and water and agricultural management at different spatial levels. A successful implementation of the modeling system highly depends on how well it is calibrated. This paper presented an automatic calibration procedure for the HEE modeling system and its test in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin. Previous to calibration, comprehensive literature investigation and sensitivity analysis were performed to identify important parameters for calibration. The automatic calibration procedure was base on conventional Monte Carlo sampling method together with a multi-objective criterion for calibration over multi-site and multi-output. The multi-objective function consisted of optimizing statistics of mean absolute relative error (MARE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E NS), and coefficient of determination (R2). The modeling system was calibrated against streamflow and harvest yield data from multiple sites/provinces within the basin over 2001 by using the proposed automatic procedure, and validated over 1993-1995. Over the calibration period, the mean absolute relative error of simulated daily streamflow was within 7% while the statistics R2 and E NS of daily streamflow were 0.61 and 0.49 respectively. Average simulated harvest yield over the calibration period was about 9.2% less than that of observations. Overall calibration results have indicated that the calibration procedures developed in this study can efficiently calibrate

  18. U.S.-China Competition for Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    cooperation is defined by cooperation in areas like education and cultural exchanges, which represent higher levels of cooperation than diplomatic...professionals I have ever met. Thank you for your dedication in building an educated Officer Cadre. Finally, I want to thank my wife, Cristina, and...global economic engines: American consumerism . China is also an important source of FDI for the U.S. “In the past decade, [U.S.] exports to China have

  19. An endpoint damage oriented model for life cycle environmental impact assessment of buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU LiJing; LIN BoRong; GU DaoJin; ZHU YingXin

    2008-01-01

    The midpoint impact assessment methodology and several weighting methods that are currently used by most building Life cycle assessment (LCA) researchers in China, still have some shortcomings. In order to make the evaluation results have better temporal and spatial applicability, the endpoint impact assessment methodology was adopted in this paper. Based on the endpoint damage oriented concept, four endpoints of resource exhaustion, energy exhaustion, human health damage and ecosystem damage were selected according to the situation of China and the specialties of the building industry. Subsequently the formula for calculating each endpoint, the background value for normalization and the weighting factors were defined. Following that, an endpoint damage oriented model to evaluate the life cycle environmental impact of buildings in China was established. This model can produce an integrated indicator for environmental impact, and consequently provides references for directing the sustainable building design.

  20. The Path Selections of the Resource-based Cities Transformation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhuang Mao

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of resource-based cities, a worldwide problem, is a broad, cross-cutting and complex issue, which involves many fields of economics, sociology, geography, mining science and ecology. Therefore, the development of resource-based cities in China has been a top priority among researchers. In this paper, the author will work out the best pattern and path of resource-based cities by researching on transition modes, approaches and policies.

  1. On the supply of China's healthcare resources in a decentralized healthcare system

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xinye; Wang, Jing; Li, Xilu; Yu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The structure of China’s current governance bears prominent features of fiscal decentralization. The supply of healthcare resources in China has clearly witnessed slower growth in the last two decades during which the fiscal decentralization process has taken place. Using China’s provincial panel data, we examine the determinants of healthcare resource supply while paying particular attention to the role of fiscal decentralization. We find that the supply of healthcare resources is inversely ...

  2. Status and future of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Q L; Barker, G C; Gorris, L G M; Tian, M S; Song, X Y; Malakar, P K

    2015-03-01

    Since the implementation of the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China in 2009 use of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) has increased. QMRA is used to assess the risk posed to consumers by pathogenic bacteria which cause the majority of foodborne outbreaks in China. This review analyses the progress of QMRA research in China from 2000 to 2013 and discusses 3 possible improvements for the future. These improvements include planning and scoping to initiate QMRA, effectiveness of microbial risk assessment utility for risk management decision making, and application of QMRA to establish appropriate Food Safety Objectives.

  3. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  4. Assessment of Sustainable Development System in Suihua City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a complex and systemic issue. It is essential to study it by the component analysis method from the view of system science. The urban developmental sustainability is one of focuses that people has paid more attention to, however, little common understanding how to measure and evaluate the sustainability has been gotten. In this paper, a framework is designed to evaluate the developmental sustainability of Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province in China from the aspects of economy, society, population, resources and environment. We adopt the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to decrease dimensions and simplify the original indexes into 12 indexes. Also, the hierarchy and comprehensive multiple-criterion evaluative methods are employed to assess the sustainable development system in Suihua City. Then, the weights of indexes are attained by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method.Furthermore, urban comprehensive development level, developmental sustainability, coordinate degree are calculated and analyzed. By analyzing, we know the fluctuation of development level of subsystem, especially resources and environment subsystem, is acute. The comprehensive development level of sustainable development system in Suihua has been on the rise since 1999. That results from the effect of traditional economic development mode with high energy-consumed being decreased in the city after 1999. At the same time, it is obvious that there was an instability of development level in Suihua City during 1990-2002, with a turn in 1998, and the development could be sustainable,the status trend was more harmonious in 1999-2002.

  5. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li,; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  6. Study on Dynamic Information of Animal Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yue-hui; XU Gui-fang; WANG Duan-yun; LIU Hai-liang; YANG Yan

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic information of 331 animal genetic resources in 17 important animal genetic re-source provinces (regions) was analyzed. According to the population inbreeding coefficient, combiningwith the information of population dynamic change trend and cross degree, these genetic resources forthreatened degrees were classified. The results indicated that the population size of 138 breeds had in-creased, 147 breeds had decreased, 3 breeds were constant, 7 breeds (or varieties) were extinct, 9 breeds(or varieties) were critically endangered and needed urgently conserve, 50 breeds (or varieties) were endan-gered and should be conserved. We put forward a conservation and utilization plan for animal genetic re-sources.

  7. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  8. China's human resources for health: quantity, quality, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Fan, Victoria Y; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Lingling; Ke, Yang; Dong, Zhe; Chen, Lincoln C

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we analyse China's current health workforce in terms of quantity, quality, and distribution. Unlike most countries, China has more doctors than nurses-in 2005, there were 1.9 million licensed doctors and 1.4 million nurses. Doctor density in urban areas was more than twice that in rural areas, with nurse density showing more than a three-fold difference. Most of China's doctors (67.2%) and nurses (97.5%) have been educated up to only junior college or secondary school level. Since 1998 there has been a massive expansion of medical education, with an excess in the production of health workers over absorption into the health workforce. Inter-county inequality in the distribution of both doctors and nurses is very high, with most of this inequality accounted for by within-province inequalities (82% or more) rather than by between-province inequalities. Urban-rural disparities in doctor and nurse density account for about a third of overall inter-county inequality. These inequalities matter greatly with respect to health outcomes across counties, provinces, and strata in China; for instance, a cross-county multiple regression analysis using data from the 2000 census shows that the density of health workers is highly significant in explaining infant mortality.

  9. China Thirst for Overseas Oil and Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wuyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's oil companies are currently accelerating their efforts for implementation of the strategy to operate the oil business worldwide in the attempt to secure the energy supply as the country becomes more and more dependent on oil imports.The Chinese government has also adopted every possible means to diversify the sources of energy supply.

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  11. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; XIE; Shizhou; LI; Jianrong; WANG; Yuanhui; CHEN; Lianchao; CHEN; Shengqiao; LEI

    2014-01-01

    In 2007,one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve.To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource,the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010- 2012.The results show that there is Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area of South China Tiger Nature Reserve at the elevation of 800- 1200 m,and the population number is estimated at 48- 80.

  12. Assessment of Regional Agricultural Industrial Competitiveness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; YANG; Ying; PING

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the agricultural industrial competitiveness in China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) ,to provide a reference for the relevant state departments to develop the agricultural industry policy. Using factor analysis and expert consulting method,we determine the weight of each indicator,and establish the comprehensive evaluation model suitable for the assessment of agricultural industrial competitiveness. Using the comprehensive evaluation model,we assess the agricultural competitiveness of China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) . China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) can be divided into three groups ( high competitiveness,middle competitiveness and low competitiveness) . The results show that although there are subtle changes in the sequencing within high competitiveness group,the members of high competitiveness group are basically unchanged; compared with high competitiveness group,the agricultural industry in middle competitiveness group and low competitiveness group shows the characteristic of significant geographical concentration,and the competitive agricultural industrial belt is outstanding. We put forward the following recommendations: extending agricultural industry chain and increasing agricultural value added; utilizing regional resources and developing characteristic agriculture; taking the road of large-scale management to promote sustainable and healthy agricultural development in China.

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  14. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  15. Analysis of Total Factor Efficiency of Water Resource and Energy in China: A Study Based on DEA-SBM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious issues that China faces during its fast economic development is the low input–output efficiency of water and energy resources and growing water pollution. With the current economic development model of China, economic growth still requires large input of water resource and energy resource. This paper has focused on the total factor efficiency of water resource and energy resource by each province in China. We treat the undesirable outputs as outputs in the DEA-SBM Model instead of as inputs in previous studies, and design a new MATLAB programming to achieve optimization solutions of multi-variable constrained nonlinear functions to evaluate the Total Factor Efficiency of Water resource (TFEW and the Total Factor Efficiency of Energy (TFEE in China accurately. By using the method, this paper has analyzed the TFEW and TFEE in China from 2003 to 2014 by economic zones and typical provinces and provided corresponding policy recommendations.

  16. Impacts of climate change on agricultural water resources and adaptation on the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Xing-Guo; HU Shi; LIN Zhong-Hui; LIU Su-Xia; XIA Jun

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is having a considerable impact on the availability of water resources for agricultural production on the North China Plain (NCP),where the shortage of water is currently disturbing the stability and sustainability of agricultural production with respect to the drying tendency since the 1950s.However,although potential evapotranspiration (ET) has shown a decreasing trend under climate change,actual ET has slightly increased with an acceleration in hydrological cycling.Global climate model (GCM) ensemble projections predict that by the 2050s,the increased crop water demand and intensified ET resulting from global warming will reduce water resources surplus (Precipitation-ET) about 4%-24% and increase significantly the irrigation water demand in crop growth periods.This study assesses possible mitigation and adaptation measures for enabling agricultural sustainability.It is revealed that reducing the sowing area of winter wheat (3.0%-15.9%) in water-limited basins,together with improvement in crop water-use efficiency would effectively mitigate water shortages and intensify the resilience of agricultural systems to climate change.

  17. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  18. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides...

  19. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  20. An Assessment of Fishery Resources on Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A qualitative assessment of the fishery resources on Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge was conducted by Fish and Wildlife Service personnel in September 1993. This...

  1. The Changing Midwest Assessment: land cover, natural resources, and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Potts; Eric Gustafson; Susan I. Stewart; Frank R. Thompson; Kathleen Bergen; Daniel G. Brown; Roger Hammer; Volker Radeloff; David Bengston; John Sauer; Brian Sturtevant

    2004-01-01

    Documents changes in land cover, forests, selected natural resources, and human demographics and attitudes across the Midwest from roughly 1980 to 2000. The changing Midwest assessment: data and shapefiles are available from the Forest Service Research Data Archive....

  2. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Cache River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge water...

  3. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi’an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers. PMID:27886137

  4. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi'an City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-11-24

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index's weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem's service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi'an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.

  5. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-09-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results show that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.8 × 1010 m3 yr-1, accounting for 2.1% of its renewable water resources and 8.6% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 8.0% of the region's water resources and 11.3% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources.

  6. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results show that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.8 × 1010 m3 yr−1, accounting for 2.1% of its renewable water resources and 8.6% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 8.0% of the region's water resources and 11.3% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources.

  7. Resources of Kaolinite Rocks in China Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The proved reserve of kaolinite rocks in China coal measures is about 1. 673 billion tons. The types of kaolinite rocks contain tonstein, flintclay and soft kaolin. Their origin modes include alteration of volcanic ash, terrigenous clay deposit and weathering of coal and adjacent rocks. The organic matter and organic acid play an important role in the formation of kaolinite rocks of coal measures. The difference in properties between kaolinite rock and traditional kaolin requires different processing technologies.

  8. Balancing water resources conservation and food security in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targ...

  9. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  10. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  11. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  12. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  13. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  14. Progress Maps. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    A progress map describes the nature of development in an area of learning and thus serves as a frame of reference for monitoring individual growth. An essential feature of a progress map, which is an integral component of Developmental Assessment, is that it describes and illustrates developing competence. The first step in constructing a progress…

  15. Projects. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Projects are extended pieces of work completed over a period of time. They provide contexts for the assessment of general skills, as well as the ability to apply subject-specific knowledge and skills. Some of the general skills that projects demonstrate are collecting and organizing information, solving problems, working in a group, and…

  16. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    environmental issues? Presentations included overviews of assessment methods applied in previous national and other small-scale assessments of large regions and of the resulting assessment products and their uses. Twenty-seven people from Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Japan, Peru, Slovenia, South Africa, United States, and Venezuela participated in the 2-day post-Congress workshop. The attendees represented academia, government, environmental organizations, and the mining industry. The workshop agenda, extended abstracts, and participant biographies were published previously in the following report: Briskey, J.A., and Schulz, K.J, eds., 2002, Agenda, extended abstracts, and bibliographies for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development - 31st International Geological Congress [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 18-19, 2000]: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-423, 85 p. on one CD-ROM. (Available online at pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-423/.)

  18. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  19. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  20. Dynamics of the Coordination of Economy-Society and Resource-Environment in Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Rongqing; Zhao Minghua

    2012-01-01

    Shandong Peninsula, as a more developed region in Shandong Province even the east coast of China, is facing challenges from resources and environment pressures. This paper tried to track and assess the coordination status and the dynamic between resource-environment and economy-society systems in Shandong Peninsula during 2001-2008 in order to provide deci- sion support for regional sustainability. An appraisal index system was built including five aspects of harmony degree (A), sustain- ability degree (B), opening degree (C), stability degree (D) and controllability degree (E). The results showed that: 1) The coor- dination level of resource-environment and economy-society in Shandong Peninsula has continuously grown, and it has undergone three stages: no coordinated degree (2001-2002), weak coordi- nated degree (2003-2006) and basically coordinated degree (2007- 2008). 2) Five indexes of criterion hierarchy also increased overall, but each index showed different trends. Harmony degree, sustain- ability degree and opening degree rose all the time, while stability degree and controllability degree alternately rose and fell. The improvement of controllability degree was the slowest. 3) The ag- gravating trend of environmental pollution was slowing down. The economic growth was driven by industrial growth and urbanization typically and investment was still the main force to pull the regional economic growth. At the same time, technology and education were becoming more and more important for economic growth. The level of foreign capital utility declined and the geographical advantage of Shandong Peninsula was exerted. Meanwhile some characteristics of knowledge economy were presenting. Water re- sources become the main constraint factor of fast development in Shandong Peninsula. It is necessary to further strengthen the coordination ability of government on regional sustainable development.

  1. Tourism's impacts on natural resources: A positive case from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  2. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  3. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  4. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  5. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  6. A CASE STUDY OF CHINA ́S WIND POWER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yanping

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, China is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the increasing pressure to cut GHS emissions and to improve energy efficiency, China is now changing its traditional energy mix, mainly through consuming more renewable energy instead of fossil energy. This change has resulted in a policy adjustment which in turn boosts the utilization of the wind power resources. However, the development of the wind power resources in China is confronted with some significant challenges, such as greater installed electricity capacity than the electricity generation, greater electricity generation than the electricity transmission capacity and greater inland wind power generation than the offshore wind power generation. Therefore, the further development of China’s wind power electricity in the coming years depends largely on the ways these challenges will be addressed.

  7. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  8. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  9. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  10. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China, coal-fire

  11. Linking global scenarios to national assessments: Experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda L. Langner; Peter J. Ince

    2012-01-01

    The Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provides a nationally consistent analysis of the status and trends of the Nation's renewable forest resources. A global scenario approach was taken for the 2010 RPA Assessment to provide a shared world view of potential futures. The RPA Assessment scenarios were linked to the global scenarios and climate projections used...

  12. Environmental impacts assessment for hydropower development planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hongbin; Yu Weiqi; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduced China's law framework and technical standards related to environmental im-pacts assessment(EIA) for hydropower development, and the EIA developing process for hydropower development plan-ning. Authors summarized the working experiences about hydropower development planning EIA done in the recent years in China, discussed the considerations and methods of hydropower development planning EIA, and put forward the index system for hydropower development planning EIA initially.

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  14. Regional comprehensive assessment on environment-health of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGWuyi; LIRibang; LIAOYongfeng; LIHairong; YANGLinsheng; TANJianan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the environment-health development in different regions of China. 175 indicators, such as average life expectancy at birth, emission intensity of waste gas, GDP etc. were chosen to describe various aspects of the environment, health and development of China. Of all the indicators, life expectancy can sufficiently reflect health situation of population. Consequently,life expectancy was identified as key indicator, and 42 out of 175 indicators were selected for establishing the environment-health indicator framework with three grades of integrative indices to assess the development of environment-health of China. Based on the hierarchical relation between various grades of indices, the comprehensive environment-health index was calculated and contributed to classify the environment-health situation of 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China which were divided into five grades by four predefined limits. Comprehensive assessment indicates that the environment-health situation of the eastern and coastal areas is superior to that of inland which is the western regions with underdeveloped economy and rigorous natural condition.Especially, the Qinghai-Tibet and Yunnan-Guizhou plateaus in southwestern China are most vulnerable in the environment and population health. These fit in with the pattern of national socio-economic development, which fully shows that socio-economic context plays a dominant role in the improvement of envirnment-health in China

  15. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  16. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  17. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Wind resource assessment: A three year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abbadi, N.M.; Alawaji, S.H.; Eugenio, N.N. [Energy Research Institute (ERI), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of data collected from three different sites located in the central, northern and eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Each site is geographically and climatologically different from the others. Statistical moments and frequency distributions were generated for the wind speed and direction parameters to analyse the wind energy characteristics and its availability. The results of these statistical operations present the wind power and energy density estimates of the three sites. The data analysis presented a prospect of wind energy conversion and utilization. The annual extractable energy density is 488, 890, 599 kWh/m{sup 2} for the central, northern and eastern sites respectively. Also, the paper demonstrates the lessons learned from operating wind assessment stations installed in remote areas having different environmental characteristics.

  19. A closed-loop life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Tam, Vivian W Y

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the potential environmental impact of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) for concrete production in China. According to the cradle-to-cradle theory, a closed-loop life cycle assessment (LCA) on recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) utilization in China with entire local life cycle inventory (LCI) is performed, regarding the environmental influence of cement content, aggregate production, transportation and waste landfilling. Special attention is paid on the primary resource and energy conservation, as well as climate protection induced by RAC applications. Environmental impact between natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC are also compared. It is shown that cement proportion and transportation are the top two contributors for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy consumption for both NAC and RAC. Sensitivity analysis also proves that long delivery distances for natural coarse aggregate (NCA) leave a possible opportunity for lowering environmental impact of RAC in China.

  20. Prospering Revolution of Resource Efficiency in Northeast Industrial Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiancheng; Liu Zeyuan

    2007-01-01

    Despite its strong advantages in resource,technology and human resource.China's Northeast Industrial Area iS alsoexperiencing problems of unreasonable industrial structure,environmental pollution,and the degradation of ecological condition.etc.which prevent this area from achieving a sustainable development.Through analyzing the resouce problem,the present paper pmposed a stramgy of circular economy for the prosperity Of this are.disussed the theories of circular economy and resogrce recycling,and finally concluded that improving resource productivity iS at the core of circular economy.

  1. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20 Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations. (a) General. Regulations for assessing natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases under the...

  2. A DYNAMIC APPROACH TO CALCULATE SHADOW PRICES OF WATER RESOURCES FOR NINE MAJOR RIVERS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing HE; Xikang CHEN; Yong SHI

    2006-01-01

    China is experiencing from serious water issues. There are many differences among the Nine Major Rivers basins of China in the construction of dikes, reservoirs, floodgates, flood discharge projects, flood diversion projects, water ecological construction, water conservancy management, etc.The shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers can provide suggestions to the Chinese government. This article develops a dynamic shadow prices approach based on a multiperiod input-output optimizing model. Unlike previous approaches, the new model is based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model to solve the problem of marginal long-term prices of water resources.First, definitions and algorithms of DCGE are elaborated. Second, the results of shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers in 1949-2050 in China using the National Water Conservancy input-holding-output table for Nine Major Rivers in 1999 are listed. A conclusion of this article is that the shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers are largely based on the extent of scarcity.Selling prices of water resources should be revised via the usage of parameters representing shadow prices.

  3. The Basin Water Resources Management System and Its Innovation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun; Pomponio

    2008-01-01

    Water provides the origin of human survival and prosperity,and the basic resource for the maintenance of terrestrial eco-systems,their biodiversity,productivity and ecological services.With China’s recent,rapid growth both in population and economic development,the water shortage has become one of the most constraints on its ecological restoration and socio-economic development,especially in the arid inland regions of northwest China.At first glance,this water shortage in China appears to be a resource crisis.But second,an in-depth analysis reveals that the water shortage crisis arises mainly resulting from the poor water management system and operating mechanism that cannot facilitate fair allocation and efficient utilization of water resources both regionally and nationally and thus is viewed as a crisis of water manage-ment.The solution of China’s water shortage and low-efficient utilization problem will,in particular,require a fundamen-tal and substantial reform or innovation of the existing water management system and operating mechanism.In this paper,we address explicitly the problems existed in the current water management system,explore the basic theory of water re-sources management and provide some insights into the way how to establish a river basin based integrated water re-sources management system in China.

  4. Intergenerational Exchange of Resources and Elderly Support in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Pei, Xiaomei

    2016-07-01

    This study examines how parental investments on children affect elderly support, and how this effect is contingent on emotional closeness or parental authority. Data collected from 770 elderly parents residing in rural China were analyzed. We gathered dichotomous data for (a) whether parents invested on their children via financial or instrumental means (i.e., parental investments) and (b) whether parents reported closeness to their children (i.e., emotional closeness) and whether children respected them (i.e., parental authority). We examined the relation between these variables and children's elderly support (financial, instrumental, and emotional). We tested models in two ways, one examining the direct effect of investments, and another testing the interactions between investments and closeness or authority. We first found that investments were not directly associated with elderly support, although the closeness and authority were. Additionally, the association between investments and support was found within parents who reported authority or closeness with their children.

  5. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  6. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  7. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  8. Effects of meteorological droughts on agricultural water resources in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houquan; Wu, Yihua; Li, Yijun; Liu, Yongqiang

    2017-05-01

    With the global warming, frequencies of drought are rising in the humid area of southern China. In this study, the effects of meteorological drought on the agricultural water resource based on the agricultural water resource carrying capacity (AWRCC) in southern China were investigated. The entire study area was divided into three regions based on the distributions of climate and agriculture. The concept of the maximum available water resources for crops was used to calculate AWRCC. Meanwhile, an agricultural drought intensity index (ADI), which was suitable for rice planting areas, was proposed based on the difference between crop water requirements and precipitation. The actual drought area and crop yield in drought years from 1961 to 2010 were analyzed. The results showed that ADI and AWRCC were significantly correlated with the actual drought occurrence area and food yield in the study area, which indicated ADI and AWRCC could be used in drought-related studies. The effects of seasonal droughts on AWRCC strongly depended on both the crop growth season and planting structure. The influence of meteorological drought on agricultural water resources was pronounced in regions with abundant water resources, especially in Southwest China, which was the most vulnerable to droughts. In Southwest China, which has dry and wet seasons, reducing the planting area of dry season crops and rice could improve AWRCC during drought years. Likewise, reducing the planting area of double-season rice could improve AWRCC during drought years in regions with a double-season rice cropping system. Our findings highlight the importance of adjusting the proportions of crop planting to improve the utilization efficiency of agricultural water resources and alleviate drought hazards in some humid areas.

  9. Some Suggested Future Directions of Quantitative Resource Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Future quantitative assessments will be expected to estimate quantities, values, and locations of undiscovered mineral resources in a form that conveys both economic viability and uncertainty associated with the resources. Historically, declining metal prices point to the need for larger deposits over time. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the greatest opportunity for reducing uncertainty in assessments lies in lowering uncertainty associated with tonnage estimates. Of all errors possible in assessments, those affecting tonnage estimates are by far the most important. Selecting the correct deposit model is the most important way of controlling errors because of the dominance of tonnage-deposit models are the best known predictors of tonnage. Much of the surface is covered with apparently barren rocks and sediments in many large regions. Because many exposed mineral deposits are believed to have been found, a prime concern is the presence of possible mineralized rock under cover. Assessments of areas with resources under cover must rely on extrapolation from surrounding areas, new geologic maps of rocks under cover, or analogy with other well-explored areas that can be considered training tracts. Cover has a profound effect on uncertainty and on methods and procedures of assessments because geology is seldom known and geophysical methods typically have attenuated responses. Many earlier assessment methods were based on relationships of geochemical and geophysical variables to deposits learned from deposits exposed on the surface—these will need to be relearned based on covered deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages of most deposit types are significantly different, and (2) deposit types are present in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology

  10. Resource Potential and Exploration Techniques of Stratigraphic and subtle Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaChengzao; ChiYingliu

    2004-01-01

    The onshore oil and gas exploration has stepped into a new stage in China, with equal attention paid to both stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs and structural reservoirs. In the past few years, the increases in oil reserves in most basins were found mainly in the stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs. Latest resource evaluation shows that the onshore stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs in China account for 42% of the total remaining resource, the highest in the four major exploration regions. Therefore, these reservoirs will be the most practical, potential and prevalent fields for long-lasting oil and gas exploration in onshore China. Among PetroChina's annual oil geologic reserves of 4.3 X 10sty4.6 X 10st, the stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs account for more than 50%. In such basins as Songliao, Ordos, Bohai Bay, Junggar, Tarim, Sichuan and Erlian basins, stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs with geologic reserves ranging from 5 X 107t to 3 X 10st were discovered, including Ansai, Jing'an, Daqingzijing, Liuxi, well-21 area in Shinan, and Hadexun. Stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs in the four types of inland basins differ from each other in the formation conditions and the distribution patterns. While continental basins are controlled by unconformity surface, maximum flooding surface and fracture surface, the Paleozoic marine basins are influenced by paleouplift, unconformity surface, and fluctuation of the sea level. Through exploration practices and research, PetroChina has formed its own technique series focused on 3-D seismics and sequence stratigraphy.

  11. Integrated ecosystem assessment for western development of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for Western Development of China includes: (1) providing scientific basis for ecosystem protection, ecosystem management and ecological construction in the western development; (2) developing complete database and analytical tools and strengthening decision-making support capacity; and (3) improving ecosystem management in China, spreading ecological knowledge to the public, serving decision-making of local and central governments, and promoting socio-economic sustainable development. The design and implementation of the project are of significance under the macro background of western development of China. By the integrated assessment of western China, we can get the first-hand data covering all the environmental factors as well as disclose the situations and their changing trends of ecosystem in the western part of China, which will benefit the decision-making for the central and local governments in the implementation of the western development strategy. In other words, the implementation of the project, to a certain extent, can guarantee the regional sustainable development of western China.

  12. Integrated water resources management for sustainable development of in western rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-bao; HUANG Gao-bao

    2010-01-01

    Management in water resources development of Jinghe watershed of western rural China is examined with Participatory Rural Appraisal method--a rare applied method in China and questionnaire survey of stakeholders.Combination of these two survey methods derives good results as it could avoid personal bias in identifying and ranking the issues on a concrete basis in following up households'survey.Statistic Package for Social Sciences(SPSS)was used for data analysis.Results indicate that since the early 1980s.issues of water scarcity,river pollution,soil erosion,insufficient participation of stakeholders in water resources use and management,as well as centrahzed water planning and management system have created difficulties for sustainable development of the watershed.The stakeholders and local governments are fully aware of the challenges and are committed to achieving a solution through integrated water resource management(IWRD).The concept and the application of IWRD for rural China are reviewed and analyzed,and a framework for implementation of IWRD in China is developed.It is conchided that the keys to successful implementation of the approach will depend on optimal arrangement of institutions,policy reforms,community involvement and capacity building in water sector,which need to fully integrate various management functions within the watershed.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  14. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  15. Assessing the sustainability of lead utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2016-12-01

    Lead is not only one of heavy metals imposing environment and health risk, but also critical resource to maintain sustainable development of many industries. Recently, due to the shortage of fossil fuels, clean energy vehicles, including electric bicycle, have emerged and are widely adopted soon in the world. China became the world's largest producer of primary lead and a very significant consumer in the past decade, which has strained the supplies of China's lead deposits from lithosphere and boost the anthropogenic consumption of metallic lead and lead products. Here we summarize that China's lead demand will continually increase due to the rapid growth of electric vehicle, resulting in a short carrying duration of lead even with full lead recycling. With these applications increasing at an annual rate of 2%, the carrying duration of lead resource until 2030 will oblige that recycling rate should be not less than 90%. To sustain lead utilization in China, one approach would be to improve the utilization technology, collection system and recycling technology towards closed-loop supply chain. Other future endeavors should include optimizing lead industrial structure and development of new energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  17. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  18. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  19. The development of ecological impact assessment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological impact assessment (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and assess. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China.

  20. Strategy of Human Resources Localization for Multinational Corpora-tions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明娜

    2014-01-01

    With the swift growth of China’s economy in recent years, the number of multinational corporations in China is in-creasing rapidly, and during their process of management, the strategy of human resources localization is widely used. Though there are a lot of scholars who have done research on advantages, negative effects and implementation of this strategy, there are still not enough studies have been made about the enlightenments for China. Therefore, this study aims at representing more modern and advanced opinions by stating superiority and inferior of multinational corporations’human resources localization strategy on the basis of predecessors’studies. This study is based on multinational corporation human resources localization theo-ries, research on certain multinational corporations located in China, and data and information from relative journals, books, newspapers and internet. The conclusion of this paper is as below:though human resources localization strategy has obvious ad-vantages, the management shall control the“degree”in case of“over-localization”;secondly, as Chinese corporations, it is neces-sary to possess their own core technology instead of being a manufacturer only;and last, Chinese corporations should learn from foreign multinationals that balancing between globalization and localization, to maximize the benefits.

  1. Identification and analysis of underdeveloped resource-rich regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Saixiang; Xie Mei'e; Gu Shuzhong

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the existence of developmental views and compares the results of previous studies for underdeveloped regions.In view of the limitations of previous studies,this study details regional unit,expands index system,applies factor-analysis to structure index system,uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to improve analytic hierarchy process,and identifies the economic developmental levels of 384 regions,including 4 municipalities,333 cities at prefecture level,and 47 counties under the jurisdiction of province.The levels of the 47 counties are identified by dividing the rank of comprehensive values of more than 337 regions unit into five equal graduations and then matching the 47 counties with the five-graduation results.This study provides the distribution of resources-rich region in China qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of coal,oil gas and other 14 kinds of metal mineral resources.Finally,by matching the two parts of results,this study identifies the distribution of underdeveloped resource-rich regions (URRRs).URRRs are mainly distributed in Shaanxi,Shanxi,Guizhou,Yunnan,Sichuan,He 'nan,Shandong,Guangxi and Gansu provinces,which accounts for 78.57% of the total in China.To a certain degree,the result of this paper proves that "resources curse " existing in the national stratification plane in later 20"1 century still takes places in some cities in China,especially in the counties of these cities 'jurisdiction.

  2. Synthesis of current data for Hg in areas of geologic resource extraction contamination and aquatic systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangle; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-04-01

    China has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the world owing to its fast growing economy and the largest of populations. Over the last two decades, Hg has become of increasing environmental concern in China and much has been published on its distribution, transportation, methylation, and bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and areas of geologic resource extraction contaminated sites, such as coal-fired power plants, non-ferrous smelters, Hg mining and retorting sites, Au amalgam, landfills, chemical plants, etc.. Environmental compartments, like soil, water, air, and crop from areas of geologic resource extraction contamination, especially from Hg mining regions, exhibit elevated values of total-Hg and MMHg. Risk assessments indicate that the consumption of rice, which has a high bioaccumulation of MMHg, has become the dominant pathway of MMHg exposure of inhabitants living in Hg mining areas. Low concentrations less than 5ngl(-1) in total-Hg can be observed in rivers from remote areas, however, high concentrations that reached 1600ngl(-1) in total-Hg can be found in rivers from industrial and urban areas. The studies of hydropower reservoirs of southwest China indicated the old reservoirs act as net sinks for total-Hg and net sources of MMHg, while newly established ones act as net sinks for both total-Hg and MMHg, which is in sharp contrast to the evolution of biomethylation in reservoirs established in the boreal belt of North America and Eurasia. Fish from those reservoirs have relatively low levels of total-Hg, which do not exceed the maximum total-Hg limit of 0.5mgkg(-1) recommended by WHO. Currently, however, there is still a large data gap regarding Hg even in the areas mentioned above in China, which results in poor understanding of its environmental biogeochemistry. Moreover, for a better understanding of human and environmental health effects caused by the fast growing economy, long-term Hg monitoring campaigns are

  3. An innovative sustainability assessment for urban wastewater infrastructure and its application in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Ray, I; Nelson, K L

    2009-08-01

    Sustainability assessments are an increasingly common tool for measuring progress towards sustainable development. Despite their popularity, sustainability assessments and the indicators that compose them are said to have had little impact on the policy arena. In this paper we discuss four attributes that we contend will improve the use of sustainability assessments to guide decision making: non-compartmentalization, site specificity, built-in guidance for target setting, and ability to measure active sustainability. We present a novel assessment tool for wastewater treatment infrastructure that illustrates these attributes. The assessment is composed of two-dimensional indicators we call "burden to capacity" ratios, that reveal and quantify the local value of resources embodied in wastewater and treatment byproducts, and the tradeoffs between designing systems for disposal versus reuse. We apply the sustainability assessment framework to an existing treatment plant in Chengdu, China and discuss the results.

  4. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Applicability of first-trimester combined screening for fetal trisomy 21 in a resource-limited setting in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Sahota, D S; Lao, T T; Xu, J; Hu, S Q; Zhang, L; Liu, Q Y; Sun, Q; Tang, D; Ma, R M

    2016-09-01

    To assess the feasibility and performance of the first-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in a resource-limited setting in mainland China. Prospective observational cohort study. First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, China. Ten thousand four hundred and forty-two pregnant women requesting first-trimester screening. The combined screening test was performed from May 2012 to December 2014. Women with a high-risk result (≥1:600) were offered further confirmatory tests after counselling. The threshold for high risk was determined by Monte Carlo simulation to achieve a 5% false-positive rate according to the local age distribution. Pregnancy outcome and screening results were recorded for all women and monthly audits were conducted. Sensitivity, screen positive rate, cost per case of Down syndrome detected. Six hundred and ten women (5.8% of the total screened) had a high-risk screening test, of whom 274 (44.9%) underwent a diagnostic test and 169 (27.7%) opted for a noninvasive prenatal screening test (NIPT); 160 (26.2%) declined further testing after counselling. The pregnancy outcome was available for 10 174 (97.4%) of the women. The observed incidence of Down syndrome was 0.13% (1/750). All 14 women with a trisomy 21 pregnancy had a high-risk screening test result. The cost per Down syndrome detected was RMB596 686 compared with RMB1.79 million if all had been screened by NIPT. The combined screening test appears to be a more cost-effective strategy in mainland China. Screening performance in China would be improved by adopting Chinese-specific models, external quality control and assurance, and establishing risk thresholds appropriate for the age distribution of the population. Combined first-trimester Downs screening in China was improved by adopting Chinese-specific models and external QC. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  7. The Gas Resources Assessment Expert System of the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gas resources assessment expert system is one of the advanced methods for appraising oil and gas resources. The establishment of a knowledge base is the focal task in developing the expert system. This paper presents a summary of the mechanism and the major controlling factors in the formation of gas pools in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin. Then an appropriate assessment model is established for trapping the gas resources and a knowledge base built in the expert system to realize the model. By using the expert system to appraise the gas-bearing probability of 25 major traps of the Quantou and Denglouku Formations in the Shiwu-Dehui area, the authors have proved that the expert system is suitable for appraising traps in the Songliao basin and similar basins.

  8. Information resource use and need in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.

  9. 76 FR 16250 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... criterion is a just and reasonable method to use to conduct resource adequacy assessments for purposes of... traditional state concern that is outside of the Commission's domain. They argue that both capacity... the standard contains no requirement for an entity to construct or otherwise invest in additional...

  10. Comparing Assessments within Junior Geography Textbooks Used in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daihu

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 Geography Standards for Junior Secondary Schools are the first national standards for geographic education since the founding of Communist China. The standards heralded several new ideas for geographic education, and textbook assessments are one important way for understanding their impact. This study examines the changes in assessments…

  11. Changing Trend and Sustainable Development of Farmland Resources in Pingdingshan City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The grey forecast and the sustainable use evaluation are conducted on the data of farmland resources from 2010 to 2020 in Pingingshan City by using the area of farmland land from 1999 to 2010 and by applying the grey forecast and land pressure system.The results show that from 2010 to 2020 the quantity of farmland resources maintains balance;the minimum per capita farmland in Pingdinshan stays around the lower limit of per capita amount of farmland in China;the pressure of farmland is rather huge and the farmland protection is not so optimistic.Therefore,in order to realize the sustainable use of land resources in Pingdinshan City,the government should try to improve the efficiency of farmland use and implement stricter land protection system.as well as the requisition-compensation balance of farmland resources,land consolidation and land reclaimation and so on.

  12. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  13. Multi-formal and Information-based Emergency Resource Reserve System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua; He Jinsheng; Zhu Xianmin

    2008-01-01

    Emergency resources are an important basis of effective eraergency response. But there are many disadvantages of the Chinese traditional material reserve method in which the resources are separately reserved in different regions and sections according to the kinds of disasters. So there comes the Multi-formal and Information-based Emergency Resource Reserve System (MIERRS) in China. The reserve body and method change from the single into the multiple forms, that is, the main reserve body changes from the single government agency into the organizations combining with the military, enterprise and society, and the reserve method changes from single material reserve into the reserve combining with market reserve, talents and technology reserve, and production capacity reserve. The content of the reserve change from material to information means to develop the Emergency Resource Management Information System realizing real-time control of resource characteristics and relevant reserve information. The MIERRS leads to a reserve system with rapid response and flexible schedule. It provides a convenient platform for resource sharing, thus avoiding duplication and waste, improving the utilization of resources, reducing the reserve loss and optimizing the structure of resource reserve.

  14. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  15. Using Digital Resources for the ECE Curriculum in China: Current Needs and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using digital resources is an important development in the Early Childhood Education (ECE curriculum in China. Guo and Wang (2005 report that 98% of urban ECE programs have computers with Internet connections, in addition to other technical facilities, which are used daily in ECE classrooms. However, the lack of curriculum-related digital resources and of a network to share them makes it difficult for teachers to share these resources for teaching. Further, this development of digital resources for ECE should consider Chinese cultures of learning (Jin & Cortazzi, 2006 in order to meet the needs of Chinese learners and maximize the learning effect. This paper focuses on the major features of digital resources in Chinese ECE and a framework for developing the content through examining existing digital resources and materials. Methods of inquiry and evaluation include the use of focus groups of kindergarten teachers in different provinces in China.The findings (Chen & Zhou, 2009; Zhou & Chen, 2009 indicate that an ECE digital resource should have features of individualization, interaction, sharing and sociability in networking in Chinese educational contexts, for supporting teaching design, practice, evaluation and reflection. An effective framework of ECE digital resources is recommended to contain three key parts:1 A Teacher Planning System to support teachers’ information searches, classified according to themes, subjects or types of activities.2 A Children’s Learning System to offer interactive learning at school or home following the classroom curriculum.3 A Family Support System to involve parents in their children’s learning and development.

  16. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  17. Spatial database for a global assessment of undiscovered copper resources: Chapter Z in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Connie L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Parks, Heather L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2016-07-13

    As part of the first-ever U.S. Geological Survey global assessment of undiscovered copper resources, data common to several regional spatial databases published by the U.S. Geological Survey, including one report from Finland and one from Greenland, were standardized, updated, and compiled into a global copper resource database. This integrated collection of spatial databases provides location, geologic and mineral resource data, and source references for deposits, significant prospects, and areas permissive for undiscovered deposits of both porphyry copper and sediment-hosted copper. The copper resource database allows for efficient modeling on a global scale in a geographic information system (GIS) and is provided in an Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase format.

  18. Final Report Low-temperature Resource Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (US); Ross, H. [Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of Utah

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation's low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20 degrees Celsius to 150 degrees Celsius has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50 degrees Celsius located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy costevaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  19. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  20. Low-temperature resource assessment program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center; Ross, H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50{degrees}C located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy cost evaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  1. The Mixed Mechanism in the Management of Water Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming

    2005-01-01

    It is a challenge for China to address its serious water resource problems, and inefficient water use. Improving water use efficiency is the key solution to dealing with this issue. There are two basic mechanisms practiced in the world aiming to pursue water conservation, i.e. administrative and market-based management pattern. Water as an irreplaceable resource with many attributes, either public or market-based management mechanism has its disadvantages. In order to avoid the inherent "administrative failure" or "market failure", this paper emphasizes the importance of changing traditional water resource management mechanism to establish a mixed mechanism of public and market water management based on China's conditions and experiences from developed countries. Three key aspects of this combined mechanism are identified in this paper, i.e. recognizing and managing water rights to promote efficiency, strengthening effectiveness of government management to lower transaction cost and encouraging water user participation to increase flexibility. Detailed information on implementing of this combined mechanism in China is given in the end.

  2. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  4. Introducing Participatory Curriculum Development in China's Higher Education: The Case of Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…

  5. Water risk assessment in China based on the improved Water Risk Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G.; Yaqin, Q.; Qiong, L.; Cunwen, N.; Na, W.; Jiajia, L.; Jongde, G.; Na, Z.; Xiangyi, D.

    2014-09-01

    Finding an effective way to deal with the water crisis and the relationship between water and development is a major issue for all levels of government and different economic sectors across the world. Scientific understanding of water risk is the basis for achieving a scientific relationship between water and development, and water risk assessment is currently an important research focus. To effectively deal with the global water crisis, the World Wide Fund for Nature and German Investment and Development Company Limited proposed the concept of water risk and released an online Water Risk Filter in March 2012, which has been applied to at least 85 countries. To comprehensively and accurately reflect the situation of water risk in China, this study adjusts the water risk assessment indicators in the Water Risk Filter, taking the actual situation in China and the difficulty of obtaining the information about the indicators into account, and proposes an index system for water risk evaluation for China which consists of physical risk, regulatory risk and reputational risk. The improved Water Risk Filter is further used to assess the sources and causes of the water risks in 10 first-class and seven second-class water resource areas (WRAs). The results indicate that the water risk for the whole country is generally medium and low, while those for different regions in the country vary greatly, and those for southern regions are generally lower than those for northern regions. Government regulatory and policy implementation as well as media supervision in northern regions should be strengthened to reduce the water risk. The research results may provide decision support and references for both governments and industrial enterprises in identifying water risks, formulating prevention and control policies, and improving water resources management in China.

  6. [Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Long

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93.1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134.0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.

  7. Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration for Terrestrial Ecosystems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiaoli; Wu Shaohong; Dai Erfu; Zhao Dongsheng; Pan mao

    2012-01-01

    Climate change will alter the capacity of carbon seques- tration, and the risk assessment of carbon sequestration for terres- trial ecosystems will be helpful to the decision-making for climate change countermeasures and international climate negotiations. Based on the net ecosystem productivity of terrestrial ecosystems simulated by Atmosphere Vegetation Integrated Model, each grid of the risk criterion was set by time series trend analysis. Then the risks of carbon sequestration of terrestrial ecosystems were investigated. The results show that, in the IPCCSRES-B2 climate scenario, climate change will bring risks of carbon sequestra- tion, and the high-risk level will dominate terrestrial ecosystems. The risk would expand with the increase of warming degree. By the end of the long-term of this century, about 60% of the whole country will face the risk; Northwest China, mountainous areas in Northeast China, middle and lower reaches plain of Yangtze River areas, Southwest China and Southeast China tend to be extremely vulnerable. Risk levels in most regions are likely to grow with the increase of warming degree, and this increase will mainly occur during the near-term to mid-term. Northwest China will become an area of high risks, and deciduous coniferous forests, temperate mixed forests and desert grassland tend to be extremely vulnerable.

  8. The USGS national geothermal resource assessment: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.; Galanis, S.P.; DeAngelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir volumes, and limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production. It will also include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. New models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of both natural geothermal reservoirs and reservoirs that may be created through the application of EGS technology. Project investigators have also made substantial progress studying geothermal systems and the factors responsible for their formation through studies in the Great Basin-Modoc Plateau region, Coso, Long Valley, the Imperial Valley and central Alaska, Project personnel are also entering the supporting data and resulting analyses into geospatial databases that will be produced as part of the resource assessment.

  9. A geologic and mineral resource assessment of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, James P.; Clark, Allen L.; Djumhani

    The Indonesian government has traditionally relied upon revenues generated from petroleum and natural gas exports to fund most of the nation's development expenditures. However, because of recently depressed energy prices, increased domestic consumption of petroleum, and a rapidly growing population, future revenues from Indonesia's energy sector may not be sufficient to sustain economic growth and development. This paper presents an assessment of all undiscovered mineral resources in Indonesia by province. In addition to hydrocarbons, study results indicate that Indonesia may be well-endowed in nonfuel mineral resources, particularly in Timor, Nusa Tenggara, Irian Jaya, and Moluccas. It is concluded that the Indonesian government should begin to accelerate development of the nation's nonfuel mineral resource base as a means of diversifying away from petroleum and natural gas.

  10. Planning for Regional Water Resources in Northwest China Using a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2014-12-01

    Problem of water scarcity is prominent in northwest China due to its typical desert climate. Exceedence of sustainable yield of groundwater resources has resulted in groundwater depletion, which has raised a series of issues such as drying wells, increasing pumping costs and environmental damage. With a rapid agricultural and economic development, population increase has added extra stress on available water resources by increasing municipal, agricultural and industrial demands. This necessitates efficient water resources management strategies with better understanding of the causes of water stress and options for sustainable development of economy and management of environment. This study focuses on simulating the water supply and demand, under the influence of changing climate, for Shanshan County, located in northwest of China. A dynamic simulation model is developed using the modeling tool Stella for monthly water balance for the period ranging from 2000-2030. Different future water demand and supply scenarios are developed to represent: (1) base scenario- with current practices; (2) change of the primary water source; (3) improvement of irrigation efficiency; (4) reduction of irrigation area; and (5) reduction of industrial water demand. The results indicate that besides growing demand, the low water use efficiency and low level of water reuse are the primary concerns for water scarcity. Groundwater recharge and abstraction could be balanced by 2030, by reducing industrial demand by 50% and using high efficiency irrigation for agriculture. The model provided a better understanding of the effect of different policies and can help in identifying water resources management strategies.

  11. Study on Equity and Efficiency of Health Resources and Services Based on Key Indicators in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the dialectical relationship between equity and efficiency of health resource allocation and health service utilization in China.We analyzed the inequity of health resource allocation and health service utilization based on concentration index (CI and Gini coefficient. Data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to evaluate the inefficiency of resource allocation and service utilization. Factor Analysis (FA was used to determine input/output indicators.The CI of Health Institutions, Beds in Health Institutions, Health Professionals and Outpatient Visits were -0.116, -0.012, 0.038, and 0.111, respectively. Gini coefficient for the 31 provinces varied between 0.05 and 0.43; out of these 23 (742% were observed to be technically efficient constituting the "best practice frontier". The other 8 (25.8% provinces were technically inefficient.Health professionals and outpatient services are focused on higher income levels, while the Health Institutions and Beds in Health Institutions were concentrated on lower income levels. In China, a few provinces attained a basic balance in both equity and efficiency in terms of current health resource and service utilization, thus serving as a reference standard for other provinces.

  12. Research on the human resource development of the Three Gorges Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Sun Dalin

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Region (TGR) is an economic region of China, and lies in the western part of Yangtze economic belt. It takes the Three Gorges Project as leading, Chongqing and Yichang City as main body, the Three Gorges Reservoir as ligament. It covers about 700 km of the Yangtze River valley from Chongqing to Yichang, in- cluding Chongqing City, Yichang City and Enshi District of Hubei Province. Since the construction of Three Gorges Project and establishment of Chongqing as municipality directly under the Central Government, the regional econ-omy, culture, education, technology, etc., all developed harmoniously and rapidly, and the diathesis of the regional human resources also got an exaltation. While compared with the eastern region of China, the economy, science and technology in this region still fall behind, and the current situation is of no optimism. Based on the theory of human resources development, this paper analyzes current situation and problems in the human resources development of the TGR, and puts forward the countermeasures, such as planning human resources development program based on"anaphase support "policy, developing education and training business, reasonably organizing labor export, etc.

  13. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  14. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  15. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1989 US uranium potential resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, R.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-12-31

    Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the EIA, US Department of Energy, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Department of the Interior, the USGS develops estimates of uranium endowment for selected geological environments in the United States. New estimates of endowment are used to update the Uranium Resources Assessment Data (URAD) System which, beginning in 1990, is maintained for EIA by the USGS. For 1989, estimates of US undiscovered resources were generated using revised economic index values (current to December 1989) in the URAD system's cost model. The increase in the estimates for the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) and Speculative Resources (SR) classes resulted primarily from increases in the estimates of uranium endowment for the solution-collapse, breccia-pipe uranium deposit environment in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The mean values for $30-, $50-, and $100-per-pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} forward-cost categories of EAR increased by about 8, 48, and 32 percent, respectively, as compared to 1988. Estimates of the 1989 undiscovered resources in the SR class also increased in all three forward-cost categories by 10, 5, and 9 percent, respectively. The original cost equations in the URAD System were designed to cover drilling costs related to extensive flat-lying tabular ore bodies. The equations do not adequately treat drilling costs for the smaller areas of vertical breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The development of appropriate cost equations for describing the economics of mining this type of deposit represents a major new task. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. [Aesthetics theory and method of landscape resource assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Baoming; He, Ping

    2006-09-01

    With the destruction of natural environment by human beings, scenic resources are no longer inexhaustible in supply and use. Human beings begin to lay the scenic resources on the same important strategic status as other natural resources, while landscape resources assessment is the prerequisite of their sustainable exploitation and conservation. This paper illustrated the psychological mechanisms of aesthetic and its approaches, compared with the methodologies of traditional and modem landscape aesthetic research, discussed the characteristics of important aesthetic theories (Platonism, Kant paradigm, Empathizing theory, Gestalt paradigm, Marxism aesthetics theory, and Appleton theory) and the landscape assessment theories of 4 paradigms (expert, psychological, cognitive, and empirical) and 2 groups (landscape environment science and landscape architecture culture), and summarized the important practices and successful examples at home and abroad. It was demonstrated that the historical development of landscape assessment had the feature of a contest between expert- and perception-based approaches, with the expert approach dominated in landscape management, while the perception-based approach dominated in landscape research. Both of these approaches generallty accepted that landscape quality was derived from the interaction between the biophysical features of landscape and the percepultual (judgmental) processes of human viewer. In the future, landscape quality assessment will evolve toward a shaky marriage, both expert- and perceptual approaches will be applied in parallel and merged in the final landscape management decision-making process in some but unspecified way, landscape information and complex geo-temporal dynamics representation central to scenic ecosystem management will present major challenges to the traditional landscape aesthetic assessment, and modem science and technology will continue to help meet these challenges. The main trends of landscape

  17. Highlights in Resource and Environmental Management of Canada and Enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Nailing; Han Yan; Yu Ji; Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    The main environmental issues Canadian faced at present are of resource management,climate change,air pollution,water pollution and solid waste management.Canada federal government,especially the deputy department such as Natural Resource Canada and Environment Canada make actively responses to these pressures,given the mandate of these departments.Through the establishment of intergovernmental cooperative mechanism,enacting plan such as sustainable development strategy,environment Canada agenda,eco-action plan,Canadian characters brilliantly in dealing with resource and environmental issues.The implement framework and the knowledge gained from the progresses of the plans threw some light on China in dealing with the same issues.

  18. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  19. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  20. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....

  1. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....

  2. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity.

  3. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  4. Toxicology and risk assessment information resources for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians work with toxicologists and risk assessors seeking information about chemicals and hazardous substances of concern to human health and the environment. Therefore, this article reviews reliable, accurate, readily accessible, and user-friendly sources of toxicological and risk assessment information. A summary and description of pertinent toxicological data, literature, and profile sources is presented. The majority of the resources are available online; however, descriptions of several important print sources are included.

  5. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  6. Managing water resources for sustainable development: the case of integrated river basin management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R

    2010-01-01

    The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.

  7. [Comprehensive evaluation of eco-tourism resources in Yichun forest region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maozhu; Hu, Haiqing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lijun

    2006-11-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Delphi method, a total of 30 representative evaluation factors in the aspects of tourism resources quantity, environmental quantity, tourism conditions, and tourism functions were chosen to build up a comprehensive quantitative evaluation model to evaluate the eco-tourism resources of Yichun forest region in Northeast China. The results showed that in Yichun forest region, the natural eco-tourism resources were superior to the humanity resources. On the regional distribution of favorable level eco-tourism resources quantity, 4 sites were very prominent, i.e., north (Jiayin) -center (Yichun) -east (Jinshantun) -south (Tieli). As for the distribution of eco-tourism resources type, it was basically in the sequence of north (Jiayin, Tangwang River, Wuying) -center (Yichun, Shangganling) -east (Jinshantun, Meixi) -south (Teli, Dailing). Based on the above analyses, Yichun forest region could be divided into four tourism areas, i.e., the south, the east, the central, and the north. Aimed at the special features of each area, the initial development directions were introduced.

  8. A tentative discussion on the monitoring of water resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqing; Dai, Ning; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid economy development and social civilization progress, the Chinese Government also is improving ecological environmental conditions. More efforts have been made to solve water problems through the implementation of stringent water resources management, as a key government policy on water. Thus, monitoring of water resources has been strengthened, being a main component of the hydrological work in recent years. Compared with routine hydrological monitoring, water resources monitoring pays more attention to the quantity and quality variations of regional waters, to reflect the status of water in river basins and administrative regions. In this paper, the overall layout of the hydrometric network in China is presented, monitoring efforts of the natural water cycle and water consumptions are analyzed, methodologies of water resources monitoring, which are commonly applied in the country, are summed up. Taking the hydrometric network planning on interprovincial boundary waterbodies as example, a summary of the planning at interprovincial boundary river sections is presented. The planning can meet the need of water resources management of administrative divisions. It can also improve the overall water resources monitoring for the country.

  9. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  10. OUTLOOK OF CHINA'S PETROLEUM EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xianzheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas resource situation of China Overall discovered maturity of oil and gas resources not high According to all previous nationwide estimates of oilgas resources, the total resources is relatively abundant in China. The latest resource assessment results, performed by China's three national oil companies (CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC), also indicate that petroleum exploration still has a solid resource base. According to the latest nationwide petroleum resource assessment results and the proved oil and gas geologic reserves at the end of 2004,the average discovery maturity of recoverable oil reserves is 20% in China, with 40% in east China, 14% in westcentral China and 14.5% in offshore China, reflecting that petroleum exploration is still in middle stage with considerable exploration potential.

  11. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  12. INTRODUCING WESTERN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO CHINA: SHOPFLOOR WORKERS' PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Gamble

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of host country employees is often portrayed as a particularly fraught dimension for multinational firms. The problems involved are considered exponentially greater when there are substantial institutional differences and 'cultural distance' between the host country and a firm's parent country, as is assumed to be the case for Western firms operating in China. Based upon detailed case study research conducted at a UK-invested firm in China between 1999 and 2003 and a comparative study of a Chinese state-owned firm, this paper explores the veracity of such assumptions. The findings indicate that Western human resource management practices can be transplanted successfully and questions the degree to which foreign-invested enterprises need to adopt 'the Chinese way of doing things'. Indeed, such practices can be innovative in the Chinese context and provide a competitive source of differentiation for multinationals as employees.

  13. China's human resources for maternal and child health: a national sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenghong; Song, Peige; Theodoratou, Evropi; Guo, Sufang; An, Lin

    2015-12-16

    In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5, the Chinese Government has invested greatly in improving maternal and child health (MCH) with impressive results. However, one of the most important barriers for further improvement is the uneven distribution of MCH human resources. There is little information about the distribution, quantity and capacity of the Chinese MCH human resources and we sought to investigate this. Cities at prefectural level were selected by random cluster sampling. All medical and health institutions providing MCH-related services in the sampled areas were investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data were weighted based on the proportion of the sampled districts/cities. Amount, proportions and numbers per 10,000 population of MCH human resources were estimated in order to reveal the quantity of the Chinese MCH human resources. The capacity of MCH human resources was evaluated by analyzing data on the education level and professional skills of the staff. There were 77,248 MCH workers in China in 2010. In general, 67.6% and 71.9% of the women's and children's health care professionals had an associate degree or higher, whereas around 30% had only high-school or lower degrees. More than 40% of the women's health workers were capable of providing skilled birth attendance, but these proportions varied between different institutions and locations. Evidence from this study highlights that Chinese MCH human resources are not in shortage in the national level. However, the quantity and capacity of MCH human resources are not evenly distributed among different institutions and locations. Finally there is a need in the improvement of the MCH services by improving the quality of MCH human resources.

  14. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  15. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES AT HONGHE NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-Mao; LU Xian-Guo; ZHAO Chun-Hui; ZHAO Yan-Bo; QI Han-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A detailed assessment on water resources of HNNR is to find the changing rules in time and space scale of water resources of HNNR and its adjacent areas, and the generating and degrading factors of wetland and provide scientific base on restoring and managing the hydrologic regime for planning and designing at HNNR. Both the assessment area and its adjacent watershed of Bielahong River belong to the same region in the climate and surface features. Total of 46 years of serial data from 1956-2001 in the Bielahong Hydrology Station was employed. Typical analysis of the serial runoff was conducted by adopting the residual mass curve method. The calculation methods of hydrological parameters are valuable for analyzing the water balance of HNNR. The results showed that the inputs of 118.29 × 106 m3 of the surface runoff and 1 478km2 of the areas of natural watershed in HNNR were decreased. At the same time some measurements to control and prevent water resources decreased have been proposed.

  17. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  18. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  19. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  1. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of the Green for Grain Project in 2000 in Guyuan, China, the decrease in cultivated land and subsequent increase in forest and grassland pose substantial challenges for the supply of biological products. Whether the current biologically productive land-use patterns in Guyuan satisfy the biological product requirements for local people is an urgent problem. In this study, the ecological footprints of biological resource consumption in Guyuan were calculated and analyzed based on the ‘City Hectare’ Ecological Footprint (EF Method. The EFs of different types of biological resource products consumed from different types of biologically productive land were then analyzed. In addition, the EFs of various biological resource products before and after the implementation of the Green for Grain Project (1998 and 2012 were assessed. The actual EF and bio-capacity (BC were compared, and differences in the EF and BC for different types of biologically productive lands before and after the project were analyzed. The results showed that the EF of Guyuan’s biological resource products was 0.65866 ha/cap, with an EF outflow and EF inflow of 0.2280 ha/cap and 0.0951 ha/cap, respectively. The per capita EF of Guyuan significantly decreased after the project, as did the ecological deficit. Whereas the cultivated land showed a deficit, grasslands were characterized by ecological surplus. The total EF of living resource consumption in Guyuan was 810,941 ha, and the total BC was 768,065 ha. In additional to current biological production areas, approximately 42,876 ha will be needed to satisfy the demands of Guyuan’s people. Cultivated land is the main type of biologically productive land that is needed.

  2. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  3. A review of water resources utilization and protection in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiFang Wu; Steve Dry; WanCai Wu; XueBin Liu; JinHui Xiong; WenQi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Yunnan and Guizhou are two provinces in Southwest China where in recent years drought disasters have occurred due to natural and human factors. This paper reviewed literature and summarized the related achievements of water resources utilization and protection in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. This included characters and utilization of precipitation, rivers, and karst ground water in the two provinces, and also the various explanations of drought (climate and human factors) and strategies for coping with droughts. Our concluding remarks highlight three lines of future studies: inequalities and equitable use of water distribution, better evaluation systems, and raising awareness through conservation practices.

  4. In search of the best human resource practices in chain stores in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shanshi; Irene Hau-siu Chow; CHAO Gang

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a recent survey of human resources (HR) practices from 83 chain stores in China. It differentiated managerial staff and operating employees according to different types of HR configurations. It also identified high and low adoption based on bundling of HR practices using cluster analysis. The impact of HR practices alignment on enhancing firm performance was evaluated using high adoption cluster. The findings advance our knowledge in the High Performance Work Systems literature and offer important insights for executives in formulating effective HR management strategies.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  8. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

  9. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

  10. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  11. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  12. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  13. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  14. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  15. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  16. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  17. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  18. Mission Adaptive Uas Capabilities for Earth Science and Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and

  19. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  20. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  1. Discovery of structurally diverse and bioactive compounds from plant resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-ping YANG; Jian-min YUE

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the major discoveries of structurally diverse and/or biologically significant compounds from plant resources in China,mainly from the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) since the establishment of our research group in 1999.In the past decade,a large array of biologically significant and novel structures has been identified from plant resources (or TCM) in our laboratory.The structural modification of several biologically important compounds led to more than 400 derivatives,some of which exhibited significantly improved activities and provided opportunities to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the related compound class.These findings are important for drug discovery and help us understand the biological basis for the traditional applications of these plants in TCM.

  2. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  3. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.

  4. 基于WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ模式的近22年中国海波浪能资源评估%Wave Energy Resources Assessment in the China Sea During the Last 22 Years by Using WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ Wave Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑崇伟; 李训强

    2011-01-01

    The third-generation wave model WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ was used to simulate the wave field of the China Sea from January, 1988 to December, 2009, with wind input of CCMP wind field. In order to e-valuate the wave energy resources reasonably, the seasonal characteristics, frequency of wave energy scale, long-term trend, and stability of wave energy density were analyzed. The result showed that the dominant areas of wave energy resources in the China Sea were found, which could apply guidance to wave power plant location.%以CCMP风场驱动第三代海浪数值模式WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ,得到中国海1988年1月~2009年12月较高分辨率的海浪场,计算了中国海的波浪能流密度,综合考虑能流密度的大小、能级频率、能流密度的稳定性等各方面对波浪能资源进行研究,寻找波浪能资源的相对优势区域,为波浪能资源的开发与利用(如海浪发电的选址)提供科学依据.

  5. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  6. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Great River NWR and Clarence Cannon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource needs and...

  7. Sustainability of Water Resources in Arid Ecosystems: A View from Hei River Basin, China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Xiao, H.; Ma, R.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest of China is characterized by an arid climate and fragile ecosystems. With irrigated agriculture, the region is a prolific producer of cotton, wheat, and maize with some of the highest output per acre in the country. The region is also rich in ore deposits, with the reserves of numerous minerals ranked at or near the top in the country. However, the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and economic development in the region is threaten by severe eco-environmental problems resulting from both global changes and human activities, such as desertification, salinization, groundwater depletion, and dust storms. All these problems are a direct consequence of water scarcity. As global warming accelerates and rapid economic growth continues, the water shortage crisis is expected to worsen. To improve the bleak outlook for the health of ecosystem and environment in northwest China, the Chinese government has invested heavily in ecosystem restoration and watershed management in recent years. However, the effectiveness of such measures and actions depends on scientific understanding of the complex interplays among ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic factors. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to study the integration of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations toward more sustainable exploitation of surface water and groundwater resources in the Hei River Basin in northwest China. The Hei River Basin is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid region in East Asia, stretching from Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the desert in the north bordering China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia. The total area of Hei River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2. The research initiative builds on existing research infrastructure and ecohydrological data and seeks to reveal complex

  8. Simulation of water resource and its relation to urban activity in Dalian City, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T.; Sun, Y.; Geng, Y.

    2010-09-01

    The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was applied to the Biliu River catchment, northern China, to estimate the carrying capacity of the water resource there. The model reproduced well the water and heat budgets after the construction of a reservoir in the middle reach of the river. It also correctly backcasted the degradation of water resources such as river discharge and groundwater after the completion of the reservoir. Calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite data clearly showed vegetation degradation downstream of the reservoir. Statistical analysis of a decoupling indicator based on the simulated water carrying capacity and on the satellite data of vegetation index indicated that water-related stress in Dalian city, where the economy has grown rapidly after the completement of the reservoir, has increased in accordance with the environmental degradation below the reservoir. The results indicate a close relationship between water resource and economic growth, which has greatly affected ecosystem degradation and its serious burden on the environment in the catchment. The simulated results highlight the linkage between urban development in Dalian and sustainable water resource management.

  9. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  11. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2017-06-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  12. Resource and Environmental Issues in Transitional China: A Perspective from the Interaction Among Market,Government and Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Haixia; Qu Futian; Zhu Peixin; Shi Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth of economy in the postreform period after 1979,China has faced severe problems of resource overusing and environmental degradation which would threaten the sustainable development of economy and society.This article explores an effective mechanism of managing resource and environment in China.It examines some major resource and environmental issues,and constructs a framework of institution innovation to cover three sectors(government,market and society).In addition,the article analyzes their experience and evaluation in resource management and environmental conservation during the transitional period.We argue that the combination of market regulation,government intervention and public participation is an effective way of allocating resource and protecting environment.Some suggestions are put forward to balance the relationship between them,including coordinating role of government and market,building platform for market operation and creating an atmosphere of public participation.

  13. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  14. Unconventional uranium resources in China%中国非常规铀资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆富成; 张字龙; 李治兴; 王志明; 何中波; 王文全

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional uranium resources in China mainly include black-rock series, peat, salt lake and evaporitic rocks. Among them, uraniferous black-rock series, uraniferous phosphorite and uranium-polymetallic phosphorite connected with black-rock series are important types for the sustainable support of uranium resources in China. Down-faulting and epocontinental rift in continental margin are the most important and beneficial ore-forming environment for unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China and produced a series of geochemistry combinations, such as, U-Cd, U-V-Mo, U-V-Re、U-V-Ni-Mo and U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-Tl. Unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China is related to uranium-rich marine black-rock series which are made up of hydrothermal sedimentary siliceous rocks, siliceous phospheorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock and settled in the continental margin down-faulting and epicontinental rift accompanied by submarine backwash and marine volcano eruption. Hydrothermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentary is the mechanism to form unconventional uranium resources in black-rock series or large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in China.%中国非常规铀资源主要包含黑色岩系型和盐湖型。其中与黑色岩系有关的含铀黑色岩系型、含铀磷块岩型、铀多金属磷块岩型是对中远期保障我国铀资源可持续供给有重要意义的类型。陆缘裂谷、陆缘裂陷环境是中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源最重要、最有利的成矿环境,形成U-Cd型、U-V-Mo型、U-V-Re型、U-V-Ni-Mo型和U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-T1型等地球化学组合。中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源铀成矿作用受控于陆缘裂谷、陆缘裂陷环境下伴随海底喷流作用和海底火山喷发而沉积的由热水沉积硅质岩、硅质磷块岩和碳硅泥岩组成的富铀海相黑色岩系,热水沉积作用或喷气-沉积是形成中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源或发生大规

  15. Extensive, strategic assessment of southeast Alaska's vegetative resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert R. Mead

    2005-01-01

    Effective natural resources management requires knowledge of the character of resources and of interactions between resource components. Estimates of forest and other vegetation resources are presented to provide managers with information about the character of the resource. Slightly less than half (48%) of southeast Alaska has some type of forest land cover, about 29...

  16. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  17. Assessing local resources and culture before instituting quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C Matthew

    2014-12-01

    The planning phases of quality improvement projects are commonly overlooked. Disorganized planning and implementation can escalate chaos, intensify resistance to change, and increase the likelihood of failure. Two important steps in the planning phase are (1) assessing local resources available to aid in the quality improvement project and (2) evaluating the culture in which the desired change is to be implemented. Assessing local resources includes identifying and engaging key stakeholders and evaluating if appropriate expertise is available for the scope of the project. This process also involves engaging informaticists and gathering available IT tools to plan and automate (to the extent possible) the data-gathering, analysis, and feedback steps. Culture in a department is influenced by the ability and willingness to manage resistance to change, build consensus, span boundaries between stakeholders, and become a learning organization. Allotting appropriate time to perform these preparatory steps will increase the odds of successfully performing a quality improvement project and implementing change. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamical resource nexus assessments: from accounting to sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoral, Gloria; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2017-04-01

    Continued economic development and population growth result in increasing pressures on natural resources, from local to international levels, for meeting societal demands on water, energy and food. To date there are a few tools that link models to identify the relationships and to account for flows of water, energy and food. However, these tools in general can offer only a static view often at national level and with annual temporal resolution. Moreover, they can only account flows but cannot consider the required amounts and conditions of the natural capital that supplies and maintains these flows. With the emerging nexus thinking, our research is currently focused on promoting dynamical environmental analyses beyond the conventional silo mentalities. Our study aims to show new advancements in existing tools (e.g., dynamical life cycle assessment) and develop novel environmental indicators relevant for the resource nexus assessment. We aim to provide a step forward when sustainability conditions and resilience thresholds are aligned with flows under production (e.g., food, water and energy), process level under analysis (e.g., local production, transport, manufacturing, final consumption, reuse, disposal) and existing biophysical local conditions. This approach would help to embrace and better characterise the spatiotemporal dynamics, complexity and existing links between and within the natural and societal systems, which are crucial to evaluate and promote more environmentally sustainable economic activities.

  19. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.

  20. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  1. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  4. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB) in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD). Then, generalized drought times (GDT), generalized drought duration (GDD), and generalized drought severity (GDS) were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) to the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  5. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Weng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD. Then, generalized drought times (GDT, generalized drought duration (GDD, and generalized drought severity (GDS were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought to the period 1960–2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  6. Exploring the dynamics of agricultural climatic resource utilization of spring maize over the past 50 years in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Guo, Jianping; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the utilization dynamics of agricultural climatic resource during spring maize cultivation from 1961 to 2010 in Northeast China. To understand these dynamics, we used the daily data from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1961 and 2010. The demands on agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China imposed by the cultivation of spring maize were combined and agricultural climatic suitability theory was applied. The growth period of spring maize was further detailedly divided into four stages: germination to emergence, emergence to jointing, jointing to tasseling, and tasseling to maturity. The average resource utilization index was established to evaluate the effects. Over the past five decades, Northeast China experienced increases in daily average temperature of 0.246 °C every decade during the growing season (May-September). At the same time, strong fluctuating decreases were observed in average total precipitation of 8.936 mm every decade and an average sunshine hour of 0.122 h every decade. Significant temporal and spatial changes occurred in K from 1961 to 2010. The K showed decreasing trends in Liaoning province and increasing trends in Jilin and especially in Heilongjiang province, which increased by 0.11. Spatial differences were visible in different periods, and the most obvious increase was found in the period 2001-2010. The areas with high values of K shifted northeastward over the past 50 years, indicating more efficient use of agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China.

  7. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  8. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  9. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  10. Assessment of ecological footprint of land use in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Baizhan

    2009-07-01

    The land use in China has an important impact on environment and the Chinese economic development. The sustainable development has been recognized as the key element to keep China's development with success in the future. This paper uses ecological footprint and biological capacity as indicators to measure regional sustainable degree of land use. The ecological footprint and the biological capacity of land use in Chongqing municipality with 28 million populations have been calculated from 1999 to 2007. The ecological footprint and the biological capacity of land use in Chongqing municipality had obvious changed from 1999 to 2007. The change degree of ecological footprint affected by land use is more prominent than the change degree of biological capacity. The fossil energy land possesses the most proportion, which exceeds 58% in average. The cropland is also an important effect to ecological footprint, which achieves to 35% in proportion. The results from the research can inform the Chongqing municipality government in more detail enhances the land protection in the balance of urban development with society, ecology, environment and resource.

  11. Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment Accounting for Human Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs are one of the main infrastructures that provide resilience against extremes (e.g., floods and droughts) and they play a key role in water resources management. Based on International Commission of Large Dams (ICOLD 2003) records, the total volume of reservoirs is over 6200 km3, which is twice larger than the global annual water use estimated as 3000 km3. Just a simple comparison of the two numbers indicates the importance of reservoirs and their role in providing resilience for water security. On the other hand, man-made reservoirs change the water distribution throughout the year. Most climate change impact studies ignore the role of reservoirs in water availability studies. However, water availability cannot be properly assessed without a thorough assessment of reservoir conditions. By combining classical methods for climate variability assessment (top-down approach) and influence assessment (bottom-up approach), this study offers a hybrid framework that integrates different drivers of water storage vulnerability. Final index is termed as the Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). This index investigates the adaptive capacity of the reservoir and exposure of the system to variable conditions. MSRRI has been investigated over several major reservoirs in Australia and California, United States. This presentation reviews recent findings and discusses reservoir conditions in Australia and California using MSRRI under different climatic change scenarios.

  12. Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Forestry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forestry and forest ecosystem are highly sensitive to climate change.At present,studies about the responses of forests to climate change in China are more focused on physical influences of climate change.This paper firstly divided the key impact factors of climate change on forest and forestry developing into direct factors and indirect factors,and then made an assessment on climate change affecting future forestry development from the aspect of forest products and ecological services.On this basis,the adap...

  13. The Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument: Evaluating features, amenities and incivilities of physical activity resources in urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Gail

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood environment factors may influence physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief instrument to systematically document and describe the type, features, amenities, quality and incivilities of a variety of PA resources. Method The one-page Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument was developed to assess all publicly available PA resources in thirteen urban lower income, high ethnic minority concentration neighborhoods that surrounded public housing developments (HDs and four higher income, low ethnic minority concentration comparison neighborhoods. Neighborhoods had similar population density and connectivity. Trained field coders rated 97 PA resources (including parks, churches, schools, sports facilities, fitness centers, community centers, and trails on location, type, cost, features, amenities, quality and incivilities. Assessments typically took about 10 minutes to complete. Results HD neighborhoods had a mean of 4.9 PA resources (n = 73 with considerable variability in the type of resources available for each neighborhood. Comparison neighborhoods had a mean of 6 resources (n = 24. Most resources were accessible at no cost (82%. Resources in both types of neighborhoods typically had about 2 to 3 PA features and amenities, and the quality was usually mediocre to good in both types of neighborhoods. Incivilities at PA resources in HD neighborhoods were significantly more common than in comparison neighborhoods. Conclusion Although PA resources were similar in number, features and amenities, the overall appearance of the resources in HD neighborhoods was much worse as indicated by substantially worse incivilities ratings in HD neighborhoods. The more comprehensive assessment, including features, amenities and incivilities, provided by the PARA may be important to distinguish between PA resources in lower and higher deprivation areas.

  14. Geothermal Resources in China Les ressources géothermiques de la Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K. S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals mainly with the distribution features, briefly describes the geology in the three geothermal fields of different types in Beijing, Yangbajing of Xizang (Tibet, and Dengwu of Guangdong, and finally gives on account of the development and utilization of geothermal resources. Up to now, more, than 2,500 geothermal water points (including hot springs, hot-water wells, and hot water in mines have been found. Four major geothermal zones and three basic types of geothermal resources can be preliminarily divided. In China, geothermal resources have been used for the purposes of power generating, industry and agriculture, medical treatment, etc. This article contains a sketch map showing the distribution of geothermal water in China. Cet article porte sur les caractéristiques de répartition, les types essentiels et les conditions de formation des ressources géothermiques, explique brièvement la géologie de trois types différents de champs géothermiques : Pékin, Yanbajin de Xiang (Tibet et de Dengwu de Guangdong et enfin présente l'exploitation et l'utilisation des ressources géothermiques. Jusqu'à présent, on a découvert plus de 2500 points d'eaux géothermiques (y compris sources thermales, puits des eaux thermales et les eaux thermales apparues dans les mines. lis sont subdivisés en quatre zones géothermiques principales et trois types essentiels de ressources géothermiques. Les ressources géothermiques ont trouvé leur utilisation dans la production de l'électricité, dans l'industrie, l'agriculture et le traitement médical, etc. On trouve dans cet article une esquisse de répartition des ressources géothermiques de la Chine.

  15. Simplified assessment method of natural resource damage from oil spill in Washington State of United States and the application of this method in Xiamen Bay of East China%美国华盛顿州溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法及其在厦门湾的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 陆志强; 王翠; 李吉鹏

    2013-01-01

    Marine oil spill incidents are mostly small in size, it is quite necessary to have a sim-plified method to assess the natural resource damage from such small oil spills in a manner of fas-ter, less costly, and less information intensive. Based on the Washington State's simplified oil spill compensation schedule method of the United States, a modification was made in this paper, according to the characteristics of marine environment and the distribution of ecological sensitive targets in Xiamen Bay of China. The oil effects, including acute toxicity, mechanical injury and persistence, as well as the vulnerability of marine and estuarine habitats, birds, Chinese white dolphin, lancelet, shellfish, and recreation were determinate to evaluate the nature resource damages from the simulated small oil spill incident in Xiamen Bay. Suppose there was a spill of 2.4 m3 of Bunker C from a construction ship in eastern area of Xiamen Bay. Of the area covered by the spill, 90% was open water, 8% was marine intertidal exposed sandy beach, and 2% was marine subtidal sand. The calculated monetary damage from the spill was 93500 RMB, based on the oil effects scores and the habitat vulnerability scores.%海洋溢油事故多以小型溢油为主,研究快速高效、耗费较低且所需信息量较少的溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法十分必要.本文以美国华盛顿州自然资源损害简易评估方法为框架,根据厦门湾海洋环境特点和生态敏感目标分布状况,确定溢油的环境效应包括溢油的急性毒性,机械伤害和持久性效应以及海洋与河口不同生境类型、鸟类、中华白海豚、文昌鱼、贝类以及旅游休憩行为对溢油的敏感程度,并据此估算模拟厦门湾小型溢油事故的自然资源损害价值.假设厦门湾东部海域某海洋工程施工船舶泄露船用重质燃料油2.4 m3,预测油膜污染影响面积约3.60 km2,其中开阔水域面积约占90%,海洋潮

  16. Assessment of Wave Energy in the South China Sea Based on GIS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China is now the world’s largest user of coal and also has the highest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining and use of coal. Under today’s enormous pressures of the growing shortage of conventional energy sources and the need for emission reductions, the search for clean energy is the most effective strategy to address the energy crisis and global warming. This study utilized satellite remote sensing technology, geographic information system (GIS technology, and simulated wave data for the South China Sea. The characteristic features of the wave energy were obtained by analysis through the wave resource assessment formula and the results were stored in a GIS database. Software for the evaluation of wave energy in the South China Sea was written. The results should provide accurate, efficient references for wave energy researchers and decision-makers. Based on a 24-year WW3 model simulation wave data and GIS technology, this study presented the characteristic of the wave energy in the SCS; results demonstrated that the SCS has the feasibility and viability for wave energy farming.

  17. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  18. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  19. Sustainability assessment for Yanbian forest region, Jilin Province, Northeast China, based on ecological footprint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaofei; CHEN Fusheng; HU Anfeng; DAI Limin

    2007-01-01

    Ecological footprint(EF)is one of the most important indicators in assessing the status and capacity of sustainable development.In this paper,the EF of Yanbian forest region,Jilin Province,Northeast China,was calculated and analyzed by statistical yearbooks and forest yearbooks from 1996 to 2002.Results showed that the EF per capita decreased,ecological carrying capacity(ECC)per capita almost kept a static status,and ecological surplus per capita increased year after year.The EF per 10 thousand Yuan GDP per capita in Yanbian decreased from 1996 to 2002.This trend was similar to that in western China,and distinctly higher than that in eastern China.The forest EF per capita kept a steady status,while the forest production footprint (FPF)and forest export footprint(FEF)decreased.Comparing the two years before and after the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program(NFPP)with the five years,the mean value of FPF and FEF reduced by 0.341 (46.32%)and 0.327 hm2 per capita(54.94%),respectively.In conclusion,the regional and forest development in Yanbian was sustainable,and the implementation of NFPP was favorable to improving sustainable development of forest region.However,the sustainability capacity was still lower than those in forest developed countries.Therefore,it is very necessary to improve forest productivity,resource use efficiency and management of forest ecosystems scientifically.

  20. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  1. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  2. Landscape ecological assessment and eco-tourism development in the South Dongting Lake Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Bao-zhong

    2003-03-01

    As an important resource and the living environment of mankind, wetland has become gradually a highlight, strongly concerned and intensively studied by scientists and sociologists. The governments in the world and the whole society have been paying more and more attention on it. The Dongting Lake of China is regarded as an internationally important wetland. For a rational development and protection of the wetland, an investigation and studied on its resources and its value to tourism in the South Dongting Lake was conducted, to create an assessment system of the ecological landscapes, and to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the value of wetland landscape to the ecotourism. The results showed that the scenic value of the South Dongting Lake Wetland satisfied the criterion of AAAA grade of China national scenic attraction. The eco-tourism value of the landscape cultures in the South Dongting Lake Wetland was discussed with emphasis. It were formulated that a principle and frame of sustainable exploitation of the wetland landscapes and it was proposed as well that establishing a Wetland Park and developing eco-tourism in the South Dongting Lake Wetland is a fragile ecosystem with low resistance to the impact of the exploitation. Thus, we must pay intensively attention to the influence of exploitation on the landscape, take the ecological risk in account to employ a right countermeasure and avoid the negative affection.

  3. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  4. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  5. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined

  6. Identifying and understanding the main challenges for sustainable water resource management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355129876

    2015-01-01

    This article explores China’s water resource management through the application of a 10 building-block governance assessment method, which, from a holistic and integral perspective, identifies the main strengths and weaknesses of the system. It aims to provide readers with a comprehen- sive view of

  7. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Today 40 % of the European land area is covered with forests managed for the provision of ecosystem services including timber production. Forests store large amounts of carbon and are the main resource for the growing demand of a bio-based economy. They are also a major source for biodiversity. Thus a consistent pan-European gridded data set on the state of forest resources is essential for researchers, policy makers and conservationists to study and understand the European forests for the global carbon cycle independent of political boundaries. The purpose of this study is to use existing European data to develop a consistent pan-European data set for Net Primary Production (NPP), live tree carbon per hectare, volume per hectare, mean tree height and mean tree age by integrating remotely sensed satellite data and harmonized NFI data from 13 different European countries. We provide new NPP estimates using the MOD17 algorithm by collating a newly down-scaled daily climate dataset across Europe. By consolidating these two independent productivity data sources (top down satellite versus bottom up terrestrial forest NFI data) for assessing forest resources in Europe, we are able to detect and quantify forest management impacts. We produce a pan-European map for each of the five key variables on a 0.133° grid representing the time period 2000-2010. The results show distinct differences in the carbon storage of European forests due to biophysical limits and regional historic drivers in forest management, which directly affect the carbon mitigation option of European forests. We use this data to assess the state of forest resources across Europe showing that mountainous regions have the highest carbon and volume per hectare values, central Europe has the tallest mean tree heights and Austria and Northern Scandinavia have the oldest mean tree ages. Cross-validation of the data indicates that the error varies by forest characteristic but shows negligible biases for all. We

  8. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H.M. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, J.D. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)]. E-mail: wang-jinda@163.com; Zhang, X.L. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)

    2006-11-15

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg{sup -1}). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version.

  9. Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the data from 1989 to 2009 in China, we conduct regression analysis on the total output value of agriculture, the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, total power of agricultural machinery, effective irrigation area, and the damage area. The results show that the usage amount of chemical fertilizer and the damage area, the great obstacle to the construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture, have significant impact on the output value of agriculture; total power of agricultural machinery and effective irrigation area have insignificant impact on the output value of agriculture. Based on these, the suggestions for promoting the development of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture are put forward as follows: transform agricultural production mode, and optimize the industrial structure of agriculture; promote scientific use of chemical fertilizer, and promote the ability of agriculture to resist risks; promote the development of biogas in rural areas, and carry out the comprehensive use of biological material resources in rural areas.

  10. China's Ultimate Recoverable Reserves Calculated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong

    2003-01-01

    @@ A nationwide project is being launched to assess the potential capacity of China's oil and natural gas resources, a senior official from the Ministry of Land and Resources said in early December. Based on the existing data, China's oil and natural gas reserves are estimated at 106.9 billion tons and 53trillion cubic meters respectively at the present time.

  11. Assessing health-related resources in senior living residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan A; Sallis, James F; Rosenberg, Dori; Leak, Chikarlo R; Saelens, Brian E; Chapman, James E; Frank, Lawrence D; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; King, Abby C

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated a new tool, "The Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors" (APARS), which assesses the physical activity environment in Senior Living Residences (SLRs). Audits were conducted in 29 SLRs and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Pearson correlations were examined between APARS items and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time, and self-rated health, collected from residents at a subset of 12 SLRs (N=147). Eighty-nine of the 90 items (98.9%) demonstrated Kappa or ICC values above .70 and/or percent agreement above 80%. The 90 items were summarized into nine scales. Two scales (outside supportive physical activity features/functionality and outside exercise facilities) were related to greater physical activity and less sedentary time. Four scales (inside social facilities, onsite services, exercise programs, and social activities) were related to greater sedentary time and better self-rated health. APARS items demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and some evidence for construct validity to assess health-related environments in retirement facilities. Social activities in SLRs could benefit residents by incorporating more physical activity. Use of APARS could inform more health-promoting designs of senior living facilities.

  12. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  13. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  14. Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; He, G.; Ni, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The Protected Areas (PAs) with natural, ecological and cultural value play important role in biological processes, biodiversity and ecosystem service. During the past years of rapid urban expansion in China, the spatial range and intensity of light pollution unprecedented increase. Historically, optical remote sensing and field survey data had been used to reveal that human activities impacted on PAs for individual areas and few papers documented the issue of light pollution impact on PAs at national scale. Here, time series night-time light satellite images of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) were selected to assess the light pollution impacted on PAs in China. The method we proposed can be effectively applied to assess the impact of light pollution on PAs and the percent of dark PAs decreased by 35.38 % from 1992 to 2012 at nationwide. The trend of light pollution of most PAs in stable, however, light pollution of the local area is increase significantly, especially in northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Shandong. Considering the current status of light pollution encroach into PAs, two strategies of appropriate buffer zone and wide measured for light pollution are also recommend.

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Songhua River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Songhua River Basin (SRB in Northeast China is one of the areas most sensitive to global climate change because of its high-latitude location. In this study, we conducted a modeling assessment on the potential change of water resources in this region for the coming three decades using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. First, we calibrated and validated the model with historical streamflow records in this basin. Then, we applied the calibrated model for the period from 2020 to 2049 with the projected and downscaled climatic data under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The study results show: (1 The SWAT model performed very well for both the calibration and validation periods in the SRB; (2 The projected temperatures showed a steady, significant increase across the SRB under both scenarios, especially in two sub-basins, the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB and the Lower SRB (LSRB. With regard to precipitation, both scenarios showed a decreasing trend in the NRB and LSRB but an increasing trend in the Upper Songhua River Basin (USRB; and (3, generally, the hydrologic modeling suggested a decreasing trend of streamflow for 2020–2049. Compared to baseline conditions (1980–2009, the streamflow in the NRB and LSRB would decrease by 20.3%–37.8%, while streamflow in the USRB would experience an increase of 9.68%–17.7%. These findings provide relevant insights into future surface water resources, and such information can be helpful for resource managers and policymakers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies in the face of climate change.

  17. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  18. Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on TB in China, India and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Nicolas A; Gomez, Gabriela B; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Chatterjee, Susmita; Foster, Nicola; Baena, Ines Garcia; Laurence, Yoko V; Qiang, Sun; Siroka, Andrew; Sweeney, Sedona; Verguet, Stéphane; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Azman, Andrew S; Bendavid, Eran; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Denholm, Justin T; Dowdy, David W; Eckhoff, Philip A; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Handel, Andreas; Huynh, Grace H; Lalli, Marek; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Mandal, Sandip; McBryde, Emma S; Pandey, Surabhi; Salomon, Joshua A; Suen, Sze-chuan; Sumner, Tom; Trauer, James M; Wagner, Bradley G; Whalen, Christopher C; Wu, Chieh-Yin; Boccia, Delia; Chadha, Vineet K; Charalambous, Salome; Chin, Daniel P; Churchyard, Gavin; Daniels, Colleen; Dewan, Puneet; Ditiu, Lucica; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Grant, Alison D; Hippner, Piotr; Hosseini, Mehran; Mametja, David; Pretorius, Carel; Pillay, Yogan; Rade, Kiran; Sahu, Suvanand; Wang, Lixia; Houben, Rein MGJ; Kimerling, Michael E; White, Richard G; Vassall, Anna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The End TB Strategy sets global goals of reducing TB incidence and mortality by 50% and 75% respectively by 2025. We assessed resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled-up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent TB modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we costed each scenario by synthesizing service utilization estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies. We estimated health impact and resource implications for 2016–2035, including patient-incurred costs. To assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness, we compared scenarios to a base case representing continued current practice. FINDINGS Incremental TB service costs differed by scenario and country, and in some cases more than doubled current funding needs. In general, expanding TB services substantially reduced patient-incurred costs; and in India and China this produced net cost-savings for most interventions under a societal perspective. In all countries, expanding TB care access produced substantial health gains. Compared to current practice, most intervention approaches appeared highly cost-effective when compared to conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds. INTERPRETATION Expanding TB services appears cost-effective for high-burden countries and could generate substantial health and economic benefits for patients, though funding needs challenge affordability. Further work is required to determine the optimal intervention mix for each country. PMID:27720689

  19. On the Regional Coordinated Development Between Tourism Human Resource and Tourism Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is one of the typical labor intensive industries and tourism human resource (HR) is the main factor for regional discrepancy of tourism industry. The paper takes China as research region and evaluates the level of tourism HR and the level of tour- ism industry of 31 provinces respectively. First, the paper con- structs evaluation index of regional tourism industry and tourism HR. Then, the paper gets the evaluation scores of every province by applying the principal components analysis and statistical pack- age for the social sciences processing. Second, the paper builds the tourism development-tourism HR matrix and divides the matrix into four quadrants. Finally, the paper points out the problems of tourism HR that exist in the 31 provinces and puts forward devel- opment strategy.

  20. Livelihood Sustainability and Community Based Co-Management of Forest Resources in China: Changes and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  1. Impact of Global Warming on Water Resource in Arid Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Aigang; DING Yongjian; PANG Hongxi; YUAN Lingling; HE Yuanqing

    2005-01-01

    As the unprecedented global warming is under way, the glacier retreat is getting more and more serious. In the inland arid area of Northwest China, due to very scarce precipitation, where there is water, there are oases. And the glacier melt water amounts to 22 % of the total direct supply of the inland river water and is of crucial importance to the survival and development of the oases. In this paper,using both the observed data and the previous research achievements of the glaciers in the inland valley of Northwest China where the oasis depending on the glacier is the only location suitable for human living, the authors describe the glacier retreat trend over the past half century, focusing on discussing the possible impact of the glacier retreat on the melt water runoff that is almost the only water resource efficient to nourish the oases. The authors find that even with increasing amount of water from the glacier with global warming, the water shortage is getting more and more serious and the environment is under a degrading way due to the accelerating economical development. The water shortage is bound to be more serious if the glacier retreat keeps on, especially after the glacier melt water is over its top for the degraded glacier scale. So suggestions are stressed in the end that a new water-saving pattern should be adopted in the area for a sustainable development due to the warming-up induced continuous glacier retreat.

  2. Grain production versus resource and environmental costs: towards increasing sustainability of nutrient use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoqiang; Lyu, Yang; Wu, Xiaobin; Li, Haigang; Cheng, Lingyun; Zhang, Chaochun; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Jiang, Baiwen; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Fusuo; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-09-01

    Over the past five decades, Chinese grain production has increased 4-fold, from 110 Mt in 1961 to 557 Mt in 2014, with less than 9% of the world's arable land feeding 22% of the world's population, indicating a substantial contribution to global food security. However, compared with developed economies, such as the USA and the European Union, more than half of the increased crop production in China can be attributed to a rapid increase in the consumption of chemicals, particularly fertilizers. Excessive fertilization has caused low nutrient use efficiency and high environmental costs in grain production. We analysed the key requirements underpinning increased sustainability of crop production in China, as follows: (i) enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce nutrient losses by fertilizing roots not soil to maximize root/rhizosphere efficiency with innovative root zone nutrient management; (ii) improve crop productivity and resource use efficiency by matching the best agronomic management practices with crop improvement; and (iii) promote technology transfer of the root zone nutrient management to achieve the target of high yields and high efficiency with low environmental risks on a broad scale. Coordinating grain production and environmental protection by increasing the sustainability of nutrient use will be a key step in achieving sustainable crop production in Chinese agriculture.

  3. Vulnerability assessment of urban ecosystems driven by water resources, human health and atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xinshuang; He, Li

    2016-05-01

    As ecosystem management is a hotspot and urgent topic with increasing population growth and resource depletion. This paper develops an urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment method representing a new vulnerability paradigm for decision makers and environmental managers, as it's an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes in terms of natural, human, economic and social elements. The whole idea is to decompose a complex problem into sub-problem, and analyze each sub-problem, and then aggregate all sub-problems to solve this problem. This method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and socio-economic elements. Decision makers can find out relevant urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitude. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a case study area in Beijing, China, where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the Beijing City Master Plan. The results of urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment can support decision makers in evaluating the necessary of taking specific measures to preserve the quality of human health and environmental stressors for a city or multiple cities, with identifying the implications and consequences of their decisions.

  4. Human resource staffing and service functions of community health services organizations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Hang; Duckitt, Roger; Liang, Wannian

    2008-01-01

    We report a study on the developmental status of human resource staffing and service functions of community health services (CHS) in China and offer recommendations for improving the CHS in the future. A study questionnaire was completed by 712 CHS organizations distributed in 52 cities and districts in all areas of China using a multilevel stratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected on the backgrounds, human resources, and service functions of CHS organizations. We found that 68.2% of doctors and 86.5% of nurses employed in CHS centers have low-level medical training. The doctor-nurse ratio in CHS centers is 1.2 to 1 and in CHS stations is 1.3 to 1. More than 50% of CHS organizations have developed on-the-job training programs, causing cost trends for staff training to increase. Although the delivery of basic clinical services and public health services is steadily increasing, 58.6% of stations are open less than 12 hours per day. Health records are established in a high proportion of CHS organizations. Two kinds of health education--general public health education, and personal education for specific problems--have been adopted by more than 92% of CHS centers and 90% of CHS stations. Desired functions for CHS organizations have been partially achieved. Training for doctors and nurses engaged in CHS should be promoted and improved as quickly as possible. Training in basic clinical services and management of noncommunicable chronic diseases should be strongly promoted. Changes in government policies should be pursued to promote effective support for the development of CHS.

  5. Sustainable Management of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study from the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, C.; Zheng, L.; Wu, J.; Lei, Y.

    2005-12-01

    With the dramatic increase of population and rapid growth of municipal and industrial water demands, global water shortage is becoming more and more acute. One of the most striking examples for groundwater depletion is the North China Plain (NCP). As the most important center of agricultural production and home to more than 200 million people in China, NCP is experiencing a rapid depletion of its groundwater resources. Groundwater levels in many parts of NCP are currently declining at a rate of 1 m/year or even more due to excessive pumping. A numerical groundwater flow model was developed in this study for the Shijiazhuang region, a typical part of NCP where groundwater is the main water supply source for local agriculture irrigation and municipal and industrial water needs. The model indicated unsustainable groundwater utilization as the pumping exceeds recharge by a large amount. In this study, management optimization modeling was conducted to quantify and improve the sustainability of groundwater utilization in the study area. Based on the calibrated flow model, an optimization formulation was first set up to identify the optimal pumping well locations and rates that lead to the maximum total yield subject to a series of water level constraints. A second optimization formulation was then considered to minimize the total management costs required to meet the projected total water demands, also subject to the same set of water level constraints. The optimization models in this study provide a useful tool for developing cost-effective strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resources on the NCP. The findings from this study are of potentially wide interest to other parts of the world under similar hydrogeological and economic conditions.

  6. 78 FR 40425 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource... Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation Center Land Transfer... of land at the J. Phil Campbell, Senior (JPC), Natural Resource Conservation Center (NRCC) from the...

  7. INRA Water Resource Management Research and EducationNeeds Assessment Project

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Water Resources Research Needs Assessment team received funding in summer 2006 from the Inland Northwest Research Alliance (INRA) Water Resources Steering Committee to conduct a structured needs assessment study. The study was motivated by the desire to allow future INRA research and educational programs to meet better the needs of water resources managers in the five state INRA region.

  8. China: an emerging offshore wind development hotspot. With a new assessment of China's offshore wind potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinvang, Rasmus; Enslow, Rachel; Beaumont, Hubert

    2010-08-15

    This study provides new and more detailed estimates of the offshore wind energy resources in China, with particular focus on Southern China. The study points out that the offshore wind industry is ramping up in China with at least 11.9GW in the development pipeline per April 2010. The study estimates the offshore wind potential of China (excluding Taiwan) to 11,580TWh/year. The study proves estimates and wind energy resource maps per province. Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan stand out with the highest offshore wind speeds in China while Guangdong also shows significant potential, with annual wind speed averages of 6.5-10.2m/s and an energy density range of 12-36GWh/km2. Even though current offshore wind development is mainly taking place in Fujian and Jiangsu, this study shows that the potential is likely even greater in other provinces. The study was developed by the Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA) and Sun Yat-sen University, and commissioned by WWF as part of a project funded by the Norwegian Agency of development Coopeartion (Norad). Methodology and constraints: The wind resource analysis improves upon previous studies in estimating the wind energy generation potential for offshore wind power in China, with available meteorological data adjusted for influence of typhoons. The study models how much energy offshore wind can produce along China's coast up to 100km from the shore by calculating the energy output of theoretical wind farms by applying the power curve of a 3MW turbine at a 100m hub height. In addition the study further expands by giving special consideration to the deep-sea offshore potential at +50m water depths. The study focuses particularly on the coastline from Shandong down to Hainan. The final results provide good indication of the offshore wind resource in China when comparing one area to the other. The report can therefore be used as a preliminary tool to identifying most interesting provinces and locations for offshore wind

  9. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  10. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Stewart, a US Army Forces Command facility located near Savannah, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. PNL, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has designed a model program applicable to the federal sector for this purpose. The model program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Stewart. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Stewart by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  11. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  12. Measurement and assessment of carrying capacity of the environment in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R Z; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2011-08-01

    Carrying Capacity of the Environment (CCE) provides a useful measure of the sustainable development of a region. Approaches that use integrated assessment instead of measurement can lead to misinterpretation of sustainable development because of confusion between Environmental Stress (ES) indexes and CCE indexes, and the selection of over-simple linear plus models. The present paper proposes a comprehensive measurement system for CCE which comprises models of natural resources capacity, environmental assimilative capacity, ecosystem services capacity, and society supporting capacity. The corresponding measurable indexes are designed to assess CCE using a carrying capacity surplus ratio model and a vector of surplus ratio of carrying capacity model. The former aims at direct comparison of ES and CCE based on the values of basic indexes, and the latter uses a Euclidean vector to assess CCE states. The measurement and assessment approaches are applicable to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and environmental planning and management. A case study is presented for Ningbo, China, whereby all the basic indexes of ECC are measured and the CCE states assessed for 2005 and 2010.

  13. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper ... energy. There is much debate worldwide over natural resource allocations; this is ... foreseeable future) these are solar radiation, geothermal ... involves identifying the resources by researchers,.

  14. Coordinating ecological risk assessment with natural resource damage assessment: A panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  16. Assessment of intraseasonal variabilities in China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHOU Lei; FU Hongli; JIANG Lianghong; ZHANG Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    A regional reanalysis product—China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA)—has been developed for the China's seas and the adjacent areas. In this study, the intraseasonal variabilities (ISVs) in CORA are assessed by comparing with observations and two other reanalysis products (ECCO2 and SODA). CORA shows a better performance in capturing the intraseasonal sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the intraseasonal sea surface heights (SSHs) than ECCO2 and SODA do, probably due to its high resolution, stronger response to the intraseasonal forcing in the atmosphere (especially the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and more available regional data for assimilation. But at the subsurface, the ISVs in CORA are likely to be weaker than reality, which is probably attributed to rare observational data for assimilation and weak diapycnal eddy diffusivity in the CORA model. According to the comparison results, CORA is a good choice for the study related to variabilities at the surface, but cares have to be taken for the study focusing on the subsurface processes.

  17. GULLY-SPECIFIC DEBRIS FLOW HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-lin

    2003-01-01

    Techniques of gully-specific debris flow hazard assessment developed in four periods since the end of the1980s have been discussed in the present paper. The improvement for the empirical assessment method is the sectional-ized function transformation for the factor value, rather than the classified logical transformation. The theoretical equationof the gully-specific debris flow hazard is expressed as the definite integral of an exponential function and its numericalsolution is expressed by the Poisson Limit Equation. Current methods for assessment of debris flow hazard in China arestill valid and practical. The further work should be put on the study of the reliability (or unc ertainty) of the techniques.For the future, we should give a high priority to the relationship between debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occur-rence, make more developments of prediction model on debris flow magnitude, so as to finally reach the goal of assessingthe hazard of debris flow by theoretical model, and realize both actuality assessment and prediction appraisal of debris flow.

  18. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and ... electronics Library resources such as electronic journals, e-books, scholarly databases, ... researchers to have access to a wide range of high quality electronic information resources.

  19. Innovative Soil Management Practices (SMP) Assessment in Europe and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    The growing world population poses a major challenge to global agricultural food and feed production through the pressure to increase agricultural outputs either by increasing the land area dedicated to agriculture or by productivity increases. Whether in developed or developing regions, agricultural intensification based on conventional approaches has resulted in severe environmental impacts and innovative soil management practices are needed to halter ongoing soil degradation and promote sustainable land management capable to produce more from less. The iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop a Soil Quality app (SQAPP) linking soil and agricultural management practices to soil quality indicators. This easy friendly tool will provide a direct and convenient way to advise farmers and other suitable actors in this area, regarding the best management practices to be adopted in very specific and local conditions. In this particular study from iSQAPER, we aimed to identify the most promising innovative soil management practices (SMP) currently used and its geographical distribution along different pedo-climatic regions in Europe (Boreal, Atlantic, Mediterranean Temperate, Mediterranean Semi-Arid, Southern Sub-Continental and Northern Sub-Continental) and China (Middle Temperate, Warm temperate and Central Asia Tropical). So far we have identified 155 farms where innovative SMP's are used, distributed along 4 study site regions located in China (Qiyang, Suining, Zhifanggou and Gongzhuling) and 10 study site regions located in Europe (The Netherlands, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Estonia) and covering the major pedo-climatic regions. From this identification we concluded that the most used innovative SMP's in the study site regions in Europe are Manuring & Composting (14%), Min-till (14%), Crop rotation (12

  20. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  1. WETLAND RESOURCES INVESTIGATION IN URBAN PARKS BASED ON QUICKBIRD REMOTE SENSING IMAGE IN JINAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Xian-Yun; ZHANG Zhi-Guo

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands in urban area are an important part of environment. The status of wetland is tightly related with the security and sustainable development of urban ecosystem and society. Jinan is the capital of Shandong province, China. It is the centre of culture and economy of this province and famous for its springs. So it has important meaning to survey the wetland resources of the urban parks. In this study, the quantity and location of various vegetation types and water areas were obtained using manual classification on QUICKBIRD images. Study results showed that arbor vegetation was domain green land type in the urban parks, so the vegetation structure in parks was reasonable; water quality of the wetlands in the parks was poor, and eutrophication phenomena was obvious in some water areas; the quantity of the water areas has been declined. Through the surveying, we should think that it is a big challenge for the government to protect and restore wetland resources in the parks from 2 respects of quantity and quality in urban area.

  2. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

  3. Resource constraint, sustainable economic growth pattern and transformation of economic system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yafei; Huang Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, China has made spectacular achievements in economic growth as well as in the transformation of economic growth pattern. Industrial structure is being updated, and technology is playing a more and more important role in economic development. The energy and resource consumption in many industries and enterprises are reducing. However, we should realize that there are still many problems in changing the economic growth pattern,such as high input, high consumption, high discharge, inharmony, recycling difficulty, and low efficiency, which have greatly impaired and restrict Chinese economic development. Therefore, the fundamental change of the economic growth pattern is inevitable. Based on the analysis on the status quo and the exploit of resources, this paper suggests that the transformation from unsustainable to sustainable growth is the only choice in changing the economic growth pattern. In addition, the transformation should not completely rely on the fundamental effects of market mechanism. We should make full use of the power of governments to speed up the transformation of economic system.

  4. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  5. Resource and Environmental Quality Changes and Adjustment Principles for Sustainable evelopment in Rapidly Developing Coastal Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Problems in water-land resources and environmental quality increase with the fast economic development in the coastal region of southeastern China. This region has the highest density in population, industry and towns in China, and the large export-oriented economy makes itself a strategic importance while China enters into international markets. The problems facing to this region include arable land reduction, land degradation aggravation, high percentage of built-up land with high rate of expansion, expanded non-point pollution, deteriorated water quality, decreasing biodiversity, destroyed ecosystems, severe air pollution, frequently occurred acid rain, and multi-pollutants. The important research fields in the near future should include a) influence of high-intensity exploitation of resources on changes of environment quality and its feedback; b) interface processes, key mechanisms and adjustment principles for degradation of water-, land-, and air-resources and environmental quality; c) evolvement processes and nurturing theory of biodiversity and ecological resources; and d) spatio-temporal variation and human-induced effects on regional resources and environment quality. Strategies for sustainable development in the region are as follows: a) controlling to ensure basic cultivated land area; b) enforcing remediation of polluted water environment, and controlling non-point pollution; c) strengthening ecological construction and ecological security; and d) controlling multipollution and preventing trace toxic pollutants.

  6. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  7. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  8. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  9. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA....

  10. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  11. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  12. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  13. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Imran Khan; Dong Liu; Qiang Fu; Muhammad Azmat; Mingjie Luo; Yuxiang Hu; Yongjia Zhang; Faiz M Abrar

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainydays for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate thevariability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman’s Rho and Mann–Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sampledisorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80),April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributedsignificantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season wasconsiderably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis wasobserved to increase from decade 1964–1973 and 1994–2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionmentdisorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann–Kendall test value (1.90) showed asignificant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  14. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  15. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Azmat, Muhammad; Luo, Mingjie; Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yongjia; Abrar, Faiz M.

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the research entropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation during 1964-2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy was applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy days for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate the variability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman's Rho and Mann-Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sample disorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80), April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributed significantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season was considerably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis was observed to increase from decade 1964-1973 and 1994-2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionment disorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test value (1.90) showed a significant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  16. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  17. Assessment Planning within the Context of University English Language Teaching (ELT) in China: Implications for Teacher Assessment Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueting

    2016-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy (AL) is a concern for both educational assessment and teacher education research. As part of teacher AL, teacher competency of assessment planning has remained underexplored. To address this gap, this study explored how a group of 20 contest-winning university English teachers in China planned for assessment through…

  18. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  19. Impact assessment of abiotic resources in LCA: quantitative comparison of selected characterization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørbech, Jakob T; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-10-07

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247 individual market inventory data sets covering a wide range of societal activities (ecoinvent database v3.0). Log-linear regression analysis was carried out for all pairwise combinations of the 11 methods for identification of correlations in CFs (resources) and total impacts (inventory data sets) between methods. Significant differences in resource coverage were observed (9-73 resources) revealing a trade-off between resource coverage and model complexity. High correlation in CFs between methods did not necessarily manifest in high correlation in total impacts. This indicates that also resource coverage may be critical for impact assessment results. Although no consistent correlations between methods applying similar assessment models could be observed, all methods showed relatively high correlation regarding the assessment of energy resources. Finally, we classify the existing methods into three groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA.

  20. Estimate of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resource in Daqing Oilfield, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development and utilization of deep geothermal resources, especially a hot dry rock (HDR geothermal resource, is beneficial for both economic and environmental consideration in oilfields. This study used data from multiple sources to assess the geothermal energy resource in the Daqing Oilfield. The temperature logs in boreholes (both shallow water wells and deep boreholes and the drilling stem test temperature were used to create isothermal maps in depths. Upon the temperature field and thermophysical parameters of strata, the heat content was calculated by 1 km × 1 km × 0.1 km cells. The result shows that in the southeastern part of Daqing Oilfield, the temperature can reach 150 °C at a depth of 3 km. The heat content within 3–5 km is 24.28 × 1021 J, wherein 68.2% exceeded 150 °C. If the recovery factor was given by 2% and the lower limit of temperature was set to be 150 °C, the most conservative estimate for recoverable HDR geothermal resource was 0.33 × 1021 J. The uncertainties of the estimation are mainly contributed to by the temperature extrapolation and the physical parameter selections.

  1. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  2. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  3. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  5. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  6. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  7. Assessing genetic resources of summer truffle in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gažo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of summer truffle genetic resources, their description and evaluation of economically important traits in Slovak natural truffiéres started since 2005. Draft of national descriptor list has been developed to manage truffle genetic resources collected in the information system "Tuber Aestivum/ Uncinatum Phenotype Data" (TAUPD. Revision was performed in TAUPD to increase effectiveness of truffle breeding process.

  8. Quality assessment of clinical guidelines in China: 1993-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao-long; XIE Chang-chun; YANG Ke-hu; YAO Liang; XIAO Xiao-juan; WANG Qi; WANG Ze-hao; LIANG Fu-xiang; LIANG Hui; WANG Xin; SHEN Xi-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play an important role in healthcare in China as well as in the world.However,the current status and trends of Chinese CPGs are unknown.The aim of this study was to systematically review the present situation and the quality of Chinese CPGs published in the peer-reviewed medical literature.Methods To identify Chinese CPGs,a systematic search of relevant literature databases (CBM,WANFANG,VIP,and CNKI) was performed for the period January 1978 to December 2010.We used the AGREE Ⅱ instrument to assess the quality of the included guidelines.Results We evaluated 269 guidelines published in 115 medical journals from 1993 to 2010 and produced by 256different developers.Only four guidelines (1%) described the systematic methods for searching and selecting the evidence,14 (5%) guidelines indicated an explicit link between the supporting evidence and the recommendations,only one guideline used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment,Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.Thirty-one guidelines (12%) mentioned updates and the average frequency of update was 5.5 years; none described a procedure for updating the guideline.From the assessment with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Ecaluation Ⅱ (AGREE Ⅱ),the mean scores were low for the domains "scope and purpose" (19%) and "clarity of presentation" (26%)and very low for the other domains ("rigour of development" 7%,"stakeholder involvement" 8%,"applicability" 6% and "editorial independence" 2%).Conclusions Compared with other studies on the quality of guidelines assessed with the AGREE instrument in other countries,Chinese CPGs received lower scores,which indicates a relatively poor quality of the guidelines.However,there was some increase over time.

  9. Integrated resource assessment of the Drina River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Youssef; Ramos, Eunice; Gardumi, Francesco; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The integrated assessment and management of resources: water, energy, food and environment is of fundamental importance, yet it is a very challenging task especially when it is carried out on the transboundary level. This study focuses on the Drina River Basin (DRB) which is a transboundary basin in South East Europe spreading across Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro with a total surface area of 19,982 km2. Water resources from the Drina River Basin are shared among many activities in the basin: domestic water supply, electricity generation, fishery, tourism and, to a lesser extent, irrigation, industry and mining. The region has recently experienced repeated events of floods and droughts causing significant damage to the economy, showing a high vulnerability of the area to the effects of climate change. The assessment of the Drina River Basin is carried out in the framework of the project "Water food energy ecosystems nexus in transboundary river basins" under the UNECE Water Convention. This study aims to: 1) Improve the cooperation in the operation of dams and hydropower plants in the DRB for optimized production; 2) Explore the opportunities generated by electricity trade between the DRB countries as a mechanism to enhance cooperation and as an enabler for the synchronised operation of hydropower plants; 3) Motivate the implementation of energy efficiency measures to reduce the electricity production requirement from hydro and thermal power. In order to achieve that, a multi-country electricity system model was developed for the three countries of Drina river basin using the Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem (OSeMOSYS). The model represents the whole electricity system of each country, with special cascade representation of hydropower plants along Drina river and its tributaries. The results show that, in a scenario of synchronised operation of all power plants along Drina and its tributaries, those downstream can significantly increase their

  10. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  11. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  12. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-09-01

    Some of the most difficult problems that a federal site has in reducing its energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used, and what technologies could be employed to decrease the energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, he or she may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving the full life-cycle cost savings. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has developed a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities that (1) identifies the building groups and end uses that use the most energy (not just have the greatest energy-use intensity), and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy manager with a roadmap to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a five- to ten-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed in order to reach the mandated energy consumption targets.

  13. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  14. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  15. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Tchaghchagian, Victoria; Jamal, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Sound human resources (HR) management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties) in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%), lack of qualified personnel (35.1%), and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%). Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%), improving salaries (14.4%), and developing retention strategies (10.3%). Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully assume these responsibilities and who can continuously improve

  16. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...... for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water values, resulting...... in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at minimum costs....

  17. 1976 Inter-university symposium on renewable resource assessment and programming: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy G. Pemberton

    1977-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 directs the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare an assessment of the nation's renewable resources and a program that will assure an adequate future supply of these resources. Responsibility for this work is assigned to the Forest Service. An inter-university symposium was held in 1976 to evaluate...

  18. 75 FR 21592 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... the collection of this information is to assist state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently carrying out the restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in... restoration projects. This information will be used by the Natural Resource Trustees to develop...

  19. 78 FR 42755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... collection is to assist state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently carrying out the restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in compliance with the National... information will be used by the Natural Resource Trustees to develop potential restoration alternatives...

  20. Future of America’s Forest and Rangelands: Forest Service 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife and fish, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, wilderness, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources. The outlook for U.S. resources is largely influenced by a set of scenarios...